A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (1/462)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/462)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (3/462)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

Islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin messenger RNA and protein expression in human insulinomas in relation to amyloid formation. (4/462)

OBJECTIVE: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also named amylin, is the predominant protein component of amyloid deposits in human islet beta cell tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas). IAPP is co-produced with insulin by islet beta cells. We investigated IAPP expression in relation to insulin expression and to amyloid formation in eleven insulinomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: RNA and protein extracts were prepared from the same pieces of tumour tissue, and from specimens of two normal human pancreata. IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content were quantified using Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Molecular forms of IAPP immunoreactivity were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of islet hormones and of amyloid was assessed by (immuno)histochemical staining of paraffin sections. Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin prior to tumour resection were determined by RIA. RESULTS: IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content varied widely between the tumour specimens, and there was considerable intratumour heterogeneity of peptide content. HPLC analysis indicated correct proteolytic processing of the IAPP precursor protein. Amyloid deposits were detected only in the three tumours with the highest IAPP content. In contrast to insulin, plasma levels of IAPP were not elevated in the insulinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of hormone production by insulinomas cannot be inferred from only a few tissue sections due to intratumour heterogeneity. Expression of the IAPP and insulin genes is not coupled in insulinomas, which produce properly processed mature IAPP. In addition to IAPP overproduction, additional factors such as intracellular accumulation of IAPP are involved in amyloidogenesis in insulinomas.  (+info)

Library of sequence-specific radioimmunoassays for human chromogranin A. (5/462)

BACKGROUND: Human chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissue and tumors. The extensive tissue- and tumor-specific cleavages of CgA at basic cleavage sites produce multiple peptides. METHODS: We have developed a library of RIAs specific for different epitopes, including the NH2 and COOH termini and three sequences adjacent to dibasic sites in the remaining part of CgA. RESULTS: The antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) required a free NH2 terminus for binding. All antisera displayed high titers, high indexes of heterogeneity ( approximately 1.0), and high binding affinities (Keff0 approximately 0.1 x 10(12) to 1.0 x 10(12) L/mol), implying that the RIAs were monospecific and sensitive. The concentration of CgA in different tissues varied with the assay used. Hence, in a carcinoid tumor the concentration varied from 0.5 to 34.0 nmol/g tissue depending on the specificity of the CgA assay. The lowest concentration in all tumors was measured with the assay specific for the NH2 terminus of CgA. This is consistent with the relatively low concentrations measured in plasma from carcinoid tumor patients by the N-terminal assay, whereas the assays using antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) measured increased concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only some CgA assays appear useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors, but the entire library is valuable for studies of the expression and processing of human CgA.  (+info)

Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study. (6/462)

BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes.  (+info)

Clinical symptoms, hormone profiles, treatment, and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoids. (7/462)

BACKGROUND: Type 1 gastric carcinoids are associated with hypergastrinaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis, type 2 occur in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 combined with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type 3 lack any relation to hypergastrinaemia. Type 1 tumours are usually benign whereas type 3 are highly malignant. AIMS: To identify possible tumour markers in patients with gastric carcinoids. PATIENTS/METHOD: Nine patients with type 1, one with type 2, and five with type 3 were evaluated with regard to symptoms, hormone profile, and prognosis. RESULTS: Plasma chromogranin A was increased in all patients but was higher (p < 0.01) in those with type 3 than those with type 1 carcinoids. All patients with type 3 carcinoids died from metastatic disease, but none of the type 1 patients died as a result of their tumours. One type 1 patient with a solitary liver metastasis received interferon alpha and octreotide treatment. Nine months later, the metastasis was no longer detectable. She is still alive eight years after diagnosis, without recurrent disease. This represents the only reported case of foregut carcinoid with an unresectable liver metastasis that seems to be have been cured by biotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chromogranin A appears to be a valuable tumour marker for all types of gastric carcinoid. Combination therapy with interferon alpha and octreotide may be beneficial in patients with metastasising type 1 gastric carcinoids.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical characterization of pancreatic tumors induced by dimethylbenzanthracene in rats. (8/462)

Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induces pancreatic adenocarcinomas in rats 9 months after carcinogen exposure, with precursor lesions (tubular complexes) developing 1 month after initiation of treatment. Because previous studies have suggested an acinar cell of origin for these tumors, we investigated the expression pattern of ductal, acinar, and islet cell markers in these cancers to gain insight into their phenotype and cell of origin. Pancreatic neoplasms were induced in rats by implantation of DMBA into the head of the pancreas. Lesions studied included 10 early tubular complexes (DMBA for 2 weeks), 8 tubular complexes (DMBA for 1 month), and 10 adenocarcinomas (DMBA for 9 months). Normal rat pancreas served as a control. For comparison, 5 human ductal adenocarcinomas were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry with ductal (keratin, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 20), acinar (chymotrypsin), and islet (chromogranin A) cell markers was performed to analyze the tissues. Rat tubular complexes and adenocarcinomas revealed strong expression of keratin, cytokeratin 19, and cytokeratin 20 in the cytoplasm of all neoplastic cells, absence of chymotrypsin, and rare immunoreactivity to chromogranin A. Human adenocarcinomas showed strong expression of keratin and cytokeratin 19 in all neoplastic cells, expression of cytokeratin 20 in 5-20% of cells, and absence of chymotrypsin and chromogranin A. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA in rats express markers consistent with a ductal phenotype, as observed in human tumors. Ductal marker expression in early tumor stages suggests a ductal cell of origin.  (+info)

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BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
Naturally Occurring Human Genetic Variation in the 3′-Untranslated Region of the Secretory Protein Chromogranin A Is Associated With Autonomic Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension in a Sex-Dependent Fashion Academic Article ...
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. Although the precise function of the chromogranins remains elusive, knowledge of their structure, distribution, and potential intracellular and extracellular roles, especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis from vesicles in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings. Thus, measurement of its circulating concentration by radioimmunoassay may be a useful probe of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in humans, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we explore the storage, structure, and function of chromogranin A, and parameters that influence its circulating levels. We have also measured plasma chromogranin A concentrations in different groups of patients with hypertension, including those with pheochromocytoma. ...
The structure of the gene encoding bovine chromogranin-A has been determined by characterization of two isolated genomic clones. Chromogranin-A is encoded by eight exons, which organize the coding region into several distinct structural and functional domains. Exons 1-5 represent the highly conserved signal peptide and N-terminal domain, which are separated into regions corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal sequence, disulfide-bonded loop, and remainder of the conserved N-terminal domain. Exon 6 represents the variable domain and encodes a region that is identical to the novel chromogranin-A-derived peptide chromostatin. Exon 7 encodes the biologically active peptide pancreastatin as well as most of the conserved C-terminal domain, with the remainder found on exon 8. The mRNA sequence obtained from the gene contains five nucleotide differences from the consensus sequence of four reported bovine chromogranin-A cDNA clones. Two of the differences in the gene result in two amino acid changes in
Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension Academic Article ...
