Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.

Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (1/428)

Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs.  (+info)

Effect of obesity on red cell mass results. (2/428)

Measurement of red cell mass with isotope dilution remains an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected polycythemia vera (PCV). Results and reference ranges are typically expressed in units normalized for body weight (mL/kg). Obesity is common in polycythemic patients, and it is important to know how the various published normative ranges compare across a wide range of body weights. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients referred for red cell mass determination with 51Cr red blood cell dilution. Results were expressed in milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) by using the actual patient weight and after adiposity adjustments using ideal body weight, body mass index (BMI) and combinations of height-weight, including body surface area. Results were classified as normal, elevated or PCV. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of obesity in our population (28/51 [55%] with BMI > 27 kg/m2, BMI range 16.0-54.8 kg/m2). The method used to compensate for obesity had a dramatic effect on the derived red cell mass, the fraction of patients with elevated measurements and the fraction of patients meeting criteria for PCV. Concordance for categorization as normal, elevated or PCV by all methods was only 47.1%. CONCLUSION: Obesity is a common confounding factor in the interpretation of red cell mass measurements. Currently published reference ranges generate inconsistent results when extrapolated to obese patients. Further normative data on obese subjects are needed to determine which method (if any) is optimal.  (+info)

Role of antioxidant defenses against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells. (3/428)

Reactive oxygen species appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo. Because ingested ethanol diffuses into the gastric mucosa, targeting both epithelium and endothelium, in the present study we examined the possible protective effect of antioxidants on ethanol damage in gastric epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity by ethanol was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. The effects of impairment of the glutathione redox cycle and of inhibition of cellular catalase were examined. The generation of superoxide was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. Ethanol caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release from epithelial cells. Incubation of cells with DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, while reducing glutathione production, dose dependently enhanced ethanol-induced injury. 1,3-Bis(chloroethyl)-nitrosourea, while inhibiting glutathione reductase activity, also sensitized cells to ethanol. In contrast, the inhibition of catalase with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole did not alter the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ethanol. Ethanol induced damage to endothelial cells in a similar fashion. In endothelial cells, however, neither impairment of the glutathione cycle nor inhibition of catalase influenced ethanol-induced damage. Epithelial cells, when exposed to ethanol, increased superoxide production as a function of ethanol concentration, whereas endothelial cells did not. The glutathione redox cycle, but not cellular catalase, plays a critical role in protecting epithelial cells against ethanol damage, whereas neither antioxidant seems to play a role in protection of endothelial cells. The distinct difference in antioxidant protection against ethanol appears to depend on the capability of each cell to produce cytotoxic oxygen species in response to ethanol exposure.  (+info)

High predictive value of red cell volume measurement using carboxy-haemoglobin in a rabbit model of haemorrhage. (4/428)

We have studied the accuracy of blood volume measurements using carbon monoxide (CO)-labelled haemoglobin (COHb) injection and dilution (CO method) by comparing changes in red cell volume (RCV) measured using the CO method and 51Cr-labelled erythrocyte dilution (51Cr method) in a haemorrhage and infusion model in rabbits. RCV was measured repeatedly using the CO method at four different blood volume stages (stages I-IV). At stages I and IV, RCV was measured simultaneously using the 51Cr method. In comparing the sum of the circulating RCV and extracted RCV (SUM RCV) using the CO method, the values were almost equal and there were no significant differences between the values at the four stages. In comparing circulating RCV measured using the CO method and the 51Cr method, mean difference between the two methods was 0.80 (SD 0.76) ml kg-1 or 4.7 (4.6)%, and a positive correlation was observed (r = 0.91). We conclude that the CO method can be used to measure blood volume during perioperative periods in infants because it avoids use of a radioactive tracer, is simple and repeated measurements are possible.  (+info)

Urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a platelet receptor important for kinetics and TNF-induced endothelial adhesion in mice. (5/428)

BACKGROUND: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) is a widely distributed 55-kD, glycoprotein I-anchored surface receptor. On binding of its ligand uPA, it is known to increase leukocyte adhesion and traffic. Using genetically deficient mice, we explored the role of uPAR in platelet kinetics and TNF-induced platelet consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-uPAR antibody stained platelets from normal (+/+) but not from uPAR-/- mice, as seen by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. 51Cr-labeled platelets from uPAR-/- donors survived longer than those from +/+ donors when injected into a +/+ recipient. Intratracheal TNF injection induced thrombocytopenia and a platelet pulmonary localization, pronounced in +/+ but absent in uPAR-/- mice. Aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor, decreased TNF-induced thrombocytopenia. TNF injection markedly reduced the survival and increased the pulmonary localization of 51Cr-labeled platelets from +/+ but not from uPAR-/- donors, indicating that it is the platelet uPAR that is critical for their response to TNF. As seen by electron microscopy, TNF injection increased the number of platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the alveolar capillaries of +/+ mice, whereas in uPAR-/- mice, platelet trapping was insignificant and PMN trapping was slightly reduced. Platelets within alveolar capillaries of TNF-injected mice were activated, as judged from their shape, and this was evident in +/+ but not in uPAR-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time the critical role of platelet uPAR for kinetics as well as for activation and endothelium adhesion associated with inflammation.  (+info)

Role of 5-lipoxygenase products in the local accumulation of neutrophils in dermal inflammation in the rabbit. (6/428)

Studies were undertaken to define the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products and, in particular, of leukotriene (LT) B4 in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) emigration process using a rabbit model of dermal inflammation. Our results show that i.v. administration to rabbits of MK-0591, a compound that inhibits LT biosynthesis in blood and tissues when administered in vivo, significantly reduced 51Cr-labeled PMN accumulation in response to intradermally injected chemotactic agonists, including IL-8, FMLP, C5a, and LTB4 itself. In addition, pretreatment of the labeled PMN with MK-0591 ex vivo before their injection in recipient animals was equally effective in reducing 51Cr-labeled PMN emigration to dermal inflammatory sites. These results support a role for de novo synthesis of 5-LO metabolites by PMN for their chemotactic response to inflammatory mediators. Other studies demonstrated that elevated intravascular concentration of LTB4 interferes with PMN extravasation inasmuch as a continuous i.v. infusion of LTB4, in the range of 5-300 ng/min/kg, dose-dependently inhibited extravascular PMN accumulation to acute inflammatory skin sites elicited by the chemoattractants LTB4, FMLP, C5a, and IL-8 and by TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and LPS; such phenomena may constitute a natural protective mechanism from massive tissue invasion by activated PMN in specific pathologic conditions such as ischemia (and reperfusion). These studies demonstrate additional functions of 5-LO products in the regulation of PMN trafficking, distinct from the well-characterized chemotactic activity of LTB4 present in the extravascular compartment.  (+info)

Impaired autoregulation of the glomerular filtration rate in patients with nondiabetic nephropathies. (7/428)

BACKGROUND: The ability of the kidney to maintain constancy of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over a wide range of renal perfusion pressures is termed autoregulation. Defective autoregulation of GFR has been demonstrated in diabetic nephropathy. Whether this is also the case in patients with nondiabetic nephropathies is not known. METHODS: We investigated the effect of acute lowering of blood pressure (BP) on GFR in 16 (8 males and 8 females) albuminuric subjects suffering from different nondiabetic nephropathies and in 14 (7 males and 7 females) controls matched with respect to sex, age, BP, and baseline GFR. The subjects received in random order an intravenous injection of either clonidine (150 to 225 microg) or saline (0.154 mmol/liter) within two weeks. We measured GFR ([51Cr]-EDTA), albuminuria (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA), and BP (Takeda TM-2420). RESULTS: Clonidine induced similar reductions in mean arterial BP 17 (2) versus 19 (2) mm Hg [mean (SE)] in patients with nephropathy and in controls, respectively. GFR diminished in average from 89 (6) to 82 (5) ml/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.05), and albuminuria declined from a geometric mean of 1218 (antilog SE 1.3) microg/min to 925 (1.3) in the patients with nondiabetic nephropathies (P < 0.05), whereas these variables remained unchanged in the control group. The mean difference between changes in GFR (95% confidence interval) between the nondiabetic macroalbuminuric and control subjects was 6.1 (-0.03 to 12.21) ml/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.051). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that albuminuric patients with nondiabetic nephropathies frequently suffer from impaired autoregulation of GFR.  (+info)

