A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (1/561)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (2/561)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

Islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin messenger RNA and protein expression in human insulinomas in relation to amyloid formation. (3/561)

OBJECTIVE: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also named amylin, is the predominant protein component of amyloid deposits in human islet beta cell tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas). IAPP is co-produced with insulin by islet beta cells. We investigated IAPP expression in relation to insulin expression and to amyloid formation in eleven insulinomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: RNA and protein extracts were prepared from the same pieces of tumour tissue, and from specimens of two normal human pancreata. IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content were quantified using Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Molecular forms of IAPP immunoreactivity were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of islet hormones and of amyloid was assessed by (immuno)histochemical staining of paraffin sections. Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin prior to tumour resection were determined by RIA. RESULTS: IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content varied widely between the tumour specimens, and there was considerable intratumour heterogeneity of peptide content. HPLC analysis indicated correct proteolytic processing of the IAPP precursor protein. Amyloid deposits were detected only in the three tumours with the highest IAPP content. In contrast to insulin, plasma levels of IAPP were not elevated in the insulinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of hormone production by insulinomas cannot be inferred from only a few tissue sections due to intratumour heterogeneity. Expression of the IAPP and insulin genes is not coupled in insulinomas, which produce properly processed mature IAPP. In addition to IAPP overproduction, additional factors such as intracellular accumulation of IAPP are involved in amyloidogenesis in insulinomas.  (+info)

Library of sequence-specific radioimmunoassays for human chromogranin A. (4/561)

BACKGROUND: Human chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissue and tumors. The extensive tissue- and tumor-specific cleavages of CgA at basic cleavage sites produce multiple peptides. METHODS: We have developed a library of RIAs specific for different epitopes, including the NH2 and COOH termini and three sequences adjacent to dibasic sites in the remaining part of CgA. RESULTS: The antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) required a free NH2 terminus for binding. All antisera displayed high titers, high indexes of heterogeneity ( approximately 1.0), and high binding affinities (Keff0 approximately 0.1 x 10(12) to 1.0 x 10(12) L/mol), implying that the RIAs were monospecific and sensitive. The concentration of CgA in different tissues varied with the assay used. Hence, in a carcinoid tumor the concentration varied from 0.5 to 34.0 nmol/g tissue depending on the specificity of the CgA assay. The lowest concentration in all tumors was measured with the assay specific for the NH2 terminus of CgA. This is consistent with the relatively low concentrations measured in plasma from carcinoid tumor patients by the N-terminal assay, whereas the assays using antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) measured increased concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only some CgA assays appear useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors, but the entire library is valuable for studies of the expression and processing of human CgA.  (+info)

Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study. (5/561)

BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical characterization of pancreatic tumors induced by dimethylbenzanthracene in rats. (6/561)

Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induces pancreatic adenocarcinomas in rats 9 months after carcinogen exposure, with precursor lesions (tubular complexes) developing 1 month after initiation of treatment. Because previous studies have suggested an acinar cell of origin for these tumors, we investigated the expression pattern of ductal, acinar, and islet cell markers in these cancers to gain insight into their phenotype and cell of origin. Pancreatic neoplasms were induced in rats by implantation of DMBA into the head of the pancreas. Lesions studied included 10 early tubular complexes (DMBA for 2 weeks), 8 tubular complexes (DMBA for 1 month), and 10 adenocarcinomas (DMBA for 9 months). Normal rat pancreas served as a control. For comparison, 5 human ductal adenocarcinomas were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry with ductal (keratin, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 20), acinar (chymotrypsin), and islet (chromogranin A) cell markers was performed to analyze the tissues. Rat tubular complexes and adenocarcinomas revealed strong expression of keratin, cytokeratin 19, and cytokeratin 20 in the cytoplasm of all neoplastic cells, absence of chymotrypsin, and rare immunoreactivity to chromogranin A. Human adenocarcinomas showed strong expression of keratin and cytokeratin 19 in all neoplastic cells, expression of cytokeratin 20 in 5-20% of cells, and absence of chymotrypsin and chromogranin A. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA in rats express markers consistent with a ductal phenotype, as observed in human tumors. Ductal marker expression in early tumor stages suggests a ductal cell of origin.  (+info)

A case of synchronous double primary lung cancer with neuroendocrine features. (7/561)

We report a case of unique double primary lung cancers with neuroendocrine features in a 63-year-old male smoker. The mass in the left lower lobe (LLL) was a small cell/large cell carcinoma with spindle cell sarcomatous areas and organoid structure. The mass in the left upper lobe (LUL) was a tubular adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features including organoid nests showing occasional rosette formation, nuclear palisading in the periphery of the nests and positive immunoreaction for CD56, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The difference in histological structures between the two masses led us to diagnose double primary lung cancer. The combination of small cell lung carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma is very uncommon. The relationship between LLL and LUL tumors remains unclear. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features have only rarely been reported in the literature. The patient in our case died of widespread cancer 2 years and 4 months after the surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy, a longer postoperative survival time than in cases of ordinary extensive small cell lung cancer. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features are extremely rare and similar cases have not been reported in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation has attracted widespread attention and, therefore, examining neuroendocrine features in lung cancers is important.  (+info)

A new human chromogranin A (CgA) immunoradiometric assay involving monoclonal antibodies raised against the unprocessed central domain (145-245). (8/561)

