Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Secretogranin II: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Enterochromaffin-like Cells: Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Enterochromaffin Cells: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeoplasms, Nerve Tissue: Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Neuroendocrine Cells: Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Colitis, Lymphocytic: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (1/561)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Kinetics of neuroendocrine differentiation in an androgen-dependent human prostate xenograft model. (2/561)

It was previously shown in the PC-295 xenograft that the number of chromogranin A (CgA)-positive neuroendocrine (NE) cells increased after androgen withdrawal. NE cells did not proliferate and differentiated from G0-phase-arrested cells. Here we further characterized NE differentiation, androgen receptor status, and apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 expression in the PC-295 model after androgen withdrawal to assess the origin of NE cells. PC-295 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 4 days. Intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and MIB-1 labeling decreased to 0%, and the apoptosis was maximal at day 4. Androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased rapidly within 2 days. The number of NE cells increased 6-fold at day 4 and 30-fold at day 7. Five and ten percent of the CgA-positive cells were BrdU positive after continuous BrdU labeling for 2 and 4 days, respectively. However, no MIB-1 expression was observed in CgA-positive cells. NE cells expressed the regulated secretory pathway marker secretogranin III but were negative for androgen receptor and Bcl-2. Bcl-2 expression did increase in the non-NE tumor cells. In conclusion, androgen withdrawal leads to a rapid PC-295 tumor regression and a proliferation-independent induction of NE differentiation. The strictly androgen-independent NE cells that were still present after 21 days differentiated mainly from G0-phase-arrested cells.  (+info)

Islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin messenger RNA and protein expression in human insulinomas in relation to amyloid formation. (3/561)

OBJECTIVE: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also named amylin, is the predominant protein component of amyloid deposits in human islet beta cell tumours of the pancreas (insulinomas). IAPP is co-produced with insulin by islet beta cells. We investigated IAPP expression in relation to insulin expression and to amyloid formation in eleven insulinomas. DESIGN AND METHODS: RNA and protein extracts were prepared from the same pieces of tumour tissue, and from specimens of two normal human pancreata. IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content were quantified using Northern blot analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Molecular forms of IAPP immunoreactivity were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of islet hormones and of amyloid was assessed by (immuno)histochemical staining of paraffin sections. Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin prior to tumour resection were determined by RIA. RESULTS: IAPP and insulin mRNA and peptide content varied widely between the tumour specimens, and there was considerable intratumour heterogeneity of peptide content. HPLC analysis indicated correct proteolytic processing of the IAPP precursor protein. Amyloid deposits were detected only in the three tumours with the highest IAPP content. In contrast to insulin, plasma levels of IAPP were not elevated in the insulinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of hormone production by insulinomas cannot be inferred from only a few tissue sections due to intratumour heterogeneity. Expression of the IAPP and insulin genes is not coupled in insulinomas, which produce properly processed mature IAPP. In addition to IAPP overproduction, additional factors such as intracellular accumulation of IAPP are involved in amyloidogenesis in insulinomas.  (+info)

Library of sequence-specific radioimmunoassays for human chromogranin A. (4/561)

BACKGROUND: Human chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic protein widely expressed in neuroendocrine tissue and tumors. The extensive tissue- and tumor-specific cleavages of CgA at basic cleavage sites produce multiple peptides. METHODS: We have developed a library of RIAs specific for different epitopes, including the NH2 and COOH termini and three sequences adjacent to dibasic sites in the remaining part of CgA. RESULTS: The antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) required a free NH2 terminus for binding. All antisera displayed high titers, high indexes of heterogeneity ( approximately 1.0), and high binding affinities (Keff0 approximately 0.1 x 10(12) to 1.0 x 10(12) L/mol), implying that the RIAs were monospecific and sensitive. The concentration of CgA in different tissues varied with the assay used. Hence, in a carcinoid tumor the concentration varied from 0.5 to 34.0 nmol/g tissue depending on the specificity of the CgA assay. The lowest concentration in all tumors was measured with the assay specific for the NH2 terminus of CgA. This is consistent with the relatively low concentrations measured in plasma from carcinoid tumor patients by the N-terminal assay, whereas the assays using antisera raised against CgA(210-222) and CgA(340-348) measured increased concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only some CgA assays appear useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors, but the entire library is valuable for studies of the expression and processing of human CgA.  (+info)

Serum gastrin and chromogranin A during medium- and long-term acid suppressive therapy: a case-control study. (5/561)

BACKGROUND: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a reliable marker of neuroendocrine proliferation. We previously described increased serum CgA levels during short-term profound gastric acid inhibition. AIM: To investigate serum gastrin and CgA levels in dyspeptic patients during continuous medium- (6 weeks to 1 year), or long-term (1-8 years) gastric acid suppressive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, case-control study [62 patients on continuous antisecretory therapy, either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 47) or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) (n = 15) for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with or without Barrett's oesophagus or functional dyspepsia, and 52 age- and sex-matched patients without medical acid inhibition and with normal endoscopic findings (control group)]. Omeprazole doses ranged from 20 mg to 80 mg daily and ranitidine from 150 mg to 450 mg daily. Fasting serum CgA and serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (reference values: serum CgA < 4.0 nmol/L; serum gastrin < 85 ng/L). RESULTS: Fasting serum CgA levels positively correlated with serum gastrin in the entire study population (r = 0. 55, P = 0.0001). Median serum CgA values were higher in patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor than H2RA [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 2 (1.9-2.3) nmol/L, P < 0.002] and controls [2.8 (2.0-5.9) nmol/L vs. 1.8 (1.5-2.2) nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and did not differ between patients treated with H2RA or controls. Serum gastrin and CgA levels in patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy positively correlated with the degree and duration of acid inhibition. Patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy had significantly higher fasting serum gastrin and CgA than those on medium-term proton pump inhibitor therapy [127 (73-217) ng/L vs. 49 (29-78) ng/L, P < 0.0001 and 4.8 (2.8-8) ng/L vs. 2.1 (1.9-2.6) ng/L, P < 0.001]. No such relation was found in patients on medium- vs. long-term H2RA. Overall, patients with positive Helicobacter pylori serology had higher serum gastrin and CgA levels than those with negative H. pylori serology [51 (27-119) ng/L vs. 27 (14-79) ng/L, P = 0.01, 2.4 (1.9-3.4) nmol/L vs. 2.0 (1.7-2.5) nmol/L, P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term continuous proton pump inhibitor treatment, serum gastrin and CgA levels are significantly elevated compared to H2RA treatment and nontreated dyspeptic controls. H. pylori infection seems to affect gastric ECL cell secretory function. Increased serum CgA values during long-term profound gastric acid inhibition could reflect either gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperfunction or proliferative changes.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical characterization of pancreatic tumors induced by dimethylbenzanthracene in rats. (6/561)

Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induces pancreatic adenocarcinomas in rats 9 months after carcinogen exposure, with precursor lesions (tubular complexes) developing 1 month after initiation of treatment. Because previous studies have suggested an acinar cell of origin for these tumors, we investigated the expression pattern of ductal, acinar, and islet cell markers in these cancers to gain insight into their phenotype and cell of origin. Pancreatic neoplasms were induced in rats by implantation of DMBA into the head of the pancreas. Lesions studied included 10 early tubular complexes (DMBA for 2 weeks), 8 tubular complexes (DMBA for 1 month), and 10 adenocarcinomas (DMBA for 9 months). Normal rat pancreas served as a control. For comparison, 5 human ductal adenocarcinomas were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry with ductal (keratin, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 20), acinar (chymotrypsin), and islet (chromogranin A) cell markers was performed to analyze the tissues. Rat tubular complexes and adenocarcinomas revealed strong expression of keratin, cytokeratin 19, and cytokeratin 20 in the cytoplasm of all neoplastic cells, absence of chymotrypsin, and rare immunoreactivity to chromogranin A. Human adenocarcinomas showed strong expression of keratin and cytokeratin 19 in all neoplastic cells, expression of cytokeratin 20 in 5-20% of cells, and absence of chymotrypsin and chromogranin A. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA in rats express markers consistent with a ductal phenotype, as observed in human tumors. Ductal marker expression in early tumor stages suggests a ductal cell of origin.  (+info)

