Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Secretogranin II: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Theaceae: A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.Quinolinium CompoundsFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.HydrazinesOrganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Colonic Diseases, Functional: Chronic or recurrent colonic disorders without an identifiable structural or biochemical explanation. The widely recognized IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME falls into this category.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Firefly Luciferin: A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (1/462)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/462)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (3/462)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

Islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin messenger RNA and protein expression in human insulinomas in relation to amyloid formation. (4/462)

OBJECTIVE: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also named amylin, is the predominant protein component of amyloid deposits in human islet beta cell tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas). IAPP is co-produced with insulin by islet beta cells. We investigated IAPP expression in relation to insulin expression and to amyloid formation in eleven insulinomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: RNA and protein extracts were prepared from the same pieces of tumour tissue, and from specimens of two normal human pancreata. IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content were quantified using Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Molecular forms of IAPP immunoreactivity were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of islet hormones and of amyloid was assessed by (immuno)histochemical staining of paraffin sections. Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin prior to tumour resection were determined by RIA. RESULTS: IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content varied widely between the tumour specimens, and there was considerable intratumour heterogeneity of peptide content. HPLC analysis indicated correct proteolytic processing of the IAPP precursor protein. Amyloid deposits were detected only in the three tumours with the highest IAPP content. In contrast to insulin, plasma levels of IAPP were not elevated in the insulinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of hormone production by insulinomas cannot be inferred from only a few tissue sections due to intratumour heterogeneity. Expression of the IAPP and insulin genes is not coupled in insulinomas, which produce properly processed mature IAPP. In addition to IAPP overproduction, additional factors such as intracellular accumulation of IAPP are involved in amyloidogenesis in insulinomas.  (+info)

Library of sequence-specific radioimmunoassays for human chromogranin A. (5/462)

BACKGROUND: Human chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissue and tumors. The extensive tissue- and tumor-specific cleavages of CgA at basic cleavage sites produce multiple peptides. METHODS: We have developed a library of RIAs specific for different epitopes, including the NH2 and COOH termini and three sequences adjacent to dibasic sites in the remaining part of CgA. RESULTS: The antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) required a free NH2 terminus for binding. All antisera displayed high titers, high indexes of heterogeneity ( approximately 1.0), and high binding affinities (Keff0 approximately 0.1 x 10(12) to 1.0 x 10(12) L/mol), implying that the RIAs were monospecific and sensitive. The concentration of CgA in different tissues varied with the assay used. Hence, in a carcinoid tumor the concentration varied from 0.5 to 34.0 nmol/g tissue depending on the specificity of the CgA assay. The lowest concentration in all tumors was measured with the assay specific for the NH2 terminus of CgA. This is consistent with the relatively low concentrations measured in plasma from carcinoid tumor patients by the N-terminal assay, whereas the assays using antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) measured increased concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only some CgA assays appear useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors, but the entire library is valuable for studies of the expression and processing of human CgA.  (+info)

Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study. (6/462)

BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes.  (+info)

Clinical symptoms, hormone profiles, treatment, and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoids. (7/462)

BACKGROUND: Type 1 gastric carcinoids are associated with hypergastrinaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis, type 2 occur in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 combined with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type 3 lack any relation to hypergastrinaemia. Type 1 tumours are usually benign whereas type 3 are highly malignant. AIMS: To identify possible tumour markers in patients with gastric carcinoids. PATIENTS/METHOD: Nine patients with type 1, one with type 2, and five with type 3 were evaluated with regard to symptoms, hormone profile, and prognosis. RESULTS: Plasma chromogranin A was increased in all patients but was higher (p < 0.01) in those with type 3 than those with type 1 carcinoids. All patients with type 3 carcinoids died from metastatic disease, but none of the type 1 patients died as a result of their tumours. One type 1 patient with a solitary liver metastasis received interferon alpha and octreotide treatment. Nine months later, the metastasis was no longer detectable. She is still alive eight years after diagnosis, without recurrent disease. This represents the only reported case of foregut carcinoid with an unresectable liver metastasis that seems to be have been cured by biotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chromogranin A appears to be a valuable tumour marker for all types of gastric carcinoid. Combination therapy with interferon alpha and octreotide may be beneficial in patients with metastasising type 1 gastric carcinoids.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical characterization of pancreatic tumors induced by dimethylbenzanthracene in rats. (8/462)

Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induces pancreatic adenocarcinomas in rats 9 months after carcinogen exposure, with precursor lesions (tubular complexes) developing 1 month after initiation of treatment. Because previous studies have suggested an acinar cell of origin for these tumors, we investigated the expression pattern of ductal, acinar, and islet cell markers in these cancers to gain insight into their phenotype and cell of origin. Pancreatic neoplasms were induced in rats by implantation of DMBA into the head of the pancreas. Lesions studied included 10 early tubular complexes (DMBA for 2 weeks), 8 tubular complexes (DMBA for 1 month), and 10 adenocarcinomas (DMBA for 9 months). Normal rat pancreas served as a control. For comparison, 5 human ductal adenocarcinomas were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry with ductal (keratin, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 20), acinar (chymotrypsin), and islet (chromogranin A) cell markers was performed to analyze the tissues. Rat tubular complexes and adenocarcinomas revealed strong expression of keratin, cytokeratin 19, and cytokeratin 20 in the cytoplasm of all neoplastic cells, absence of chymotrypsin, and rare immunoreactivity to chromogranin A. Human adenocarcinomas showed strong expression of keratin and cytokeratin 19 in all neoplastic cells, expression of cytokeratin 20 in 5-20% of cells, and absence of chymotrypsin and chromogranin A. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA in rats express markers consistent with a ductal phenotype, as observed in human tumors. Ductal marker expression in early tumor stages suggests a ductal cell of origin.  (+info)

Compare Secretogranin III ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
Naturally Occurring Human Genetic Variation in the 3′-Untranslated Region of the Secretory Protein Chromogranin A Is Associated With Autonomic Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension in a Sex-Dependent Fashion Academic Article ...