Chromogranin A (CgA), a major protein of chromaffin granules, has been described as a potential marker for neuroendocrine tumours. Because of an extensive proteolysis which leads to a large heterogeneity of circulating fragments, its presence in blood has been assessed in most cases either by competitive immunoassays or with polyclonal antibodies. In the present study, 24 monoclonal antibodies were raised against native or recombinant human CgA. Their mapping with proteolytic peptides showed that they defined eight distinct epitopic groups which spanned two-thirds of the C-terminal part of human CgA. All monoclonal antibodies were tested by pair and compared with a reference radioimmunoassay (RIA) involving CGS06, one of the monoclonal antibodies against the 198-245 sequence. It appears that CgA C-terminal end seems to be highly affected by proteolysis and the association of C-terminal and median-part monoclonal antibodies is inadequate for total CgA assessment. Our new immunoradiometric assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, whose contiguous epitopes lie within the median 145-245 sequence. This assay allows a sensitive detection of total human CgA and correlates well with RIA because dibasic cleavage sites present in the central domain do not seem to be affected by degradation. It has been proved to be efficient in measuring CgA levels in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.  (+info)

Chromogranin A is a protein that is widely used as a marker for neuroendocrine tumors. These are tumors that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is a network of cells throughout the body that produce hormones and help to regulate various bodily functions. Chromogranin A is stored in secretory granules within these cells and is released into the bloodstream when the cells are stimulated to release their hormones.

Chromogranin A is measured in the blood as a way to help diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and track the progression of the disease. Elevated levels of chromogranin A in the blood may indicate the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor, although other factors can also cause an increase in this protein.

It's important to note that while chromogranin A is a useful marker for neuroendocrine tumors, it is not specific to any one type of tumor and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Pancreatic hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. The two main types of pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon, which are released by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.

Insulin is produced by beta cells and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream. It also helps the body store excess glucose in the liver for later use.

Glucagon is produced by alpha cells and has the opposite effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver to raise blood sugar levels.

Together, insulin and glucagon help maintain balanced blood sugar levels and are essential for the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. Other hormones produced by the pancreas include somatostatin, which regulates the release of insulin and glucagon, and gastrin, which stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.

The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It is responsible for producing and releasing hormones such as epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). These hormones play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, preparing the body for immediate action in response to stress.

Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while also increasing blood flow to muscles and decreasing blood flow to the skin and digestive system. Norepinephrine has similar effects but is generally less potent than epinephrine. Together, these hormones help to prepare the body for physical activity and increase alertness and focus.

Disorders of the adrenal medulla can lead to a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, anxiety, and tremors. Some conditions that affect the adrenal medulla include pheochromocytoma, a tumor that causes excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and neuroblastoma, a cancerous tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the adrenal gland.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is composed of dispersed neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, often in close association with nerves and blood vessels. These cells have the ability to produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances in response to various stimuli. NETs can occur in a variety of organs, including the lungs, pancreas, small intestine, colon, rectum, stomach, and thyroid gland, as well as in some less common sites such as the thymus, adrenal glands, and nervous system.

NETs can be functional or nonfunctional, depending on whether they produce and secrete hormones or hormone-like substances that cause specific symptoms related to hormonal excess. Functional NETs may give rise to a variety of clinical syndromes, such as carcinoid syndrome, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor syndrome (also known as Verner-Morrison or WDHA syndrome), and others. Nonfunctional NETs are more likely to present with symptoms related to the size and location of the tumor, such as abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding.

The diagnosis of NETs typically involves a combination of imaging studies, biochemical tests (e.g., measurement of serum hormone levels), and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy or surgical resection. Treatment options depend on the type, location, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the presence or absence of functional symptoms. They may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).

Chromaffin granules are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells, which are a type of neuroendocrine cell. These cells are located in the adrenal medulla and some sympathetic ganglia and play a crucial role in the body's stress response.

Chromaffin granules contain a variety of substances, including catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), as well as proteins and other molecules. When the chromaffin cell is stimulated, the granules fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space, where they can bind to receptors on nearby cells and trigger a variety of physiological responses.

The name "chromaffin" comes from the fact that these granules contain enzymes that can react with chromium salts to produce a brown color, which is why they are also sometimes referred to as "black-brown granules."

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

A carcinoid tumor is a type of slow-growing neuroendocrine tumor that usually originates in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine. These tumors can also arise in other areas such as the lungs, appendix, and rarely in other organs. Carcinoid tumors develop from cells of the diffuse endocrine system (also known as the neuroendocrine system) that are capable of producing hormones or biologically active amines.

Carcinoid tumors can produce and release various hormones and bioactive substances, such as serotonin, histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and tachykinins, which can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most common syndrome associated with carcinoid tumors is the carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and wheezing or difficulty breathing.

Carcinoid tumors are typically classified as functional or nonfunctional based on whether they produce and secrete hormones that cause symptoms. Functional carcinoid tumors account for approximately 30% of cases and can lead to the development of carcinoid syndrome, while nonfunctional tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones and are often asymptomatic until they grow large enough to cause local or distant complications.

Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as whether it is functional or nonfunctional. Treatment may include surgery, medications (such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies), and radiation therapy. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and biochemical tests is essential to monitor for recurrence and assess treatment response.