A case of synchronous double primary lung cancer with neuroendocrine features. (7/561)

We report a case of unique double primary lung cancers with neuroendocrine features in a 63-year-old male smoker. The mass in the left lower lobe (LLL) was a small cell/large cell carcinoma with spindle cell sarcomatous areas and organoid structure. The mass in the left upper lobe (LUL) was a tubular adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features including organoid nests showing occasional rosette formation, nuclear palisading in the periphery of the nests and positive immunoreaction for CD56, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The difference in histological structures between the two masses led us to diagnose double primary lung cancer. The combination of small cell lung carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma is very uncommon. The relationship between LLL and LUL tumors remains unclear. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features have only rarely been reported in the literature. The patient in our case died of widespread cancer 2 years and 4 months after the surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy, a longer postoperative survival time than in cases of ordinary extensive small cell lung cancer. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features are extremely rare and similar cases have not been reported in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation has attracted widespread attention and, therefore, examining neuroendocrine features in lung cancers is important.  (+info)

A new human chromogranin A (CgA) immunoradiometric assay involving monoclonal antibodies raised against the unprocessed central domain (145-245). (8/561)

Chromogranin A (CgA), a major protein of chromaffin granules, has been described as a potential marker for neuroendocrine tumours. Because of an extensive proteolysis which leads to a large heterogeneity of circulating fragments, its presence in blood has been assessed in most cases either by competitive immunoassays or with polyclonal antibodies. In the present study, 24 monoclonal antibodies were raised against native or recombinant human CgA. Their mapping with proteolytic peptides showed that they defined eight distinct epitopic groups which spanned two-thirds of the C-terminal part of human CgA. All monoclonal antibodies were tested by pair and compared with a reference radioimmunoassay (RIA) involving CGS06, one of the monoclonal antibodies against the 198-245 sequence. It appears that CgA C-terminal end seems to be highly affected by proteolysis and the association of C-terminal and median-part monoclonal antibodies is inadequate for total CgA assessment. Our new immunoradiometric assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, whose contiguous epitopes lie within the median 145-245 sequence. This assay allows a sensitive detection of total human CgA and correlates well with RIA because dibasic cleavage sites present in the central domain do not seem to be affected by degradation. It has been proved to be efficient in measuring CgA levels in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.  (+info)

BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
Heritable autonomic traits may be of particular value in investigations of the genetic underpinnings of hypertension, a complex trait with both hereditary and environmental determinants and likely even multiple genetic (or "polygenic") determinants.7,8 Human twin studies indicate that baroreceptor activity is a substantially heritable trait.33 Such traits may be valuable "intermediate phenotypes"7,8 for hypertension, especially if they display earlier penetrance than the ultimate disease trait (DBP), can be elicited in still-normotensive individuals, and suggest testable candidate genetic loci (such as CHGA). Catestatin itself may be such a phenotype.8 Several of the autonomic phenotypes studied here (Table II and Figures 2 and 3⇑) meet these criteria.. Indeed, Gly364Ser genotypes were associated with hypertension (Figure 4a and 4b), especially in men (Figure 4b). Thus, the 364Ser allele may play a protective role against future the development of hypertension.. How might this happen? Because ...
Naturally Occurring Human Genetic Variation in the 3′-Untranslated Region of the Secretory Protein Chromogranin A Is Associated With Autonomic Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension in a Sex-Dependent Fashion Academic Article ...
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. Although the precise function of the chromogranins remains elusive, knowledge of their structure, distribution, and potential intracellular and extracellular roles, especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis from vesicles in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings. Thus, measurement of its circulating concentration by radioimmunoassay may be a useful probe of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in humans, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we explore the storage, structure, and function of chromogranin A, and parameters that influence its circulating levels. We have also measured plasma chromogranin A concentrations in different groups of patients with hypertension, including those with pheochromocytoma. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The structure of the gene encoding bovine chromogranin-A has been determined by characterization of two isolated genomic clones. Chromogranin-A is encoded by eight exons, which organize the coding region into several distinct structural and functional domains. Exons 1-5 represent the highly conserved signal peptide and N-terminal domain, which are separated into regions corresponding to the signal peptide, N-terminal sequence, disulfide-bonded loop, and remainder of the conserved N-terminal domain. Exon 6 represents the variable domain and encodes a region that is identical to the novel chromogranin-A-derived peptide chromostatin. Exon 7 encodes the biologically active peptide pancreastatin as well as most of the conserved C-terminal domain, with the remainder found on exon 8. The mRNA sequence obtained from the gene contains five nucleotide differences from the consensus sequence of four reported bovine chromogranin-A cDNA clones. Two of the differences in the gene result in two amino acid changes in
Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.
Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM553 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10405-100), Abgent
Chromogranin A / CHGA (Neuroendocrine Marker) Antibody - With BSA and Azide, Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC, IF, FC, IP (AH10256-20), Abgent
Chromogranin A (CgA) levels have previously been found to predict mortality in heart failure (HF), but currently no information is available regarding CgA processing in HF and whether the CgA fragment catestatin (CST) may directly influence cardiomyocyte function.. ...
ntroduction: Serum levels of Chromogranin A (CgA) were measured in consecutive patients with prostate diseases in order to evaluate the impact of age on CgA diagnostic significance. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of CgA were determinated in 217 consecutive patients immediately before prostate biopsy: CgA differences between cases (prostate cancer PC) and control (benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH) were analyzed, and CgA performance in prediction of PC was compared with age and standard diagnostic tools. CgA values were also analyzed in patients affected by PC, and compared with age and standard prognostic parameters. Results: At multivariate analysis, CgA approaches a statistically significant value as independent predictor of PC and positively correlates with age. In PC group, CgA positively correlates with age, while no correlations are found with PSA, Gleason score or stage of disease. Conclusions: Age, correlating with CgA values in overall population and in PC subgroup, emerged as a ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Purpose: To investigate the distribution of the novel chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide serpinin in the rat eye.. Methods: The molecular form of serpinin-immunoreactivity detected by a highly specific antiserum was evaluated both by western blot analysis and reversed phase-HPLC with subsequent ELISA in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and retina and the presence and distribution of the peptide was explored in the rat TG and eye by immunofluorescence.. Results: There was no band in western blots in the rat TG but two weak bands at 30 and 50 kDa in the retina. Only free serpinin but no (pGlu)-serpinin and no serpinin-RRG were detected by RP-HPLC in the rat TG and retina. Numerous small- and medium-sized cells contained serpinin-immunoreactivity in the rat TG and full colocalization with substance P was evident with a more widespread expression of serpinin. Immunoreactivity was present in nerves in the corneal, limbal, irideal, ciliary and choroidal/scleral stroma, sphincter and dilator muscle ...