Heritable autonomic traits may be of particular value in investigations of the genetic underpinnings of hypertension, a complex trait with both hereditary and environmental determinants and likely even multiple genetic (or polygenic) determinants.7,8 Human twin studies indicate that baroreceptor activity is a substantially heritable trait.33 Such traits may be valuable intermediate phenotypes7,8 for hypertension, especially if they display earlier penetrance than the ultimate disease trait (DBP), can be elicited in still-normotensive individuals, and suggest testable candidate genetic loci (such as CHGA). Catestatin itself may be such a phenotype.8 Several of the autonomic phenotypes studied here (Table II and Figures 2 and 3⇑) meet these criteria.. Indeed, Gly364Ser genotypes were associated with hypertension (Figure 4a and 4b), especially in men (Figure 4b). Thus, the 364Ser allele may play a protective role against future the development of hypertension.. How might this happen? Because ...
Granins are major constituents of dense-core secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, but their function is still a matter of debate. Work in cell lines has suggested that the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed granins, chromogranin A and B (CgA and CgB), are involved in granulogenesis and protein sorting. Here we report the generation and characterization of mice lacking chromogranin B (CgB-ko), which were viable and fertile. Unlike neuroendocrine tissues, pancreatic islets of these animals lacked compensatory changes in other granins and were therefore analyzed in detail. Stimulated secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin was reduced in CgB-ko islets, in parallel with somewhat impaired glucose clearance and reduced insulin release, but normal insulin sensitivity in vivo. CgB-ko islets lacked specifically the rapid initial phase of stimulated secretion, had elevated basal insulin release, and stored and released twice as much proinsulin as wildtype (wt) islets. Stimulated release of
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Pituitary secretory protein I, CgA, Chromogranin A precursor, SP-I, CGA, chromogranin A (CgA), CHGA, chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1 ...
Secretogranin-1 is a neuroendocrine secretory granule protein, which may be the precursor for other biologically active peptides.
SCG5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 195 aa (27-212 a.a.) having a molecular mass of 22 kDa.
TY - JOUR. T1 - PANCREASTATIN BINDING-SITES AND ACTION IN INTACT AND PERMEABILIZED RINM5F CELLS. AU - Szecowka, J. AU - Shibier, O. AU - Flatt, Peter. AU - Berggren, PO. AU - Ostenson, CG. AU - Efendic, S. PY - 1992/8. Y1 - 1992/8. M3 - Article. VL - 35. SP - A76. JO - Diabetologia. JF - Diabetologia. SN - 0012-186X. IS - Suppl.. ER - ...
The EnergyCell Nano-Carbon High Capacity battery line provides an ideal solution for solving a common issue faced in many grid-interactive and off-grid installations. Nano-Carbon improves charge efficiency and allows PSoC operation with improved deep discharge recovery.
BioTek Product Accessory, Part Number: 1210514, for use with Lionheart FX自動化活細胞影像系統 and Cytation 5 自動化影像系統暨多功能光學檢測儀
Background: Hypertension is a complex trait, with deranged autonomic control of circulation. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in their biogenesis. Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion, autonomic stability of circulation, or blood pressure (BP) in the population? Methods and Results: To probe interindividual variability in CHGB, we systematically studied polymorphism across the locus by resequencing CHGB (≈6 kbp footprint spanning the promoter, 5 exons, exon/intron borders, untranslated regions) in 160 subjects (2n=320 chromosomes) of diverse biogeographic ancestries. We identified 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 22 were common. We then studied 1182 subjects drawn from the most extreme BP values in the population (highest and lowest 5th percentiles), typing 4 common polymorphisms spanning the ≈14 kbp ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Chromogranin A (CgA) levels have previously been found to predict mortality in heart failure (HF), but currently no information is available regarding CgA processing in HF and whether the CgA fragment catestatin (CST) may directly influence cardiomyocyte function.. ...
Complete information for CHGB gene (Protein Coding), Chromogranin B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CHGB - CHGB (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human chromogranin B (secretogranin 1) (CHGB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Biosynthetic transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane (PM) is mediated by secretory vesicles. We analyzed secretory vesicle transport in real time using a GFP-tagged secretory protein, hCgB-GFP, consisting of human chromogranin B (hCgB) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusion protein was expressed transiently in Vero cells or in a stable clone after induction with butyrate. After arrest of the biosynthetic protein transport at 20 degrees C, fluorescent hCgB-GFP colocalized with TGN38, a marker of the TGN. Subsequent release of the secretion block at 37 degrees C led to the formation of green fluorescent vesicles. Confocal analysis revealed that these vesicles were devoid of TGN38 and of Texas Red-coupled transferrin and cathepsin D, markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway. As determined by fluorometry and metabolic labelling hCgB-GFP was secreted from the TGN to the PM with a t(1/2) of 20-30 minutes. Video-microscope analysis of green fluorescent vesicles ...
Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance
Other articles where Chromaffin cell is discussed: human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such as chromogranins, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y-all of which…
Epitope Diagnostics EDI Human Chromogranin A ELISA Kit was recently used by a research group lead by Dr. Ugo De Giorgi to publish two key papers highlighting another aspect of the relationship between chromogranin A (CgA) and prostate cancer.. The two papers, published by Conteduca et al and Burgio et al, examined patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who had received previous docetaxel chemotherapy treatment. Using the range established by the EDI Chromogranin A ELISA Kit, the patients were divided into three groups based on baseline CgA levels: normal CgA (,120 ug/ml), under 3 time normal (,360 ug/ml), and above 3 time normal (,360 ug/ml).. Prostate specific antigen was then monitored as the patients received antiandrogen treatment, either with abiraterone or enzalutamide, in order to track the progression free survival.. In the group treated with abiraterone, a statistically significant difference was discovered between the median progression free survival rate of those ...
Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.
Joost- I think a cocktail of chromogranins A and B would cover most pulmonary neuroendocrine cells without having to worry about which neuropeptide the cells elaborate. April- I love limonene as a clearing agent except in the tissue processor, we use xylene for procesing and limonene for purging the machine and all staining baths. It is not as volatile as xylene and leaves a slight oiliness in the tissues which usually is not a problem and sometimes helps, especially if the tissue is cut thin. Fatty tissues give the most problems when using limonene for processing. Vinnie and Terry, as for safety, Id rather use an agent that shows antitumor activity and is being fed orally!! to patients in clinical trials (limonene) than some mystery aliphatic that gets persnickety at the slightest hint of H2O. Our eosin never bleeds. I know some folks are allergic to limonene and get violently ill, luckily I have never encountered such a worker in nearly fifteen years of use (maybe 35 or 40 people). Limonenes ...