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. Although the precise function of the chromogranins remains elusive, knowledge of their structure, distribution, and potential intracellular and extracellular roles, especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis from vesicles in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings. Thus, measurement of its circulating concentration by radioimmunoassay may be a useful probe of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in humans, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we explore the storage, structure, and function of chromogranin A, and parameters that influence its circulating levels. We have also measured plasma chromogranin A concentrations in different groups of patients with hypertension, including those with pheochromocytoma. ...
The structure of the gene encoding bovine chromogranin-A has been determined by characterization of two isolated genomic clones. Chromogranin-A is encoded by eight exons, which organize the coding region into several distinct structural and functional domains. Exons 1-5 represent the highly conserved signal peptide and N-terminal domain, which are separated into regions corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal sequence, disulfide-bonded loop, and remainder of the conserved N-terminal domain. Exon 6 represents the variable domain and encodes a region that is identical to the novel chromogranin-A-derived peptide chromostatin. Exon 7 encodes the biologically active peptide pancreastatin as well as most of the conserved C-terminal domain, with the remainder found on exon 8. The mRNA sequence obtained from the gene contains five nucleotide differences from the consensus sequence of four reported bovine chromogranin-A cDNA clones. Two of the differences in the gene result in two amino acid changes in
Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension Academic Article ...
Heritable autonomic traits may be of particular value in investigations of the genetic underpinnings of hypertension, a complex trait with both hereditary and environmental determinants and likely even multiple genetic (or "polygenic") determinants.7,8 Human twin studies indicate that baroreceptor activity is a substantially heritable trait.33 Such traits may be valuable "intermediate phenotypes"7,8 for hypertension, especially if they display earlier penetrance than the ultimate disease trait (DBP), can be elicited in still-normotensive individuals, and suggest testable candidate genetic loci (such as CHGA). Catestatin itself may be such a phenotype.8 Several of the autonomic phenotypes studied here (Table II and Figures 2 and 3⇑) meet these criteria.. Indeed, Gly364Ser genotypes were associated with hypertension (Figure 4a and 4b), especially in men (Figure 4b). Thus, the 364Ser allele may play a protective role against future the development of hypertension.. How might this happen? Because ...
Granins are major constituents of dense-core secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, but their function is still a matter of debate. Work in cell lines has suggested that the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed granins, chromogranin A and B (CgA and CgB), are involved in granulogenesis and protein sorting. Here we report the generation and characterization of mice lacking chromogranin B (CgB-ko), which were viable and fertile. Unlike neuroendocrine tissues, pancreatic islets of these animals lacked compensatory changes in other granins and were therefore analyzed in detail. Stimulated secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin was reduced in CgB-ko islets, in parallel with somewhat impaired glucose clearance and reduced insulin release, but normal insulin sensitivity in vivo. CgB-ko islets lacked specifically the rapid initial phase of stimulated secretion, had elevated basal insulin release, and stored and released twice as much proinsulin as wildtype (wt) islets. Stimulated release of
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Pituitary secretory protein I, CgA, Chromogranin A precursor, SP-I, CGA, chromogranin A (CgA), CHGA, chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1 ...
Secretogranin-1 is a neuroendocrine secretory granule protein, which may be the precursor for other biologically active peptides.
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Background: Hypertension is a complex trait, with deranged autonomic control of circulation. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in their biogenesis. Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion, autonomic stability of circulation, or blood pressure (BP) in the population? Methods and Results: To probe interindividual variability in CHGB, we systematically studied polymorphism across the locus by resequencing CHGB (≈6 kbp footprint spanning the promoter, 5 exons, exon/intron borders, untranslated regions) in 160 subjects (2n=320 chromosomes) of diverse biogeographic ancestries. We identified 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 22 were common. We then studied 1182 subjects drawn from the most extreme BP values in the population (highest and lowest 5th percentiles), typing 4 common polymorphisms spanning the ≈14 kbp ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Chromogranin A (CgA) levels have previously been found to predict mortality in heart failure (HF), but currently no information is available regarding CgA processing in HF and whether the CgA fragment catestatin (CST) may directly influence cardiomyocyte function.. ...
Complete information for CHGB gene (Protein Coding), Chromogranin B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CHGB - CHGB (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human chromogranin B (secretogranin 1) (CHGB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance
Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.
Joost- I think a cocktail of chromogranins A and B would cover most pulmonary neuroendocrine cells without having to worry about which neuropeptide the cells elaborate. April- I love limonene as a clearing agent except in the tissue processor, we use xylene for procesing and limonene for purging the machine and all staining baths. It is not as volatile as xylene and leaves a slight oiliness in the tissues which usually is not a problem and sometimes helps, especially if the tissue is cut thin. Fatty tissues give the most problems when using limonene for processing. Vinnie and Terry, as for safety, Id rather use an agent that shows antitumor activity and is being fed orally!! to patients in clinical trials (limonene) than some mystery aliphatic that gets persnickety at the slightest hint of H2O. Our eosin never bleeds. I know some folks are allergic to limonene and get violently ill, luckily I have never encountered such a worker in nearly fifteen years of use (maybe 35 or 40 people). Limonenes ...