Pituitary secretory protein I, CgA, Chromogranin A precursor, SP-I, CGA, chromogranin A (CgA), CHGA, chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1 ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against full length recombinant human CHGA. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length human CHGA. (MAB14233) - Products - Abnova
NE differentiation in pancreatic carcinomas has been reported in various studies using IHC (13, 14, 15) . However, the expression of PGP9.5 and its relation to other NE markers have not been studied in pancreatic cancer to date. In this study, CGA was used as a marker for NE differentiation because it has been demonstrated to be a well-characterized marker for NE differentiation (16) . We found that tumor cells immunoreactive to CGA monoclonal antibody accounted for ,1% of the tumor cell population. On the other hand, PGP9.5 was expressed in 26 of 69 (37.7%) pancreatic cancers. These results suggested that the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic cancer is independent of NE differentiation.. Subsequently, we investigated a possible correlation of PGP9.5 status with clinicopathological features. Although PGP9.5 expression was not associated with tumor histology or the extent of the tumor, pancreatic cancer patients with PGP9.5 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those without ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Chromogranin A Antibody (SPM553) [DyLight 650]. Neuroendocrine Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Chromogranin A Antibody (PHE5) [Alexa Fluor® 700]. Neuroendocrine Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Primate, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a paediatric form of cancer derived from the sympathetic nervous system. Recent genome-wide sequencing data suggest that often NB does not have a clear genetic cause, leading the authors to hypothesize that NB results from aberrations of normal development. To test this hypothesis, Anna Philpotts group used a population of anteroventral noradrenergic (AVNA) cells from Xenopus embryos. These cells share several features with mammalian sympathetic neurons, including the expression of noradrenergic-associated genetic markers such as the achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Ascl1) gene, which encodes a transcriptional driver of neurogenesis. By comparing AVNA and NB cells, the authors found that, whereas Ascl1 is only transiently expressed in AVNA cells, it is aberrantly maintained in NB, where it is phosphorylated on multiple serine-proline sites. The authors then show that differentiation of AVNA cells is enhanced by dephosphorylated Ascl1. Moreover, this process is inhibited by ...
Angiogenesis has been postulated to be critical for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), a neoplastic disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an anti-angiogenic protein, can activate latent anti- and pro-angiogenic sites, respectively. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CgA-derived polypeptides in MM patients and the subsequent implications for disease progression. We show that the ratio of pro-/anti-angiogenic forms of CgA is altered in MM patients compared with healthy subjects, and that this ratio is higher in BM plasma compared with peripheral plasma, suggesting enhanced local cleavage of the CgA C-terminal region. Enhanced cleavage correlated with increased VEGF and FGF2 BM plasma levels and BM microvascular density. Using the Vk*MYC mouse model of MM, we further demonstrate that exogenously administered CgA was ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
In development of colorectal cancer (CRC), stem cell (SC) overpopulation underlies tumor initiation and progression, but it is incompletely understood which dysregulated mechanisms cause SC overpopulation. Because neuroendocrine cell (NEC) and SC populations both reside in the SC niche at the normal crypt bottom, we hypothesized that i) NECs play a role in maintaining the SC population, and ii) changes in the NEC population contributes to SC overpopulation and altered epithelial: stromal interactions during tumorigenesis. Immunofluorescence mapping and flow cytometry were used to analyze SC niche structure and cell-cell interactions in normal and neoplastic colonic tissues from Caucasian and African-American patients. In normal colonic crypts, most cells (77%) staining positively for the colonic SC marker ALDH1, also co-stained for the NE cell marker chromogranin-A (CGA). In the progression from normal to normal-appearing FAP to adenomatous to malignant colonic tissue, the proportion of ...
Farging immunhistokjemiske analyser (ER, Synaptophysin, Vimentin, E-cadherin (CDH1), CEA mono, Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1), ALK D5F3, CD5, CD23, CD30, CD117, PAX8, PSA, S100, CD31, CD34, CDX2, CK5/6, CK20, CK-PAN (MNF116), CyclinD1, Desmin, Ki67, p40, SOX10, TTF1, Chromogranin A (CGA), Melan-A, HER-2 IHC, CK14, CD3, CD20, CD10, CK7, p16, p53, IgL - Kappa/ IgL - Lamda ...
Immunohistochemistry, is a special staining process performed on tissue removed during biopsy. Immunohistochemistry for lung cancer represents an important complementary tool for the routine diagnosis of lung cancer and for the identification of the different histological types and prognostic factors. We offer panel of IHC markers: TTF 1, p63, Ck 7, Ck 5/6, Napsin, Chromogranin and Ck 20.. ...
This article discusses the importance of testing for Chromogranin A levels in a variety of tumors, especially in the adrenal gland. Learn how this test works and what the results mean.
Not the biggest profit for over 2k BCs but... This guy is in the same system as me so it took very little deut to fly, not to mention only under 15 minutes ther
Ive been busy lately but I havent been inactive so I post the CRs that are days old. To be honest Im not particularly proud of this one because Ive sent th
Background: Hypertension is a complex trait, with deranged autonomic control of circulation. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in their biogenesis. Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion, autonomic stability of circulation, or blood pressure (BP) in the population? Methods and Results: To probe interindividual variability in CHGB, we systematically studied polymorphism across the locus by resequencing CHGB (≈6 kbp footprint spanning the promoter, 5 exons, exon/intron borders, untranslated regions) in 160 subjects (2n=320 chromosomes) of diverse biogeographic ancestries. We identified 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 22 were common. We then studied 1182 subjects drawn from the most extreme BP values in the population (highest and lowest 5th percentiles), typing 4 common polymorphisms spanning the ≈14 kbp ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. l. To assess the progression-free survival rate of patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with everolimus alone or everolimus plus bevacizumab.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare progression-free survival (PFS) among treatment arms shown to be efficacious.. II. To estimate the overall tumor response rate in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with one of two novel regimens.. III. To estimate the overall biochemical response rate (as measured by plasma chromogranin A levels) in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with these regimens.. IV. To assess the toxicity of each regimen in patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.. V. To assess the overall survival of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with these regimens.. OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.. ARM I: Patients receive everolimus orally (PO) once daily ...
Introduction: Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most important general tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). CgA assays may have different sensitivities, which is of importance for the clinical diagnosis and handling of NET patients ...
CHGB - CHGB (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human chromogranin B (secretogranin 1) (CHGB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance
Principal Investigator: Kurt Beil, ND, LAc, MPH. This study examines the effects of different environmental settings on objective and subjective measures of physical and mental well-being. Participants (n=30) are taken for one hour per week to one of three different environmental settings: 1) Forested nature park, 2) Urban built plaza, and 3) Indoor windowless auditorium. One setting is visited per week, for three successive weeks; the setting visitation order is randomized individually. Participants are asked to sit quietly in each setting and observe their surroundings while data is collected.. Primary outcome measures (salivary Cortisol, Alpha-amylase & Immunoglobulin AA) are collected pre- and post-environmental setting exposure. Secondary outcome measures include pre- and post-exposure affective (POMS, SVS) and cognitive (DSB) questionnaires. Exploratory measures (i.e. salivary Chromogranin A) are also collected pre- and post-exposure. Potential co-factors including environmental identity ...
Section 4.4. New Paragraph inserted after Paragraph 4. Interference with laboratory tests. Increased CgA level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours. To avoid this interference the omeprazole treatment should be temporarily stopped five days before CgA measurements. Section 5.1 Other effects related to acid inhibition Paragraph 3 amended to:. Chromogranin A (CgA) also increases due to decreased gastric acidity. This CgA modifying effect can not be demonstrated five days after stopping treatment with PPIs. Section 10. Date of revision changed to 20th January 2012. ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Complete information for CHGB gene (Protein Coding), Chromogranin B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CHGA gene (Protein Coding), Chromogranin A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
I think you have a few issues 1) Gut wise you need make sure you have IBS - if not already I would recommend a endoscopy of both ends - especially colon - you may have an adenoma, or celliacs or ulcers making you feel unwell. So I would get this sorted to see if there is any pathology causing your IBS symptoms - if there is a reason for this you could be treated and you could be 100% better. 2) you have a lot of pain - I would see a neurologist to work you up. I would get some MRI imaging done of your brain, neck and spine. I would also get a bone scan done to see if this is clear. 3) The rib pain - I would get a simple chest x-ray to show this is clear. 4) Some blood tests - do a full blood count, iron studies, liver function, electrolytes, renal function, PTH, Vit D, Corrected Calcium, B12, folate, ACE, CEA, Chromogranin A, HCG, Cortisol, Testosterone, LH, FSH, also your cholesterol and lipid profile, CRP, ESR. It is not good to be negative - make sure your health comes first - follow-up with ...