Injurious effect of Helicobacter pylori culture fluid to gastroduodenal mucosa, and its detoxification by sucralfate in the rat. (8/428)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Although several cytotoxins related to H. pylori have been reported, their effects on gastroduodenal mucosa have not been well evaluated in vivo. AIM: To investigate the effects of the combination of acid and toxic substances derived from H. pylori on gastroduodenal mucosa, and to observe the effect of sucralfate on such factors in the rat. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted overnight and anaesthetized. The pylorus was ligated, and a double-lumen cannula was inserted into the forestomach for gastric luminal perfusion. In other animals, a cannula was inserted to perfuse the proximal duodenum. 51Cr-EDTA was administered intravenously and mucosal integrity was monitored by measuring the blood-to-lumen 51Cr-EDTA clearance. After 72 h of culture of H. pylori (NCTC11637 and Sydney strain 1), Brucella broth containing 3% FBS was filtered to remove the bacteria (supernate of H. pylori culture fluid; HPsup). HPsup was acidified (pH=2.0) with HCl, and tested for its injurious action on gastric or duodenal mucosa by luminal perfusion. HPsup was incubated with sucralfate for 30 min. The supernate was collected by centrifugation and the pH was readjusted to 2.0. This sucralfate-treated HPsup was used to test the effect of sucralfate against H. pylori-related mucosal injurious factors. RESULTS: Non-acidified and acidified HPsup did not cause any detectable injury to the gastric mucosa. Non-acidified HPsup did not cause injury in the duodenal mucosa. However, acidified HPsup induced a significantly greater increase in 51Cr-EDTA clearance and greater histological damage than in controls. Sucralfate completely reversed this. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an H. pylori-related toxic substance may aggravate duodenal acid injury by acting on luminal surfaces, and that the detoxification of this substance by sucralfate may contribute to its anti-ulcer action.  (+info)