Islet cell autoantigen of 69kDa (ICA69) is a small GTPase-binding protein of unknown function. ICA69 is enriched in the Golgi complex and its N-terminal half contains a BAR domain, a module that can bind/bend membranes and interacts with phospholipids. Here we show that in insulinoma INS-1 cells ICA69 binds to the small GTPase Rab2, which regulates the transport of COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Rab2 binds to ICA69 in a GTP-dependent fashion and recruits it to membranes. Over-expression of either Rab2 or ICA69 in INS-1 cells results in a phenotype characterized by: (i) impaired anterograde transport of the secretory granule protein precursors pro-ICA512 and chromogranin A; (ii) reduction of stimulated insulin secretion. Taken together, these data identify ICA69 as a novel Rab2 effector and point to its role in regulating the early transport of insulin secretory granule proteins.
Introduction: Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most important general tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). CgA assays may have different sensitivities, which is of importance for the clinical diagnosis and handling of NET patients ...
Dr. Mains is interested in neurons and endocrine cells and the chemicals - peptides - used to talk to other cells. The enzymes involved in peptide processing and how the peptide precursors and enzymes manage to find each other and get together in the same secretory granules, are his key areas of inquiry right now. Dr. Eipper is investigating peptides, too, but her inquiry has led to questions about how cells provide the secretory granules with the environment they need to do their jobs. Current initiatives involve understanding the way in which cells provide toxic trace metals such as copper and essential factors like vitamin C to the secretory granule proteins that need them in order to function properly.. Mains and Eipper explain one practical value their research might yield. Electroconvulsive therapy is a procedure that causes a seizure in the brain by passing a mild electric current through the brain. ECT is one of the most effective treatments that exists for depression, and it is also ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Binswangers disease. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan of a brain with Binswangers disease. The front of the brain is at top in this view from below. The progression of this degenerative disease has caused atrophy in both halves of the brain, seen as the abnormal gaps appearing in the brain tissue. The ventricles (centre, orange) have also been affected and are dilated from their normal size. The disease, also called Binswangers dementia, involves disruption of the brains blood supply, which starves areas of the brain of oxygen, resulting in the death of nerve cells. Symptoms include depression, muscle rigidity, difficulties walking and urinary incontinence. There is no cure for the condition. - Stock Image C001/7913
NE differentiation in pancreatic carcinomas has been reported in various studies using IHC (13, 14, 15) . However, the expression of PGP9.5 and its relation to other NE markers have not been studied in pancreatic cancer to date. In this study, CGA was used as a marker for NE differentiation because it has been demonstrated to be a well-characterized marker for NE differentiation (16) . We found that tumor cells immunoreactive to CGA monoclonal antibody accounted for ,1% of the tumor cell population. On the other hand, PGP9.5 was expressed in 26 of 69 (37.7%) pancreatic cancers. These results suggested that the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic cancer is independent of NE differentiation.. Subsequently, we investigated a possible correlation of PGP9.5 status with clinicopathological features. Although PGP9.5 expression was not associated with tumor histology or the extent of the tumor, pancreatic cancer patients with PGP9.5 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those without ...
Lately, we have identified two polypeptides of 92-94 kDa (GRL1) and 45-60 kDa (GRL2), expressed in cytoplasmic granules of chicken granulocytes and thrombocytes. Here, we report that GRL1 and GRL2 are widely distributed in all exocrine and several endocrine cell types, but not in neurons of the central nervous system, during late stages of embryonic development, as well as in newly hatched and two-month-old chickens. Immunogold studies in ultrathin frozen sections of pancreatic acinar cells show that GRL1 and GRL2 are co-localized at the periphery of zymogen granules, in granules fused with apical acinar membranes and on apical membranes of acini, while the pregranular compartments of the secretory pathway are weakly or not labeled. Semiquantitative morphometric studies indicate that GRL1 and GRL2 are equally distributed in secretory granules. A variety of physical and metabolic studies reveal that GRL2, a highly N-glycosylated polypeptide, is an intrinsic membrane protein, while GRL1 is a ...
In development of colorectal cancer (CRC), stem cell (SC) overpopulation underlies tumor initiation and progression, but it is incompletely understood which dysregulated mechanisms cause SC overpopulation. Because neuroendocrine cell (NEC) and SC populations both reside in the SC niche at the normal crypt bottom, we hypothesized that i) NECs play a role in maintaining the SC population, and ii) changes in the NEC population contributes to SC overpopulation and altered epithelial: stromal interactions during tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence mapping and flow cytometry were used to analyze SC niche structure and cell-cell interactions in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues from Caucasian and African-American patients. In normal colonic crypts, most cells (77%) staining positively for the colonic SC marker ALDH1, also co-stained for the NE cell marker chromogranin-A (CGA). In the progression from normal to normal-appearing FAP to adenomatous to malignant colonic tissue, the proportion of ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of lethal proteins in central neurons arent fully characterized. substrate GSK-3α/β (at Ser21/Ser9)(i.e. activation) and improved GSK-3α and GSK-3β kinase actions which occurred ahead of NP1 induction. Appearance of the dominant-negative inhibitor of Akt (Akt-kd) obstructed phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β and eventually improved NP1 induction. Whereas overexpression of constitutively turned on Akt (Akt-myr) or wild-type Akt (wtAkt) elevated GSK-α/β phosphorylation and attenuated NP1 induction. Transfection of neurons with GSK-3α siRNA blocked NP1 induction and cell loss of life completely. Similarly overexpression from the GSK-3β inhibitor Frat1 or the kinase mutant GSK-3βKilometres however not the wild-type GSK-3βWT obstructed NP1 induction and rescued neurons from loss of life. Our findings obviously implicate both GSK-3α and GSK-3β reliant system of NP1 induction and indicate a novel system in the legislation of ...