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare tumours that originate from neuroendocrine cells and their incidence has increased for the last 20 decades; partly because of advances in diagnostic tools, which have improved detection rates. Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most widely used biochemical tumour marker for NETs, however, its prognostic utility has been questioned due to several non-neuroendocrine causes of elevated CgA. This is the first study to assess the prognostic utility of chromogranin B (CgB), a marker of NET that is less affected by these clinical drawbacks. As a result, we hypothesised that plasma CgB concentration is a more accurate and reliable prognostic indicator in NET patients. Data from 121 NET patients were collected retrospectively and submitted to statistical analyses. In univariate survival analysis, circulating CgB levels were associated with a significantly poorer survival time than CgA. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed by considering other prognostic ...
Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension Academic Article ...
Granins are major constituents of dense-core secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells, but their function is still a matter of debate. Work in cell lines has suggested that the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed granins, chromogranin A and B (CgA and CgB), are involved in granulogenesis and protein sorting. Here we report the generation and characterization of mice lacking chromogranin B (CgB-ko), which were viable and fertile. Unlike neuroendocrine tissues, pancreatic islets of these animals lacked compensatory changes in other granins and were therefore analyzed in detail. Stimulated secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin was reduced in CgB-ko islets, in parallel with somewhat impaired glucose clearance and reduced insulin release, but normal insulin sensitivity in vivo. CgB-ko islets lacked specifically the rapid initial phase of stimulated secretion, had elevated basal insulin release, and stored and released twice as much proinsulin as wildtype (wt) islets. Stimulated release of
Compare Secretogranin III ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers. The journal welcomes submissions on the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In previous studies we found strong evidence for the existence and activation in human liver of putative progenitor cells resembling oval cells in rat liver. In view of the known role of rat oval cells in regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis, we investigated a possible correlation between human putative progenitor cells and different types of dysplastic foci. METHODS: We determined the immunohistochemical phenotype of dysplastic foci found in 20 cirrhotic liver explants of various etiology, using specific antibodies against hepatocyte-type cytokeratin (CK) 8 and CK18, bile duct-type CK7 and CK19, chromogranin-A (chrom-A) and rat oval cell marker OV-6. RESULTS: All 12 foci of large cell dysplasia had a phenotype similar to that of surrounding parenchyma. Oncocytic foci showed a strong cytoplasmic staining for CK7. Three out of six of these foci contained progenitor cells, which are small cells immunoreactive for CK18, CK7, CK19, OV-6, chrom-A and stained more intensely for CK8 ...
Introduction: There is now general awareness that treatment with proton pump inhibitors (ppi) may cause moderate rises in circulating concentrations of gastrin and/or chromogranin A (CgA), thus decreasing the specificity of these markers in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Due to their high efficacy, proton pump inhibitors (ppi) are one of the most frequently prescribed classes of drugs worldwide. Several studies in various countries report that 30% or more of in-patients have been prescribed ppi. Patients who are suspected of having a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) often have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for which ppi are prescribed and therefore they may be already taking ppi when their first blood sample is assayed for NET markers. We previously encountered a case of extreme rise in CgA which flagged the possibility of a NET, but was later shown to be due to ppi therapy alone. We present CgA and gastrin data in relation to ppi therapy and withdrawal for this patient. In order to ...
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NS-398 inhibits COX-2 enzyme activity in a concentration dependent manner, the IC50 being 3.8 μM, whereas NS-398 at 100μM has no effect on COX-1 activity[1]. At 10 μM, NS-398 treatment results in increased production of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. NS-398 (10 μM) induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells, but not in the more aggressive, androgen-unresponsive C4-2b cells. The C4-2b cells are observed to continue to proliferate when treated with NS-398 and continues to retain malignant phenotype characteristics. NS-398 treatment results in C4-2b cell differentiation into an unusual neuroendocrinelike cell. These neuroendocrine-like cells produces both epithelial (cytokeratin 18 and prostate specific antigen) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A) proteins. Furthermore, this C4-2b cellular response to NS-398 is mediated by NF-kB transcription factor activation. NS-398 induces NF-kB and down-regulates Ikβ-α protein expression in LNCaP C4-2b cells[2]. ...
Our results showed that gene expressions faithfully recapitulate immunohistochemical subtype markers, as chromogranin A in carcinoids, cytokeratin 5, p63 in SQ, and TTF1 in non-squamous types. Moreover, biological information with putative clinical relevance was revealed as potentially novel diagnostic genes for each subtype with specificity 93-100% (AUC = 0.93-1.00). Cancer subtypes were characterized by (a) differential expression of treatment target genes as TYMS, HER2, and HER3 and (b) overrepresentation of treatment-related pathways like cell cycle, DNA repair, and ERBB pathways. The vascular smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte trans-endothelial migration, and actin cytoskeleton pathways were overexpressed in normal tissue.. ...
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Expression of CHGA () in adrenal gland tissue. Antibody staining with HPA017369, CAB000023, CAB040544, CAB055506 and CAB058688 in immunohistochemistry.
Looking for the definition of CGA? Find out what is the full meaning of CGA on Abbreviations.com! Carrier Group Alarm is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
We have generally been helping promote bands that Død is in contact with. The actual releases under the label are Dethcentriks discography, which on the single release of Rip My Heart Out includes a remix by the industrial group Cold Metal Future, we co-released one split between Dethcentrik and Bassookah, although their label actually was the official imprint, and Død Bevertes solo album. That said, we want it to be known we are willing to work with bands to the extent they need, and many bands that we help want to remain independent altogether, so we simply promote them, and in a few cases we have worked with the label Seven Times More Scary Productions to get bands Død is in contact with into compilations. Many of the bands we work with do not understand how label contracts work, and in many cases for rights reasons and to keep our bases covered we have to do as little as possible until we know we can do more. We like to help bands in a way that they will appreciate it, rather than feel ...
Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other ...
Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASA). Clinical features also recall those of canine AGASA, such as locoregional metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM). In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas (CCCs), with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYN), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100 ...
which is present in the normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic prostate. NE cells are located in all regions of the human prostate at birth, but rapidly decrease in the peripheral prostate after birth and then reappear at puberty [4]. After puberty, the number of NE cells seems to increase until an apparently optimum level is reached, which persists from 25 to 54 years old [5]. The relationship of age beyond puberty to the number and distribution of these endocrine-paracrine cells has not been definitively assessed, but in the guinea pig these cells in the peripheral prostate increase markedly with adult age [6]. Studies on adult human prostates indicate that NE cells are more frequent in the periurethral ducts than in the peripheral parts of the gland [7]. Others [8,9] also described the presence of NE cells in the stroma of fetal and infantile prostates.
Shared alpha chain of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones. These hormones bind specific receptors on target cells that in turn activate downstream signaling pathways. Involved in gametogenesis and steroidogenesis.
The diagnosis of SPT is made based on the clinical presentation, location of tumor, histological findings, and immunohistochemical staining. SPTs express positive immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, CD56, alpha-1-antitrypsin and neuron-specific enolase. Epithelial markers (keratins) may be focal or weakly positive. Synaptophysin is commonly positive in SPTs; however, chromogranin is usually negative. Immunohistochemical staining for Amylase/Lipase/Trypsin are negative, as well as those for pancreatic hormones. There may be positive immunohistochemical staining for CD10, Beta- catenin, CD117 (c-kit), Progesterone receptor, and the beta form of estrogen receptor. SPTs are considered to be tumors of low malignant potential and more than 80% of SPTs are cured by surgical resection. However, metastases may be seen in a small percentage of patients. When metastasis occurs, it is usually to the liver or peritoneum. Patient follow-up: The patient underwent a brain biopsy. Histologic examination ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of lethal proteins in central neurons arent fully characterized. substrate GSK-3α/β (at Ser21/Ser9)(i.e. activation) and improved GSK-3α and GSK-3β kinase actions which occurred ahead of NP1 induction. Appearance of the dominant-negative inhibitor of Akt (Akt-kd) obstructed phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β and eventually improved NP1 induction. Whereas overexpression of constitutively turned on Akt (Akt-myr) or wild-type Akt (wtAkt) elevated GSK-α/β phosphorylation and attenuated NP1 induction. Transfection of neurons with GSK-3α siRNA blocked NP1 induction and cell loss of life completely. Similarly overexpression from the GSK-3β inhibitor Frat1 or the kinase mutant GSK-3βKilometres however not the wild-type GSK-3βWT obstructed NP1 induction and rescued neurons from loss of life. Our findings obviously implicate both GSK-3α and GSK-3β reliant system of NP1 induction and indicate a novel system in the legislation of ...