Islet cell autoantigen of 69kDa (ICA69) is a small GTPase-binding protein of unknown function. ICA69 is enriched in the Golgi complex and its N-terminal half contains a BAR domain, a module that can bind/bend membranes and interacts with phospholipids. Here we show that in insulinoma INS-1 cells ICA69 binds to the small GTPase Rab2, which regulates the transport of COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Rab2 binds to ICA69 in a GTP-dependent fashion and recruits it to membranes. Over-expression of either Rab2 or ICA69 in INS-1 cells results in a phenotype characterized by: (i) impaired anterograde transport of the secretory granule protein precursors pro-ICA512 and chromogranin A; (ii) reduction of stimulated insulin secretion. Taken together, these data identify ICA69 as a novel Rab2 effector and point to its role in regulating the early transport of insulin secretory granule proteins.
Introduction: Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most important general tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). CgA assays may have different sensitivities, which is of importance for the clinical diagnosis and handling of NET patients ...
Dr. Mains is interested in neurons and endocrine cells and the chemicals - peptides - used to talk to other cells. The enzymes involved in peptide processing and how the peptide precursors and enzymes manage to find each other and get together in the same secretory granules, are his key areas of inquiry right now. Dr. Eipper is investigating peptides, too, but her inquiry has led to questions about how cells provide the secretory granules with the environment they need to do their jobs. Current initiatives involve understanding the way in which cells provide toxic trace metals such as copper and essential factors like vitamin C to the secretory granule proteins that need them in order to function properly.. Mains and Eipper explain one practical value their research might yield. Electroconvulsive therapy is a procedure that causes a seizure in the brain by passing a mild electric current through the brain. ECT is one of the most effective treatments that exists for depression, and it is also ...
Schematic representation of major autoantigen classes that may be targeted by CD4+ T cells. Similar to CD8+ T cells, these may include native antigens and neoepitopes, which may be formed under conditions of β cell inflammation and stress. β Cells can produce several neoepitopes: for example, peptides originating from alternative splicing, insulin hybrid peptides (HP), and DRiP insulin peptides are reportedly produced in β cells (for DRiPs, the evidence is from studies of cell lines). Many autoantigens are secretory granule proteins, which may be released by β cells and acquired by APCs. Exosomes released by β cells also contain autoantigens. CD4+ T cells may react with antigens captured, processed, and presented by APCs in the pancreatic lymph node and in the islets. The B:9-23 epitope is produced in the secretory granules, captured, and presented by APCs, at least in the NOD mouse. The generation of neoepitopes in β cells further raises the question of whether the previously reported ...
Product Description specificalThe micro CLIA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Human CGalpha. Standards or samples are added to the appropriate micro CLIA plate wells and combined with the specific antibody. Then a biotinylated detection antibody specific for Human CGalpha and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate is added to each micro plate well successively and incubated. Free components are washed away. The substrate solution is added to each well. Only those wells that contain Human CGalpha, biotinylated detection antibody and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear fluorescence. The Relative light unit(RLU) value is measured spectrophotometrically by the Chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. The RLU value is positively associated with the concentration of Human CGalpha. You can calculate the concentration of Human CGalpha in the samples by comparing the RLU value of the samples to the standard curve. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Binswangers disease. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan of a brain with Binswangers disease. The front of the brain is at top in this view from below. The progression of this degenerative disease has caused atrophy in both halves of the brain, seen as the abnormal gaps appearing in the brain tissue. The ventricles (centre, orange) have also been affected and are dilated from their normal size. The disease, also called Binswangers dementia, involves disruption of the brains blood supply, which starves areas of the brain of oxygen, resulting in the death of nerve cells. Symptoms include depression, muscle rigidity, difficulties walking and urinary incontinence. There is no cure for the condition. - Stock Image C001/7913
Melkam A. Kebede, Angie T. Oler, Trillian Gregg, Allison J. Balloon, Adam Johnson, Kelly Mitok, Mary Rabaglia, Kathryn Schueler, Donald Stapleton, Candice Thorstenson, Lindsay Wrighton, Brendan J. Floyd, Oliver Richards, Summer Raines, Kevin Eliceiri, Nabil G. Seidah, Christopher Rhodes, Mark P. Keller, Joshua L. Coon, Anjon Audhya, Alan D. Attie. ...
NE differentiation in pancreatic carcinomas has been reported in various studies using IHC (13, 14, 15) . However, the expression of PGP9.5 and its relation to other NE markers have not been studied in pancreatic cancer to date. In this study, CGA was used as a marker for NE differentiation because it has been demonstrated to be a well-characterized marker for NE differentiation (16) . We found that tumor cells immunoreactive to CGA monoclonal antibody accounted for ,1% of the tumor cell population. On the other hand, PGP9.5 was expressed in 26 of 69 (37.7%) pancreatic cancers. These results suggested that the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic cancer is independent of NE differentiation.. Subsequently, we investigated a possible correlation of PGP9.5 status with clinicopathological features. Although PGP9.5 expression was not associated with tumor histology or the extent of the tumor, pancreatic cancer patients with PGP9.5 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those without ...
Lately, we have identified two polypeptides of 92-94 kDa (GRL1) and 45-60 kDa (GRL2), expressed in cytoplasmic granules of chicken granulocytes and thrombocytes. Here, we report that GRL1 and GRL2 are widely distributed in all exocrine and several endocrine cell types, but not in neurons of the central nervous system, during late stages of embryonic development, as well as in newly hatched and two-month-old chickens. Immunogold studies in ultrathin frozen sections of pancreatic acinar cells show that GRL1 and GRL2 are co-localized at the periphery of zymogen granules, in granules fused with apical acinar membranes and on apical membranes of acini, while the pregranular compartments of the secretory pathway are weakly or not labeled. Semiquantitative morphometric studies indicate that GRL1 and GRL2 are equally distributed in secretory granules. A variety of physical and metabolic studies reveal that GRL2, a highly N-glycosylated polypeptide, is an intrinsic membrane protein, while GRL1 is a ...
In development of colorectal cancer (CRC), stem cell (SC) overpopulation underlies tumor initiation and progression, but it is incompletely understood which dysregulated mechanisms cause SC overpopulation. Because neuroendocrine cell (NEC) and SC populations both reside in the SC niche at the normal crypt bottom, we hypothesized that i) NECs play a role in maintaining the SC population, and ii) changes in the NEC population contributes to SC overpopulation and altered epithelial: stromal interactions during tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence mapping and flow cytometry were used to analyze SC niche structure and cell-cell interactions in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues from Caucasian and African-American patients. In normal colonic crypts, most cells (77%) staining positively for the colonic SC marker ALDH1, also co-stained for the NE cell marker chromogranin-A (CGA). In the progression from normal to normal-appearing FAP to adenomatous to malignant colonic tissue, the proportion of ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of lethal proteins in central neurons arent fully characterized. substrate GSK-3α/β (at Ser21/Ser9)(i.e. activation) and improved GSK-3α and GSK-3β kinase actions which occurred ahead of NP1 induction. Appearance of the dominant-negative inhibitor of Akt (Akt-kd) obstructed phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β and eventually improved NP1 induction. Whereas overexpression of constitutively turned on Akt (Akt-myr) or wild-type Akt (wtAkt) elevated GSK-α/β phosphorylation and attenuated NP1 induction. Transfection of neurons with GSK-3α siRNA blocked NP1 induction and cell loss of life completely. Similarly overexpression from the GSK-3β inhibitor Frat1 or the kinase mutant GSK-3βKilometres however not the wild-type GSK-3βWT obstructed NP1 induction and rescued neurons from loss of life. Our findings obviously implicate both GSK-3α and GSK-3β reliant system of NP1 induction and indicate a novel system in the legislation of ...