Chromium-51 is the most commonly used readioactive marker for the labeling of target cells in cytotoxicity assays. The common name for such assays Chromium Release also describes the fundamental method behind the assay procedure. Methods for the precise and accurate quantification of cytotoxicity are of fundamental importance in immunology particularly for the study of tumor and virus cytolysis ...
51Cr radionuclide EDTA. Ussed to measure glomerular filtration rates, in chromium-51-EDTA plasma clearance studies, and in intestinal permeability studies
Cal Water held a ribbon-cutting ceremony to commemorate the completion of a chromium-6 (Cr-6) treatment plant in its Dixon District yesterday. Mayor Jack Batchelor and representatives from Senator Lois Wolk, Assemblymembers Bill Dodd and John Garamendis offices; Solano County Supervisor John Vasquez, among other local officials, were in attendance.. The treatment plant, one of three plants Cal Water has constructed in the past year, will reduce the amount of naturally occurring Cr-6 from the local water supply. In July 2014, the State of California set the countrys first regulation for Cr-6, allowing no more than 10 parts per billion (ppb) of the constituent be in water provided to consumers. Wells in Cal Waters Dixon District had naturally occurring Cr-6 levels ranging from 15-24 ppb; however, since the treatment plants came online, the water supply in the Dixon District has remained in compliance with the new state standard.. In order to find the most effective solution, Cal Waters Water ...
As Donald Trump said recently at a rally in Michigan, we used to make cars in Flint and you couldnt drink the water in Mexico. Now the cars are being made in Mexico, and you cant drink the water in Flint. Nor can you safely drink public water almost anywhere in America, as its almost universally contaminated with chromium-6, heavy metals or other toxic chemicals.. This doesnt even cover the deliberate poisoning of public water systems with fluoride, a neurotoxic chemical purchased in bulk from Chinese chemical plants (or sometimes acquired as a waste product from fertilizer manufacturing factories). Fluoride is dumped into public water supplies under the quack science claim that every person in the nation is deficient in fluoride - a blatantly false and highly irresponsible claim. In reality, many children suffer from fluorosis, a dark mottling and discoloration of the teeth caused by too much exposure to toxic fluoride.. Avoid fluoride. A highly toxic metal, fluoride accumulates in certain ...
The researchers found a hint of an excess of the chromium-54 isotope in their first session, but as luck would have it, they had to search 1,500 microscopic grains of the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites before finding just one with definitely high levels.. PhysOrg.com - latest science and technology news stories. ...
usr/bin/python ../../build/toolchain/gcc_solink_wrapper.py --readelf=readelf --nm=nm --sofile=./libcodec.so --tocfile=./libcodec.so.TOC --output=./libcodec.so -- /home/gerd/Downloads/chromium-dev/src/chromium-91.0.4455.2/third_party/llvm-build/Release+Asserts/bin/clang++ -shared -Wl,-soname=libcodec.so -fuse-ld=/home/gerd/Downloads/chromium-dev/src/chromium-91.0.4455.2/third_party/llvm-build/Release+Asserts/bin/ld.lld -Wl,--fatal-warnings -Wl,--build-id -fPIC -Wl,-z,noexecstack -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,defs -Wl,--as-needed -Wl,--icf=all -Wl,--color-diagnostics -Wl,--no-call-graph-profile-sort -m64 -Wl,-O2 -Wl,--gc-sections -rdynamic -nostdlib++ -Wl,-rpath=\$ORIGIN -Wl,-O1,--sort-common,--as-needed,-z,relro,-z,now -o ./libcodec.so @./libcodec.so.rsp FAILED: libcodec.so libcodec.so.TOC /usr/bin/python ../../build/toolchain/gcc_solink_wrapper.py --readelf=readelf --nm=nm --sofile=./libcodec.so --tocfile=./libcodec.so.TOC --output=./libcodec.so -- ...
The Modern View of Atomic Structure; Atomic Weights (Sections)Each of the following isotopes is used in medicine. Indicate the number of protons and neutrons in each isotope: (a) phosphorus-32, (b) - chromium-51, (c) cobalt-60, (d) technetium-99, (e) iodine-131, (f) thallium-201
Background. Measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important assessment in peritoneal dialysis patients. In clinical practice, it is commonly measured by calculating the mean of the urinary clearance of urea and creatinine (GFRUrCl) but this process is time consuming and unreliable. We wished to compare several estimates of GFR including residual GFR estimated from cystatin C (GFRCysC) using a published equation (Hoek), GFRUrCl and 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance, in peritoneal dialysis patients.. Methods. GFRCysC, GFRUrCl and 51Cr-EDTA clearance were measured in 28 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis in a single dialysis unit.. Results. GFRCysC was related to GFRUrCl (Spearmans rank correlation coefficient rs = 0.44; P = 0.0185) and to 51Cr-EDTA clearance (rs = 0.48; P = 0.0099). GFRCysC values were significantly (P = 0.0077) lower than 51Cr-EDTA clearance results (mean bias −19.7%). However, GFRCysC did not differ significantly (P , 0.05) from ...
when solid aluminum is heated with chromium(II) oxide, solid chromium and aluminum oxide are produced. If you are using 125 g of aluminum and 225 g of chromium (II) oxide, how many grams of chromium are produced. If you actually collect ...
For other contaminants, there are no specific federal standards, the EWG says. In the case of chromium-6, which is a form of the element chromium, for example, the government looks only at overall chromium levels, and not all types are harmful. Chromium-6 has been linked to tumors in animal studies, and may also be linked to increased risk of stomach cancer in workers exposed to the compound, the EWG says. Chromium - 3, on the other hand, is mostly harmless.. This is why in some areas we see chlorine and other disinfectants added into the water supply, which raises even more health concerns and doesnt really provide an ample solution to the problem.. Below is a great statement from the Waterkeeper Alliance:. Every day around the world, polluters are poisoning our waterways, and people everywhere are suffering the consequences. When a coal company discharges millions of gallons of toxic coal ash into a river, families who depend on that waterway as a drinking-water source are the innocent ...
The validity of the indicator dilution method for measuring the capillary diffusion capacity for 51Cr-EDTA in hyperaemic skeletal muscle ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Frank Iversen, Chuanxu Yang, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, David H Schaffert, Jørgen Kjems, Shan Gao].
SUMMARY The survival of red cells in the circulation can be measured in a variety of ways: (1) by labeling with radioactive isotopes, particularly chromium-51 (51Cr), and assessing the disappearance of the radioactive tag from the circulation over time; (2) by labeling the erythrocytes with biotin or a fluorescent dye and measuring this marker over time; (3) by determining the disappearance of transfused antigen-matched allogeneic erythrocytes using immunologic markers; and (4) by measuring the excretion of carbon monoxide, a product of heme catabolism.. Such studies show that normal human red cells have a finite life span averaging 120 days, with very little random destruction. The mitochondrial and ribosomal removal highlighting maturation of the reticulocyte is accompanied by increasing cell density, but after a few days of intravascular life span there is little further increase in density or other changes in the physical property of the red cells. Thus, cell density is not a good marker for ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Cytotoxicity to allogeneic cells in the chicken. I. Role of macrophages in the cytotoxic effect on 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by immune spleen cells. by Melissa A Palladino et al.
Research Portal Find researchers, research outputs (e.g. publications), projects, infrastructures and units at Lund University. ...
Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALByc mice with rabbit polyclonal antiidiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an internal image monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 3 109 M21 and 2.4 3 107 M21, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 3 106 M21 and 3.8 3 106 M21). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different
As noted in the Introduction, the role of NO in epileptogenesis is unclear. NO has been suggested to be both an anticonvulsant and a proconvulsant in animals (9, 10, 12-16). These inconsistencies may be due to the fact that although these studies measured the effects of NOS inhibitors, they did not actually measure NO production. The advantage of the current L-band EPR study is that we can make direct NO measurements by detecting it as the (DETC)2-Fe-NO complex in the brain of living mice. We were able to confirm that NO levels are elevated in tonic and clonic convulsions.. Both the in vivo and ex vivo EPR measurements confirmed that more NO was produced in the tonic than in the clonic convulsions, perhaps indicating that NO levels were proportional to the intensity of the convulsion. These results suggest that NO works as a proconvulsant. However, in the presence of NOS inhibitors, both L-NNA and 3Br-7NI suppressed the transition from clonic to tonic convulsion at high PTZ doses, while the ...
Public water supply systems generally blend or treat the water to ensure that the water delivered to the consumers has arsenic concentrations below the (maximum contaminate level, or MCL), Fram wrote in an email.. One private well in Hinkley exceeded the safe drinking limit for arsenic by nearly 30 times, Izbicki said in a phone interview Wednesday.. In addition, water from six of the 72 wells sampled exceeded the drinking water limit for uranium, while six of the 72 also exceeded the drinking water limit for nitrate, he said.. Last week, Hinkley residents received letters stating the USGS found unsafe levels of arsenic, uranium or nitrate in their wells, Izbicki said.. One Hinkley resident said shes not afraid of the arsenic.. Im managing it, Penny Harper said.. I knew it was four times the MCL, now I find out that it is five times (the safe level for arsenic in drinking water), she said after receiving the USGS report.. In 2013, PG&E installed a reverse osmosis filter under her bathroom ...
ebuild R ] www-client/chromium-53.0.2785.34::gentoo USE=cups hangouts (pic) proprietary-codecs pulseaudio system-ffmpeg tcmalloc widevine -custom-cflags -gn -gnome -gnome-keyring (-gtk3) -kerberos (-neon) (-selinux) {-test} L10N=-am -ar -bg -bn -ca -cs -da -de -el -en-GB -es -es-419 -et -fa -fi -fil -fr -gu -he -hi -hr -hu -id -it -ja -kn -ko -lt -lv -ml -mr -ms -nb -nl -pl -pt-BR -pt-PT -ro -ru -sk -sl -sr -sv -sw -ta -te -th -tr -uk -vi -zh-CN -zh-TW 0 KiB ...
Almost 400 small rural water systems and schools are unable to provide safe drinking water. In some areas, nitrate-produced by nitrogen fertilizers and manure-is polluting local groundwater basins. Chemicals such as arsenic and chromium-6 are also a challenge. Treatment to remove contaminants is costly for small systems that do not benefit from economies of scale. Solutions for at-risk communities statewide would require additional expenditures of $30-$160 million annually, and this number is likely to grow as requirements are tightened. Effective wastewater management is also a challenge in many of these communities. New state funding and administrative support-including more flexibility to encourage consolidation with larger systems-will help, but durable funding for system operations is needed ...
Based on test results obtained directly from 50,000 local water utilities, drinking water supplies for 250 million Americans are contaminated with chromium-6.
Introduction: Therapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cells for hematological malignancies has shown promising results. Effectiveness of CART cells may depend on the ratio of naive (T-N) vs. effector (T-E) T cells, TN cells being responsible for an enduring antitumor activity through maturation. Therefore, we investigated factors influencing the T-N/T-E ratio of CART cells.. Materials and methods: CART cells were generated upon transduction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a CD19.CAR-CD28-CD137zeta third generation retroviral vector under two different stimulating culture conditions: anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies adding either interleukin (IL)-7/1L-15 or IL-2. CART cells were maintained in culture for 20 days. We evaluated 24 healthy donors (HDs) and 11 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for the composition of cell subsets and produced CART cells. Phenotype and functionality were tested using flow cytometry and chromium release assays.. Results: IL -7/1L-15 ...
In Actinomycin-behandelten Mäusen nahm die Zahl der zirkulierenden Erythrozyten linear ab. Zellulärer Hämoglobinverlust erklärt die scheinbar altersunabhängige Komponente der Erythrozytendestruktion...