To examine the response to chronic high-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) and a proposed milder response in feminine hearts with respect to gene manifestation and ischemic injury. was recognized. Ang II improved manifestation of genes related to heart function (ANF β-MCH Verlukast Ankrd-1 PKC-α PKC-δ TNF-α); fibrosis (Col I-α1 Col III-α1 Fn-1 Timp1) and apoptosis (P53 Casp-3) without changing heart excess weight but with 68% increase in collagen content material. High (sub-toxic) dose of Ang II resulted in marked heart redesigning and diastolic dysfunction after ischemia without significant myocyte hypertrophy or ventricular chamber dilatation. Although there were some gender-dependent variations in gene manifestation female gender didnt protect against the entire response. (from the Western Convention for the safety of vertebrate pets) and everything procedures had been authorized by the Norwegian Committee on Ethics in Pet Experimentation. Experimental Process The rats had been Fischer ...
Prostate cancer is the third commonest malignancy among Singaporean men. The increase can be attributed to aging population, serum PSA screening and the application of TRUS. 170 cases of prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma of male patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were being studied. Clinicopathological and histological parameters were being evaluated against biomarkers - p53, Ki-67, androgen receptor, Her-2/neu, chromogranin A, CD56 and synaptophysin to determine if correlation can be established. Ki-67 and p53 have been found to be associated with adverse pathological variables. Ki-67 was positively correlated to PSA level as indicated by a p value of 0.041 while p53 intensity was positively correlated to Gleason score as indicated by p value of 0.018. Ki-67 and p53 were also observed to be positively correlated with AR. Ki-67 immunoreactive score (IRS) was positively correlated to AR IRS as indicated by p value of 0.055; p53 intensity-percentage score (IPS), p53 IRS were positively ...
Secretogranin-1 is a neuroendocrine secretory granule protein, which may be the precursor for other biologically active peptides.
CT imaging is the most widely used modality for studying radiomic features due to its ability to assess tissue density, shape, texture and size before, during and after therapy. To the best of the investigators knowledge, the impact of inter-observer delineation variability on the reliability of CT RF for PanNEN patients, including Hounsfield unit (HU) values-, shape-, and texture-based features, has not yet been assessed. One this has been determined, an additional evaluation will be conducted to correlate the morphologically observed images with their histopathological characteristics.. The ultimate potential objective of this research is to identify and predict characteristics of aggressiveness of PanNEN in CT scans. ...
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Neuroendocrine tumors are also referred to as neoplasms; these are abnormal growth of tissues that arise from endocrine (hormonal) cells and nervous system..
Panelists Matthew H. Kulke, MD; Diane Reidy-Lagunes, MD; Jennifer Eads, MD; James C. Yao, MD; and Eric H. Liu, MD, FACS, highlight the potential for combination therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a family of cancers that cause tumours in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system consists of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs are generated by cells that release the hormones. The majority of NETs are found in the intestine, pancreas and the lungs.(4). ...
Taiwan-based DaChan Greatwall Group (DCG) recently stepped into the animal feed business and one of its animal-fee additives has been certified by a big international customer.
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The LNCaP cell line is a versatile and useful model that is suitable for the study of human prostate cancer in vitro. The elevation of LNCaP intracellular cAMP levels through the addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase activators, or components of the cAMP signal transduction pathway can induce reversible neuroendocrine differentiation. Elucidation of those genes that are differentially expressed between undifferentiated prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cells that have been induced to differentiate may present new insights for the molecular mechanisms governing neuroendocrine differentiation, early detection of prostate cancer, and/or potential targets for gene therapy. In this study, differential display PCR was used to identify 226 differentially expressed PCR products. Twelve of the differential display PCR products were confirmed by Northern blot analysis and cloned. DNA sequencing and database comparisons were performed. Among ...
PCAs target gastric H+/K+ATPase (4). Acid output was lower in PCA+ patients. Achlorhydria interrupts the negative feedback of somatostatin on antral G-cells, thus inducing hypergastrinemia, a trophic stimulus for ECL cell proliferation. We and others demonstrated a positive correlation between gastrin and ECL cell density (21,27). Also, CgA levels were increased in all patients with ECL cell hyper/dysplasia. ECL cells may release CgA into the circulation (21,22). Multivariate regression showed that the CgA level was determined by ECL cell density and gastrin level, as shown before (13,21,22,28).. The degree of ECL cell hyper/dysplasia is important in determining the risk of carcinoid tumor. CgA may indicate the presence of an increased gastric ECL cell mass more accurately than histology. This is supported by the correlations we found between CgA and gastrin and ECL cell proliferative changes. The assessment of gastric ECL cell proliferation is hampered by the fact that such lesions are usually ...
A 40-year-old Caucasian female presented with hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss of 6 kg over a 1-month period. There was no personal or family history of malignancy or diabetes mellitus. On examination, she was jaundiced with pale mucous membranes and capillary glucose was 23.1 mmol/L. Initial investigations showed iron deficiency anaemia and obstructive pattern of liver function tests. HbA1c was diagnostic of diabetes mellitus at 79 mmol/mol. Malignancy was suspected and CT chest, abdomen and pelvis showed significant dilatation of intra- and extra-hepatic biliary tree including pancreatic duct, with periampullary 30 mm mass lesion projecting into lumen of duodenum. Enlarged nodes were seen around the superior mesenteric artery. This was confirmed on MRI liver. Fasting gut hormones were normal except for a mildly elevated somatostatin level. Chromogranin A was elevated at 78 pmol/L with normal chromogranin B. Duodenoscopy and biopsy showed possible tubovillous adenoma with ...
The aim of our work was to confirm an immunohistochemical profile of routine markers of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation in eleven cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, as well as to study the expression of two markers of early phases of neuronal differentiation, namely reelin and class III beta-tubulin, markers which have not yet been studied in Merkel cell carcinomas. In all the investigated tumours the characteristic "dot-like" pattern of cytokeratin 20 immunoexpression, as well as negative immunostaining for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) were disclosed; all the tumours showed neuroendocrine differentiation, expressing either neuron specific enolase (NSE) or chromogranin A(CgA), or both. An interesting finding was observed when the anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody MNF 116 was used. The characteristic "dot-like" pattern was detected in high proportion of tumours, including two samples of local recurrence of one of the carcinomas, where neoplastic cells ...
The aim of our work was to confirm an immunohistochemical profile of routine markers of epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation in eleven cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, as well as to study the expression of two markers of early phases of neuronal differentiation, namely reelin and class III beta-tubulin, markers which have not yet been studied in Merkel cell carcinomas. In all the investigated tumours the characteristic "dot-like" pattern of cytokeratin 20 immunoexpression, as well as negative immunostaining for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) were disclosed; all the tumours showed neuroendocrine differentiation, expressing either neuron specific enolase (NSE) or chromogranin A(CgA), or both. An interesting finding was observed when the anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody MNF 116 was used. The characteristic "dot-like" pattern was detected in high proportion of tumours, including two samples of local recurrence of one of the carcinomas, where neoplastic cells ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Human (Parental) Lung Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings or up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human (Parental) Lung Cancer tissue Positive Markers: S100, CEA, CD15, CD20, Chromogranin A (CgA), bcl2, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD133 (3-5%) For non-academic use please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
After reading the summary, try answering the three related multiple-choice questions below.. A 50-year-old man presented with chest pain and dyspnea. Chest X-ray revealed an anterior mediastinal mass. Biopsy was performed with subsequent resection of the tumor. A 6.0 x 5.0 x 4.0 cm circumscribed mass was received which had a firm, tan cut surface with focal areas of hemorrhage. Immunohistochemical studies were positive for keratin, chromogranin and synaptophysin. Archive Case and Diagnosis: This case first appeared as Performance Improvement Program in Surgical Pathology (PIP) 2006, Case 22 and is a Thymic carcinoid. Criteria for Diagnosis and Comments: This is an example of a thymic carcinoid. The tumor is characterized by a relatively uniform population of oval to polygonal cells with moderately abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and granular nuclear chromatin. The tumor grows primarily in an organoid pattern. Some sections may also show trabecular growth and rosette formation. The mitotic rate ...