Synaptophysin is a protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of neurons, which are involved in the release of neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. It is often used as a marker for neuronal differentiation and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Synaptophysin plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and synaptic dysfunction-related conditions.

Carcinoma, neuroendocrine is a type of cancer that arises from the neuroendocrine cells, which are specialized cells that have both nerve and hormone-producing functions. These cells are found throughout the body, but neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) most commonly occur in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and thyroid gland.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can be classified as well-differentiated or poorly differentiated based on how closely they resemble normal neuroendocrine cells under a microscope. Well-differentiated tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less aggressive than poorly differentiated tumors.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can produce and release hormones and other substances that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and heart palpitations. Treatment for neuroendocrine carcinoma depends on the location and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The chromaffin system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that consists of specialized cells called chromaffin cells. These cells are found in two main locations: the adrenal medulla, which is the inner portion of the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys; and scattered throughout various nerve ganglia along the sympathetic trunk, a chain of ganglia that runs parallel to the spinal cord.

Chromaffin cells are responsible for synthesizing, storing, and releasing catecholamines, which are hormones and neurotransmitters that help regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. The most well-known catecholamines are adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which are released in response to stress or excitement.

The term "chromaffin" refers to the ability of these cells to take up chromium salts and produce a brown coloration, which is why they are called chromaffin cells. The chromaffin system plays an important role in the body's fight-or-flight response, helping to prepare the body for immediate action in response to perceived threats or stressors.

Secretogranin II, also known as chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity or secretoneurin precursor, is a protein that belongs to the granin family. Granins are involved in neuroendocrine differentiation and are commonly used as markers for neuroendocrine tumors.

Secretogranin II is a 59 kDa protein that is synthesized as part of larger precursors, which undergo proteolytic processing to generate smaller bioactive peptides. These peptides have various functions, including modulation of neurotransmitter release and regulation of blood pressure.

Secretogranin II is primarily localized in secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells, where it plays a role in the packaging, transport, and exocytosis of neurosecretory granules. It has been identified as a major component of dense-core vesicles, which store and release hormones and neuropeptides.

In summary, Secretogranin II is a protein involved in the biogenesis and secretion of neurosecretory granules in neurons and endocrine cells.

Endocrine glands are ductless glands in the human body that release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which then carry the hormones to various tissues and organs in the body. These glands play a crucial role in regulating many of the body's functions, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Examples of endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. Each of these glands produces specific hormones that have unique effects on various target tissues in the body.

The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to regulate many bodily functions through a complex network of feedback mechanisms. Disorders of the endocrine system can result in a wide range of symptoms and health problems, including diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

Secretory vesicles are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that store and transport secretory proteins and other molecules to the plasma membrane for exocytosis. Exocytosis is the process by which these molecules are released from the cell, allowing them to perform various functions, such as communication with other cells or participation in biochemical reactions. Secretory vesicles can be found in a variety of cell types, including endocrine cells, exocrine cells, and neurons. The proteins and molecules contained within secretory vesicles are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where they are processed, modified, and packaged into the vesicles for subsequent release.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the stomach lining. They are located in the mucosa of the gastric glands and are responsible for producing and secreting hormones, such as histamine, that regulate gastric acid secretion. ECL cells are stimulated by the hormone gastrin, which is released by G cells in response to food intake or other stimuli. The histamine produced by ECL cells then acts on H2 receptors located on parietal cells, leading to the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach.

ECL cells are named for their ability to take up and decarboxylate certain amines, such as serotonin and dopamine, which results in the formation of chromaffin granules that can be stained with chromium salts. These cells play an important role in regulating gastric acid secretion and are also involved in the development of some stomach disorders, such as gastrinomas and atrophic gastritis.

Enterochromaffin cells, also known as Kulchitsky cells or enteroendocrine cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting a variety of hormones and neuropeptides that play important roles in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation.

Enterochromaffin cells are named for their ability to take up chromaffin stains, which contain silver salts and oxidizing agents that react with the catecholamines stored within the cells. These cells can be further classified based on their morphology, location within the gastrointestinal tract, and the types of hormones they produce.

Some examples of hormones produced by enterochromaffin cells include serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), histamine, gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin. Serotonin is one of the most well-known hormones produced by these cells, and it plays a critical role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and secretion, as well as mood and cognition.

Abnormalities in enterochromaffin cell function have been implicated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. Additionally, mutations in genes associated with enterochromaffin cells have been linked to several inherited cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. These tumors produce excessive amounts of hormones called catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline. This can lead to a variety of symptoms such as high blood pressure, sweating, headaches, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.

Pheochromocytomas are typically slow-growing and can be benign or malignant (cancerous). While the exact cause of these tumors is not always known, some genetic factors have been identified that may increase a person's risk. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control blood pressure before and after surgery.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Cytoplasmic granules are small, membrane-bound organelles or inclusions found within the cytoplasm of cells. They contain various substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and genetic material. Cytoplasmic granules have diverse functions depending on their specific composition and cellular location. Some examples include:

1. Secretory granules: These are found in secretory cells and store hormones, neurotransmitters, or enzymes before they are released by exocytosis.
2. Lysosomes: These are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion of waste materials, foreign substances, and damaged organelles.
3. Melanosomes: Found in melanocytes, these granules produce and store the pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
4. Weibel-Palade bodies: These are found in endothelial cells and store von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, which play roles in hemostasis and inflammation.
5. Peroxisomes: These are single-membrane organelles that contain enzymes for various metabolic processes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances.
6. Lipid bodies (also called lipid droplets): These are cytoplasmic granules that store neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. They play a role in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling.
7. Glycogen granules: These are cytoplasmic inclusions that store glycogen, a polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals.
8. Protein bodies: Found in plants, these granules store excess proteins and help regulate protein homeostasis within the cell.
9. Electron-dense granules: These are found in certain immune cells, such as mast cells and basophils, and release mediators like histamine during an allergic response.
10. Granules of unknown composition or function may also be present in various cell types.

