Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
Activities performed by humans.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.

Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes. (1/174)

Analysis of perforin-deficient mice has identified the cytolytic pathway and perforin as the preeminent effector molecule in T cell-mediated control of virus infections. In this paper, we show that mice lacking both granzyme A (gzmA) and granzyme B (gzmB), which are, beside perforin, key constituents of cytolytic vesicles, are as incapable as are perforin-deficient mice of controlling primary infections by the natural mouse pathogen ectromelia, a poxvirus. Death of gzmAxgzmB double knockout mice occurred in a dose-dependent manner, despite the expression of functionally active perforin and the absence of an intrinsic defect to generate splenic cytolytic T cells. These results establish that both gzmA and gzmB are indispensable effector molecules acting in concert with perforin in granule exocytosis-mediated host defense against natural viral pathogens.  (+info)

Combined hepatic vein, umbilicoportal vein, and superior mesenteric artery catheterization in portal hypertension: estimation of the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow in cirrhotic patients. (2/174)

Hemodynamic data were obtained in 13 cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, undergoing combined hepatic vein, umbilicoportal vein, and superior mesenteric artery catheterization. The relative clearance of indocyanine green, the portohepatic gradient (difference between the free portal venous pressure and the free hepatic venous pressure), and the estimated hepatic blood flow were measured. The portal fraction (PF) of total hepatic blood flow was calculated in all patients using indicator dilution curves obtained from the portal bifurcation, a right hepatic vein, and when possible a left hepatic vein (six cases) after injection of (51)Cr-labeled red blood cells ((51)Cr RBC) into the superior mesenteric artery. Flows were overestimated because of loss of indicator through spontaneous portosystemic shunts; however, the ratio between hepatic and portal indicator dilution curves can be used to calculate the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow since no extrahepatic shunts existed after the bifurcation of the portal vein (as shown on portography). In 10 patients, 15 series of curves were calculable and the PF varied between 30.1 and 100% (mean +/- SE: 71.1 +/- 6.2%). In the three other patients, only delayed activity from recirculation was detected from portal and hepatic vein samples and PF was 0%; in these three cases, portography and arteriography revealed spontaneous portacaval shunting with reverse and/or stagnant circulation in the portal vein. In the 13 patients, no correlation existed between PF and the relative clearance of indocyanine green or the portohepatic gradient, parameters generally used as indices of severity in cirrhosis. In 10 patients, no correlation was found between PF and the estimated hepatic blood flow.These data indicate that (51)Cr RBC dilution curves can be used for the estimation of the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow in conscious cirrhotic patients before portacaval shunts. Using this methodology, it could be assessed whether any critical level of portal fraction exists above which poor clinical results occur after portacaval shunting. This measurement could eventually be helpful in determining the appropriate surgical procedure to be applied in individual cases.  (+info)

Chromium isotopes and the fate of hexavalent chromium in the environment. (3/174)

Measurements of chromium (Cr) stable-isotope fractionation in laboratory experiments and natural waters show that lighter isotopes reacted preferentially during Cr(VI) reduction by magnetite and sediments. The 53Cr/52Cr ratio of the product was 3.4 +/- 0.1 per mil less than that of the reactant. 53Cr/52Cr shifts in water samples indicate the extent of reduction, a critical process that renders toxic Cr(VI) in the environment immobile and less toxic.  (+info)

The estimation of red cell volume with 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes and plasma volume with radioiodinated human serum albumin. (4/174)

The validity of a simplified procedure for the direct estimation of both red cell and plasma volume, using (51)Cr-labelled erythrocytes and radioiodinated human serum albumin, has been examined. It is suggested that the procedure, involving three venepunctures only, will yield accurate measurements of both compartments.  (+info)


Serum haptoglobin has been estimated quantitatively in 25 patients with haemolytic disease, and its diagnostic value assessed by comparing the levels with those obtained in 110normal subjects, in 149 patients with other forms of anaemia, and in 37 patients with non-haematological disorders. The normal range was found to be 33 to 213 mg./100 ml.; subnormal levels were found in 80% of patients with haemolytic disease or megaloblastic anaemia, patients with haemorrhage into the tissues, and occasionally in association with other diseases. When taken in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory features this simple biochemical estimation can be of diagnostic value.  (+info)

JAK3/STAT5/6 pathway alterations are associated with immune deviation in CD8 T cells in renal cell carcinoma patients. (6/174)


Differential isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by an aquifer-derived bacterium under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions. (7/174)


NK cell-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on a Ca2+ increase in the target. (8/174)

In previous work we showed that programmed cell death (PCD) in thymocytes is mediated by a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, resulting in the activation of an endogenous endonuclease, DNA fragmentation, and cell death. In this study we investigated the roles of Ca2+ and DNA fragmentation in target cell killing by natural killer (NK) cells. The effector cells induced a rapid, sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Jurkat target cells. Buffering the target cell cytosolic Ca2+ with the Ca2(+)-selective dye, quin-2, prevented target cell killing. Extensive DNA fragmentation was associated with killing in every target tested, and this response was also blocked by quin-2. The endonuclease inhibitor, aurintricarboxylic acid, inhibited both DNA fragmentation and killing without influencing the Ca2+ increase in target cells. Thus, it is concluded that NK cell killing depends on a Ca2+ increase and appears to involve endogenous endonuclease activation in target cells.  (+info)

As the famous writer, philosopher and politician, Benjamin Franklin (the guy on the $100 bill) once said, An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. A team of British scientists took it upon themselves to develop a smart wound dressing that changes color when it comes into contact with certain bacteria. In a wound, bacteria from the surrounding skin and other sources quickly find their way in and start to multiply forming colonies. This is absolutely normal, but there are some cases where the bacterial load reaches a critical point, at which immune clearance is no longer effective. Its at this point that medical intervention becomes a must, so Ben Franklin hit the nail right on the head.. ...