Published October 2011. ISBN: 978-1-78084-016-1. As a result of improved diagnostics such as new biomarkers, molecular imaging as well as new therapies based on randomized trials, neuroendocrine tumors are increasingly attracting the attention of physicians and scientists. In future, personalized medicine or theragnostics and large-scale sequencing will rapidly change the understanding of cancer biology and will help to identify new targets as well as explain the causes of drug resistance. This book covers the most recent information on neuroendocrine tumors in terms of classification, molecular profiles and diagnosis and different types of treatment for neuroendocrine tumors.. ...
Dear Histonetters, The NSH IHC Resource Group is in the business of helping our members find tissues and reagents, especially for taking the ASCP QIHC exam. Our bank is in need of some material for the next round of exam. Please help. Thank you, and Happy Holidays. Patsy Ruegg FROM THE IHC RESOURCE GROUP BANK The IHC Resource Group is once again gearing up to help support the efforts of applicants who have applied for the spring IHC Qualification exam. I have just received a copy of the May 2000 exam, and there are a few changes from the last period. The chart below describes what is being required. BOARD OF REGISTRY EXAN FOR IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY QUALIFICATION MAY 2000 Project # Antibody(ies) Tissue 1 HMB 45 Melanoma 2 LCA Normal tonsil or lymph node 3 LMW & HMW keratin Prostate 4 Chromogranin Stomach 5 Estrogen receptor Breast CA 6 HPV Cervix 7 T-cells & B-cells Frozen lymph node or tonsil 8 Factor VIII related antigen Kidney w cortex & medulla 9 Muscle specific antigen Tx both pos and neg for ...
CHGB Fragment MS Protein Standard, is a protein fragment containing a 50-150 amino acid sequence identical to part of a human CHGB protein target. The fragment MS Protein Standard represents a new category of using heavy isotope labeled (15N, 13C) Lysine and Arginine residues resulting in more than 99% isotope incorporation, as internal MS standards offering distinct advantages to existing products for relative and absolute quantification.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare. In patients with functional PNETs, the excess hormones produced lead to a variety of hormone-related sympto..
CD56 : Aids in the identification of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation   Aids in the identification of natural killer cell lineage in a subset of lymphomas
There are many things to consider when looking at survival rates for neuroendocrine tumors - or any cancer. Read on to learn more about what affects prognosis.
Poster: ECR 2019 / C-3217 / Unravelling the NET - imaging of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and challenging cases by: A. Haughey1, C. O Brien1, B. S. Kelly2, J. McCann1; 1Dublin/IE, 2Dublin, Dublin/IE
Learn about the types of tumors that make up this group of rare cancers. Find out about symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatments.
Innovative and passionate Endocrinologists from USA, Europe, Asia to attend Cancer Conferences, Radiation Medicine Meetings November 07-09 , 2016 .
Innovative and passionate Endocrinologists from USA, Europe, Asia to attend Cancer Conferences, Radiation Medicine Meetings November 07-09 , 2016 .
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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PTENs) are a heterogeneous group of tumours that develop from neuroendocrine cells of the pancreas [1]. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours comprise a rare group of pancreatic tumours and represent about 1-2% of all tumours developing within this organ [2]. The potential of neuroendocrine cells to produce and secrete peptides and/or biogenic amines affecting the clinical presentation of the disease thus determines their division into functioning and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (functioning, F-PTEN and non-functioning, NF-PTEN). General accessibility of cross-sectional imaging of the abdomen has caused a significantly increasing rate of incidentally revealed non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours in recent years. The group of NF-PTEN represents the majority of neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas and is estimated at 60-90% [3]. An asymptomatic pattern of the disease associated with a lack of the peptide and/or biogenic amine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Appropriateness of systemic treatments in unresectable metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. AU - Strosberg, Jonathan R.. AU - Fisher, George A.. AU - Benson, Al B.. AU - Anthony, Lowell B.. AU - Arslan, Bulent. AU - Gibbs, John F.. AU - Greeno, Edward. AU - Iyer, Renuka V.. AU - Kim, Michelle K.. AU - Maples, William J.. AU - Philip, Philip A.. AU - Wolin, Edward M.. AU - Cherepanov, Dasha. AU - Broder, Michael S.. PY - 2015/2/28. Y1 - 2015/2/28. N2 - AIM: To evaluate systemic treatment choices in unresectable metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and provide consensus treatment recommendations. METHODS: Systemic treatment options for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have expanded in recent years to include somatostatin analogs, angiogenesis inhibitors, inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin and cytotoxic agents. At this time, there is little data to guide treatment selection and sequence. We therefore assembled a ...
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are unusual and relatively rare neoplasms. They characteristically synthetize, store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines, which can lead to development of disctinct clinical syndromes. Clinical symptoms and presentations vary depending on the location and hormones produced by the tumor. The diagnosis of NETs is established by histological examination and the immunohistochemical detection of general neuroendocrine markers, such as chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin. An update of the WHO classifi cation has resulted in a new classification dividing neuroendocrine neoplasms into neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including G1 (Ki67 index ≤2%) and G2 (Ki67 index 3-20%) tumors and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) with Ki67 index ,20%, G3. The different available therapeutic approaches, including surgery, liver-directed ablative therapies, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and systemic hormonal, cytotoxic or targeted therapy, ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
Protective high-affinity antibody responses depend on competitive selection of B cells carrying somatically mutated B-cell receptors by follicular helper T (TFH) cells in germinal centres. The rapid T-B-cell interactions that occur during this process are reminiscent of neural synaptic transmission pathways. Here we show that a proportion of human TFH cells contain dense-core granules marked by chromogranin B, which are normally found in neuronal presynaptic terminals storing catecholamines such as dopamine. TFH cells produce high amounts of dopamine and release it upon cognate interaction with B cells. Dopamine causes rapid translocation of intracellular ICOSL (inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand, also known as ICOSLG) to the B-cell surface, which enhances accumulation of CD40L and chromogranin B granules at the human TFH cell synapse and increases the synapse area. Mathematical modelling suggests that faster dopamine-induced T-B-cell interactions increase total germinal centre output and accelerate
View details of top pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor hospitals in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor hospital in Navi Mumbai
Qvigstad, G., Qvigstad, T., Westre, B., Sandvik, A. K., Brenna, E. and Waldum, H. L. (2002), Neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinomas associated with severe hypergastrinemia and/or pernicious anemia. APMIS, 110: 132-139. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.100302.x ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) [carcinoids, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs)] are becoming an increasing clinical problem because not only are they increasing in frequency, but they can frequent
Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were reactive for chromogranin (Fig. 2b), TTF1, cytokeratin (CK)7, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, focally positive for CD56 (Fig. 2c) and negative for S100 protein and CK20 (Fig. 2d).. Based on the patients history and scalp biopsy, a final diagnosis of skin metastasis of pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor was made.. Cutaneous metastases (CM) occur in 0.7-9% of all patients with internal malignancies and metastatic tumor from carcinoid tumors represent an even smaller subset. Although visceral metastases of carcinoid tumors are common, CM are rare, and most CM are of bronchial origin.[1-3]. Cutaneous metastases tend to occur on the upper extremities, but can be found anywhere in the skin. CM are often painful and the pain is secondary to perineural invasion or to the release of vasoactive substances and peptide hormones, such as kallikrein and serotonin by carcinoid cells.[1-3] In our patient, we have assumed that the pain was ...