Carboxypeptidase H is also known as carboxypeptidase E or CPE. It is an enzyme that plays a role in the processing and activation of neuropeptides, which are small protein-like molecules that function as chemical messengers within the nervous system. Carboxypeptidase H/E is responsible for removing certain amino acids from the end of newly synthesized neuropeptides, allowing them to become biologically active. It is widely expressed in the brain and other tissues throughout the body.

Chromaffin cells are specialized neuroendocrine cells that are responsible for the synthesis and release of catecholamines, which are hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These cells are located in the medulla of the adrenal gland and in some autonomic ganglia outside the central nervous system. Chromaffin cells contain secretory granules that stain brown with chromium salts, hence their name. They play a crucial role in the body's response to stress by releasing catecholamines into the bloodstream, which helps prepare the body for the "fight or flight" response.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Neoplasms of nerve tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that originate in the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their location and size.

Benign nerve tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include schwannomas, neurofibromas, and meningiomas. These tumors arise from the supporting cells of the nervous system, such as Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.

Malignant nerve tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. These tumors are less common than benign neoplasms and can be difficult to treat. Examples include glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which arise from the cells that surround peripheral nerves.

Symptoms of nerve tissue neoplasms can vary widely depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, difficulty with coordination or balance, and changes in vision, hearing, or speech. Treatment options for nerve tissue neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neuroendocrine cells are specialized cells that are found throughout the body, but primarily in the respiratory and digestive tracts. These cells have characteristics of both neurons and endocrine cells. Like neurons, neuroendocrine cells can receive and transmit signals to other cells using chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Like endocrine cells, they can produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream, where they can travel to other parts of the body and affect the function of distant organs.

Neuroendocrine cells are responsible for a variety of physiological functions, including regulating air and blood flow in the lungs, controlling the motility and secretion of the gastrointestinal tract, and modulating immune responses. They can also play a role in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as neuroendocrine tumors, which are rare but aggressive cancers that can arise from these cells.

Anatomically, neuroendocrine cells can be found as scattered individual cells or as clusters of cells called neuroepithelial bodies. They are characterized by the presence of dense-core granules containing hormones and neurotransmitters, which can be released in response to various stimuli. Neuroendocrine cells can also express a variety of receptors, including those for neurotransmitters, hormones, and growth factors, which allow them to respond to signals from other cells and modulate their own activity.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells found within the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract, which play a crucial role in regulating digestion and energy balance. They are responsible for producing and secreting various hormones in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli, such as the presence of nutrients in the gut lumen. These hormones include:

1. Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin promotes the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells and increases gastric motility.
2. Cholecystokinin (CCK): Produced by I cells in the small intestine, CCK stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, promotes gallbladder contraction, and inhibits gastric emptying.
3. Secretin: Released by S cells in the duodenum, secretin stimulates bicarbonate secretion from the pancreas to neutralize stomach acid and increases pancreatic secretions.
4. Serotonin (5-HT): Found in enterochromaffin cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract, serotonin regulates gut motility, sensation, and secretion. It also plays a role in modulating the immune response and affecting mood and cognition when released into the bloodstream.
5. Motilin: Produced by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin stimulates gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for the housekeeping functions of the gut during fasting periods.
6. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Secreted by K cells in the duodenum, GIP promotes insulin secretion, inhibits gastric acid secretion, and stimulates intestinal motility and pancreatic bicarbonate secretion.
7. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2): Released by L cells in the ileum and colon, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon release, slows gastric emptying, and promotes satiety. GLP-2 enhances intestinal growth and absorption.

These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various aspects of gastrointestinal function, including digestion, motility, secretion, sensation, and immune response. Dysregulation of these hormones can contribute to the development of several gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), functional dyspepsia, and diabetes. Understanding the complex interactions between these hormones and their receptors is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

Proprotein convertase 2 (PCSK2) is a type of enzyme known as a proprotein convertase. It plays a role in the activation of other proteins by cleaving off specific peptide sequences and allowing them to become biologically active. PCSK2 is primarily involved in the processing of hormones and neurotransmitters, including insulin, prolactin, and members of the bombesin family.

Defects in the gene that encodes PCSK2 have been associated with certain medical conditions, such as congenital hyperinsulinism, a disorder characterized by low blood sugar levels due to excessive insulin secretion. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between PCSK2 and these conditions.