We first showed that human FGF19 was stable in mouse blood and its half-time disappearance was further extended by excess FGF19. In the hot only group, there was no meaningful permeation of 125I-FGF19 into brain as seen by multiple-time regression analysis. The initial volume of distribution of 125I-FGF19 remained higher than that of co-administered 131I-albumin. The presence of FGF19 in the cerebral vasculature may allow its binding and activation of BBB endothelia and thus induce CNS function indirectly without crossing the BBB, as seen with adiponectin [19]. Nevertheless, the small portion of FGF19 entering the brain was stable for at least 10 min, so that it could exert direct CNS effects.. The influx of 125I-FGF19 became significant in the presence of excess unlabeled FGF19 or its homolog FGF15 both by multiple-time regression analysis after iv injection and by in-situ brain perfusion. Because of the low level of permeation without an increase of Vi over time, we did not perform capillary ...
Looking for online definition of cytolipin Hcytolipin K in the Medical Dictionary? cytolipin Hcytolipin K explanation free. What is cytolipin Hcytolipin K? Meaning of cytolipin Hcytolipin K medical term. What does cytolipin Hcytolipin K mean?
Oncolytic viruses are a concept Id like to be more excited by than I am.2 Its an idea that seemed really exciting when I first came across it, but the more I thought about it the more dubious I was. But a recent paper helps me feel better about at least two of my worries.. The concept is a straightforward one. Viruses are good at killing cells.3 Why not have them infect cells that we want to die? That would be, for example, cancer cells. So all you need to do is find or make a virus that only grows in cancer cells, and youre cured. Simple! Tomorrow well fix global warming!. Theres the obvious problem with this: How can you find (or make) a cancer-specific virus? In principle the answer is the same as with chemotherapy; you use the ways cancer cells are different from normal as targets. This isnt as hard as you might think. Lots of the things that make cancer cells cancerous are similar to the things viruses like. Viruses often drive infected cells into a cancer-like state that is more ...
Applying biological molecules from cell membranes to the surfaces of artificial materials is opening peepholes on the very basics of cell-to-cell interaction.
In Actinomycin-behandelten Mäusen nahm die Zahl der zirkulierenden Erythrozyten linear ab. Zellulärer Hämoglobinverlust erklärt die scheinbar altersunabhängige Komponente der Erythrozytendestruktion...
Organs:, Serology: Antigen,, Congenic Resistant Lines: B10.A, B10.BR, B10.D2/O, B10.M, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, Strains: C3H, H-2G (HTG). ...
Macrophages (Mφ) are one of the most important immune cells in the body and are distributed in most tissues and organs. These cells play a central role in the non-specific immune clearance of bacteria, viruses, fungal pathogens, and specific immune response antigen presentation and corresponding cytokine production [1]. While traditionally tissue-resident, Mφ have been regarded as being continuously replenished from hematopoietic stem cells via the intermediate step of peripheral blood monocytes, this concept has recently been challenged [2].Thus, studies have recently demonstrated that substantial populations of Mφ are prenatally seeded and exhibit considerable longevity (months to years); in addition, these cells have, at least in part, self-renewal potential [3, 4].. Additionally, CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and early T lymphocytes, etc. [5] can be differentiated into macrophages under certain conditions. There are two main sources of human macrophages in vitro. One source is ...
Phagocytes remove apoptotic cells during development and eliminate pathogens in the immune system. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, particularly the differences between macrophages and non-professional phagocytes like glia, are not well understood. We used novel cell-based assays to screen phagocytic function of candidate genes assembled from literature and our genome-wide transcription profiling of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic glia. Gene function was knocked-down by RNAi and phagocytic efficiency assessed by flow cytometry; to explore functional specificity, we offered not only bacteria, but also apoptotic cells and beads as food. To validate results in vivo, we analysed glial clearance of apoptotic neurons in embryonic development and immune clearance of bacteria in adult flies using both genetic mutants and transgenic RNAi. Our screen provides a cross section of the different steps of phagocytosis from recognition to engulfment and phagosomal degradation. For the ...
The aim of the present study was to delineate the therapeutic effect of a vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant, as well as to identify the potential mechanism against infection when compared with an vaccine, with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. adjuvant to the vaccine were significantly greater than those in the groups with CT as an adjuvant. The mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and Foxp3 were significantly elevated in the mice that were vaccinated with chitosan as an adjuvant to the vaccine, particularly in mice where the infection had been eradicated. The vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant effectively increased the elimination rate, the humoral immune response and the Th1/Th2 cell immune reaction; in addition, the therapeutic vaccine regulated the Th1 and Th2 response. The significantly increased TLR4 expression and decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell number contributed to the immune clearance of the infection. Thus, the present Tandutinib findings demonstrate that in mice the vaccine with ...