Binswangers disease. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan of a brain with Binswangers disease. The front of the brain is at top in this view from below. The progression of this degenerative disease has caused atrophy in both halves of the brain, seen as the abnormal gaps appearing in the brain tissue. The ventricles (centre, orange) have also been affected and are dilated from their normal size. The disease, also called Binswangers dementia, involves disruption of the brains blood supply, which starves areas of the brain of oxygen, resulting in the death of nerve cells. Symptoms include depression, muscle rigidity, difficulties walking and urinary incontinence. There is no cure for the condition. - Stock Image C001/7913
-Phase III trial showed Afinitor reduced risk of cancer progression by 65% vs. placebo in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET)[1], , , , -Afinitor gives patients with limited...
We report the morphological characteristics of 30 cases of sclerosing hemangioma (SH) of the lung and explore the histological origin of the major cells in these tumors. In addition to routine light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry was performed by using 12 monoclonal primary and 5 polyclonal primary antibodies. These included surfactant protein B (SP-B), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), mast cell trypsin, CD68, epithelial antigen markers (high molecular weight cytokeratin, low molecular weight cytokeratin [CK-L], epithelial membrane antigen [EMA], cancer embryonic antigen). mesothelial antigen, neuroendocrine markers (neuron-specific enolase [NSE], chromogranin A, synaptophysin, calcitonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, human growth hormone [hHG]) vimentin, and CD34. Surface cuboidal cells have short microvilli and have lamellar bodies in their cytoplasm. They can sometimes mer e into multinuclear giant cells. Immunohistochemical results showed that these cells are strongly ...
Average patient age was 65.5 (range, 28-89) years; there were 25 males and 14 females. Nineteen tumors were located in the right colon, 11 in the left, and 9 were in the rectum. Three histopathologic patterns were identified: pure neuroendocrine (n = 11), predominantly neuroendocrine (n = 17), and cancers with equal exocrine and neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 7). Three cellular subtypes were seen: small-cell (n = 15), intermediate-cell (n = 15), and well-differentiated neuroendocrine cancers (n = 5). There was one Dukes A cancer, 7 Dukes B, 16 Dukes C, and 15 patients had metastases to distant sites at the time of diagnosis. As a group, neuroendocrine tumors have a poor prognosis: six-month survival was 58 percent, three-year survival was 15 percent, and five-year survival was 6 percent. Survival statistically correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.01) but not with age, sex, tumor location, histopathologic pattern, or neuroendocrine subtypes. Median survival for pure neuroendocrine carcinomas ...
Taupenot L, Harper KL, O'Connor DT (Mar 2003). "The chromogranin-secretogranin family". N Engl J Med. 348 (12): 1134-49. doi: ... "Analysis of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas". Diagn Mol Pathol. 3 (1): 38-45. doi:10.1097 ...
Hosaka M, Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Uchiyama Y, Takeuchi T (October 2002). "Identification of a chromogranin A domain that mediates ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins. ... "Entrez Gene: SCG3 secretogranin III". Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (January 1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) ... "Secretogranin III binds to cholesterol in the secretory granule membrane as an adapter for chromogranin A". The Journal of ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... chromogranin A (CgA) chromogranin B (CgB) secretogranin II (SgII) (see also secretoneurin) secretogranin III (SgIII) ... Stridsberg M, Angeletti RH, Helle KB (June 2000). "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) are acidic proteins and are present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of ...
2000). "Co-distribution patterns of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity with chromogranin A and secretoneurin within the human ... Chromogranin Kirchmair R, Gander R, Egger M, et al. (2004). "The neuropeptide secretoneurin acts as a direct angiogenic ... SCG2, also called secretogranin II (chromogranin C), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCG2 gene. The protein ... 2009). "Chromogranin peptides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Regul. Pept. 152 (1-3): 13-21. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2008.07. ...
Chromogranin A and platelets serotonin are increased.[clarification needed] Tumour localization may be extremely difficult.[ ... Nobels FR, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bouillon R, Lamberts SW (1998). "Chromogranin A: its clinical value as marker of neuroendocrine ... Markers of the condition such as chromogranin-A are imperfect indicators of disease progression. Prognosis varies from ...
"The chromogranins and counter-regulatory hormones: do they make homeostatic sense?". Journal of Physiology. 517 (3): 643-649. ...
Chromogranin A is elevated in case of pheochromocytoma. Micrograph of pheochromocytoma. Micrograph of pheochromocytoma. ...
The cells are negative with chromogranin, synaptophysin and CK20. The major diagnosis from which to separate ceruminous adenoma ...
"Chromogranin A detection in saliva of type 2 diabetes patients". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 10: 2-8. PMID 20192923. CS1 maint: ... chromogranin A) was over-expressed in 100% of diabetic patients when compared to controls. In 2010 Qvarnstrom, et al., ...
Stridsberg M, Oberg K, Li Q, Engström U, Lundqvist G (January 1995). "Measurements of chromogranin A, chromogranin B ( ... Secretoneurin, is a 33-amino acid neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II (chromogranin C, CHGC). It is also called ... Tasiemski A, Hammad H, Vandenbulcke F, Breton C, Bilfinger TJ, Pestel J, Salzet M (July 2002). "Presence of chromogranin- ... Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H, Grimelius L (June 1997). "Complex co-localization of chromogranins and ...
Aside from the hormones of secretory tumors, the most important markers are: chromogranin A (CgA), present in 99% of metastatic ... Neuroendocrine secretory protein-55, a member of the chromogranin family, is seen in pancreatic endocrine tumors but not ... Widely used neuroendocrine tissue markers are various chromogranins, synaptophysin and PGP9.5. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is ... chromogranin A, and neurotensin do not cause a clinical syndrome, although blood levels may be elevated. Functional tumors are ...
SCLC derived from neuroendocrine cells may express CD56, neural cell adhesion molecule, synaptophysin or chromogranin. Lung ...
"Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5- ...
1989). "Developmental profile of chromogranin, hormonal peptides, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in gastrointestinal endocrine cells ...
Jirásek T, Hozák P, Mandys V (2003). "Different patterns of chromogranin A and Leu-7 (CD57) expression in gastrointestinal ... conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin ...
permanent dead link] Fan S, Hao ZY, Zhang L, Chen XG, Zhou J, Zang YF, Tai S, Liang CZ (2014). "Increased chromogranin A and ...
... is a peptide hormone produced by a subpopulation of chromogranin A-positive endocrine cells in the mucous membrane of the ...
Diagnostically, it is often used in combination with chromogranin A. List of human genes Synaptophysin has been shown to ...
"Selective Localization of the Parathyroid Secretory Protein-I/Adrenal Medulla Chromogranin a Protein Family in a Wide Variety ...
An increased level of chromogranin A is a common marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, the source of the increased ...
With immunohistochemistry, the chief cells located in the cell balls are positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron ...
Chromogranin A, which is the most abundant product of prostatic neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumor cells, is widely ... chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (three proteins that are used as markers for ... chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or ...
... may refer to: CHGB-FM, a radio station (97.7 FM) licensed to Wasaga Beach, Ontario, Canada Chromogranin B, a protein ...
... chromogranin A, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and cholecystokinin. These cells can be the source of several types of lung ...
Hypersecretion of glucagon, somatostatin, chromogranin, or calcitonin, ectopic secretion of ACTH resulting in Cushing's ...