For now, the most specific, sensitive and versatile method for evaluating target cell death is the radioactive 51Cr release assay. However, radioactive methods are very difficult to implement in an industrial context and alternative methods (such as calcein or enzymes release-based assays) generally suffer from poor performances, resulting in difficulties in assay validation. Furthermore, available surrogate assays, such as FcγR affinity or effector cell activation assays, do not comply with the Regulatory requirement of biological relevance, i.e. the final lysis of target cells ...
In response to the Environmental Working Groups recent report on the presence of chromium-6 in drinking water, U.S. EPA will work with state and local officials to better determine how wide- spread and prevalent this contaminant is. When U.S. EPA finishes their guidance and approved sample method for chromium-6, it will be used to develop a network to scientifically assess the prevalence of chromium-6 in source water (surface and groundwater), drinking water, and public water supply distribution systems. This information will help to prioritize U.S. EPAs technical assistance and guidance. Moreover, it will also assist U.S. EPA with the question of prevalence and need to establish a drinking water standard.. Illinois EPA believes that it is very important that we start with a sound understanding and assessment of what we know relative to total chromium in Illinois ground and surface water (including Lake Michigan) used as a source of public water supply. To that end, Illinois EPA has developed ...
Beyond Pesticides, January 4, 2011) A report released by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) finds that drinking water in 31 cities across the country is contaminated with hexavalent chromium, or chromium-6, a carcinogenic chemical contaminant with numerous sources including treated wood utility poles that line streets and backyards across the the United States. Wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), such as playgrounds, decks, and railroad ties, in addition to utility poles, can leach the chemicals into soils and groundwater, creating serious risks to public health. Other common sources of chromium-6 pollution include discharge from steel and pulp mills as well as metal-plating and leather-tanning facilities. It can also pollute water through erosion of natural deposits.. The use of CCA in the treatment of utility poles is notable not only because of the presence of poles in numerous communities throughout the country, but also because utility companies often donate or sell ...
Lovett, E J. and Lundy, J, The effect of thiabendazole in a mixed leukocyte culture. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1493 ...
Is chromium picolinate safe? Jaros, Tony // Vegetarian Times;Feb96, Issue 222, p30 Offers information on the use of chromium picolinate as a weight-loss supplement in the United States. Increase in sales of chromium picolinate; Possible link between the supplement and cancer; Presence of picolinate in chromium supplement; Chromium-3 as not being absorbed into cells and... ...
To compare renal function (51Cr-EDTA clearance) 48 hours post open-heart surgery (coronary bypass or valve surgery) in patients with impaired renal function after randomization to either nifedipine infusion at start of surgery and the following 24 hours or placebo (0.9% saline infusion). Study hypothesis is that nifedipine has a prophylactic effect on decline in renal function ...
Antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an immunologic cytotoxic effector mechanism that is dependent on the cooperative interaction of humoral and cellular effector elements
In this study, efficient, high-precision grinding of cemented carbide alloys using a specific grinding wheel was performed, and the ground surface characteristics were investigated in detail. The results showed that final finishing using a chromium-bonded wheel produced an extremely smooth surface with an average roughness Ra of 4 nm. The grinding process produced a chromium- and copper-rich surface layer, as well as a large amount of diffusion of oxygen. Adhesive strength tests using a microscratching method were also carried out on ground substrates coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. The surface ground by the chromium-bonded wheel exhibited superior adhesive strength due to its strong chemical affinity with the DLC film.. ...
Botzenhardt, U; Klein, J; and Ziff, M, Primary in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis reaction of nzb mice against unmodified targets sysngeneic at the major histocompatibility complex. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 612 ...
We have shown that both regressor and progressor clones can be isolated from a UV regressor tumor, RD-1024. Although the daughter clones are characterized by differences in tumorigenic potential in normal transplant hosts, they nevertheless seem to express the same major tumor rejection antigens, because immunization with either the regressor parent tumor, RD-1024, or with regressor Cl 8 protects against subsequent challenge with progressor C1 4 or Cl 9. Consistent with the in vivo-generated data is the evidence that draining lymph node cells with functional specificity for regressor Cl 8 are capable of cross-reactive cytotoxicity in an in vitro chromium release assay. We have demonstrated an indirect interaction occurring in vivo between regressor and progressor cells, in that Cl 8 cells have the ability to influence the outcome of simultaneous or sequential challenge with Cl 4 or Cl 9 cells. Because 500 rad of gamma irradiation has been shown to compromise the ability of mice to respond to a ...
Diuretic   A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics
For analysis of non-volatile samples, simply dispense samples into the LumaPlate-96 wells, dry down and count on TopCount®. The LumaPlate™?s solid scintillator simplifies single and dual label CPM/DPM counting by eliminating variable chemical quench and in addition dramatically reduces total cost per sample. LumaPlates™-96 are particulary suitable for low-volume samples produced from 51Cr release assays, enzyme inhibition assays, organic extractions, chromatography fractions, and capillary electrophoresis fractions.. Features & Benefits:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glomerular filtration rate estimated after multiple injections of contrast medium during angiography. AU - Boijsen, M.. AU - Granerus, G.. AU - Jacobsson, L.. AU - Björneld, L.. AU - Aurell, M.. AU - Tylen, Ulf. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - In twenty-six patients referred for angiography, clearance of contrast medium was determined with x-ray fluorescence analysis after multiple injections of contrast medium. A formula for correction of the injected amount, which takes into consideration the different times of contrast medium injections, approximating the total injected amount into one injection, was used. A single injection clearance of 51Cr-EDTA was determined at the same time. the results showed a good correlation between the clearance of contrast medium after multiple injections and the 51Cr-EDTA clearance after a single injection (r=0.945). the correlation between contrast medium clearance calculated without correction for the different injection times, and 51Cr-EDTA ...
Massive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by athletes has been widely reported in the literature.. PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of prophylactic administration of a single dose of Ibuprofen (1,2g) on the performance, glomerular filtration (GF), serum levels of muscle damage markers, and dehydration in experienced runners submitted to a simulated 10 km race. Desing: Randomized, crossover and double blind trial.. METHODS: Thirteen experienced athletes (31±5 y, 64±7kg, 173±8cm, 4.5±1.2% body fat, maximal oxygen uptake 63.2±5.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) took 2 simulated 10 km competitions (SCs), as we measured glomerular filtration (51Cr-EDTA clearance), creatine kinase ([CK]), myoglobin ([MB]), and hematocrit (Ht), as well as performance in each of the situations (simulated competition with Ibuprofen administration - SCIbu and simulated competition with placebo administration - SCPla). The study was approved by the Ethical Research Committee of the Clínicas Hospital of Porto ...
Because of U.S. dependency on imported critical metals, the Bureau of Mines has conducted research to evaluate the possible substitution of nitrided low-alloy steels for higher chromium- containing alloys. The corrosion data for nitrided steels are limited primarily to the soviet literature. The objective of this study was to determine the corrosion properties of six commercially nitrided low-al
The energy requirements for T-cell-mediated cytolysis have been investigated. Cytolytic thymus-derived lymphocytes (CTL) were generated in vitro in mixed leukocyte cultures and assayed for cytotoxicity on 51Cr-labeled mastocytoma target cells. Cytolysis was only slightly reduced in the absence of exogenous glucose (less than 5 micrometer) or under conditions of extreme hypoxia (less than 0.2 micrometer oxygen). Furthermore, neither the glucose analogues 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 5-thio-D-glucose nor the respiratory antagonists sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol were very effective inhibitors of cytolysis when used individually. However, these glucose analogues were highly effective in inhibiting cytolysis in the absence of oxygen, and the respiratory antagonists inhibited cytolysis to a much greater extent in the absence of glucose. In addition, synergistic effects were observed when the glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors were combined. Taken together, these results indicate that T-cell-mediated ...
1. Braasch DA, Paroo Z, Constantinescu A, Ren G, Oz OK, Mason RP, Corey DR. Biodistribution of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate siRNA. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:1139-1143 2. Elmen J, Thonberg H, Ljungberg K, Frieden M, Westergaard M, Xu Y. et al. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) mediated improvements in siRNA stability and functionality. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:439-447 3. Gao S, Dagnaes-Hansen F, Nielsen EJ, Wengel J, Besenbacher F, Howard KA, Kjems J. The effect of chemical modification and nanoparticle formulation on stability and biodistribution of siRNA in mice. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1225-1233 4. Laursen MB, Pakula MM, Gao S, Fluiter K, Mook OR, Baas F. et al. Utilization of unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) to enhance siRNA performance in vitro and in vivo. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:862-870 5. Cesarone G, Edupuganti OP, Chen C, Wickstrom E. Insulin receptor substrate 1 knockdown in human MCF7 ER+ breast cancer cells by nuclease-resistant IRS1 siRNA conjugated to a disulfide-bridged D-peptide analogue of ...
A single-sample classifier that generates Medulloblastoma (MB) subtype predictions for single-samples of human MB patients and model systems, including cell lines and mouse-models. The MM2S algorithm uses a systems-based methodology that facilitates application of the algorithm on samples irrespective of their platform or source of origin. MM2S demonstrates | 96% accuracy for patients of well-characterized normal cerebellum, Wingless (WNT), or Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subtypes, and the less-characterized Group4 (86%) and Group3 (78.2%). MM2S also enables classification of MB cell lines and mouse models into their human counterparts.This package contains function for implementing the classifier onto human data and mouse data, as well as graphical rendering of the results as PCA plots and heatmaps.
We studied the effects of hyperthermia (up to 43°) on the cytolytic activity (51Cr release assay) and differentiation of primary and secondary cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro. Mixed-leukocyte cultures were established from splenic leukocytes of C57BL/6 mice and DBA/2 stimulator lymphocytes, and the CTL formed on Day 4 (primary) or on Day 21, 3 days after restimulation of the cultures with alloantigen (secondary), were assayed against P815 mastocytoma cells. Hyperthermia (43°) caused a marked decrease in cytolytic activity, the response curves for primary and secondary CTL being characterized by an initial shoulder followed by an exponential curve with an increment of dose needed to reduce activity to 37% of a starting value of 4 or 2 min, respectively. Some of the damage was repaired when the cells were incubated at 20° or 37° for several hr (peak = 4 hr), and neither suppression of protein synthesis nor damage to membrane lipids seemed to be the causative mechanism. Heat also ...
Epibase® Cytokine Release Assay assesses the immediate interaction of the biotherapeutic protein itself (or other product-related factors such as formulation components and production contaminants) with the cells of the immune system.