Lymphocytic colitis is a type of microscopic colitis, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine (colon). In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increased number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency. The exact cause of lymphocytic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an immune response to an environmental trigger in genetically susceptible individuals. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people over the age of 40. Treatment may include medications such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods from the diet may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory ...
Taupenot L, Harper KL, O'Connor DT (March 2003). "The chromogranin-secretogranin family". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... Lloyd RV, Jin L (March 1994). "Analysis of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas". Diagnostic ...
Hosaka M, Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Uchiyama Y, Takeuchi T (October 2002). "Identification of a chromogranin A domain that mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. ... "Entrez Gene: SCG3 secretogranin III". Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (January 1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) ... "Secretogranin III binds to cholesterol in the secretory granule membrane as an adapter for chromogranin A". The Journal of ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... chromogranin A (CgA) chromogranin B (CgB) secretogranin II (SgII) (see also secretoneurin) secretogranin III (SgIII) ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) are acidic proteins and are present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of ...
2000). "Co-distribution patterns of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity with chromogranin A and secretoneurin within the human ... Chromogranin Kirchmair R, Gander R, Egger M, et al. (2004). "The neuropeptide secretoneurin acts as a direct angiogenic ... SCG2, also called secretogranin II (chromogranin C), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCG2 gene. The protein ... 2009). "Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Regul. Pept. 152 (1-3): 13-21. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.07. ...
If metanephrine values are equivocal, chromogranin A can be used as an adjunct marker to predict the presence of a tumor.[ ... Other additional biomarkers can be helpful to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma as well, most notable is Chromogranin A ... d'Herbomez M, Do Cao C, Vezzosi D, Borzon-Chasot F, Baudin E (September 2010). "Chromogranin A assay in clinical practice". ... However, a 2006 report from Italy found that over 90% of studied pheochromocytoma patients demonstrated elevated chromogranin A ...
... they are negative for chromogranin and pancreatic enzymes. The gold standard for diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumour of the ...
The cells are negative with chromogranin, synaptophysin and CK20. The major diagnosis from which to separate ceruminous adenoma ...
Nobels FR, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bouillon R, Lamberts SW (June 1998). "Chromogranin A: its clinical value as marker of neuroendocrine ... Markers of the condition such as chromogranin-A are imperfect indicators of disease progression. The incidence of ...
Soell M, Feki A, Hannig M, Sano H, Pinget M, Selimovic D (February 2010). "Chromogranin A detection in saliva of type 2 ... chromogranin A) was over-expressed in 100% of diabetic patients when compared to controls. In 2010 Qvarnstrom, et al., ...
Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma expressing chromogranin A (f) and PTH (g). Calcitonin-negative medullary thyroid carcinoma ( ...
SCLCs bear the markers of neuroendocrine cells, such as chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56. Adenocarcinomas tend to express ...
July 1989). "Developmental profile of chromogranin, hormonal peptides, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in gastrointestinal endocrine ...
Stridsberg M, Oberg K, Li Q, Engström U, Lundqvist G (January 1995). "Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B ( ... Secretoneurin, is a 33-amino acid neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II (chromogranin C, CHGC). It is cleaved into the ... Tasiemski A, Hammad H, Vandenbulcke F, Breton C, Bilfinger TJ, Pestel J, Salzet M (July 2002). "Presence of chromogranin- ... Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H, Grimelius L (June 1997). "Complex co-localization of chromogranins and ...
Koeslag, Johan H.; Saunders, Peter T.; Wessels, Jabus A. (1999). "The chromogranins and counter-regulatory hormones: do they ...
Aside from the hormones of secretory tumors, the most important markers are: chromogranin A (CgA), present in 99% of metastatic ... Neuroendocrine secretory protein-55, a member of the chromogranin family, is seen in pancreatic endocrine tumors but not ... Widely used neuroendocrine tissue markers are various chromogranins, synaptophysin and PGP9.5. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is ... chromogranin A, and neurotensin do not cause a clinical syndrome, although blood levels may be elevated. Functional tumors are ...
Pancreatic insulinoma Pancreatic insulinoma Chromogranin A Insulin immuostain Causes of hypoglycemia Metastatic Insulinoma ...
... , also known as Chromogranin B, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHGB gene. It is a member of the ...
Diagnostically, it is often used in combination with chromogranin A. Synaptophysin has been shown to interact with AP1G1 and ...
Jirásek T, Hozák P, Mandys V (2003). "Different patterns of chromogranin A and Leu-7 (CD57) expression in gastrointestinal ... conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin ...
... chromogranin A, synaptophysin, SSTR2, and NTR1, but not CD56. The cells have a round, epithelial morphology, and are adherent ...
Fan S, Hao ZY, Zhang L, Chen XG, Zhou J, Zang YF, Tai S, Liang CZ (2014). "Increased chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase ...
... chromogranin A, and neurotensin, do not cause a clinical syndrome although blood levels may be elevated. In total, 85% of ... immunohistochemistry is generally positive for chromogranin and synaptophysin. Genetic testing thereof typically shows altered ...
"Selective localization of the parathyroid secretory protein-I/adrenal medulla chromogranin A protein family in a wide variety ...
An increased level of chromogranin A is a common marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, the source of the increased ...