To examine the response to chronic high-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) and a proposed milder response in feminine hearts with respect to gene manifestation and ischemic injury. was recognized. Ang II improved manifestation of genes related to heart function (ANF β-MCH Verlukast Ankrd-1 PKC-α PKC-δ TNF-α); fibrosis (Col I-α1 Col III-α1 Fn-1 Timp1) and apoptosis (P53 Casp-3) without changing heart excess weight but with 68% increase in collagen content material. High (sub-toxic) dose of Ang II resulted in marked heart redesigning and diastolic dysfunction after ischemia without significant myocyte hypertrophy or ventricular chamber dilatation. Although there were some gender-dependent variations in gene manifestation female gender didnt protect against the entire response. (from the Western Convention for the safety of vertebrate pets) and everything procedures had been authorized by the Norwegian Committee on Ethics in Pet Experimentation. Experimental Process The rats had been Fischer ...
Health,...Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid helps guide development scientists sa...MONDAY Nov. 19 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. researchers say theyve uncov...Retinoic acid plays a vital role in embryo development acting as a si...When humans consume vitamin A -- found in many foods including carrot...,Research,Reveals,Nutrients,Impact,on,the,Embryo,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Angiogenesis has been postulated to be critical for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an anti-angiogenic protein, can activate latent anti- and pro-angiogenic sites, respectively. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CgA-derived polypeptides in MM patients and the subsequent implications for disease progression. We show that the ratio of pro-/anti-angiogenic forms of CgA is altered in MM patients compared with healthy subjects, and that this ratio is higher in BM plasma compared with peripheral plasma, suggesting enhanced local cleavage of the CgA C-terminal region. Enhanced cleavage correlated with increased VEGF and FGF2 BM plasma levels and BM microvascular density. Using the Vk*MYC mouse model of MM, we further demonstrate that exogenously administered CgA was ...
Patient preparation: Patient must be fasting 10-12 hours prior to collection of specimen. Patient should not be on any medications that may influence Insulin levels, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection. Specimen Type: SST Serum Container/Tube: Serum gel Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 2 mL Collection Instructions: Draw blood in a serum gel tube(s). Spin down and send 2 mL of serum frozen in a plastic vial.
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a family of cancers that cause tumours in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system consists of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs are generated by cells that release the hormones. The majority of NETs are found in the intestine, pancreas and the lungs.(4). ...
3M™ CeQUINBORD CGA Inorganic Insulating Board provides excellent thermal stability and long term voltage endurance for dry-type transformers in applications such as core tubes, spacers, end fills and ground insulation. Available from 1/32%22 to 1/8%22 (.79 to 3.2mm) thickness, CeQUINBORD CGA board is a cost-effective solution for major insulation applications rated through Class 220(R).
GO:0061101. The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a neuroendocrine cell. A neuroendocrine cell is a cell that receives input form a neuron which controls the secretion of an endocrine substance. ...
Synaptophysin小鼠单克隆抗体[SP15](ab11105)可与大鼠, 仓鼠, 人, 猪样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被10篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Taupenot L, Harper KL, O'Connor DT (Mar 2003). "The chromogranin-secretogranin family". N Engl J Med. 348 (12): 1134-49. doi: ... "Analysis of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas". Diagn Mol Pathol. 3 (1): 38-45. doi:10.1097 ...
Hosaka M, Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Uchiyama Y, Takeuchi T (October 2002). "Identification of a chromogranin A domain that mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. ... "Entrez Gene: SCG3 secretogranin III". Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (January 1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) ... "Secretogranin III binds to cholesterol in the secretory granule membrane as an adapter for chromogranin A". The Journal of ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... chromogranin A (CgA) chromogranin B (CgB) secretogranin II (SgII) (see also secretoneurin) secretogranin III (SgIII) ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) are acidic proteins and are present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of ...
2000). "Co-distribution patterns of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity with chromogranin A and secretoneurin within the human ... Chromogranin Kirchmair R, Gander R, Egger M, et al. (2004). "The neuropeptide secretoneurin acts as a direct angiogenic ... SCG2, also called secretogranin II (chromogranin C), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCG2 gene. The protein ... 2009). "Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Regul. Pept. 152 (1-3): 13-21. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.07. ...
Chromogranin A and platelets serotonin are increased.[clarification needed] Tumour localization may be extremely difficult.[ ... Nobels FR, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bouillon R, Lamberts SW (1998). "Chromogranin A: its clinical value as marker of neuroendocrine ... Markers of the condition such as chromogranin-A are imperfect indicators of disease progression. Prognosis varies from ...
Aside from the hormones of secretory tumors, the most important markers are: chromogranin A (CgA), present in 99% of metastatic ... Neuroendocrine secretory protein-55, a member of the chromogranin family, is seen in pancreatic endocrine tumors but not ... Widely used neuroendocrine tissue markers are various chromogranins, synaptophysin and PGP9.5. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is ... chromogranin A, and neurotensin do not cause a clinical syndrome, although blood levels may be elevated. Functional tumors are ...
Chromogranin A is elevated in case of pheochromocytoma. Micrograph of pheochromocytoma. Micrograph of pheochromocytoma. ...
Stridsberg M, Oberg K, Li Q, Engström U, Lundqvist G (January 1995). "Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B ( ... Tasiemski A, Hammad H, Vandenbulcke F, Breton C, Bilfinger TJ, Pestel J, Salzet M (July 2002). "Presence of chromogranin- ... Secretoneurin, is a 33-amino acid neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II (chromogranin C, CHGC). It is also called ... Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H, Grimelius L (June 1997). "Complex co-localization of chromogranins and ...
The cells are negative with chromogranin, synaptophysin and CK20. The major diagnosis from which to separate ceruminous adenoma ...
"Chromogranin A detection in saliva of type 2 diabetes patients". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 10: 2-8. PMID 20192923. CS1 maint: ... chromogranin A) was over-expressed in 100% of diabetic patients when compared to controls. In 2010 Qvarnstrom, et al., ...
"The chromogranins and counter-regulatory hormones: do they make homeostatic sense?". Journal of Physiology. 517 (3): 643-649. ...
SCLC derived from neuroendocrine cells may express CD56, neural cell adhesion molecule, synaptophysin or chromogranin. Lung ...
"Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5- ...