6], GFR can be accurately measured using radioactive substances, in particular chromium-51 and technetium-99m. [citation needed], A decreased renal function can be caused by many types of kidney disease. The glomerular basement membrane of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus.The glomerular endothelial cells, the glomeular basement membrane, and the filtration slits between the podocytes perform the filtration function of the glomerulus, separating the blood in the capillaries from the filtrate that forms in Bowmans capsule. A glomerular filtration rate can be estimated with great accuracy, based on the result of another blood test called creatinine. For comparison purposes, the results for three prevalent formulas used for estimating GFR are provided. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important clinical indicator of kidney function. The activation of vitamin D1, the formation of glucose in the fasting state, and the creation of peptide hormones (including insulin) all ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the extent of LDL oxidation influences its cytotoxic effects, thus contributing to its atherogenic potential. DESIGN AND SETTING--The effects of native and modified LDL on cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (ECs) were investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Four indices of cytotoxicity were studied: (i) chromium-51 release; (ii) 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrDUrd) uptake; (iii) morphological appearance; and (iv) EC migration. RESULTS--(i) Minimally modified (mm) LDL (400 micrograms/ml) causes significant 51Cr release; the cytotoxic effect was significantly greater for copper oxidised (ox) LDL (400 micrograms/ml). Native LDL had no effect. (ii) BrDUrd uptake studies showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation by 100 micrograms/ml of oxLDL and to a lesser extent by mmLDL; native LDL had no effect. (iii) Morphological appearance was not altered by native LDL. Changes in cell morphology were induced by mmLDL (400 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perfusion cells for studying regional variation in oral mucosal permeability in humans. 2. A specialized transport mechanism in D-glucose absorption exists in dorsum of tongue. AU - Kurosaki, Yuji. AU - Yano, Koji. AU - Kimura, Toshikiro. PY - 1998/5. Y1 - 1998/5. N2 - To clarify the site of D-glucose absorption in human oral cavity, newly designed perfusion cells were applied to five different sites in the human oral cavity, i.e., the dorsum of the tongue, the ventral surface of the tongue, the labial mucosa, the floor of the mouth, and the buccal mucosa. The solution of D-glucose was perfused for 1 h and the rate of absorption was calculated from the amount that disappeared from the perfusate. D-Glucose was absorbed rapidly from the dorsum of the tongue and the absorption was saturable. The saturable absorption was also observed in the ventral surface of the tongue, but not in the other three sites. The rate of D-glucose absorption in the dorsum and the ventral surface of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of multivariable Mendelian randomization in the single-sample and two-sample summary data settings. AU - Sanderson, Eleanor. AU - Davey Smith, George. AU - Windmeijer, Frank. AU - Bowden, Jack. PY - 2018/12/10. Y1 - 2018/12/10. N2 - Background: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a powerful tool in epidemiology that can be used to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome in the presence of unobserved confounding, by utilizing genetic variants that are instrumental variables (IVs) for the exposure. This has been extended to multivariable MR (MVMR) to estimate the effect of two or more exposures on an outcome. Methods and results: We use simulations and theory to clarify the interpretation of estimated effects in a MVMR analysis under a range of underlying scenarios, where a secondary exposure acts variously as a confounder, a mediator, a pleiotropic pathway and a collider. We then describe how instrument strength and validity can be assessed for an MVMR ...
The MALDI-TOF microbe extraction process with AFA is currently available using our M220 Focused-ultrasonicator in a single-sample format. The AFA extraction process can be developed for batch processing of 24 individual microTUBE Screw Caps, and also for 8-microTUBE Strips for either serial or parallel-processing mode. In a parallel-processing mode, 8 samples can be AFA completed in 2 minutes.. Please contact Customer Service for high-throughput application questions.. ...
In patients with hematocrit of 60% or above the A blood viscosity is increased, and the tissue oxygenation is compromised. There is an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. Immediate phlebotomy is often done, but if the red cell volume is not increased and the plasma volume and total blood volume are decreased, phlebotomy may be harmful. Twenty-five patients with hematocrits of 60% or above have been studied. Patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of dehydration are not included. Red cell volume was determined by chromium-51 and plasma volume by iodine-131 human serum. The expected red cell volume and plasma volume ...
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Murine sarcoma MC12 cells were transfected with the gene coding for murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Tumorigenicity of a variety of cell clones with different expression of the inserted gene was assessed. All of the genetically manipulated MC12 cell clones examined were found to be less tumorigenic than the parental MC12 cell population. No correlation was observed between the production of GM-CSF by the clones and their tumorigenicity. It has been found that irradiation of the GM-CSF-producing cells with the dose of 150 Gy did not significantly inhibit the GM-CSF production during the period of 5 days after irradiation. These findings provided us with the rationale for using the irradiated GM-CSF-producing MC12 sarcoma vaccine for therapy. It has further been found than immunosensitivity of the genetically manipulated, GM-CSF-producing tumour targets to the IL-2-activated killer (LAK) cell-mediated cytolysis was significantly increased, as compared to the ...
Therefore, these results clearly suggest that Fluoxetine treatment could successfully induce unusual milk and production in sd rats run through inhibition of stool and urine excretion. The study also investigated the impact of whether getting a patient was receiving Thiethylperazine versus effective final product, regardless of their randomly a
The classical method of detecting this is the Chromium-51 [51Cr] release assay; the Sulfur-35 [35S] release assay is a little ... used radioisotope-based alternative. Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the ...
The spleen of each patient was then quantitatively measured using chromium-labeled erythrocytes and radioisotope photoscan of ...
Chromium crystals and 1 cm3 cube Arsenic, sealed in a container to stop tarnishing Cadmium bar and 1 cm3 cube Mercury being ... heavy metals are also employed as spallation targets for the production of neutrons or radioisotopes such as astatine (using ... Chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead have the greatest potential to cause harm on account of their extensive use, the ... Hexavalent chromium, for example, is highly toxic as are mercury vapour and many mercury compounds. These five elements have a ...
... the chromium radioisotope 51Cr (chelated with EDTA), and creatinine, have had their utility confirmed in large cohorts of ...
The zirconium-rich phase was found around the pores and on the grain boundaries and contains some iron and chromium in the form ... An eventually present layer of more dense molten metal, containing fewer radioisotopes (Ru, Tc, Pd, etc., initially composed of ... The inclusion of iron and chromium rich regions probably originate from a molten nozzle that did not have enough time to be ... A secondary phase composed of chromium(III) oxide was found in one of the samples. Some metallic inclusions contained silver ...
... cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.180.300 - cesium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.212.349 - chromium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.190 - cesium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.213 - chromium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ...
19 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 50Cr with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years, and ... Most chromium(0) compounds are derivatives of the compounds chromium hexacarbonyl or bis(benzene)chromium. Chromium is the 21st ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromous ...
On occasion, the radioisotope is a simple soluble dissolved ion, such as an isotope of gallium(III). Most of the time, though, ... chromium-51 and cobalt-58). These may be imaged using SPECT in order to verify the presence of fuel rods in a stored fuel ... SPECT is more widely available, because the radioisotope used is longer-lasting and far less expensive in SPECT, and the gamma ... In the nuclear power sector, the SPECT technique can be applied to image radioisotope distributions in irradiated nuclear fuels ...
Twenty-two radioisotopes, all of which are entirely synthetic, have been characterized with the most stable being 51Cr with a ... The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 67Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is ... Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most ... Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ...
Radioisotopes Production Facility is capable of producing the following: Chromium-51, through the irradiation of potassium ... Radioisotopes Production Facility (RPF), is a facility for the production of radioisotopes from irradiation of Low enriched ... "Radioisotopes in Medicine". World Nuclear Association. April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "Radioisotopes production plants". ... The produced radioisotopes are used in medicine, industry and research activities for domestic market. The RPF is owned and ...
19 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 50Cr with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years, and ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Chemical compounds used in dietary supplements include chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium(III) picolinate, chromium( ... Chromium(III) salts, especially chrome alum and chromium(III) sulfate, are used in the tanning of leather. The chromium(III) ...
Online fuel processing can introduce risks of fuel processing accidents, which can trigger release of radio isotopes. In some ... Structural metal such as chromium, nickel, and iron must be removed for corrosion control. A water content reduction ... Potential corrosion risks include dissolution of chromium by liquid fluoride thorium salts at 700+C, hence endangering ...
... includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. All radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of ... Thermoanaerobacter can use chromium(VI), iron(III), cobalt(III), manganese(IV) and uranium(VI) as electron acceptors while ... Radiochemistry also includes the study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the environment; for instance, a forest or grass ... for example the action of cosmic rays on the air is responsible for the formation of radioisotopes (such as 14C and 32P), the ...
Radioisotopes can be transformed directly through changes in valence state by acting as acceptors or by acting as cofactors to ... YieF enzyme, for example, naturally catalyzes the reduction of chromium with a very wide range of substrates. Following protein ... The radioisotope interact with binding sites of metabolically active cells and is used as terminal electron acceptor in the ... Several radioisotopes of strontium, for example, are recognized as analogs of calcium and incorporated within Micrococcus ...
Twenty-four artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging in mass number from 40 to 65. The most stable of these ... IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, ... chromium) isotopes. The chemistry of vanadium is noteworthy for the accessibility of the four adjacent oxidation states 2-5. In ... incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was an impure sample of chromium. Del Río accepted Collet-Descotils' statement ...
ISBN 978-0-19-515026-1. Radioisotope Power Systems Committee, National Research Council U.S. (2009). Radioisotope power systems ... chromium, and platinum). In 1934, Josef Mattauch finally formulated the isobar rule. One of the indirect consequences of this ... Nuclides were produced in 1941 which were not radioisotopes of neodymium or samarium, and the name "cyclonium" was proposed, ... Duggirala, Rajesh; Lal, Amit; Radhakrishnan, Shankar (2010). Radioisotope Thin-Film Powered Microsystems. Springer. p. 12. ISBN ...
It is a parent radioisotope to the short-lived gamma-emitting daughter radioisotope technetium-99m, a nuclear isomer used in ... Like chromium and some other transition metals, molybdenum forms quadruple bonds, such as in Mo2(CH3COO)4 and [Mo2Cl8]4−, which ... Of the synthetic radioisotopes, the most stable is 93Mo, with a half-life of 4,000 years. The most common isotopic molybdenum ... The relative rarity of molybdenum(III), for example, contrasts with the pervasiveness of the chromium(III) compounds. The ...
Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Chromium. National Academy Press. pp. ... Several radioisotopes have been isolated and described, ranging in atomic weight from 44 u (44Mn) to 69 u (69Mn). The most ... Calvert, J. B. (24 January 2003). "Chromium and Manganese". Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 30 April ... Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ...
Zinc, cadmium, magnesium, chromium: metal fume fever can be caused by ingestion of the fumes of these metals and leads to fume ... 99mTc is the most commonly used radioisotope agent for imaging purposes. It has a short half-life, emits only gamma ray photons ... Nickel, chromium, and cadmium: via metal-DNA interactions, these metals can be carcinogenic. Nickel: allergies to nickel, ... Metal complexes can be used either for radioisotope imaging (from their emitted radiation) or as contrast agents, for example, ...
... radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher ... was applied by depositing iridium vapor under high vacuum on a base layer of chromium. Iridium is used in particle physics for ... The radioisotope iridium-192 is one of the two most important sources of energy for use in industrial γ-radiography for non- ... At least 37 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 202. 192Ir, which falls between the ...
24 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized (in the range of mass number between 40 and 65) with the most stable being ... chromium) isotopes. mV - Excited nuclear isomer. ( ) - Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the ...
25 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 53Mn with a half-life of 3.7 million years, 54Mn with a ... Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ...
Deposited hot particles of radioactive fallout and bioaccumulated radioisotopes can be reintroduced into the atmosphere by ... Coal combustion produces emissions containing aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, selenium, and ...
Here is a list of radioisotopes formed by the action of cosmic rays; the list also contains the production mode of the isotope ... the cosmic-ray spallation of iron thus produces scandium through chromium on one hand and helium through boron on the other. ...
Radioisotope. Emission energy (keV). Half-life. Radiopharmaceutical. Activity (MBq). Rotation (degrees). Projections. Image ... chromium-51 and cobalt-58). These may be imaged using SPECT in order to verify the presence of fuel rods in a stored fuel ... On occasion, the radioisotope is a simple soluble dissolved ion, such as an isotope of gallium(III). Most of the time, though, ... SPECT is more widely available, because the radioisotope used is longer-lasting and far less expensive in SPECT, and the gamma ...
Thirty radioisotopes have been characterised, which range in mass number from 209 to 238. After 232Th, the most stable of them ... Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with ... These rely on the fact that 232Th is a primordial radioisotope, but 230Th only occurs as an intermediate decay product in the ... All of these isotopes occur in nature as trace radioisotopes due to their presence in the decay chains of 232Th, 235U, 238U, ...
... and in the stellite alloys the carbon is primarily associated with the chromium to form hard chromium carbide particles which ... There the cobalt would be activated by the neutron flux in the reactor and become cobalt-60, a radioisotope with a five year ... Stellite alloys are a range of cobalt-based alloys, with significant proportions of chromium (up to 33%) and tungsten (up to 18 ... Stellite is a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear resistance. The alloys may also contain tungsten or molybdenum ...
Twenty-one radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 60 years, 45Ti with a ... the resulting 44Ti nucleus can then fuse with another alpha particle to form chromium-48. The age of supernovae may be ...
There are also 30 artificial radioisotopes, the longest-lived of which is 194Os with a half-life of six years; all others have ... Other sources of anthropogenic Os include combustion of fossil fuels, smelting chromium ore, and smelting of some sulfide ores ...
There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. The sections are ordered ... Chromium-51Edit. 51Cr is a gamma emitter. Name Investigation Route of administration In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging ... Some radioisotopes* are used in ionic or inert form without attachment to a pharmaceutical, these are also included. ... making it more useful as a therapeutic isotope for brachytherapy implant of radioisotope capsules for local treatment of ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ... Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137). U.S. National Center for Environmental Health ...
lithium-chromium oxide). Li-CrO2. Li. CrO2. 3.8. 3.0. 108 ... Radioisotope thermoelectric generator. *Solar power * ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... 27 radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half- ...
Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[153] 109 Meitnerium 1982 G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) ... Marinsky, J. A.; Glendenin, L. E.; Coryell, C. D. (1947). "The chemical identification of radioisotopes of neodymium and of ... Chromium 1794 N. Vauquelin 1797 N. Vauquelin Vauquelin discovered the trioxide in crocoite ore, and later isolated the metal by ...
... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon fluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... Anfinsen Chromatography Chromite Chromium Chrysoberyl Chrysolite cinnabar Cinnabarite Citric acid Citrine quartz Clay Cleveite ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61. Ge. and 64. Ge. decay by β+. delayed proton emission.[46] 84. ... At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68. Ge ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years.[12] It is made by the neutron activation of stable ... The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small, nontoxic amounts as an agent in a nuclear ... "Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2003. Retrieved 2010-05-13.. ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The longest-lived radioisotopes are thulium-171, which has a half-life of 1.92 years, and thulium-170, which has a half-life of ... Holmium-chromium-thulium triple-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG, or Ho,Cr,Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... allowing the use of radioisotope rubidium-82 in nuclear medicine to locate and image brain tumors.[50] Rubidium-82 has a very ...
Chromium. Manganese. Iron. Cobalt. Nickel. Copper. Zinc. Gallium. Germanium. Arsenic. Selenium. Bromine. Krypton. ... The most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years (found in nature), 103Pd with 17 days, and 100Pd ... Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 90.94948(64) u (91Pd) to 122.93426(64) u ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... At least 26 nickel radioisotopes have been characterised, the most stable being 59. Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63. Ni ... It is widely used in many other alloys, including nickel brasses and bronzes and alloys with copper, chromium, aluminium, lead ... IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are 194. Hg with a half-life of 444 years, and 203. Hg ... Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199. Hg and 201. Hg are the most often studied ... hexavalent chromium and cadmium) and batteries (the limit is 5 ppm).[131] In July 2007, the European Union also banned mercury ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35Cl is electron capture to ... Commercial processes, such as the Mitsui MT-Chlorine Process, have switched to chromium and ruthenium-based catalysts.[61] The ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Thirty-six radioisotopes have been characterized, with the heaviest being terbium-171 (with atomic mass of 170.95330(86) u) and ... lightest being terbium-135 (exact mass unknown).[12] The most stable synthetic radioisotopes of terbium are terbium-158, with a ...
Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... K are foond in aw potassium, an it is the maist common radioisotope in the human bouk. ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... About 20 radioisotopes and 7 nuclear isomers between 233Cm and 252Cm are known for curium, and no stable isotopes. The longest ... They predominantly emit α-particles, and the heat released in this process can serve as a heat source in radioisotope ... A more promising application of 242Cm is to produce 238Pu, a more suitable radioisotope for thermoelectric generators such as ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Therefore, 210Po is used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials. ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72. Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[ ... 442-501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ...
Chromium. Manganese. Iron. Cobalt. Nickel. Copper. Zinc. Gallium. Germanium. Arsenic. Selenium. Bromine. Krypton. ... Carbon-14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope, created in the upper atmosphere (lower stratosphere and upper ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ... and the radioisotopes present a significant health and ecological hazard in the environment. ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Apart from the practically stable 48Ca, the longest lived radioisotope of calcium is 41Ca. It decays by electron capture to ... It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of chromium, zirconium, thorium, and uranium. It can also be used to ... Many other calcium radioisotopes are known, ranging from 35Ca to 60Ca. They are all much shorter-lived than 41Ca, the most ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The most stable bromine radioisotope is 77Br (t1/2 = 57.04 h). The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 79Br is electron ...
Chromium Radioisotopes * DNA, Complementary / genetics * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay * Flow Cytometry * Fluorescent ...
Chromium Radioisotopes * Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods* * Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / standards * ...
Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing rapidly ... the use of radioisotopes for diagnostics, radiation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals and other beneficial medical uses of nuclear ... Chromium-51 (28 d):. Used to label red blood cells for monitoring, and to quantify gastro-intestinal protein loss or bleeding. ... The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this ...
The persistent contaminants: lead, mercury, cadmium; The packaging metals: aluminium and tin; Transition metals: chromium, ... Radioisotopes; The catalytic metals; The electronic metals; Germanium; Tantalum; Caesium; Barium, beryllium, thallium and the ...
0/Chromium Radioisotopes; 0/Gallium Radioisotopes; 0/Sugar Acids; 11096-37-0/Transferrin; 60-00-4/Edetic Acid; 67-43-6/Pentetic ... Chromium Radioisotopes. Deferoxamine / metabolism*. Dextrans / metabolism*. Dogs. Edetic Acid / metabolism*. Gallium ... Radioisotopes. Indium. Lung / metabolism*, radionuclide imaging. Pentetic Acid / metabolism*. Sugar Acids / metabolism*. ...
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Chromium-compounds; In-vitro-studies; Mammalian-cells; Radioisotopes; Chemical-binding; ... The distribution and nature of chromium (7440473) binding sites were studied in-vitro. Chinese-hamster ovary cell cultures were ... Distribution and HPLC study of chromium-51 binding sites in Chinese hamster ovary cells. ... incubated with chromium-51 (Cr-51) labeled sodium-chromate (7775113) at a concentration of 60 nanomolar for 2 or 24 hours. The ...
Radioisotopes Production Facility is capable of producing the following: Chromium-51, through the irradiation of potassium ... Radioisotopes Production Facility (RPF), is a facility for the production of radioisotopes from irradiation of Low enriched ... "Radioisotopes in Medicine". World Nuclear Association. April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "Radioisotopes production plants". ... The produced radioisotopes are used in medicine, industry and research activities for domestic market. The RPF is owned and ...
Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Aquatic Media. Vienna, March 2007 ... Radioisotope Handling Facilities and Automation of Radioisotope Production Vienna , December 2004 IAEA-TECDOC -1420 (full text ... Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Series No. 2. Production of Long Lived Parent Radionuclides for Generators: 68Ge, 82Sr, ... Radioisotope Products and Radiation Technology Section August 2003 IAEA-CN-103, Book of Abstracts, International Conference, ...