Chromogranin A, which is the most abundant product of prostatic neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumor cells, is widely ... chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (three proteins that are used as markers for ... chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or ...
... the chief cells located in the cell balls are positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase, serotonin, ...
Cortisol and other stress biomarkers (including vasopressin, chromogranin A, and heat shock proteins), as well as emotional ...
... chromogranin A, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and cholecystokinin. These cells can be the source of several types of lung ...
... is a peptide hormone secreted from the chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cells called the K-cells in the mucous ...
In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory ...
We recently demonstrated that chromogranins A and B each regulate the concentration of adrenaline in chromaffin granules and ... Chromogranins are the main soluble proteins in the large dense core secretory vesicles (LDCVs) found in aminergic neurons and ... Chromogranins are the main soluble proteins in the large dense core secretory vesicles (LDCVs) found in aminergic neurons and ... Although chromogranins are thought to be essential for their biogenesis, LDCVs were evident in these mice. These vesicles do ...
Tag: chromogranin a antibody. Genetic risk scores using long variations in human chromosome scales can predict schizophrenia. * ...
Chromogranin B antibody for FC, IF, IHC, WB, ELISA and reacts with human, mouse, rat. ... WB protocol for Chromogranin B antibody 14968-1-AP. Download protocol. IHC protocol for Chromogranin B antibody 14968-1-AP. ... Chromogranin B Polyclonal antibody. Chromogranin B Polyclonal Antibody for FC, IF, IHC, WB, ELISA. ... "Chromogranin B antibodies" comparison. At Proteintech, we pride ourselves on our antibody quality, customer service and ...
Chromogranin A Test Results High. TruStrip RDT Beta-Lactam and Tetracyclines rapid test strips, results is 2-10 mins, 50 strips ... Other Chromogranin products are available in stock. Specificity: Chromogranin Category: A Group: Test Results ... The Chromogranin A Test Results High reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To ... Description: Chromogranin A is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the ...
Antigen: Chromogranin B. Clonality: Polyclonal. Clone: Conjugation: Unconjugated. Epitope: Host: Rabbit. Isotype: IgG. ...
Human chromogranin A ELISA kit can detect concentrations of chromogranin A (ChgA, parathyroid secretory protein 1) human serum ... Chromogranin A ELISA Kit (ChgA). INTENDED USE. Human chromogranin A ELISA kit can be used for specifically detecting in vitro ... The minimum sensitivity detection limit of ChgA (chromogranin A, parathyroid secretory protein 1) using current chromogranin A ... Chromogranin A (ChgA) is also called parathyroid secretory protein 1, consists of 439 amino acids that is a 49 kDa acidic ...
Chromogranin A Testing. A test for Chromogranin A (CgA) measures the amount of Chromogranin A in the blood. Chromogranin A is a ... Chromogranin A may be found in higher-than-normal amounts in patients with certain neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), small cell ... Click here for more information on the use of Chromogranin A as a tumour marker for prostate cancer. ...
... analysis of Chromogranin A was performed in paraffin-embedded mouse pancreas tissue using Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody ... Relative expression of Chromogranin A was observed in SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells treated with PTI (1X for 4hr) and with FL1-06 ( ...
It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. ... Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the ... It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. Chromogranin A contains ... encoded search term (Chromogranin A) and Chromogranin A What to Read Next on Medscape ...
It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. ... Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the ... It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. Chromogranin A contains ... encoded search term (Chromogranin A) and Chromogranin A What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Chromogranin-A derived from Human pheochromocytoma. Clone: PHE5. Gene ID: 1113 ... Chromogranin-A, Pituitary secretory protein I, Beta-Granin; CGA; CHGA; Chromogranin A Parathyroid Secretory Protein 1; ER-37; ... Be the first to review "Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker)" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ... Chromogranin A is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and ...
Chromogranin A (a marker of neuroendocrine tumors) is one of the most important indicators in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors ... Chromogranin A (a marker of neuroendocrine tumors) is one of the most important indicators in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors ...
Scytek presents Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker); Clone CGA/413 (Concentrate) - RA0514-C.1 ( Antibodies, Research ... Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker); Clone CGA/413 (Concentrate). Species: Mouse.. Immunogen: Recombinant human ... chromogranin A protein.. Clone: CGA/413. Isotype: IgG2b, kappa.. Species Reactivity: Reacts with Human. Does not react with rat ...
... S. Massironi. ;A. Zilli. Secondo. ;F. Cavalcoli ... Chromogranin A and other enteroendocrine markers in inflammatory bowel disease / S. Massironi, A. Zilli, F. Cavalcoli, D. Conte ... chromogranin a; crohns disease; enteroendocrine cell; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; endocrinology; neurology ... Relevant modifications of some enteroendocrine markers, such as Chromogranin A, and their correlation with disease activity ...
Rabbit Anti-Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated - Contributor(s):Elise Engquist, Douglas Melton ...
... Fournier I;Gaucher D;Chich JF;Bach C; ... Aims: Inflammation has been linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Chromogranins A, B (CgA, CgB) and ... Aims: Inflammation has been linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Chromogranins A, B (CgA, CgB) and ...
... SECCIA, TERESA ... OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether chromogranin A (ChA) is tonically released in adrenal vein blood and ... OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether chromogranin A (ChA) is tonically released in adrenal vein blood and ...
Chromogranin; synaptophysin; PGP9.5; CD56. Neuroendocrine carcinoma. CK5 or CK6; p63. Squamous cell carcinoma ...
Chromogranin A test: To measure the level of chromogranin A in the blood. ...