To examine the response to chronic high-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) and a proposed milder response in feminine hearts with respect to gene manifestation and ischemic injury. was recognized. Ang II improved manifestation of genes related to heart function (ANF β-MCH Verlukast Ankrd-1 PKC-α PKC-δ TNF-α); fibrosis (Col I-α1 Col III-α1 Fn-1 Timp1) and apoptosis (P53 Casp-3) without changing heart excess weight but with 68% increase in collagen content material. High (sub-toxic) dose of Ang II resulted in marked heart redesigning and diastolic dysfunction after ischemia without significant myocyte hypertrophy or ventricular chamber dilatation. Although there were some gender-dependent variations in gene manifestation female gender didnt protect against the entire response. (from the Western Convention for the safety of vertebrate pets) and everything procedures had been authorized by the Norwegian Committee on Ethics in Pet Experimentation. Experimental Process The rats had been Fischer ...
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Angiogenesis has been postulated to be critical for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an anti-angiogenic protein, can activate latent anti- and pro-angiogenic sites, respectively. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CgA-derived polypeptides in MM patients and the subsequent implications for disease progression. We show that the ratio of pro-/anti-angiogenic forms of CgA is altered in MM patients compared with healthy subjects, and that this ratio is higher in BM plasma compared with peripheral plasma, suggesting enhanced local cleavage of the CgA C-terminal region. Enhanced cleavage correlated with increased VEGF and FGF2 BM plasma levels and BM microvascular density. Using the Vk*MYC mouse model of MM, we further demonstrate that exogenously administered CgA was ...
Patient preparation: Patient must be fasting 10-12 hours prior to collection of specimen. Patient should not be on any medications that may influence Insulin levels, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection. Specimen Type: SST Serum Container/Tube: Serum gel Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial Specimen Volume: 2 mL Collection Instructions: Draw blood in a serum gel tube(s). Spin down and send 2 mL of serum frozen in a plastic vial.
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a family of cancers that cause tumours in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system consists of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs are generated by cells that release the hormones. The majority of NETs are found in the intestine, pancreas and the lungs.(4). ...
Synaptophysin小鼠单克隆抗体[SP15](ab11105)可与大鼠, 仓鼠, 人, 猪样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证,被10篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The LNCaP cell line is a versatile and useful model that is suitable for the study of human prostate cancer in vitro. The elevation of LNCaP intracellular cAMP levels through the addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase activators, or components of the cAMP signal transduction pathway can induce reversible neuroendocrine differentiation. Elucidation of those genes that are differentially expressed between undifferentiated prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cells that have been induced to differentiate may present new insights for the molecular mechanisms governing neuroendocrine differentiation, early detection of prostate cancer, and/or potential targets for gene therapy. In this study, differential display PCR was used to identify 226 differentially expressed PCR products. Twelve of the differential display PCR products were confirmed by Northern blot analysis and cloned. DNA sequencing and database comparisons were performed. Among ...
Binswangers disease, also known as subcortical leukoencephalopathy, is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter. White matter atrophy can be caused by many circumstances including chronic hypertension as well as old age. This disease is characterized by loss of memory and intellectual function and by changes in mood. These changes encompass what are known as executive functions of the brain. It usually presents between 54 and 66 years of age, and the first symptoms are usually mental deterioration or stroke. It was described by Otto Binswanger in 1894, and Alois Alzheimer first used the phrase "Binswangers disease" in 1902. However, Olszewski is credited with much of the modern-day investigation of this disease which began in 1962. Symptoms include mental deterioration, language disorder, transient ischemic attack, muscle ataxia, and impaired movements including change of walk, slowness of movements, and change in posture. These symptoms usually ...
The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing [32P]ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10−4 M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 μM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule ...
Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to chronic activation of the nutrient-sensing serine/threonine protein kinase, mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in β cells. Activated mTOR triggers serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-2 and its subsequent proteosomal degradation, leading to increased β-cell apoptosis (39). It should be noted, however, that chronic hyperglycemia can also trigger β-cell apoptosis by additional mechanisms, collectively referred to as "glucotoxicity." These mechanisms include the generation of potentially damaging reactive-oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of chronically increased glucose metabolism in β cells (40); chronic elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] to cytotoxic levels (3); a marked up-regulation in the synthesis of β-cell secretory granule proteins, including pro-insulin and pro-Islet Amyloid Associated Peptide (proIAPP), which in turn could promote ER stress (3, 41); and a glucose-induced increase in local interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production (42). Some of ...
CD56 : Aids in the identification of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation   Aids in the identification of natural killer cell lineage in a subset of lymphomas
Qvigstad, G., Qvigstad, T., Westre, B., Sandvik, A. K., Brenna, E. and Waldum, H. L. (2002), Neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinomas associated with severe hypergastrinemia and/or pernicious anemia. APMIS, 110: 132-139. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.100302.x ...
Looking for online definition of Neuroendocrine cells in the Medical Dictionary? Neuroendocrine cells explanation free. What is Neuroendocrine cells? Meaning of Neuroendocrine cells medical term. What does Neuroendocrine cells mean?
which is present in the normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic prostate. NE cells are located in all regions of the human prostate at birth, but rapidly decrease in the peripheral prostate after birth and then reappear at puberty [4]. After puberty, the number of NE cells seems to increase until an apparently optimum level is reached, which persists from 25 to 54 years old [5]. The relationship of age beyond puberty to the number and distribution of these endocrine-paracrine cells has not been definitively assessed, but in the guinea pig these cells in the peripheral prostate increase markedly with adult age [6]. Studies on adult human prostates indicate that NE cells are more frequent in the periurethral ducts than in the peripheral parts of the gland [7]. Others [8,9] also described the presence of NE cells in the stroma of fetal and infantile prostates.