Radioisotopes of iron and chromium were also valuable in applications in hematology. Red blood cell survival, iron physiology, ... Other reactor-produced radioisotopes continue to play a major role in research, and recent advances in many fields (such as ... A comparison of Tables 3-1 and 3-4 makes it obvious that however ably Nordion is serving the needs of commercial radioisotope ... Two other reactor-produced radioisotopes, samarium-153 and rhenium-186, may also be of use in the treatment of bone cancer and ...
The classical method of detecting this is the Chromium-51 [51Cr] release assay; the Sulfur-35 [35S] release assay is a little ... used radioisotope-based alternative. Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the ...
Particularly useful radioisotopes are the short-lived isotopes such as yttrium-90, ytterbium-169, scandium-46, chromium-51 and ... When longer lived radioisotopes are employed, resins are used which are more radiation resistant. Such materials are known to ... Radioisotope-containing microspheres. US3663685 *. Apr 1, 1968. May 16, 1972. Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Biodegradable radioactive ... They also find particular utility in connection with medical uses of radioisotopes. Thus they can be employed for diagnosis or ...
Substances used include chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and radio-isotopes such as cerium-141. A variety of inert materials have been ... Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) mixed with prepared diets and measured in the faeces provides a general comparison of the overall ... Use of radioisotope-labeled lipids in cod suggested that the cods lipase acted in the same manner as mammalian pancreatic ...
Radioisotope. Cr-51. Radionuclide. 51Cr. Shipping Condition. Ambient. Special Ordering Information. This is a radioactive ... Chromium fulfills the requirement of a good label. It is generally non-toxic (as Na2CrO4), it is easily taken up by the cells, ... Chromium-51 Radionuclide, 5mCi (185MBq), Sodium Chromate in Normal Saline (pH 8-10), Steri-packaged * ... Chromium-51 is the most commonly used readioactive marker for the labeling of target cells in cytotoxicity assays. The common ...
Ussed to measure glomerular filtration rates, in chromium-51-EDTA plasma clearance studies, and in intestinal permeability ... Radioisotope. Cr-51. Radionuclide. 51Cr. Shipping Condition. Ambient. Special Ordering Information. This is a radioactive ... Chromium-51 Radionuclide EDTA Complex in 0.005M EDTA (pH 7.0) Shipped ambient. Cr-EDTA in 0.005M EDTA pH ~7>50Ci(1.85TBq)/g ... Radioactive chromium complexed with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid. 51Cr-EDTA is commonly used to measure glomerular ...
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wrought Corrosion-Resisting and Heat-Resisting Chromium and and Chromium-Nickel Steels ... STP134 Symposium on the Use of Radioisotopes in Soil Mechanics. STP137 Symposium on Fatigue with Emphasis on Statistical ... STP228 Report on Elevated-Temperature Properties of Chromium Steels (12-27 per cent) ... STP264 Report on Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steels ...
Examples of permanently implantable sources include iodine-125 or palladium-103 as the radioisotope. The radioisotope is ... chromium-56, arsenic-73, yttrium-90, phosphorus-32 and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred are palladium-103 and iodine-125 ... Radioisotope dispersed in a matrix for brachytherapy. WO2000028554A1. 5 Nov 1999. 18 May 2000. Nycomed Amersham Plc. Products ... Any radioisotope suitable for use in brachytherapy may be used in the source. Non-limiting examples include palladium-103, ...
Chromium compounds explanation free. What is Chromium compounds? Meaning of Chromium compounds medical term. What does Chromium ... Looking for online definition of Chromium compounds in the Medical Dictionary? ... chromium-51. a radioisotope of chromium having a half-life of 27.8 days; used to label red blood cells to determine red cell ... chromium. (redirected from Chromium compounds). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. chromium. (Cr) [kro´me-um] ...
Radioisotopes have become increasingly more important in many fields in the past 60 years or so. Some radioisotopes are ... Examples of widely used tracers in medicine are: calcium-47 for studies of bone formation, chromium-51 for red blood cell ... Over one thousand radioisotopes-radioactive isotopes-either exist in nature or have been made artificially by bombarding stable ... producing a ther-apeutically useful radioisotope of sodium. Newer radioisotopes produced this way for medical applications ...
Chromium-51, Iron-59, Selenium-75, Thallium-201, and Ytterbium-169. Preferably the radioisotope will emit in the 10-5,000 kev ... Use of radioisotopes with higher energy, beta, or positron emissions would entail use of imaging cameras with the appropriate ... Among the radioisotopes used, gamma-emitters, positron-emitters, x-ray emitters and fluorescence-emitters are suitable for ... Suitable radioisotopes for the methods of the present invention include: Astatine-211, Iodine-123, Iodine-125, Iodine-126, ...
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Co-Ni-Cr-Mo bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. ... Co-60, a commercially important radioisotope, is useful as a radioactive tracer and gamma ray source. The origin of the word ... 24 Cr 51.996100000 Chromium See more Chromium products. Chromium (atomic symbol: Cr, atomic number: 24) is a Block D, Group 6, ... The chromium atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 189 pm. In its elemental form, chromium has a lustrous ...
Of these, 52Cr is the most abundant (83.789 percent natural abundance). In addition, 19 radioisotopes have been characterized, ... Chromium metal and chromium(III) compounds are not usually considered health hazards, but hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) ... Chromium(III) oxide. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of ... The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism, but hexavalent chromium ( ...
Students learn the decay scheme and decay mode of various radioisotopes, such as chromium-51 and fluorine-18. At the end of the ... tutorial, students should know the name of each radioisotopes production method. ...
Iron, chromium, vanadium, zinc, and lanthanum are components of the stainless steel alloys that are used in a variety of ... We suspect that many of the elements detected are radioisotopes, though radiochemical analyses were not performed. XRD analysis ... Trace amounts of cobalt, chromium, copper, lanthanum, lithium, sodium, strontium, uranium, vanadium, and zirconium were also ...
Efficiency of clearance (measured by uptake of radioisotope labeled albumin and chromium phosphate) was likewise markedly below ...
Investigation of Tin and Chromium Grain Boundary Diffusion in Iron by Microautoradiography ... Edited and published by : Japan Radioisotope Association Produced and listed by : International Academic Publishing Co., ...
The insoluble radioisotope may comprise an insoluble radioisotope or insoluble compound of a radioisotope, such as an insoluble ... nickel-chromium, nickel-cobalt, nickel-phosphorus-boron, and copper-nickel chromium. Solutions are typically aqueous. [0034] ... the radioisotope present in the sol-gel comprises an insoluble radioisotope or compound of a radioisotope. The formation of sol ... For example, the radioisotope of the first radioactive coating layer may be different than the radioisotope of one or more of ...
These materials are used as targets in reactors and accelerators to produce radioisotopes for basic and clinical research (see ... Noninvasive studies of chromium metabolism and human requirements. • Adult onset diabetes mechanisms ... These enriched stable isotopes are used as target materials in the preparation of radioisotopes with particle accelerators and ... a For specific examples of radioisotope applications, refers to Chapters 3 and 4. ...
The serial sectioning method was applied to simultaneous evaluation of diffusion rates of chromium, manganese and iron in both ... In diffusion experiments the radioisotopes 54Mn, 51Cr and 59Fe were used. ... in studied samples is the volume diffusion while chromium and iron are transported mainly through the high diffusivity paths. ...
Passage of chromium-mordanted and rare earth-labeled fiber: time of dosing kinetics ... The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry ... In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes ... chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the ...
  • The serial sectioning method was applied to simultaneous evaluation of diffusion rates of chromium, manganese and iron in both spinels at 1073 K and 1173 K under the pressure of 105 Pa in SO2 containing 10 Pa O2. (scientific.net)
  • Moreover the dominant mechanism of manganese transport (the highest one) in studied samples is the volume diffusion while chromium and iron are transported mainly through the high diffusivity paths. (scientific.net)
  • they actually used manganese-53, which decays to chromium-53 with a half-life of 3.74 million years. (cydeweys.com)
  • As for the type of radioisotope analysis performed, they specifically used radioisochron dating, which compares relative quantities of the unstable isotope (manganese-53) with its resultant decay product (chromium-53) to determine age. (cydeweys.com)
  • The isotopic contents of Chromium are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have been found in the application of the isotope geology. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • 7 Their invention would rely on detecting changes in the rate of manganese 54 decaying to chromium 54. (freerepublic.com)
  • Radioactive chromium complexed with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid. (perkinelmer.com)
  • It is an object of this invention to prepare radioactive particles consisting of carbonaceous matrices having firmly bound radioisotopes dispersed therein. (google.com)
  • chromium 51 a radioactive isotope of chromium having a half-life of 27.7 days and decaying by electron capture, emitting gamma rays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Objective: to evaluate the leakage of radioactivity after intraarticular administration of radioactive suspensions based on Chromium (III) Phosphate as well as the probability of induction of genotoxic effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Blood volume fluctuations determined by radioisotopes of chromium and radioactive iodinated serum albumin. (uchicago.edu)
  • The EPA has not derived reference concentrations (RfCs) or RfDs for radioactive strontium (IRIS 2002), nor does the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database provide cancer assessments for radioisotopes of strontium. (cdc.gov)
  • Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes) in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. (helenthehare.org.uk)
  • Radioactive tracers can be used to see how well organs in your body are working or to find areas of disease e.g. radioisotopes of iodine or technetium. (helenthehare.org.uk)
  • Used various US EPA and US DOE models to evaluate the implications of radioactive substance migration from a contaminated site and assessed the health impact of radioisotopes, including uptake of radioactivity into plants, and, hence, into food. (gradientcorp.com)
  • Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high energy gamma rays. (housemannskost.ch)
  • Chromium strongly resists corrosion and is used extensively to plate other metals, harden steel, and, in combination with other elements, form colored compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Various chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) oxide and lead chromate, are brightly colored and used in paints and pigments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chromium was named after the Greek word "chroma" meaning color , because of the many colorful compounds made from it. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [5] The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma , meaning color , [6] because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sort the following chromium compounds by whether the cation is chromium(II) or chromium(III). (jiskha.com)
  • Inhalation of the Chromium compounds may lead to ulceration and perforation of the mucous membranes of the nasal septum, irritation of the pharynx and larynx, asthmatic bronchitis, bronchospasms and edema. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Chromium (chemical symbol Cr , atomic number 24) is a hard, shiny, steel-gray metal that takes a high polish and does not tarnish. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium is the first chemical element in Group 6 with a symbol Cr and an atomic number 24. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an essential dietary trace element, but hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism , but hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is very toxic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While chromium metal and Cr(III) ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium , Cr(VI), is both toxic and carcinogenic . (wikipedia.org)