Serotonin / Histamine / Motilin / Gastric Inhibitory Peptide / Enteroglucagon / Chromogranin A. *Manifestations of Carcinoid ...
... ... Lactate threshold, Saliva, Alpha-amylase, Chromogranin A, Swimming National Category Health Sciences Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn: ...
Chromogranin A Deficiency Confers Protection From Autoimmune Diabetes via Multiple Mechanisms. In: Diabetes. 2021 ; Vol. 70, No ... Srivastava, N, Hu, H, Vomund, AN, Peterson, OJ, Baker, RL, Haskins, K, Teyton, L, Wan, X & Unanue, ER 2021, Chromogranin A ... Chromogranin A Deficiency Confers Protection From Autoimmune Diabetes via Multiple Mechanisms. Diabetes. 2021 Dec;70(12):2860- ... Chromogranin A Deficiency Confers Protection From Autoimmune Diabetes via Multiple Mechanisms. Neetu Srivastava, Hao Hu, ...
Chromogranin A: a useful biomarker in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Chromogranin A: a useful biomarker in castration- ... Thus, monitoring with PSA and chromogranin A (CgA) may be useful. This review aims to evaluate evidence for the usefulness of ... Further data were obtained from PubMed and Embase databases by searches using keywords, including chromogranin A and prostate ... Castration resistant prostate cancer; Chromogranin A; Neuroendocrine prostate cancer; Neuron-specific enolase ...
Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, and CD56 Show Rare Positivity in Adenocarcinoma Ex-Goblet Cell Carcinoids ... CD56, P = 0.356; chromogranin vs. synaptophysin, P = 1.000; chromogranin vs. CD56, P = 0.010; synaptophysin vs. CD56, P = 0.010 ... CD56, P = 0.433; chromogranin vs. synaptophysin, P = 0.368; chromogranin vs. CD56, P = 0.030; synaptophysin vs. CD56, P = 0.009 ... CD56, P = 0.077; chromogranin vs. synaptophysin, P = 0.666; chromogranin vs. CD56, P = 0.005; synaptophysin vs. CD56, P = 0.002 ...
Blood tests (including serotonin and chromogranin blood tests). *CTMRI scan of the chest or abdomen ...
Plasma chromogranin A after severe burn trauma. Lindahl AE, Low A, Stridsberg M, Sjöberg F, Ekselius L, Gerdin B. Lindahl AE, ...
  • Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human chromogranin A ELISA kit can be used for specifically detecting in vitro quantitative concentrations of chromogranin A (ChgA, parathyroid secretory protein 1) human serum and plasma. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Chromogranin A (ChgA) is also called parathyroid secretory protein 1, consists of 439 amino acids that is a 49 kDa acidic protein encoded on chromosome 14. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • The minimum sensitivity detection limit of ChgA (chromogranin A, parathyroid secretory protein 1) using current chromogranin A ELISA kit was approximately 1.4 ng/ml. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. (medscape.com)
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin-like cells and beta cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: CHGA, also known as CGA or chromogranin A, is an acidic protein costored and coreleased with catecholamines from storage granules in the adrenal medulla. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • Generation of NOD mice lacking the chromogranin A protein (NOD.ChgA−/−) completely nullified the autoreactivity of the BDC2.5 T cell and conferred protection from diabetes onset. (wustl.edu)
  • Here we revisited the NOD.ChgA−/− mice and found that their lack of diabetes development may not be solely explained by the absence of chromogranin A reactivity. (wustl.edu)
  • Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. (medscape.com)
  • Aims: Inflammation has been linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Chromogranins A, B (CgA, CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII), are prohormones overexpressed in inflammatory diseases. (unisr.it)
  • PC-12 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 14968-1-AP (Chromogranin B antibody at dilution of 1:300 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human pancreas tissue slide using 14968-1-AP (Chromogranin B antibody at dilution of 1:200 (under 10x lens). (ptglab.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human pancreas tissue slide using 14968-1-AP (Chromogranin B antibody at dilution of 1:200 (under 40x lens). (ptglab.com)
  • Microtiter Plate - Coated with human chromogranin A antibody. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Adrenal Gland stained with Chromogranin A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PHE5). (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • SDS-PAGE Analysis Purified Chromogranin A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (PHE5). (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • Co-expression of chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase (NSE) is common in neuroendocrine neoplasms. (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • Prognosis --Several studies have demonstrated that a large proportion of neuroendocrine differentiated prostatic neoplasms are positive for neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A [4,6]. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Chromogranin A is the precursor to several functional peptides including vasostatin-1, vasostatin-2, pancreastatin, catestatin and parastatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromogranin A-derived peptides vasostatin-I and catestatin as regulatory peptides for cardiovascular functions. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • New biological aspects of chromogranin A-derived peptides: focus on vasostatins. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Chromogranin A contains multiple cleavage sites, which undergo a tissue-specific proteolytic process, leading to the production of many biologically active peptides including vasostatin I, vasostatin II, pancreastatin, catestatin, parastatin, and serpinin. (medscape.com)
  • They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. (umassmed.edu)
  • There have been evidence to suggest that elevated circulating chromogranin A levels would be vital markers for tumors of neuroendocrine origin. (elisakits.co.uk)
  • Chromogranin A: any relevance in neuroendocrine tumors? (elisakits.co.uk)
  • A wide variety of neuroendocrine tumors stain positive for chromogranin A. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal system tumors that stain positive for chromogranin A include pheochromocytoma. (medscape.com)
  • Chromogranin A is a reliable serum diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors but not for insulinomas. (medscape.com)
  • Chromogranin A, Ki-67 index and IGF-related genes in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Determination of chromogranin A (marker of neuroendocrine tumors). (rezus.lt)