Jirásek T, Hozák P, Mandys V (2003). "Different patterns of chromogranin A and Leu-7 (CD57) expression in gastrointestinal ... conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin ...
permanent dead link] Fan S, Hao ZY, Zhang L, Chen XG, Zhou J, Zang YF, Tai S, Liang CZ (2014). "Increased chromogranin A and ...
... is a peptide hormone produced by a subpopulation of chromogranin A-positive endocrine cells in the mucous membrane of the ...
Diagnostically, it is often used in combination with chromogranin A. List of human genes Synaptophysin has been shown to ...
"Selective Localization of the Parathyroid Secretory Protein-I/Adrenal Medulla Chromogranin a Protein Family in a Wide Variety ...
An increased level of chromogranin A is a common marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, the source of the increased ...
With immunohistochemistry, the chief cells located in the cell balls are positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron ...
Chromogranin A, which is the most abundant product of prostatic neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumor cells, is widely ... chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (three proteins that are used as markers for ... chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or ...
1989). "Developmental profile of chromogranin, hormonal peptides, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in gastrointestinal endocrine cells ...
... may refer to: CHGB-FM, a radio station (97.7 FM) licensed to Wasaga Beach, Ontario, Canada Chromogranin B, a protein ...
Agrin Chimerin Proteins Chromogranins Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32 Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein GAP-43 ...
... chromogranin A, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and cholecystokinin. These cells can be the source of several types of lung ...
Hypersecretion of glucagon, somatostatin, chromogranin, or calcitonin, ectopic secretion of ACTH resulting in Cushing's ...
Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron-specific enolase) → ++ NFP (neurofilament protein) → - CD56/N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule ...
... a glycoprotein hormone Chromogranin A, a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins, i.e., in secretory ...
... and chromogranin A. Elevated Ki-67 and p53 labeling index is associated with more aggressive tumor behavior in both children ...
... chromogranin A, possibly related to axonal degeneration. It appears together with clusterin and complement C3, markers of ...
In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals by region-specific radioimmunoassays and ... Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory ...
The chromogranin A test (CgA) is used in combination with 5-HIAA to help diagnose carcinoid tumors and may also be used to ... The chromogranin A (CgA) test is used as a tumor marker. It may be ordered alone or in combination with a 5-HIAA test to help ... The level of chromogranin A in the blood is normally low. If you have no signs or symptoms and a normal level of CgA, it is ... Chromogranin A (CgA) is a protein released from neuroendocrine cells. These are cells that release hormones in response to ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
The level of chromogranin A in the blood is normally low. A person with no signs or symptoms and a normal level of CgA is ... The chromogranin A (CgA) test is used as a tumor marker. It may be ordered in combination with a 5-HIAA test to help diagnose ... Should everyone have a chromogranin A test?. No. This test is usually ordered to help diagnose and monitor a carcinoid or other ... Chromogranin A can also be increased in people who take proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are drugs that reduce the amount ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... Secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B): A sulfated protein of about 600 residues.. *Secretogranin 2 (chromogranin C): A sulfated ... Chromogranin A (CGA): CGA is a protein of about 420 residues; it is the precursor of the peptide pancreastatin which strongly ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) [PMID: 2053134] are a family of acidic proteins present in the secretory granules of ...
Jetzt Chromogranins versandkostenfrei online kaufen & per Rechnung bezahlen bei Weltbild.de, Ihrem Bücher-Spezialisten! ... Rezension zu „Chromogranins ". I recommend Chromogranins for students and basic scientists interested not only in chromogranins ... Proteolytic processing of chromogranins; A. Laslop, et al. 13. Endothelial handling of chromogranin A; M. Mandalà, et al. 14. ... Inhaltsverzeichnis zu „Chromogranins ". Part 1: Introduction. 1. The chromogranins: Historical perspectives; K.B. Helle. 2. ...
It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. ... Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the ... It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. Chromogranin A contains ... encoded search term (Chromogranin%20A) and Chromogranin A What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ...
Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer, D T ... Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer and D T ... Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer and D T ... especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines ...
Rabbit polyclonal Chromogranin A antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Dog, Human, Pig, Monkey. ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/1000 dilution (purified) + PC-12 cell lysate at 20 µg. Secondary. Goat Anti-Rabbit ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/5000 dilution (purified) + SH-SY5Y cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. Goat Anti- ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/10000 dilution (unpurified) + PC-12 cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. HRP-conjugated ...
References for Abcams Anti-Chromogranin C antibody (ab96589). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Evaluation of psychosomatic stress in children by measuring salivary chromogranin A.. Lee T1, Shimizu T, Iijima M, Obinata K, ... To investigate the usefulness of salivary chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol as stress markers, and the effects of distraction ...
Chromogranin B-induced secretory granule biogenesis: comparison with the similar role of chromogranin A. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278 ... Chromogranin A, an "on/off" switch controlling dense-core secretory granule biogenesis. Cell. 2001; 106: 499-509. ... Hypertension from targeted ablation of chromogranin A can be rescued by the human ortholog. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 1942-1952 ... A panel of 11 region-specific radioimmunoassays for measurements of human chromogranin A. Regul Pept. 2004; 117: 219-227. ...
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... chromogranin explanation free. What is chromogranin? Meaning of chromogranin medical term. What does chromogranin mean? ... Looking for online definition of chromogranin in the Medical Dictionary? ... Chromogranin , definition of chromogranin by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chromogranin ... chromogranin. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. chro·mo·gran·in. (krōmō-granin), A soluble and secretory hormone proteins ...
chromogranin-A , chromogranin A , cgA , SP-I , betagranin (N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A) , parathyroid secretory ... Chromogranin A (CHGA) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/ ... anti-Chromogranin A (CHGA) Antikörper. Bezeichnung:. anti-Chromogranin A Antikörper (CHGA). Auf www.antikoerper-online.de ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Chromogranin A Interaktionspartner. Zebrafish Chromogranin A (CHGA) Interaktionspartner * Study ...
Chromogranin A (ChgA) is a beta cell secretory granule protein and a peptide of ChgA, WE14, was recently identified as a ligand ... Chromogranin A is a T cell antigen in human type 1 diabetes J Autoimmun. 2014 May;50:38-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2013.10.003. ... Chromogranin A (ChgA) is a beta cell secretory granule protein and a peptide of ChgA, WE14, was recently identified as a ligand ... Keywords: Autoantigen; Autoreactive CD4 T cells; Chromogranin A; Human; Post-translational modification; Type 1 diabetes. ...
anti-Chromogranin A, PerCP, Clone: SPM553, Novus Biologicals 100 Tests; PerCP Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies:Flow ... betagranin (N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A), CGA, chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1), chromogranin-A, ... Chromogranin A Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Chromogranin A in Human samples. It is validated for Western Blot, Flow ... Chromogranin A is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and ...