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRANSPORT AND TURNOVER OF DOPAMINE‐β‐HYDROXYLASE (EC 1.14.2.1) IN SYMPATHETIC NERVES OF THE RAT. AU - Brimijoin, S.. PY - 1972/9. Y1 - 1972/9. N2 - Axoplasmic transport of dopamine‐β‐hydroxylase (DBH), a marker enzyme for catecholamine storage vesicles, was studied in sympathetic nerves of the rat. At 24 h after ligation of the sciatic nerve, there was a marked accumulation of DBH activity in the first 3 mm proximal to the ligature. Immediately distal to the ligature, a slight accumulation took place. Accumulation proximal to the ligature was a linear function of time for at least 6 h; the velocity of transport was calculated as 4.6 mm/h. Local application of 1 ·l of 0.1 M colchicine, caused a rapid increase in DBH activity in superior cervical ganglia. This increase remained linear for 22 h and its rate indicated a turnover time of 12 h for DBH in these ganglia. After application of colchicine to the ganglia, there was a decrease in DBH activity in the submaxillary ...
Purpose: To investigate the distribution of the novel chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide serpinin in the rat eye.. Methods: The molecular form of serpinin-immunoreactivity detected by a highly specific antiserum was evaluated both by western blot analysis and reversed phase-HPLC with subsequent ELISA in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and retina and the presence and distribution of the peptide was explored in the rat TG and eye by immunofluorescence.. Results: There was no band in western blots in the rat TG but two weak bands at 30 and 50 kDa in the retina. Only free serpinin but no (pGlu)-serpinin and no serpinin-RRG were detected by RP-HPLC in the rat TG and retina. Numerous small- and medium-sized cells contained serpinin-immunoreactivity in the rat TG and full colocalization with substance P was evident with a more widespread expression of serpinin. Immunoreactivity was present in nerves in the corneal, limbal, irideal, ciliary and choroidal/scleral stroma, sphincter and dilator muscle ...
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In previous studies we found strong evidence for the existence and activation in human liver of putative progenitor cells resembling oval cells in rat liver. In view of the known role of rat oval cells in regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis, we investigated a possible correlation between human putative progenitor cells and different types of dysplastic foci. METHODS: We determined the immunohistochemical phenotype of dysplastic foci found in 20 cirrhotic liver explants of various etiology, using specific antibodies against hepatocyte-type cytokeratin (CK) 8 and CK18, bile duct-type CK7 and CK19, chromogranin-A (chrom-A) and rat oval cell marker OV-6. RESULTS: All 12 foci of large cell dysplasia had a phenotype similar to that of surrounding parenchyma. Oncocytic foci showed a strong cytoplasmic staining for CK7. Three out of six of these foci contained progenitor cells, which are small cells immunoreactive for CK18, CK7, CK19, OV-6, chrom-A and stained more intensely for CK8 ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. l. To assess the progression-free survival rate of patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with everolimus alone or everolimus plus bevacizumab.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare progression-free survival (PFS) among treatment arms shown to be efficacious.. II. To estimate the overall tumor response rate in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with one of two novel regimens.. III. To estimate the overall biochemical response rate (as measured by plasma chromogranin A levels) in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with these regimens.. IV. To assess the toxicity of each regimen in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.. V. To assess the overall survival of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with these regimens.. OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.. ARM I: Patients receive everolimus orally (PO) once daily ...
Protective high-affinity antibody responses depend on competitive selection of B cells carrying somatically mutated B-cell receptors by follicular helper T (TFH) cells in germinal centres. The rapid T-B-cell interactions that occur during this process are reminiscent of neural synaptic transmission pathways. Here we show that a proportion of human TFH cells contain dense-core granules marked by chromogranin B, which are normally found in neuronal presynaptic terminals storing catecholamines such as dopamine. TFH cells produce high amounts of dopamine and release it upon cognate interaction with B cells. Dopamine causes rapid translocation of intracellular ICOSL (inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand, also known as ICOSLG) to the B-cell surface, which enhances accumulation of CD40L and chromogranin B granules at the human TFH cell synapse and increases the synapse area. Mathematical modelling suggests that faster dopamine-induced T-B-cell interactions increase total germinal centre output and accelerate
PCAs target gastric H+/K+ATPase (4). Acid output was lower in PCA+ patients. Achlorhydria interrupts the negative feedback of somatostatin on antral G-cells, thus inducing hypergastrinemia, a trophic stimulus for ECL cell proliferation. We and others demonstrated a positive correlation between gastrin and ECL cell density (21,27). Also, CgA levels were increased in all patients with ECL cell hyper/dysplasia. ECL cells may release CgA into the circulation (21,22). Multivariate regression showed that the CgA level was determined by ECL cell density and gastrin level, as shown before (13,21,22,28).. The degree of ECL cell hyper/dysplasia is important in determining the risk of carcinoid tumor. CgA may indicate the presence of an increased gastric ECL cell mass more accurately than histology. This is supported by the correlations we found between CgA and gastrin and ECL cell proliferative changes. The assessment of gastric ECL cell proliferation is hampered by the fact that such lesions are usually ...
Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely used as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy. However, its infectivity is highly dependent on the expression level of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the surface of tumor cells. We engineered Ad5 virus with the protein transduction domain (PTD) from the HIV-1 Tat protein (Tat-PTD) inserted in the hypervariable region 5 (HVR5) of the hexon protein in the virus capsid. Tat-PTD-modified Ad5 shows a dramatically increased transduction level of CAR-negative cells and bypassed fiber-mediated transduction. It also overcomes the fiber-masking problem, which is caused by release of excess fiber proteins from infected cells. To achieve specific viral replication in neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumor cells, we identified the secretogranin III (SCG3) promoter and constructed an adenovirus Ad5PTD(ASH1-SCG3-E1A) wherein E1A gene expression is controlled by the SCG3 promoter and the achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASH1) enhancer. This virus shows ...
a proportion of human TFH [follicular helper T] cells contain dense-core granules marked by chromogranin B, which are normally found in neuronal presynaptic terminals storing catecholamines such as dopamine. TFH cells produce high amounts of dopamine and release it upon cognate interaction with B cells ,,. ,, faster dopamine-induced T-B-cell interactions increase total germinal centre output and accelerate it by days ,,. Ilenia Papa, David Saliba, et al. TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres. Nature 547, 318-323 (July 20, 2017) doi: 10.1038/nature23013. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature23013.html. Kate Prestt. Discovery of brain-like activity in immune system promises better disease treatments. July 13, 2017. http://www.anu.edu.au/news/all-news/discovery-of-brain-like-activity-in-immune-system-promises-better-disease-treatments. ...
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the data of patients diagnosed with primary breast neuroendocrine carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with more than 50% neuroendocrine differentiation identified in the histopathological examination between January 2010 and January 2015 and who had no other focus on imaging were evaluated retrospectively from the hospital registry system. Patients with secondary n...
Section 4.4. New Paragraph inserted after Paragraph 4. Interference with laboratory tests. Increased CgA level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours. To avoid this interference the omeprazole treatment should be temporarily stopped five days before CgA measurements. Section 5.1 Other effects related to acid inhibition Paragraph 3 amended to:. Chromogranin A (CgA) also increases due to decreased gastric acidity. This CgA modifying effect can not be demonstrated five days after stopping treatment with PPIs. Section 10. Date of revision changed to 20th January 2012. ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM553 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10405-100), Abgent
Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker) Antibody - With BSA and Azide, Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC, IF, FC, IP (AH10256-20), Abgent
Average patient age was 65.5 (range, 28-89) years; there were 25 males and 14 females. Nineteen tumors were located in the right colon, 11 in the left, and 9 were in the rectum. Three histopathologic patterns were identified: pure neuroendocrine (n = 11), predominantly neuroendocrine (n = 17), and cancers with equal exocrine and neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 7). Three cellular subtypes were seen: small-cell (n = 15), intermediate-cell (n = 15), and well-differentiated neuroendocrine cancers (n = 5). There was one Dukes A cancer, 7 Dukes B, 16 Dukes C, and 15 patients had metastases to distant sites at the time of diagnosis. As a group, neuroendocrine tumors have a poor prognosis: six-month survival was 58 percent, three-year survival was 15 percent, and five-year survival was 6 percent. Survival statistically correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.01) but not with age, sex, tumor location, histopathologic pattern, or neuroendocrine subtypes. Median survival for pure neuroendocrine carcinomas ...
A and an apparatus method for quickly and easily identifying the five basic components of leukocyte cells: basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes is disclosed. The method measures the size of each of the cells. Computation of the quantile feature of the cells and their color is then made. BA and EO cells are differentiated from LY and MO and Ne cells using the present method. BA and EO cells can also be differentiated from LY, MO, and Ne cells using methods of the prior art. Once BA and EO cells have been differentiated from the five leukocyte cells, LY cells can be differentiated from MO and NE cells based upon the size of the LY cells. The average color intensity of the LY cells determined is then used as the threshold to differentiate MO cells from NE cells.
Definition of neuroendocrine cell. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
My brother has very aggressive, widely metastasized neuroendocrine carcinoma. From what I understand, its treated very differently than carcinoids and NETs, which are slow-growing. Im having a horrible time finding a specialist with experience with theaggressiveform. Does anybody know how I find a good specialist? We need help SOON!. ...
Strong positive staining (+++) of the malignant pheochromocytoma (top left),++ of the paraganglioma (top right),+ of the benign pheochromocytoma (bottom left),
Looking for the definition of CGA? Find out what is the full meaning of CGA on Abbreviations.com! Carrier Group Alarm is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Regulated, stimulus-dependent secretion via the exocytosis of dense core granule content provides a mechanism for controlling delivery of hormones, enzymes, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters to a target cell or organ in a timely and quantified manner (Burgoyne and Morgan, 2003; Loh et al., 2004; Lou et al., 2005). In this study, we have investigated the contributions of cholesterol, 7-DHC and lathosterol to granule biogenesis and regulated secretion in exocrine and endocrine tissues of mouse models of SLOS and lathosterolosis. We report here that cholesterol is necessary for the correct formation of granules in vivo. In the formation of regulated secretory vesicles in animals with inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol cannot be substituted by other lipids with structural similarity. We also show deregulated secretion of cargo in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas, owing to the absence of cholesterol, which suggests impairment of cellular function.. It has been reported that ...
The glycolytic enzyme enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolase, EC 4.2.1.11) exists as several dimeric isoenzymes (αα, αβ, αγ, ββ and γγ) composed of three distinct subunits α, β and γ. The γ-unit is found either in a homologous γγ- or in a heterologous α, γ-isoenzyme and is known as neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The monoclonal antibodies used in the CanAg NSE EIA bind to the γ-subunit of the enzyme and thereby detects both the γγ- and the αγ-forms (1, 2). The NSE levels are low in healthy subjects and subjects with benign diseases. Elevated levels are commonly found in patients with malignant tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (3) and neuroblastoma (4 ...
For gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors that have not spread to distant sites, surgery is usually the primary or first treatment. Learn about other treatment options here.