Most protozoa survive environmental stress by encapsulating to form a cyst or spore. This process is medically important because cysts of pathogenic protists are resistant to immune clearance, antibiotics and biocides. In addition, cysts of bacterivorous protists such as Acanthamoeba castellani are exploited act as vectors for survival and airborne dispersal by bacterial pathogens, such as Legionella pneumoniae and MRSA. Due to the limited genetic tractability of encysting organisms, the mechanisms controlling encystation are largely unknown.. Dictyostelid social amoebas survive stress by building fruiting structures with encapsulated spores and stalk cells. Both cell types mature in response to cAMP activation of PKA. We showed earlier that this process is evolutionary derived from encystation in solitary amoebas, which we found to also require cAMP acting on PKA. The encysting Dictyostelid Polysphondylium pallidum is uniquely suitable for both reverse and forward genetic approaches, which ...
Many bacterial infections involve biofilm formation. Cells within a biofilm are significantly more resistant to immune clearance and antibiotics compared to unattached, planktonic cells. Berk et al. (p. 236) applied superresolution optical methods to image living bacteria with nanometer-scale precision as they form a biofilm. Vibrio cholerae biofilms were observed to have three distinct levels of spatial organization: cells, clusters of cells, and collections of clusters. Each cell cluster was wrapped in a flexible, elastic envelope. Several V. cholerae matrix proteins played complementary architectural roles during biofilm development. RbmA provided cell-cell adhesion, Bap1 allowed the developing biofilm to adhere to surfaces, and heterogeneous mixtures of VPS, RbmC, and Bap1 formed the dynamic, flexible, and ordered envelopes that encase the cell clusters. ...
Hybridoma:, Neoplasm:, Serology: Antigen, Types of Tumors:, Congenic Resistant Lines: B10.A (5R), B10.A (4R), A.TL, B10.HTT, A.TH, B10.MBR, Genes: H-2 - Histocompatibility-2, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), BALB/C, CBA, C57BL/6. ...
Provides fundamental knowledge of cell-to-cell interactions necessary for proper development and organization of the nervous system. Topics include pattern formation, neuronal differentiation, axon guidance, and target interactions. Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor. Alternate years ...
51Cr radionuclide EDTA. Ussed to measure glomerular filtration rates, in chromium-51-EDTA plasma clearance studies, and in intestinal permeability studies
Chromium-51 is the most commonly used readioactive marker for the labeling of target cells in cytotoxicity assays. The common name for such assays Chromium Release also describes the fundamental method behind the assay procedure. Methods for the precise and accurate quantification of cytotoxicity are of fundamental importance in immunology particularly for the study of tumor and virus cytolysis ...
The researchers found a hint of an excess of the chromium-54 isotope in their first session, but as luck would have it, they had to search 1,500 microscopic grains of the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites before finding just one with definitely high levels.. - latest science and technology news stories. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Cytotoxicity to allogeneic cells in the chicken. I. Role of macrophages in the cytotoxic effect on 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by immune spleen cells. by Melissa A Palladino et al.
when solid aluminum is heated with chromium(II) oxide, solid chromium and aluminum oxide are produced. If you are using 125 g of aluminum and 225 g of chromium (II) oxide, how many grams of chromium are produced. If you actually collect ...
usr/bin/python ../../build/toolchain/ --readelf=readelf --nm=nm --sofile=./ --tocfile=./ --output=./ -- /home/gerd/Downloads/chromium-dev/src/chromium-91.0.4455.2/third_party/llvm-build/Release+Asserts/bin/clang++ -shared -Wl, -fuse-ld=/home/gerd/Downloads/chromium-dev/src/chromium-91.0.4455.2/third_party/llvm-build/Release+Asserts/bin/ld.lld -Wl,--fatal-warnings -Wl,--build-id -fPIC -Wl,-z,noexecstack -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,defs -Wl,--as-needed -Wl,--icf=all -Wl,--color-diagnostics -Wl,--no-call-graph-profile-sort -m64 -Wl,-O2 -Wl,--gc-sections -rdynamic -nostdlib++ -Wl,-rpath=\$ORIGIN -Wl,-O1,--sort-common,--as-needed,-z,relro,-z,now -o ./ @./ FAILED: /usr/bin/python ../../build/toolchain/ --readelf=readelf --nm=nm --sofile=./ --tocfile=./ --output=./ -- ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward. The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Clinical Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
In the genetic regulations of Mllerian set ups advancement, a major function is performed by Wnt and Hoxa clusters, because the transcribing is lead by them of different family genes regarding to the different stages of the organogenesis, addressing cell-to-cell interactions correctly, allowing, finally, the physiologic morphogenesis. the ectopic development and existence of useful endometrial tissues, glands, and stroma, outside the uterine cavity [2, 3]. It impacts deeply and adversely womans quality of lifestyle, adding not really just to struggling but also to significant other and family members complications, to problems related to the achievements of work jobs, and overall to impairment in womans part in modern society [4C7]. Its treatment, medical or medical depending on each case, on the in contrast, could improve and partially bring back womens Alfacalcidol health-related quality of existence (HRQoL), like is definitely reported by Jia et al. [8] and Gao et al. [9]. Risk factors for ...
A method for the determination of red cell mass, which employs the use of radioisotopically-labeled erythrocytes, in the embryonated hen egg is described and results of total blood volume, plasma volume, red cell mass and red cell concentration determinations during the period from 9 to 18 days of incubation presented. Considerations of the values obtained in terms of absolute quantities and relative to embryonic mass are discussed. It is suggested that expansion of the red cell mass and somatic growth are portions of a common process and may be subject to a complex of similar regulatory factors in the normal chick embryo.. ...