Secretogranin II (chromogranin C), bImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,A0JMK6,A0JMK6_DANRE Secretogranin II (chromogranin C), b OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=scg2b PE=2 SV=1 ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Lab Vision Chromogranin A Ab-1, Mouse Monoclonal ... Coexpression of chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase (NSE) is common in neuroendocrine neoplasms. Host Species: Mouse. ... Chromogranin A (a protein of 439-amino acids which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout ... reproducible results in immunohistochemistry and western blotting experiments with Thermo Scientific Chromogranin A Ab-1, Mouse ...
... the catecholamine release inhibitory peptide derived from chromogranin A (CHGA), and other CHGA- or chromogranin B (CHGB)- ... Chromogranins are pro-hormone secretory proteins released from neuroendocrine cells, with effects on control of blood pressure ... A proteolytic cascade involving kallikrein and Factor XII cleaves chromogranins to active compounds both in vivo and in vitro. ... Identification of novel loci affecting circulating chromogranins and related peptides. Benyamin, Beben ...
Chromogranin-A Isoform 1 Preproprotein or CHGA is part of the neuroendocrine secretory proteins of the chromogranin/ ... CHGA, CGA, Chromogranin-A, Vasostatin I, SP-I, Pituitary secretory protein I. ...
Chromogranin A (CGA) is a neurosecretory protein initially identified in bovine adrenal medulla and produced simultaneously ... Chromogranin A (CGA) is a neurosecretory protein initially identified in bovine adrenal medulla and produced simultaneously ... Bioclinica Lab employs a manual sandwich radioimmunoassay designed for the measurement of whole and fragmented Chromogranin A ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Chromogranin A Antibody (SPM553) [DyLight 650]. Neuroendocrine Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF ... Home » Chromogranin A » Chromogranin A Antibodies » Chromogranin A Antibody (SPM553) [DyLight 650] ... Reviews for Chromogranin A Antibody (NBP2-34795C) (0) There are no reviews for Chromogranin A Antibody (NBP2-34795C). By ... Alternate Names for Chromogranin A Antibody (SPM553) [DyLight 650]. *betagranin (N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A) ...
Study Using Chromogranin A as Surveillance Biomarker in Patients with cARcinoids. * Print details ... The purpose of this study is to monitor and validate the performance and stability of the BRAHMS Chromogranin A (CgA) II ...
Pancreastatin, a chromogranin A-derived peptide, activates Galpha(16) and phospholipase C-beta(2) by interacting with specific ... Pancreastatin (PST) is one of the chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides with known biological activity. It has a general ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Chromogranin A Antibody (PHE5) [Alexa Fluor® 700]. Neuroendocrine Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC ... Home » Chromogranin A » Chromogranin A Antibodies » Chromogranin A Antibody (PHE5) [Alexa Fluor® 700] ... Alternate Names for Chromogranin A Antibody (PHE5) [Alexa Fluor® 700]. *betagranin (N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A) ... PTMs for Chromogranin A Antibody (NBP2-34709AF700). Learn more about PTMs related to Chromogranin A Antibody (NBP2-34709AF700). ...
... chromogranins were reported to interact specifically with mutant forms of superoxide dismutase that are linked to amyotrophic ... Chromogranin B P413L variant as risk factor and modifier of disease onset for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Recently, chromogranins were reported to interact specifically with mutant forms of superoxide dismutase that are linked to ...
The antibodies were raised to N-terminal of purified chromogranin A. These antibodies reacted with human chromogranin A as ... Chromogranin A (CgA) is considered to be a common marker for the GI endocrine cells [30-32]. The CgA cell density was ... L. Taupenot, K. L. Harper, and D. T. OConnor, "The chromogranin-secretogranin family," The New England Journal of Medicine, ... L. J. Deftos, "Chromogranin A: its role in endocrine function and as an endocrine and neuroendocrine tumor marker," Endocrine ...
Antisera against chromogranin A and B and secretogranin II were used for analysing the bovine pancreas by immunoblotting and ... For chromogranin B, only a faint immunostaining was obtained. For secretorgranin II, A-and B-cells were faintly positive, ... In immunohistochemistry, chromogranin A was found in all pancreatic endocrine cell types with the exception of most pancreatic ... These results establish that chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II are present in the endocrine pancreas, but that they ...
  • Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins, i.e., it is located in secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells such as islet beta cell secretory granules in pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin-like cells and beta cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin A (CHGA) 1 plays a necessary role in formation of catecholamine secretory granules. (ahajournals.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 1025 Chromogranin A (CHGA) Antikörper von 40 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Chromogranin A (ChgA) is a beta cell secretory granule protein and a peptide of ChgA, WE14, was recently identified as a ligand for diabetogenic CD4 T cell clones derived from the NOD mouse. (nih.gov)
  • In order to investigate these early diagnostic biomarkers for colon cancer, human chromogranin-A (CHGA) was further analyzed among the most powerful diagnostic biomarkers. (diva-portal.org)
  • We conducted a genome-wide association study for plasma catestatin, the catecholamine release inhibitory peptide derived from chromogranin A (CHGA), and other CHGA- or chromogranin B (CHGB)-related peptides, in 545 US and 1252 Australian subjects. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chromogranin-A Isoform 1 Preproprotein or CHGA is part of the neuroendocrine secretory proteins of the chromogranin/secretogranin family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Anti-CHGA / Chromogranin A antibody IHC of human adrenal. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an anti-angiogenic protein, can activate latent anti- and pro-angiogenic sites, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adrenal medullary mRNA and protein levels of other dense-core secretory granule proteins including chromogranin B, and secretogranins II to VI were up-regulated 2- to 3-fold in the Chga null mutant mice. (ovid.com)
  • General Description of Chromogranin A / CHGA. (enquirebio.com)
  • Variations in Chromogranin A / CHGA antibody staining intensity in immunohistochemistry on tissue sections are present across different anatomical locations. (enquirebio.com)
  • Low, but measureable presence of Chromogranin A / CHGA could be seen inneuronal cells in the caudate nucleus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus, respiratory epithelial cells in the bronchus and neuronal cells in the caudate nucleus and cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (enquirebio.com)
  • We were unable to detect Chromogranin A / CHGA in other tissues. (enquirebio.com)
  • Tissues from cancer patients, for instance, have their own distinct pattern of Chromogranin A / CHGA expression as measured by anti-Chromogranin A / CHGA antibody immunohistochemical staining. (enquirebio.com)
  • enQuire Bio's Chromogranin A / CHGA Anti-Human, Rat Monoclonal is available for Research Use Only. (enquirebio.com)
  • CHGA (Chromogranin A) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • It has been reported that expression of the chromogranin A (CHGA) gene is reduced in the prefrontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Chromogranin A Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Chromogranin A in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Obtain accurate, reproducible results in immunohistochemistry and western blotting experiments with Thermo Scientific Chromogranin A Ab-1, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • There are currently no images for Chromogranin A Antibody (NBP2-34795C). (novusbio.com)
  • This antibody recognizes Chromogranin A, which is present in neuroendocrine cells. (biotium.com)
  • PC-12 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 10529-1-AP (Chromogranin A antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human pancreas tissue slide using 10529-1-AP (Chromogranin A antibody) at dilution of 1:1600 (under 10x lens). (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human pancreas tissue slide using 10529-1-AP (Chromogranin A antibody) at dilution of 1:1600 (under 40x lens). (ptglab.com)
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (4% PFA) fixed mouse pancreas tissue using 10529-1-AP (Chromogranin A antibody), at dilution of 1:400 and CoraLite®488-Conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG(H+L). (ptglab.com)