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Biotinylated synaptophysin does not appear in SLMVs at 18°C. PC12 cells were incubated with sulfoNHS-LC-biotin either for 30 min at 37°C (A), for 30 min
1989). "Developmental profile of chromogranin, hormonal peptides, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in gastrointestinal endocrine cells ...
... was first described in 1976,[16] first purified in 1977,[17] the gene was cloned in 1989,[6] and the first knockout mouse was created in 1996.[18] The function of desmin has been deduced through studies in knockout mice. Desmin is one of the earliest protein markers for muscle tissue in embryogenesis as it is detected in the somites.[12] Although it is present early in the development of muscle cells, it is only expressed at low levels, and increases as the cell nears terminal differentiation. A similar protein, vimentin, is present in higher amounts during embryogenesis while desmin is present in higher amounts after differentiation. This suggests that there may be some interaction between the two in determining muscle cell differentiation. However desmin knockout mice develop normally and only experience defects later in life.[13] Since desmin is expressed at a low level during differentiation another protein may be able to compensate for desmin's function early in development but not ...
... chromogranin A, and neurotensin, do not cause a clinical syndrome although blood levels may be elevated.[8] In total, 85% of ...
This receptor is expressed by activated, but not by resting, T and B cells. TRAF2 and TRAF5 can interact with this receptor, and mediate the signal transduction that leads to the activation of NF-kappaB. It is a positive regulator of apoptosis, and also has been shown to limit the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 effector T cells and protect the body against autoimmunity. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[5] ...
"The chromogranins and counter-regulatory hormones: do they make homeostatic sense?". Journal of Physiology. 517 (3): 643-649. ...
Stridsberg M, Oberg K, Li Q, Engström U, Lundqvist G (January 1995). "Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B ( ... Secretoneurin, is a 33-amino acid neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II (chromogranin C, CHGC). It is also called ... Tasiemski A, Hammad H, Vandenbulcke F, Breton C, Bilfinger TJ, Pestel J, Salzet M (July 2002). "Presence of chromogranin- ... Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H, Grimelius L (June 1997). "Complex co-localization of chromogranins and ...
The NCLs present with progressive loss of visual function and neurodevelopmental decline, seizure, myoclonic jerks and premature death. The CTSD gene is one of the identified eight genes the deficiency of which is responsible for NCLs.[10] It has been reported that a homozygous single nucleotide duplication in exon 6 could alter the reading frame and causes a premature stop codon at position 255. Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. This protease has been regarded an independent marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer being correlated with the incidence of clinical metastasis.[21][22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus, indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal.[9] It is also reported that there might be a strong effect for CTSD genotype on Alzheimer disease risk in male.[23] Cathepsin D ...
SCLC derived from neuroendocrine cells may express CD56, neural cell adhesion molecule, synaptophysin or chromogranin.[1] ...
The cells are negative with chromogranin, synaptophysin and CK20. The major diagnosis from which to separate ceruminous adenoma ...
... may refer to: CHGB-FM, a radio station (97.7 FM) licensed to Wasaga Beach, Ontario, Canada Chromogranin B, a protein ...
Aside from the hormones of secretory tumors, the most important markers are: chromogranin A (CgA), present in 99% of metastatic ... Neuroendocrine secretory protein-55, a member of the chromogranin family, is seen in pancreatic endocrine tumors but not ... Widely used neuroendocrine tissue markers are various chromogranins, synaptophysin and PGP9.5. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is ... chromogranin A, and neurotensin do not cause a clinical syndrome, although blood levels may be elevated. Functional tumors are ...
Hosaka M, Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Uchiyama Y, Takeuchi T (October 2002). "Identification of a chromogranin A domain that mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. ... "Entrez Gene: SCG3 secretogranin III". Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (January 1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) ... "Secretogranin III binds to cholesterol in the secretory granule membrane as an adapter for chromogranin A". The Journal of ...
... chromogranin A, possibly related to axonal degeneration. It appears together with clusterin and complement C3, markers of ...
Hypersecretion of glucagon, somatostatin, chromogranin, or calcitonin, ectopic secretion of ACTH resulting in Cushing's ...
"Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5- ...
A chromogranin A-derived antifungal peptide (CGA 47-66, chromofungin) when embedded on a surface has been shown to have ...
Jirásek T, Hozák P, Mandys V (2003). "Different patterns of chromogranin A and Leu-7 (CD57) expression in gastrointestinal ... conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin ...
... chromogranin A, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and cholecystokinin. These cells can be the source of several types of lung ...
permanent dead link] Fan S, Hao ZY, Zhang L, Chen XG, Zhou J, Zang YF, Tai S, Liang CZ (2014). "Increased chromogranin A and ...
... a glycoprotein hormone Chromogranin A, a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins, i.e., in secretory ...
Diagnostically, it is often used in combination with chromogranin A. List of human genes Synaptophysin has been shown to ...
... is a peptide hormone produced by a subpopulation of chromogranin A-positive endocrine cells in the mucous membrane of the ...
Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron-specific enolase) → ++ NFP (neurofilament protein) → - CD56/N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule ...
Taupenot L, Harper KL, O'Connor DT (Mar 2003). "The chromogranin-secretogranin family". N Engl J Med. 348 (12): 1134-49. doi: ... "Analysis of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas". Diagn Mol Pathol. 3 (1): 38-45. doi:10.1097 ...
Chromogranin A and platelets serotonin are increased.[clarification needed] Tumour localization may be extremely difficult.[ ... Nobels FR, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bouillon R, Lamberts SW (1998). "Chromogranin A: its clinical value as marker of neuroendocrine ... Markers of the condition such as chromogranin-A are imperfect indicators of disease progression. Prognosis varies from ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... chromogranin A (CgA) chromogranin B (CgB) secretogranin II (SgII) (see also secretoneurin) secretogranin III (SgIII) ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) are acidic proteins and are present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of ...