Host cells respond to viral infections by activating immune response genes that are not only involved in inflammation, but may also predispose cells to cancerous transformation. One such gene is BST-2, a type II transmembrane protein with a unique topology that endows it tethering and signaling potential. Through this ability to tether and signal, BST-2 regulates host response to viral infection either by inhibiting release of nascent viral particles or in some models inhibiting viral dissemination. However, despite its antiviral functions, BST-2 is involved in disease manifestation, a function linked to the ability of BST-2 to promote cell-to-cell interaction. Therefore, modulating BST-2 expression and/or activity has the potential to influence course of disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of resistive exercise rest interval on hormonal response, strength, and hypertrophy with training. AU - Buresh, Robert. AU - Berg, Kris. AU - French, Jeffrey. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Buresh, R, Berg, K, and French, J. The effect of resistive exercise rest interval on hormonal response, strength, and hypertrophy with training. J Strength Cond Res 23(1): 62-71, 2009- The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different between-set rest periods (1 and 2.5 minutes) on changes in hormone response, strength, arm cross-sectional area (CSA), thigh muscular cross-sectional area (MCSA), and body composition during a 10-week training period. Twelve untrained males (24.8 ± 5.9 years) engaged in resistance training using either 1 minute (short rest [SR], n = 6) or 2.5 minutes (long rest [LR], n = 6) of rest between sets, with a load that elicited failure on the third set of each exercise. Body composition, thigh MCSA, arm CSA, and five-repetition maximum ...
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to their environment through soluble inflammatory mediators and cell-to-cell interactions. As tissue-resident sentinels, ILC2 help orchestrate localized type 2 immune responses. These ILC2-driven type 2 responses are now recognized in diverse immune processes, different anatomical locations, and homeostatic or pathological settings. ILC2-derived cytokines and cell surface signaling molecules function as key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, ILC2 are governed by their environment. As such, ILC2 form an important nexus of the immune system and may present an attractive target for immune modulation in disease. ...
Exercise 3. Sitting by a table, fix a piece of elastic tubing/theraband to the leg of the table nearest you. Pull the band from 45 degrees to 90 degrees, no more. This is a resistive exercise.. Exercise 4. Lying on your side, hold a weight in your hand. Begin with your arm on your tummy, raise your arm to 90 degrees and return. Keep your elbow by your side. This is an advanced resistive exercise.. ...
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you dont have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your librarys reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. OK ...
The Resist-A-Band™ brand includes bands and other products for use in resistive exercise to improve strength and range of motion.
Jakafi is prescribed to relieve symptoms and reduce spleen size in people with myelofibrosis. This eMedTV article gives an overview of this medicine, including how it works, details on its effectiveness, possible side effects, and more.
In conclusion, the concept of the erythron is discussed as a logical way to approach the physiology of erythropoiesis and as a basis for understanding the pathophysiological disturbances whIch characterise the red cell abnormalities. Using this approach, both increase in red cell mass, or erythrocytosis, and decrease in red cell mass, or anaemia, are seen simply as manifestations of a disturbance in the normal regulatory mechanisms of the erythron.
The Modern View of Atomic Structure; Atomic Weights (Sections)Each of the following isotopes is used in medicine. Indicate the number of protons and neutrons in each isotope: (a) phosphorus-32, (b) - chromium-51, (c) cobalt-60, (d) technetium-99, (e) iodine-131, (f) thallium-201
Learn more about Chromium uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Chromium
Avhandlingar om BIOLOGICAL HALF-TIME. Sök bland 98846 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på
Cal Water held a ribbon-cutting ceremony to commemorate the completion of a chromium-6 (Cr-6) treatment plant in its Dixon District yesterday. Mayor Jack Batchelor and representatives from Senator Lois Wolk, Assemblymembers Bill Dodd and John Garamendis offices; Solano County Supervisor John Vasquez, among other local officials, were in attendance.. The treatment plant, one of three plants Cal Water has constructed in the past year, will reduce the amount of naturally occurring Cr-6 from the local water supply. In July 2014, the State of California set the countrys first regulation for Cr-6, allowing no more than 10 parts per billion (ppb) of the constituent be in water provided to consumers. Wells in Cal Waters Dixon District had naturally occurring Cr-6 levels ranging from 15-24 ppb; however, since the treatment plants came online, the water supply in the Dixon District has remained in compliance with the new state standard.. In order to find the most effective solution, Cal Waters Water ...
DelveInsights Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) - Epidemiology Forecast 2030 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical, and forecasted epidemiology of Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) in the United States, EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan.
Danese, P.L., Pratt, L.A., Dove, S.L. and Kolter, R. (2000) The Outer Membrane Protein, Antigen 43, Mediates Cell-to-Cell Interactions within Escherichia coli Biofilms. Molecular Microbiology, 37, 424-432.
The first research work package comprises laboratory work (WP3), which includes single cell sorting, nucleic acid amplification from the minute quantities in a single cell, and highthroughput sequencing. The second is bioinformatics (WP4), by which the billions of short sequences are processed into comprehensive datasets, requiring assembly into larger contigs, gene prediction and annotation, and reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The generated genomic data is then exploited to address scientific questions within two tightly interconnected disciplines, which if tackled separately could not be answered. Fundamental ecological questions (WP5) include the study of the biodiversity of natural samples, cell-to-cell interactions, and gene complements of uncultured lineages that could explain their lifestyle and ecological function. Evolutionary questions (WP6) include the addition of uncultured lineages to retrieve a more complete eukaryotic Tree of Life, understanding the evolution of genes and ...