  • Chromogranin A (a marker of neuroendocrine tumors) is one of the most important indicators in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. (rezus.lt)
  • Recently, insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) has been identified as a novel neuroendocrine marker that is more sensitive than chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56 in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. (gastrores.org)
  • Conventional neuroendocrine markers, such as chromogranin and synaptophysin, however, are often negative or focally positive in these tumors [ 2 , 3 ]. (gastrores.org)
  • Clearance of an automated immunoassay allows practices to measure chromogranin A concentration in human serum, thereby tracking disease progression in those with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Immunogen: Recombinant human chromogranin A protein. (scytek.com)
  • Specificity: Recognizes the Chromogranin A protein. (scytek.com)
  • Majority of such cells stain with antibodies to serotonin and chromogranin. (webpathology.com)
  • Chromogranins are the main soluble proteins in the large dense core secretory vesicles (LDCVs) found in aminergic neurons and chromaffin cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chromogranin A is a type of tumour marker. (humordiagnostica.co.za)
  • Click here for more information on the use of Chromogranin A as a tumour marker for prostate cancer. (humordiagnostica.co.za)
  • We studied this marker in conjunction with chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56 in 36 appendiceal AdexGCCs (21 primaries, 15 metastatic). (gastrores.org)
  • Chromogranin A induces and promotes the generation of secretory granules such as those containing insulin in pancreatic islet beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: Chromogranin A is present in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, including the neuroendocrine cells of the large and small intestine, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • The Chromogranin A Test Results High reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • Chromogranin A can be either measured in the serum or detected by immunohistochemistry in a tissue specimen. (medscape.com)
  • Serum chromogranin A can be elevated in other situations and conditions, including chronic proton-pump inhibitors use, renal failure, liver failure, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • chromogranin-A (CgA)+ Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells account for 0.41% of all epithelial cells in the conducting airway, but are absent from the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (AdexGCC) was considered a neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma, despite majority of tumor cells being negative for conventional neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin and synaptophysin. (gastrores.org)
  • INSM1 exhibits low expression in AdexGCCs and is expressed by a lower proportion of tumor cells compared to chromogranin and synaptophysin. (gastrores.org)
  • B-Chromogranin A (intense, reddish-brown staining) is detected in the cytoplasm of essentially all tumor cells. (avma.org)
  • Primary and metastatic AdexGCCs showed no difference in INSM1, chromogranin, synaptophysin, or CD56 staining. (gastrores.org)
  • Hristov et al previously demonstrated that chromogranin and synaptophysin were only expressed in 37% and 30% of AdexGCCs, respectively [ 2 ]. (gastrores.org)
  • In contrast, conventional carcinoids are often diffusely positive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, with abundant electron-dense granules on electron microscopy [ 4 ]. (gastrores.org)
  • Relevant modifications of some enteroendocrine markers, such as Chromogranin A, and their correlation with disease activity have been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. (unimi.it)
  • Chromogranin A and other enteroendocrine markers in inflammatory bowel disease / S. Massironi, A. Zilli, F. Cavalcoli, D. Conte, M. Peracchi. (unimi.it)
  • Therefore, the global deficiency of chromogranin A impairs recognition of the major diabetogenic antigen insulin, leading to broadly impaired autoimmune responses controlled by multiple regulatory mechanisms. (wustl.edu)
  • Chromagranin A Laboratories manufactures the chromogranin a test results high reagents distributed by Genprice. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • He underwent an en bloc resection, and pathological findings concluded to a metastasis of a pulmonary combined small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether chromogranin A (ChA) is tonically released in adrenal vein blood and might be used to assess the selectivity of AVS. (unipd.it)
  • Chromogranin A: a useful biomarker in castration-resistant prostate cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we have further studied the role played by these proteins by generating mice lacking both chromogranins. (nih.gov)
  • Although chromogranins are thought to be essential for their biogenesis, LDCVs were evident in these mice. (nih.gov)
  • We recently demonstrated that chromogranins A and B each regulate the concentration of adrenaline in chromaffin granules and its exocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate that although chromogranins regulate the amine concentration in LDCVs, they are not completely essential, and other proteins unrelated to neurosecretion, such as fibrinogen, might compensate for their loss to ensure that vesicles are generated and the secretory pathway conserved. (nih.gov)
  • To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact chromagranin A. Other Chromogranin products are available in stock. (postgenomeconsortium.com)
  • Chromogranin A may be found in higher-than-normal amounts in patients with certain neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, and other conditions. (humordiagnostica.co.za)
  • Further data were obtained from PubMed and Embase databases by searches using keywords , including chromogranin A and prostate cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • The presence of strong anti-chromogranin staining and absence of anti-keratin staining should raise the possibility of paraganglioma. (neobiotechnologies.com)
  • There are considerable differences in the amino acid composition between different species' chromogranin A . Commercial assays for measuring human CGA can usually not be used for measuring CGA in samples from other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromogranin A can be used, in conjunction with other testing modalities, as a diagnostic tool, but caution is advised since it is elevated in many other conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)