  • The objective of this study was to develop and validate a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA) for porcine salivary chromogranin A (CgA) measurements, using a species-specific antibody, and evaluate its behaviour in an acute stress model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of canine chromogranin A by use of immunological cross-reactivity of rabbit anti-bovine chromogranin A antibody. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This antibody is designed for the specific localization of human Chromogranin A using IHC techniques in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. (gennovascientific.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of PC-3 cells using Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:500. (elabscience.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human duodenum using Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:200. (elabscience.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Mouse small intestine using Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody at dilution of 1:200. (elabscience.com)
  • Chromogranin A is the precursor to several functional peptides including vasostatin-1, vasostatin-2, pancreastatin, catestatin and parastatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromogranin A contains multiple cleavage sites, which undergo a tissue-specific proteolytic process, leading to the production of many biologically active peptides including vasostatin I, vasostatin II, pancreastatin, catestatin, parastatin, and serpinin. (medscape.com)
  • Pancreastatin (PST) is one of the chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides with known biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • CHGB, also known as secretogranin-1 or chromogranin-B, is a neuroendocrine secretory granule protein, which may be the precursor for other biologically active peptides. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chromogranin A: current status as a precursor for bioactive peptides and a granulogenic/sorting factor in the regulated secretory pathway (1995) Iacangelo Anna L et al. (naver.com)
  • Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) [ PMID: 2053134 ] are a family of acidic proteins present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of endocrine and neuro-endocrine cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chromogranins are pro-hormone secretory proteins released from neuroendocrine cells, with effects on control of blood pressure. (diva-portal.org)
  • A general characteristic for NETs is their expression of certain proteins, such as chromogranin A (CgA), which is released from the dense core vesicles of NE cells, occasionally together with cell specific hormones, such as gastrin and serotonin. (enets.org)
  • Chromogranin A was found in 1967 and is a member of the Granin family, a group of acidic, soluble secretory proteins. (slu.se)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic secretory glycoprotein found in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells and neurons, as is a member of the granin family of proteins. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Chromogranin_A , 19_457aa, Human, His_tagged, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant recombinant proteins Most stable storage is at - 81 C or lower but some lyophilised proteins can be stored at +4C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Chromogranin_A , 19_457aa, Human, His_tagged, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Full Name: chromogranin A Background: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. (idhinhibitor.com)
  • Chromogranins belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that serve as neuropeptide proproteins and the secretogranin-II-derived peptide secretoneurin is a 33 amino acid polypeptide that exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors. (ronnyallan.net)
  • The chromogranins comprise a class of acidic proteins that are secreted from large dense core vesicles and expressed in neuronal and endocrine tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CGA) is a member of the granin family of proteins which are widespread in endocrine, neuroendocrine, peripheral, and central nervous tissues, where they are typically found in secretory granules. (unicatt.it)
  • Chromogranin_A , 19_457aa, Human, His_tagged, Recombinant, E.coli Source Recombinant Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Search for Neuro-Endocrine Markers (Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin and VGF) in Breast Cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Entra nei temi di ricerca di 'A Critical Approach to Clinical Biochemistry of Chromogranin A'. Insieme formano una fingerprint unica. (unicatt.it)
  • The chromogranin A (CgA) test is used as a tumor marker. (labcorp.com)
  • El Ali, Fichna, Piniewska, Kosowicz, Grzymis?awski: Chromogranin A as a useful neuroendocrine marker in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for the gastrointestinal endocrine cells, and it is abnormal in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is considered to be a common marker for the GI endocrine cells [ 30 - 32 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most important general tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). (enets.org)
  • Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is used as a tumor marker for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). (enets.org)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most widely used biochemical tumour marker for NETs, however, its prognostic utility has been questioned due to several non-neuroendocrine causes of elevated CgA. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • This is the first study to assess the prognostic utility of chromogranin B (CgB), a marker of NET that is less affected by these clinical drawbacks. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for endocrine cells. (uib.no)
  • BACKGROUND Serum chromogranin A (CgA), a marker of neuroendocrine neoplasia, increases during profound gastric acid inhibition, possibly reflecting the trophic effect of gastrin on the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Measurement of chromogranin A in porcine saliva: validation of a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay and evaluation of its application as a marker of acute stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromogranin A is released as hormone in blood and can be used as biochemical marker. (gennovascientific.com)
  • Chromogranin A: is it a useful marker of neuroendocrine tumors? (radiopaedia.org)
  • Most pituitary adenomas and prolactinomas readily express chromogranin. (fishersci.com)
  • Chromogranin A is a reliable serum diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors but not for insulinomas. (medscape.com)
  • Chromogranin B: a possible prognostic biomarker for neuroendocrine tumours? (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Chromogranin A is a molecule whose properties and functions has been investigated extensively, for example its potential as a biomarker. (slu.se)
  • Previous studies have indicated that plasma concentrations of chromogranin A (CGA), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are higher in patients with CKD but without cancer, than in healthy individuals, and this can make interpretation of results more complicated. (bibsys.no)
  • Chromogranins A, an acidic glycoprotein, comprises about 50% of the total protein of the granule matrix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The diversity of chromogranins sharing common structural features but with possible non-redundant functions implies a variety of secretory granule populations whose existence and function remain to be established in a given neuroendocrine cell type. (springer.com)
  • The present chapter deals with the role of the different members of the chromogranin family in the processes of hormone aggregation, secretory granule biogenesis, and hormone sorting through their interaction with the TGN membrane. (springer.com)
  • To identify which segment of CgA (chromogranin A) is important to induce the formation of such granule-like structures, a series of deletion constructs fused to either GFP (green fluorescent protein) or a short epitope tag was expressed in COS-1 fibroblast cells and analysed by fluorescence and electron microscopy and pulse-chase labelling. (portlandpress.com)
  • Chromogranin B (CgB, also known as CHGB) is abundantly expressed in dense core secretory granules of multiple endocrine tissues and has been suggested to regulate granule biogenesis in some cell types, including the pancreatic islet β-cell, though the mechanisms are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • However, chromogranin A might have some prognostic significance. (medscape.com)
  • Biomedical aspects are also illustrated with focus on the prognostic and diagnostic significance of Chromogranin in the presence of tumors, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. (emedicalbooks.com)
  • The two most commonly used immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine cells and their tumors are chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (SPY). (bjbms.org)