Chromogranin B-induced secretory granule biogenesis: comparison with the similar role of chromogranin A. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278 ... Chromogranin A, an "on/off" switch controlling dense-core secretory granule biogenesis. Cell. 2001; 106: 499-509. ... Hypertension from targeted ablation of chromogranin A can be rescued by the human ortholog. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 1942-1952 ... A panel of 11 region-specific radioimmunoassays for measurements of human chromogranin A. Regul Pept. 2004; 117: 219-227. ...
Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in ... Autonomic function in hypertension; role of genetic variation at the catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin B. ...
BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory ... Gly364Ser was in linkage disequilibrium with 1 major Chromogranin A promoter haplotype, although promoter haplotypes did not ... Catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide catestatin (chromogranin A352-372): Naturally occurring amino acid variant Gly364Ser ... chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in ...
About Chromogranin-A (CgA). There have been recent advances in neuroendocrine biomarkers, including research that demonstrates ... "Lowered levels of Chromogranin-A (CgA) are linked to improved survival and favorable response to treatment in neuroendocrine ... New Data Shows Positive Chromogranin-A Biomarker Results in GI-NET Patient ... reduction in Chromogranin-A (CgA) levels, a key biomarker used to predict clinical outcome and tumor response. ...
Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were reactive for chromogranin (Fig. 2b), TTF1, cytokeratin (CK)7, ... The neoplasm was positive for neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD57, CD56 and TTF1. ... Tumor cells positive for chromogranin (×20). (c) Tumor cells focally positive for CD-56 (×40). (d) Tumor cells negative for ...
Regulatory peptides from chromogranin A and secretogranin II. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1145-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Plasma chromogranin a as marker for survival in patients with metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors. Clin ...
Chromogranin-A was available in 48 patients, median 21 nmol/L (range 2 nmol/L to a 168-fold on the upper reference limit). All ... Data on chromogranin-A at baseline was collected from the laboratory reports. ...
C, immunostaining for chromogranin A is strongly positive. D, carcinoid tumor adjacent to coexisting mature teratoma (case 2). ... Carcinoid tumors showed strong immunoreactivity for synaptophysin and chromogranin, but no immunoreactivity for OCT4, CD30, c- ... Carcinoid tumors of the testis showed strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin, both of which are ... rabbit polyclonal antibody to chromogranin (prediluted, DAKO), mouse monoclonal antibody to CD30 (prediluted, DAKO), mouse ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
The level of chromogranin A in the blood is normally low. A person with no signs or symptoms and a normal level of CgA is ... The chromogranin A (CgA) test is used as a tumor marker. It may be ordered in combination with a 5-HIAA test to help diagnose ... Should everyone have a chromogranin A test?. No. This test is usually ordered to help diagnose and monitor a carcinoid or other ... Chromogranin A can also be increased in people who take proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are drugs that reduce the amount ...
Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high ... Secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B): A sulfated protein of about 600 residues.. *Secretogranin 2 (chromogranin C): A sulfated ... Chromogranin A (CGA): CGA is a protein of about 420 residues; it is the precursor of the peptide pancreastatin which strongly ... Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) [PMID: 2053134] are a family of acidic proteins present in the secretory granules of ...
Chromogranin A; stains most endocrine tissue (normal and neoplastic) except posterior pituitary and hypothalmus ...
In humans, chromogranin A protein is encoded by the CHGA gene. Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin ... Chromogranin A is cleaved by an endogenous prohormone convertase to produce several peptide fragments. See chromogranin A ... "Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals by region-specific radioimmunoassays and ... Chromogranin A or parathyroid secretory protein 1 (gene name CHGA) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory ...
It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. ... Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the ... It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II. Chromogranin A contains ... encoded search term (Chromogranin%20A) and Chromogranin A What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ...
... also synergize with chromogranin B mutations to promote disease. Whether chromogranin A variants link to ALS is definitely ... Because the chromogranin B mutations had an impact on onset time in familial ALS, and on risk of disease in sporadic ALS, the ... Chromogranin B P413L variant as risk factor and modifier of disease onset for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Chromogranin has been linked to mutant SOD1 by two previous studies. A frequently raised question is to what extent SOD1-based ...
Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer, D T ... Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer and D T ... Chromogranin A. Storage and release in hypertension.. M A Takiyyuddin, J H Cervenka, R J Hsiao, J A Barbosa, R J Parmer and D T ... especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines ...
Rabbit polyclonal Chromogranin A antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Dog, Human, Pig, Monkey. ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/1000 dilution (purified) + PC-12 cell lysate at 20 µg. Secondary. Goat Anti-Rabbit ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/5000 dilution (purified) + SH-SY5Y cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. Goat Anti- ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab45179) at 1/10000 dilution (unpurified) + PC-12 cell lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. HRP-conjugated ...
References for Abcams Anti-Chromogranin C antibody (ab96589). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Rabbit polyclonal Chromogranin A antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human, Monkey. Cited in 81 ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [EP1030Y] (Alexa Fluor® 568) (ab214399) *Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [EP1030Y] - BSA and Azide ... Chromogranin A is easily fragmented and both bands observed in the Western Blot above are believed to correspond to ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Chromogranin A antibody (ab15160)This image is a courtesy of Anonymous Abreview ...
Evaluation of psychosomatic stress in children by measuring salivary chromogranin A.. Lee T1, Shimizu T, Iijima M, Obinata K, ... To investigate the usefulness of salivary chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol as stress markers, and the effects of distraction ...
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... chromogranin explanation free. What is chromogranin? Meaning of chromogranin medical term. What does chromogranin mean? ... Looking for online definition of chromogranin in the Medical Dictionary? ... Chromogranin , definition of chromogranin by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chromogranin ... chromogranin. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. chro·mo·gran·in. (krōmō-granin), A soluble and secretory hormone proteins ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [LK2H10], prediluted (ab53464) : Immunohistochemistry ...
Mouse monoclonal Chromogranin A antibody [CGA/413]. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [CGA/413]. See all Chromogranin A primary antibodies. ... Primary - Mouse Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [CGA/413] (ab220189) IHC-P Secondary - Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205719) WB ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Chromogranin A antibody [CGA/413] (ab220189) ...
chromogranin-A , chromogranin A , cgA , SP-I , betagranin (N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A) , parathyroid secretory ... Chromogranin A (CHGA) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the chromogranin/ ... anti-Chromogranin A (CHGA) Antikörper. Bezeichnung:. anti-Chromogranin A Antikörper (CHGA). Auf www.antikoerper-online.de ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Chromogranin A Interaktionspartner. Zebrafish Chromogranin A (CHGA) Interaktionspartner * Study ...
  • Chen Y, Rao F, Rodriguez-Flores JL et al (2008) Naturally occurring human genetic variation in the 3′-untranslated region of the secretory protein chromogranin A is associated with autonomic blood pressure regulation and hypertension in a sex-dependent fashion. (springer.com)
  • This is the first study to assess the prognostic utility of chromogranin B (CgB), a marker of NET that is less affected by these clinical drawbacks. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • This study was designed to assess diagnostic utility of chromogranin A (CgA) alone or in combination with NMN in patients with PHEO/PGL related to mutations in SDHB and SDHD. (cdc.gov)
  • There are considerable differences in the amino acid composition between different species' chromogranin A . Commercial assays for measuring human CGA can usually not be used for measuring CGA in samples from other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, the researchers have linked chromogranin B to the human disease. (alzforum.org)
  • To evaluate the mutation's effect in actual experiments, the scientists linked the wild-type and P413L chromogranin B genes to GFP and expressed them in human neuroblastoma cell cultures. (alzforum.org)
  • Evaluation of psychosomatic stress in children by measuring salivary chromogranin A. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the usefulness of salivary chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol as stress markers, and the effects of distraction on the suppression of stress in children. (nih.gov)
  • Salivary chromogranin A as a measure of stress response to noise. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we optimize a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay modification for detecting chromogranin A in humans and other species. (nih.gov)
  • Chromogranin A can be used, in conjunction with other testing modalities, as a diagnostic tool, but caution is advised since it is elevated in many other conditions. (medscape.com)