CAD is divided into two types - primary and secondary - based on the cause of the disease. The symptoms and treatment are similar for both.
ebuild R ] www-client/chromium-53.0.2785.34::gentoo USE=cups hangouts (pic) proprietary-codecs pulseaudio system-ffmpeg tcmalloc widevine -custom-cflags -gn -gnome -gnome-keyring (-gtk3) -kerberos (-neon) (-selinux) {-test} L10N=-am -ar -bg -bn -ca -cs -da -de -el -en-GB -es -es-419 -et -fa -fi -fil -fr -gu -he -hi -hr -hu -id -it -ja -kn -ko -lt -lv -ml -mr -ms -nb -nl -pl -pt-BR -pt-PT -ro -ru -sk -sl -sr -sv -sw -ta -te -th -tr -uk -vi -zh-CN -zh-TW 0 KiB ...
To legally get the Chromium OS, you have to wait for Google to launch Chromium Netbooks with optimized hardware. This means you cannot download and run the Chromium OS on your desktop or laptop.. But here is the good news:. Chromium OS, the open source build of Googles upcoming web-focused Operating System, was made into a thumb-drive-friendly build early on by a helpful hacker named Hexxeh.. Hexxeh has before released his Chromium OS ZERO Build which became quite famous. Now, he has released his latest build the FLOW.. ...
Please fill out the form below with all the relevant details. If want to request information on more than one illustration, you may prefer to e-mail me directly instead. If you do, please include the link to this illustration and the other illustrations: ...
mkdir pipa cd pipa gclient config --spec=solutions=[{name:src, url:,},] gclient sync ...
Product Page for Chromium Polynicotinate ChromeMate 200mcg 100 Caps made by olympian-labs offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
"Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature. 461 (7261): 250-253. Bibcode: ...
... and the soluble oxidized chromium carried into the ocean shows this enhancement of the heavier isotope. The chromium isotope ... However, the chromium data may conflict with the sulfur isotope data, which calls the reliability of the chromium data into ... "Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature. 461 (7261): 250-253. Bibcode: ... Different isotopes of a chemical element have slightly different atomic masses. Most of the differences in geochemistry between ...
The isotope Bh-262 was the fusion of Bismuth-209 and Chromium-54. For the first time, the seat of a member of the United States ...
Schauble E, Rossman GR, Taylor HP (2004) Theoretical estimates of equilibrium chromium-isotope fractionations. Chemical Geology ... Schauble, EA; Rossman, GR; Taylor, HP (2001) Theoretical estimates of equilibrium Fe-isotope fractionations from vibrational ...
Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 65, p9-16 Pitre,J. , Bédard, M. , Hineman, A. 2011. Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores ... Ferrochromes, and Chromium Slags for ICP-OES without using HF or HClO4. Spectrocopy Online, May 1, 2014. Volume 29, Issue 5.. ... Determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium and iridium in geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled ...
Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461 (7261): 250-253. Abstract: [1] ...
Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461 (7261): 250-253. ...
The circuit boards in a computer contain mercury, and chromium. When these types of materials, and chemicals are disposed ... radioactive isotopes and mercury. A typical computer monitor may contain more than 6% lead by weight, much of which is in the ... It contains lead and chromium in the metal plates. Resistors, semi-conductors, infrared detectors, stabilizers, cables, and ... Computer components contain many toxic substances, like dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cadmium, chromium, ...
Computer components contain many toxic substances, like dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cadmium, chromium, ... radioactive isotopes and mercury. A typical computer monitor may contain more than 6% lead by weight, much of which is in the ...
Natural calcium is a mixture of five stable isotopes (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, and 46Ca) and one isotope with a half-life so ... It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of chromium, zirconium, thorium, and uranium. It can also be used to ... Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the ... Mass-dependent differences in calcium isotope composition are conventionally expressed by the ratio of two isotopes (usually ...
The production methods for different isotopes vary, and only those for promethium-147 are given because it is the only isotope ... chromium, and platinum). In 1934, Josef Mattauch finally formulated the isobar rule. One of the indirect consequences of this ... The primary decay products are neodymium and samarium isotopes (promethium-146 decays to both, the lighter isotopes generally ... isotopes. This is a result of a rarely occurring effect of the liquid drop model and stabilities of neighbor element isotopes; ...
... chromium) isotopes. The chemistry of vanadium is noteworthy for the accessibility of the four adjacent oxidation states 2-5. In ... At least four isotopes have metastable excited states. Electron capture is the main decay mode for isotopes lighter than 51V. ... Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope, 51V, and one radioactive isotope, 50V. The latter has a half- ... The most stable of these isotopes are 49V with a half-life of 330 days, and 48V with a half-life of 16.0 days. The remaining ...
As the neutron energy increases, the neutron cross section of most isotopes decreases. The boron isotope 10B is responsible for ... The tubes can be made of stainless steel or other "neutron window" materials such as zirconium, chromium, silicon carbide, or ... over metastable conditions like for isotope 235mU, which has a half-life of about 26 min. Other means of controlling reactivity ... chromium, and niobium for corrosion resistance, and with molybdenum for wear resistance, hardness, and machineability. Such ...
The oxygen and chromium isotope results from Bunburra Rockhole are quite different to the bulk of the HED meteorite clan. ... The differences in oxygen and chromium isotopes and variable trace element compositions relative to the bulk HED measurements ... Oxygen Isotope analyses have contributed to the classification of meteorites and identification of potential origins. Typically ... Wiechert, U. H.; Halliday, A. N.; Palme, H.; Rumble, D. (2004-04-30). "Oxygen isotope evidence for rapid mixing of the HED ...
... isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ... Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Chromium. National Academy Press. pp. ... The primary decay mode in isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 55Mn, is electron capture and the primary ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than three hours, and the majority of less than one minute. ...
"Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature. 461 (7261): 250-253. Bibcode: ... Chromium. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... "Chromium". Diakses tanggal 2008-08-24.. *^ a b c Dennis, J. K.; Such, T. E. (1993). "History of Chromium Plating". Nickel and ... Inggris) Chromium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham). *(Inggris) "Chromium". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 ...
All isotopes of this element are radioactive with half lives of 17.7 years or less. The promethium in the outer envelope may be ... This is classified as an Ap/Bp star, with a peculiar spectrum showing lines of chromium and europium that change in intensity ...
The device was named after Chromium-48, an unstable isotope of the metallic element Chromium, and the participants were named ... "Chromium OS Docs - Running Custom Containers Under Chrome OS". Retrieved November 20, 2018. Upson, ... Chromium OS Web thin client For information on typing special characters, see QWERTY#Chrome OS Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (June 18 ... As of November 2019, Chromium OS reports the product end of life date in the "About this Chromebook" section of device settings ...
The level of chromium isotope 54Cr in Österplana 065 is similar to those in ordinary chondrites, while oxygen isotopes are ... Österplana 065 also features a chromium-spinel-rutile assemblage, not observed in other meteorites. Österplana 065 is believed ...
... that the impact hypothesis is further supported by chromium isotope evidence for the presence of extraterrestrial material. The ... Extraterrestrial Chromium at the Graphite Peak P/Tr boundary and in the Bedout Impact Melt Breccia. Lunar and Planetary Science ...
... isotopes are typically collocated (and compounded) with manganese isotopes. This circumstance is useful in isotope ... Most chromium(0) compounds are derivatives of the compounds chromium hexacarbonyl or bis(benzene)chromium. Chromium is the 21st ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromous ...
... in Darmstadt bombarded a target of bismuth-209 with accelerated nuclei of chromium-54 to produce 5 atoms of the isotope bohrium ...
... a higher than expected concentration of platinum group metals and the presence of a non-terrestrial chromium isotope were all ...
Its most stable isotope, Radon-222, has a half-life of 3.8 days. Strontium is also naturally occurring and may be dislodged by ... Chromium-51, Cobalt-57, Cobalt-58, Cobalt-60, Gold-198, Iodine-127, Iodine-128, Iodine-129, Iodine-130, Iron-59, Krypton-85, ... Radium-226 is a product of Uranium-238 decay, and is the longest-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 1601 years; next ... Other gamma-emitting tracer isotopes used are Antimony-121, Antimony-122, Antimony-123, Antimony-125, Antimony-126, Antimony- ...
Carbon isotope analyses of 11 microbial fossils from the ∼3,465-million-year-old Apex chert (Australia) are published by Schopf ... 2018). A study on the isotopically enriched chromium in Mesoproterozoic-aged shales from the Shennongjia Group (China) dating ... 2018). A study on the stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of dentine apatite in the teeth of twenty-eight specimens ... based on triple oxygen isotope measurements sedimentary sulfates from the Sibley basin (Ontario, Canada), is published by ...
... to nucleosynthesis Neutron capture and the Chart of the nuclides The chart of the Nuclides Discovery of the Chromium isotopes, ... This activated isotope is used in oil drilling to determine the clay content (clay is generally an alumino-silicate) of the ... An example of this kind of fission in a light element can occur when the stable isotope of lithium, lithium-7, is bombarded ... For example, one of the fairly unique isotopes found in trinitite, and therefore with its absence likely signifying a fake ...
Wei, Wei; Klaebe, Robert; Ling, Hong-Fei; Huang, Fang; Frei, Robert (2020). "Biogeochemical cycle of chromium isotopes at the ... Chromium has two oxidation states: trivalent chromium, Cr(III), and hexavalent chromium, Cr(IV). Trivalent chromium adsorbs ... Soluble hexavalent chromium is the most common type of chromium in oceans, where over 70% of dissolved chromium in the ocean is ... Hexavalent chromium is reduced to trivalent chromium in oxygen minimum zones or at the surface of the ocean by divalent iron ...
Isotopes of chromium All pages with titles beginning with Chromium All pages with titles containing Chromium This ... Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. Chromium may also refer to: Chromium (computer graphics), a ... a 2015 Albanian film Chromium deficiency, for the role of chromium in biology and nutrition Chromium B.S.U., an open-source ... the open source counterpart to Google Chrome Chromium OS, the open source operating system counterpart to Google Chrome OS ...
Levels of chromium toxicity, mobility and bioavailability depend on oxidation states of chromium. Two of the most common ... Canfield, D.E (2001). "Biogeochemistry of Sulfur Isotopes". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 43 (1): 607-636. Bibcode: ... Many heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), at low concentrations are essential micronutrients in the soil, however they can be ... Al-Battashi, H; Joshi, S.J.; Pracejus, B; Al-Ansari, A (2016). "The Geomicrobiology of Chromium (VI) Pollution: Microbial ...