  • The immunohistochemical expression of chromogranin A (CGA) was investigated in 60 normal mucosas, 95 primary tumours and 38 metastatic lymph nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromogranin A Rabbit-Poly rabbit polyclonal These antibodies are very stable and can be stored up to 2 months at fridge temperature under 10C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Chromogranin A is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. (fishersci.com)
  • Chromogranin A (a protein of 439-amino acids which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. (fishersci.com)
  • Chromogranin A (a protein of 439 amino acid which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets (Langerhans's cells). (gennovascientific.com)
  • Background: Chromogranin A (a protein of 439 amino acid which is encoded on chromosome 14) is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. (idhinhibitor.com)
  • Background- Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results- Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bandyopadhyay GK, Vu CU, Gentile S, Lee H, Biswas N, Chi N-W, O'Connor DT, Mahata SK (2012) Catestatin (chromogranin A(352-372)) and novel effects on mobilization of fat from adipose tissue through regulation of adrenergic and leptin signaling. (springer.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) levels have previously been found to predict mortality in heart failure (HF), but currently no information is available regarding CgA processing in HF and whether the CgA fragment catestatin (CST) may directly influence cardiomyocyte function. (uky.edu)
  • This study was designed to assess diagnostic utility of chromogranin A (CgA) alone or in combination with NMN in patients with PHEO/PGL related to mutations in SDHB and SDHD. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA), originally identified in adrenal chromaffin cells, is a member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins that are expressed in endocrine cells and neurons. (ovid.com)
  • Chen Y, Rao F, Rodriguez-Flores JL et al (2008) Naturally occurring human genetic variation in the 3′-untranslated region of the secretory protein chromogranin A is associated with autonomic blood pressure regulation and hypertension in a sex-dependent fashion. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that secretory stimulation of pheochromocytoma cells also activates the biosynthesis of the major secreted protein (chromogranin A), that the activation is transcriptional, and that a small proximal domain, including the CRE box, is, at least in part, both necessary and sufficient to account for the positive response to nicotine. (elsevier.com)
  • The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) family. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chromogranin A, Ki-67 index and IGF-related genes in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Proceedings of Session VII of the Tenth International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology, held August 25-28, 1999, in Bergen, Norway, and a post-symposium workshop on Chromogranins: from Fundamental Physiology to Clinical Aspects, held August 28, 1999, on board the coastal steamer MS Richard With. (weltbild.de)
  • The volume is designed to provide an integrated overview of the results from the last fifteen years of research on Chromogranins in relation to cell biology, physiology and biomedicine. (emedicalbooks.com)
  • Chromogranin A induces and promotes the generation of secretory granules such as those containing insulin in pancreatic islet beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromogranins are members of a family of soluble glycoproteins sharing common structural features and properties, known to be inducers of prohormone aggregation and sorting into secretory granules. (springer.com)
  • Cowley DJ, Moore YR, Darling DS, Joyce PB, Gorr SU (2000) N- and C-terminal domains direct cell type-specific sorting of chromogranin A to secretory granules. (springer.com)
  • Combining 2D STD-NMR, computation, biochemical assays and click-chemistry, we have identified a chromogranin-A derived compound ( 5 ) that has high affinity and bi-selectivity for αvβ6 and αvβ8 integrins and is stable in microsomal preparations. (rsc.org)
  • Tomita T. Significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (bjbms.org)
  • ntroduction: Serum levels of Chromogranin A (CgA) were measured in consecutive patients with prostate diseases in order to evaluate the impact of age on CgA diagnostic significance. (unipg.it)
  • A wide variety of neuroendocrine tumors stain positive for chromogranin A. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal system tumors that stain positive for chromogranin A include pheochromocytoma. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to monitor and validate the performance and stability of the BRAHMS Chromogranin A (CgA) II KRYPTOR Assay in patients with Gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). (mayo.edu)
  • Research has indicated there are multiple applications for Chromogranin A. Elevated serum CgA levels have been associated with prostate cancer and other neuroendocrine tumors. (alpco.com)
  • Plasma chromogranin A (CgA) levels are elevated in a variety of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and are used to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of treatment effects in NETs patients. (enets.org)
  • Chromogranin A and neuroendocrine tumors]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromogranin A is useful in identifying tissues of neuroendocrine origin, especially neuroendocrine tumors , as well as dysplastic neurons (e.g. in ganglioglioma ) 5 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Chromogranin A can be used to aid detection and surveillance of neuroendocrine tumors . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Finally, the alteration of chromogranin secretion is described in pathophysiological conditions linked to dysregulated hormone secretion. (springer.com)
  • Chromogranin B (CgB) is a soluble secretory protein like chromogranin A (CgA) that has been reported to be elevated in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) but is not routinely assessed. (enets.org)
  • To explore stimulus-transcription coupling in pheochromocytoma cells, we studied the biosynthetic response of chromogranin A, the major soluble protein co-stored and co-released with catecholamines, to chromaffin cells' physiologic nicotinic cholinergic secretory stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • SNEC showed strong reactivity with epithelial and neuroendocrine markers whereas ENB demonstrated immunoreactivity to synaptophysin and chromogranin strongly, with weak to negative expression of epithelial markers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohisto-chemically solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas can show overlapping expression of pan CK, synaptophysin, CD56, chromogranin , CD10 and vimentin with neuroendocrine tumors19,20, the expression of neuroendocrine markers with pancreatoblastoma and pancreatic enzymes with acinar cell carcinoma18. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Search for Neuro-Endocrine Markers (Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin and VGF) in Breast Cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA), a member of the granin family serves several important cell biological roles in (neuro)endocrine cells which are summarized in this review. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Colombo B, Curnis F, Foglieni C, Monno A, Arrigoni G, Corti A (2002) Chromogranin A expression in neoplastic cells affects tumor growth and morphogenesis in mouse models. (springer.com)
  • Chromogranin A can be used, in conjunction with other testing modalities, as a diagnostic tool, but caution is advised since it is elevated in many other conditions. (medscape.com)
  • There are considerable differences in the amino acid composition between different species' chromogranin A . Commercial assays for measuring human CGA can usually not be used for measuring CGA in samples from other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chromoa® Chromogranin A ELISA is a superior method for determining CgA levels in human serum or plasma. (alpco.com)
  • Hypertension from targeted ablation of chromogranin A can be rescued by the human ortholog. (naver.com)
  • Vasostatins, comprising the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A, suppress tension in isolated human blood vessel segments. (naver.com)
  • These results establish that chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II are present in the endocrine pancreas, but that they exhibit a distinct cellular localization. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Further comparisons of chromogranins with different measures of tumour burden demonstrated that plasma CgB levels were associated with a significant increased risk of disease progression. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • There are several research applications for Chromogranin A measurements for which the assay can be utilized. (alpco.com)
  • In September 2001, the patient's serum serotonin and pancreatic polypeptide levels had risen even higher (1,386 ng/ml and 471 pg/ml, respectively), and his serum chromogranin A had more than tripled to 970 ng/ml (figure 4). (thefreedictionary.com)