CONCLUS ON: The most widely used specific markers of neuroendocrine differentiation are chromogranin and synaptophysin. There ... synaptophysin and chromogranin in all patients. Ten patients had strong positive estrogen and progesterone receptors and ...
Chromogranin B. Strong cytoplasmic positivity was observed in medullary cells. A subset of cells in adrenal cortex showed ...
... chromogranin A, pp60c-src, and neuron-specific enolase as well as the epithelial marker KS1/4 and stage-specific embryonic ...
... while the endocrine component displayed a dot-like positivity for pan-cytokeratins and chromogranin. ...
... chromeplater chromeplates chromidrosis chrominances chromization chromoactive chromoblasts chromocenter chromogranin ...
Chromogranin A * Ciclosporin * CK-MB Test * Clopidogrel (CYP2C19 Genotyping) * Clostridium difficile and C. difficile Toxin ...
Stridsberg M, Oberg K, Li Q, et al.: Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B (secretogranin I), chromogranin C ( ... Measurement of plasma chromogranin A (CgA), first described in a study of adrenal gland secretions in 1967 as one of the ... Serum chromogranin A is identified as a significant prognostic factor.. Table 12. Primary Tumor (T)a,b. aReprinted with ... Drivsholm L, Paloheimo LI, Osterlind K: Chromogranin A, a significant prognostic factor in small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer ...
The serum chromogranin A levels reflect the tumor load of the NETs and is a useful tumor marker for the monitoring of disease ... A strong expression on the cytoplasmic membrane and in thecellular cytoplasm to the anti-chromogranin A antibody is represented ... Immunohistochemical study showed the expression of chromogranin A (Figure 3), NSE, synaptophysin, and anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 ... Nine years after the operation, the patient has no abnormalities and his serum chromogranin A level isnormal. ...
Chromogranin-A (CgA). *Free PSA. *Free ß-hCG (Free ß-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) ...
Chromogranin A * Chromosome Analysis (Karyotyping) * Chymotrypsin * CK-MB * Clopidogrel (CYP2C19 Genotyping) * Clostridium ...
Markers such as (say) Chromogranin A (CgA) or 5HIAA are clearly useful but in an ongoing surveillance scenario, they alone ...
It is likely that chromogranin A is usually stored in the secretory granules and released exocytosis in pinealocytes and thymic ... At the present time, chromogranin A function still requires clarification. It has been proposed that this water-soluble protein ... chromogranin A synthesis and release indicates that this pineal gland and thymus may take part in neuroendocrine regulation at ...
... and chromogranin) and glial fibrillary acidic protein was done on paraffin sections after antigen retrieval. Beyond Color ...
They are negative for synaptophysin and chromogranin. Metastatic papillary carcinomas from the thyroid are typically positive ...
... chromogranin A (CgA)), and a transcription factor (thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1)) were performed. The incidence of non ...
2083 Plasma Protein Kallikrein-14 Strongly Predicts Pronounced Chromogranin A (CgA) Response in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine ...
Chromogranin-A. Demeditec. DEXK276. secretory IgA. Demeditec. DESLV4576. Saliva Control Set. Demeditec. ...
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF NEUROD1, NKX2.2, ISL1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS, SOMATOSTATIN AND CHROMOGRANIN A IN DIFFERENT FORMS OF ...
Keywords: polypeptide pancreatic, chromogranin A, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, carcinoid, islet cell ... 67 Interest of combined chromogranin A and pancreatic polypeptide for diagnosis and follow-up of gastroenteropancreatic ... Chromogranin A (CgA) is the principal tumor marker for such tumors; however, its use to evaluate morphological tumor ...
Positive for p63, ck5, cd56 & napsin-a. Negative for ttf-1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, s100 & lca. Dense right lobe, ...
Chromogranin A (CgA), ng/ml (normal range, ,94 ng/ml). Gastrin: ,1, pg/ml. On April 16, 2015, gastroscopy revealed chronic ... She also had an elevated serum chromogranin A (CgA) level. There was medical evidence to show that she is metastatic MEN1. ... NET, neuroendocrine tumor; CgA, chromogranin A. hybridization (FISH ): for CDK4, 50 tumor cells were counted, in which CEP12 ... 6 Page 6 of 6 Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Gastrin 600 Chromogranin A (CgA) Postoperative days Figure 6 ...
Distant nodal surgery in 2012 at first sign of Chromogranin A (CgA) rise. Apart from this small spike in 2012, CgA and 5HIAA ...
are due to have a specific blood test (Chromogranin A). *If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant, or ...
... chromogranin a test - chromosome analysis test - chromosome analysis (karyotyping) test - chromosome karyotype test - ...
In this study we used immunohistochemical analysis to determine expression of the NE markers: chromogranin A (CgA), neuron- ...
  • Chromogranin B (CgB, also known as CHGB) is abundantly expressed in dense core secretory granules of multiple endocrine tissues and has been suggested to regulate granule biogenesis in some cell types, including the pancreatic islet β-cell, though the mechanisms are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • The spindle cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin ( Fig. 2B ) and immunonegative for chromogranin, S-100, C-kit, DOG1, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). (e-ce.org)
  • We measured serum chromogranin, gastrin, gastric secretion and counted and quantified hyperplasia of enterochromaffin-like cells in gastric biopsies from 38 Zollinger-Ellison and 13 non-Zollinger-Ellison patients being treated with lansoprazole, for 5 years (median) and again 2.5 years later. (saladgaffe.cf)