Neutron-rich chromium isotope anomalies in supernova nanoparticles. In: The Astrophysical Journal. Nr. 720, 2010, S. 1577. doi: ... The hydroxyl content and hydrogen isotope composition of lunar apatites. In: 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 2012 ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Flerov, G. N. (1967). "On the nuclear properties of the isotopes 256103 and 257103". Nucl. Phys. A. 106 (2): 476. Bibcode: ... For comparison, the abundance of copper is 50 ppm, that of chromium is 160 ppm, and that of molybdenum is 1.5 ppm.[58] ... The first atoms of lawrencium were produced by bombarding a three-milligram target consisting of three isotopes of the element ...
Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ...
Primordial isotopes of the alkali metals Z. Alkali metal. Stable. Decays. unstable: italics. odd-odd isotopes coloured pink ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... No primordial isotopes. (223. Fr. is a radiogenic nuclide) Radioactive: 40K, t1/2 1.25 × 109 years; 87Rb, t1/2 4.9 × 1010 years ... Francium-223, the only naturally occurring isotope of francium,[58][59] is the product of the alpha decay of actinium-227 and ...
Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion.[126] One proposal considers that hydrogen and its isotopes ... Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported ... This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes. However, the reduction in ... the possible existence of fusion involving hydrogen isotopes in a planetary core.[24] In his original paper on this subject ...
Main isotopes of gadolinium. [[Isotope,IsoÀdàkọ:Shytope]] [[Natural abundance,AbunÀdàkọ:Shydance]] Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ...
Chromium. Greek chroma. 24. &051.9961651.9961(6). 6. 4 ... indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... with half-life of the most stable isotope, dubnium-268, being only 29 hours, and other isotopes even more radioactive. To date ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of ytterbium. Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days ... The primary decay mode of ytterbium isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb, is electron capture, and the ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ...
Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[153] 109 Meitnerium 1982 G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) ... The two obtained the first isotope of this element that had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as a member of the natural ... Chromium 1794 N. Vauquelin 1797 N. Vauquelin Vauquelin discovered the trioxide in crocoite ore, and later isolated the metal by ... In 1900, Friedrich Ernst Dorn discovered a longer-lived isotope of the same gas from the radioactive decay of radium. Since " ...
... oxide Irving Langmuir isocyanate Isomer isoprene isotope Isotope table (complete) Isotope table (divided) Israel Shahak IUPAC J ... Anfinsen Chromatography Chromite Chromium Chrysoberyl Chrysolite cinnabar Cinnabarite Citric acid Citrine quartz Clay Cleveite ... Solvent solvation solvent species Specific heat capacity Spectroscopy Speed of sound Sperrylite Spinel Spodumene stable isotope ...
isotopes Titanium 22. Ti. 47.867(1) isotopes Vanadium 23. V 50.9415(1) isotopes Chromium 24. Cr. 51.9961(6) isotopes Manganese ... isotopes 2 Lithium 3. Li. 6.941(2) isotopes Beryllium 4. Be. 9.012182(3) isotopes Boron 5. B 10.811(7) isotopes Carbon 6. C ... isotopes Radon 86. Rn. [222] isotopes 7 Francium 87. Fr. [223] isotopes Radium 88. Ra. [226] isotopes Actinium 89. Ac. [227] ... isotopes Nitrogen 7. N 14.0067(2) isotopes Oxygen 8. O 15.9994(3) isotopes Fluorine 9. F 18.9984032(5) isotopes Neon 10. Ne. ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of germanium. Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70. Ge. , 72. Ge. , 73. Ge. , 74. Ge ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... isotopes also exhibit minor β−. delayed neutron emission decay paths.[46]. OccurrenceEdit. See also: Category:Germanium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of ...
"Dirty work: Soil formation and isotope fractionation behind Brumbaugh Academic Center" (PDF). Juniata College Geology ... chromium, and selenium.[54] ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The number of neutrons varies according to the isotope: the stable isotopes have 8, 9, or 10 neutrons. Oxygen is a member of ... "Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes". Retrieved December 17, 2007.. *^ a b c Meyer, B. S. (September 19-21, ... see oxygen isotope ratio cycle). Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope, oxygen-16, evaporate at a slightly faster ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... The longest-lived isotope of promethium has a half-life of 17.7 years, so the element exists in nature in only negligible ... Rare-earth elements are also useful for dating rocks, as some radioactive isotopes display long half-lives. Of particular ... isotopes and are followed by (i.e. with higher atomic number) stable elements (the other being technetium). ...
Isotopes[edit]. Main article: Isotopes of bismuth. The only primordial isotope of bismuth, bismuth-209, was traditionally ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... Several isotopes of bismuth with short half-lives occur within ... This isotope has also been tried in cancer treatment, for example, in the targeted alpha therapy (TAT) program.[39][40] ...
Isotope Development & Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) U.S. Department of Energy program for isotope production ... chromium-51 and cobalt-58). These may be imaged using SPECT in order to verify the presence of fuel rods in a stored fuel ... On occasion, the radioisotope is a simple soluble dissolved ion, such as an isotope of gallium(III). Most of the time, though, ... National Isotope Development Center Reference information on radioisotopes including those for SPECT; coordination and ...
Isotopes. Main article: Isotopes of argon. The main isotopes of argon found on Earth are 40. Ar (99.6%), 36. Ar (0.34%), and 38 ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... 40Ar, the most abundant isotope of argon, is produced by the ... Ar (according to solar wind measurements),[22] and the ratio of the three isotopes 36Ar : 38Ar : 40Ar in the atmospheres of the ...
High Flux Isotope Reactor. *Higher-order compact finite difference scheme. *Hikaaitaan. *Hispano-Suiza 8 ...