  • The carcinogenicity of strontium chromate is attributed to the hexavalent chromium ion and not to strontium. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium 51 isotope is used in blood studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • isotope chromium -51 has a half life of 28 days. (jiskha.com)
  • Conventional assays use target cells labeled with 51 chromium and infer cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by measuring the isotope released by the target cells lysed following incubation with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isotope effects are most readily observed in … Se-80 is used for the production of the medical radioisotope Br-80m. (jerusalemroses.com)
  • Students learn the decay scheme and decay mode of various radioisotopes, such as chromium-51 and fluorine-18. (study.com)
  • How long will it take 360.00 g of chromium-48 to decay to 11.25g. (jiskha.com)
  • Chromatographic analyses indicated the presence of at least three different molecular species interacting with chromate or its reduced derivative trivalent chromium (16065831). (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin , sugar and lipid metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness . (wikipedia.org)
  • A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exception : Niobium is also added to some austenitic steels as an alloying element to stabilize the austenitic structure, to prevent susceptibility to inter-granular corrosion (associated with chromium depletion of grain boundaries) and to decrease the grain size. (slideserve.com)
  • Chromium is widely used for plating to produce a shiny hard surface that is resistant to corrosion. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Chromium-51 is the most commonly used readioactive marker for the labeling of target cells in cytotoxicity assays. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The common name for such assays Chromium Release also describes the fundamental method behind the assay procedure. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Chromium-51 ( 51 Cr) radionuclide, commonly used as a label for target cells in chromium release assays, cell-mediated cytotoxicity studies, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) studies, and CAR-T cell development. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Widely used CTL assays, including the chromium release, JAM test and ELISPOT, involve either radioisotopes or lengthy procedures. (elsevier.com)
  • Deposits of native chromium metal are rare, but they have been discovered. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Native Chromium exists in Kimberlite pipe, where the reducing atmosphere favours the formation of diamond in addition to the elemental Chromium. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Though native chromium deposits are rare, some native chromium metal has been discovered. (chemeurope.com)
  • By mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid , he was able to produce chromium oxide, with the chemical formula CrO 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In a reaction, 41.8 g of chromium(III) oxide reacts with 14.8 g of aluminum to produce chromium and aluminum oxide. (jiskha.com)
  • In 1798, Vauquelin discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As Chromium is an essential nutrient for humans, its shortage in the body may cause heart conditions, disruptions of metabolisms and diabetes. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • 70. The method according to claim 69, wherein the cytotoxic or detectable moiety comprises or consists of a radioisotope. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In addition, chromium(VI) oxide is used in manufacturing high-performance audiotapes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This produces sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ), which is reduced with carbon to chromium(III) oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If 28.6 g of chromium is produced, what mass of aluminum oxide is produced? (jiskha.com)
  • when solid aluminum is heated with chromium(II) oxide, solid chromium and aluminum oxide are produced. (jiskha.com)
  • If you are using 125 g of aluminum and 225 g of chromium (II) oxide, how many grams of chromium are produced. (jiskha.com)
  • Chromium is obtained by heating chromium(III) oxide with carbon. (bartleby.com)
  • Chromium is usually produced by reducing the oxide with aluminium. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Chromium(VI) is a human carcinogen and causes DNA damage following reduction by intracellular reductants. (dartmouth.edu)
  • the Sulfur-35 [ 35 S] release assay is a little used radioisotope-based alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lytic energy of CD8+ T-cells has typically been quantified sooner than 51 Cr-release assay, whereby CD8+ T-cells are incubated in vitro with target cells that be dressed been infected with a virus and labeled with a radioisotope of chromium (51 Cr). (wwf.sg)
  • Traces of chromium occur in plants and animals, and there is evidence that this element may be important in human nutrition, especially in carbohydrate metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromium-51 is a radioisotope that is used to assess the lifetime of red blood cells The half-life of chromium-51 is 27.7 days. (jiskha.com)
  • Chinese-hamster ovary cell cultures were incubated with chromium -51 (Cr-51) labeled sodium-chromate (7775113) at a concentration of 60 nanomolar for 2 or 24 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to 30 percent by weight of radioisotope ions can be incorporated into the particles. (google.com)
  • A car bumper is plated with chromium using chromium(III) ions in solution. (jiskha.com)
  • ScienceDirect Topics,The same RPD framework design was manufactured using cobalt-chrome alloy using a layer thickness of 0.075 mm,There is a considerable difference between cobalt and chromium in terms of their solubility, with cobalt being considerably more soluble and forming soluble cobalt oxides. (housemannskost.ch)
  • Types of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy. (housemannskost.ch)
  • A special form of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy known as Talonite is manufactured by hot-rolling and hardening a specific alloy combination. (housemannskost.ch)
  • Talonite combines the properties of hardness, machinability and wear resistance.Cobalt Chromium Alloy, Cobalt Chromium Alloy,- Alibaba,A wide variety of cobalt chromium alloy options are available to you, such as free samples, paid samples. (housemannskost.ch)
  • There are 570 cobalt chromium alloy suppliers, mainly located in Asia. (housemannskost.ch)
  • It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments.Cobalt-chromium Alloy, Cobalt-chromium Alloy Suppliers and,,Alibaba offers 574 cobalt-chromium alloy products. (housemannskost.ch)
  • A wide variety of cobalt-chromium alloy options are available to you, such as free samples, paid samples.Microstructural characterization of cobalt chromium (ASTM,,Microstructural characterization of cobalt chromium (ASTM F75) cubes produced by EBM technique,microstructure and on corresponding mechanical properties for cobalt-chromium alloy parts manufactured by EBM technique. (housemannskost.ch)
  • Phosphorus Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Radioisotope tracers are introduced into knee joint materials and wear rates are derived by detecting the radioactivity of the prosthesis lubricant during laboratory simulation. (edu.au)
  • Radiometric study of natural radioactivity from soil has been carried out to estimate the concentration of gamma-induced radioisotopes and their associated radiological risk in two sampling sites, an uncultivated (undisturbed) and an agricultural site located near an industrial zone. (researchbib.com)
  • Efficiency of clearance (measured by uptake of radioisotope labeled albumin and chromium phosphate) was likewise markedly below normal. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to the eight toxic metals-arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver-analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. (unt.edu)
  • Selenium isotopes are mainly used for the production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. (jerusalemroses.com)
  • Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr 2 O 4 ) ore . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • About 15 million tons of marketable chromite ore were produced in 2000 and converted into roughly four million tons of ferrochrome (consisting of 70 percent chromium alloyed with iron), with an approximate market value of 2.5 billion U.S. dollars. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Distribution and HPLC study of chromium -51 binding sites in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the radioisotopes or unstable atoms that produce nuclear energy. (aquariofilia.net)
  • Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, and has an electron configuration of [ Ar ] 3d 5 4s 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • He discovered Chromium in 1798 and named it so due to its range of colours in the solution. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • This mine is a kimberlite pipe rich in diamonds, and the reducing environment helped produce both elemental chromium and diamond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • chromium is present in various foods including brewers' yeast, whole grains, peanuts, wheat germ and skim milk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • But also, that this same soil of the Bargny study site was significantly enriched with arsenic and chromium. (researchbib.com)
  • These enriched stable isotopes are used as target materials in the preparation of radioisotopes with particle accelerators and nuclear reactors and as biological tracers in biomedical research and clinical applications. (nap.edu)
  • Chromium has a stable crystalline structure and moderate thermal expansion. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Chromium is composed of three naturally occurring stable isotopes namely 52 Cr, 53 Cr and 54 Cr. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • He was also able to detect traces of chromium in precious gemstones such as ruby and emerald . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Radioisotopes of iron and chromium were also valuable in applications in hematology. (nap.edu)
  • No mineral supplements should be required for athletes who are consuming a well-balanced diet but they frequently take them, especially iron, magnesium and chromium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) played a pioneering role in the development of the first full-scale operating reactor prototype and the initial production of radioisotopes for applications in medical and biological research (Mirzadeh et al. (nap.edu)
  • The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&WTSGRACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. (unt.edu)
  • The radioisotope tracer chromium-51 with a half-life of∼30 days is well suited for this work. (edu.au)
  • The attributes of naturally decaying atoms, known as radioisotopes, give rise to several applications across many aspects of modern day life (see also information paper on The Many Uses of Nuclear Technology ). (world-nuclear.org)
  • Later that year he successfully isolated chromium atoms. (chemeurope.com)
  • It has been proposed heretofore to incorporate radioisotopes into the structure of synthetic resins, and articles containing tritium or carbon 14 incorporated into the structure of synthetic resins or plastics have been produced. (google.com)
  • Radioisotopes widely used in medicine, industry and scientific research, new applications for their use constantly being developed ester names derived from parent alcohol acid, where latter be organic inorganic. (urlaubsreporter.info)
  • But, at the radioisotope of our sink, Inorganic illegibility will connect featured. (adams-farm.com)
  • In diffusion experiments the radioisotopes 54Mn, 51Cr and 59Fe were used. (scientific.net)
  • Some of the health problems caused by Chromium include upset stomach and ulcers, respiratory problems, weakened immune system, kidney and liver damage, alteration of genetic material, lung cancer and death. (simplyknowledge.com)
  • Permanent implants for prostate treatment comprise radioisotopes with relatively short half lives and lower energies relative to temporary sources. (google.co.uk)
  • Stainless steel and chrome plating ( electroplating with chromium) together comprise 85% of the commercial use. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel , to which it adds anti-corrosive properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • half-lives different medical radioisotopes given the table below scientists tracking many pathways which damaged nuclear reactors at fukushima make way into out seawater, marine life. (urlaubsreporter.info)
  • Q. Strontium-90 is a byproduct in nuclear reactors fueled by the radioisotope uranium-235. (clutchprep.com)