The principal constituent atoms of organic chemistry - hydrogen and carbon - exist naturally with NMR-responsive isotopes, ... titanium and chromium) ...
Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... belangin tae the fower neighbouring isotopes wi masses 290-293. The maist stable isotope kent is livermorium-293 wi a hauf-life ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... altho a sufficiently stable isotope is nae kent at this time ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Main article: Isotopes of thorium. All but two elements up to bismuth (element 83) have an isotope that is practically stable ... All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the ... An even number of either protons or neutrons generally increases nuclear stability of isotopes, compared to isotopes with odd ...
Isotopes. Main article: Isotopes of silver. Naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u (93Ag) to 129.950 u (130Ag);[22] the primary decay mode before ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... isotopes.[21] The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta ...
The addition of silicon will produce cast irons, while the addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more ... neutron deficient isotopes.[16] ... The corrosion resistance of iron-chromium alloys had been ... A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium ... While nearly all metals are malleable or ductile, a few-beryllium, chromium, manganese, gallium, and bismuth-are brittle.[7] ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of chromium. Naturally occurring chromium is composed of three stable isotopes; 52Cr, 53Cr ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... with manganese isotopes. This circumstance is useful in isotope geology. Manganese-chromium isotope ratios reinforce the ... Chemical compounds used in dietary supplements include chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium(III) picolinate, chromium( ...
Isotopes[edit]. Main article: Isotopes of thallium. Thallium has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to ... Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and make up nearly ... "International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 33 (12): 1439-1443. doi:10.1016/0020-708X(82)90183-1. PMID 7169272.. ...
Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... Clayton, D.D. (2003). Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: ... Urey, Harold C. (1933). "Names for the Hydrogen Isotopes". Science. 78 (2035): 602-603. doi:10.1126/science.78.2035.602. PMID ... B. (2004). "Spectroscopy of superheavy hydrogen isotopes in stopped-pion absorption by nuclei". Physics of Atomic Nuclei. 68 (3 ...
The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 67Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is ... ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. Chromium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Projects. ... Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most ... Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ...
Chromium isotope fractionation during subduction-related metamorphism, black shale weathering, and hydrothermal alteration. ... Chromium isotope fractionation during subduction-related metamorphism, black shale weathering, and hydrothermal alteration ... Chromium isotope fractionation during subduction-related metamorphism, black shale weathering, and hydrothermal alteration ...
Chromium Isotopes. This new method may be the only one capable of tracing increases in atmospheric oxygen, because chromium ... comm.). (H) Key aspects of the Precambrian history of hexavalent chromium in sea water. Increasing Cr isotope fractionation (δ ... Sulfur Isotopes. Sulfur isotope discrimination (marine sulfate δ34S − pyrite sulfide δ34S) increased to modern values during ... Carbon Isotopes. The carbon isotope record provides insight into the Neoproterozoic global carbon cycle. Since the pioneering ...
Chromium compounds of oxidation state +6 are powerful oxidants.. Isotopes. The isotopes of chromium range in atomic weight from ... Chromium metal and chromium(III) compounds are not usually considered health hazards, but hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) ... Chromium(III) oxide. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of ... The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism, but hexavalent chromium ( ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of chromium. Naturally occurring chromium is composed of three stable isotopes; 52Cr, 53Cr ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... with manganese isotopes. This circumstance is useful in isotope geology. Manganese-chromium isotope ratios reinforce the ... Chemical compounds used in dietary supplements include chromium chloride, chromium citrate, chromium(III) picolinate, chromium( ...
Chromium-52 Isotope, Enriched Chromium-52, Chromium-52 Metal, Chromium-52 Oxide, Chromium-52 Price, Chromium-52 Applications ... Chromium-52 Isotope Applications:. Chromium-52 isotope (Cr-52 isotope, 52Cr isotope) ... Chromium-52 isotope is used for studies of doped semiconductors;. *Chromium-52 isotope is used for Iron-52 (Fe-52 isotope, 52Fe ... Properties of Chromium-52 Isotope:. Properties of Chromium-52 Isotope:. CHROMIUM-52. ...
Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan discovered eight new rare isotopes of the ... which may be the heaviest calcium isotopes. Explore further: ISOLDE mints isotopes of chromium ... ISOLDE mints isotopes of chromium. July 6, 2018 CERNs nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its ... The facility has forged neutron-rich isotopes of the element chromium for the first time, and in prodigious quantities. ... ...
Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and scien... ... Noninvasive studies of chromium metabolism and human requirements. • Adult onset diabetes mechanisms ... ISOTOPE SEPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Since the late 1940s the dominant source of most of the enriched stable isotopes ... Enriched stable isotopes may still be purchased from IPDP, which has a substantial inventory of some isotopes still on hand. ...
Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and... ... Radioisotopes of iron and chromium were also valuable in applications in hematology. Red blood cell survival, iron physiology, ... However, isotope programs have always depended on the "parasitic" use of reactors, whose primary use was not related to isotope ... Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and science, where their ...
Determination of isotope ratios of chromium nickel, zinc and copper by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by using volatile ...
Isotopes, Analyse isotopique, Analyses isotopiques (fr); آئسوٹوپ (pnb); ізатопы (be-tarask); Isotope, Isotopes, ہم جاء, ہم جا ( ... chemical isotope, atomic isotope, isotopes (en); Isotop, Izotopy (cs); Izotopi (bs); Isotopi (it); সমস্থানিক (bn); Signature ... Isotopes of chromium‎ (6 D). *. ► Isotopes of cobalt‎ (1 K, 2 D) ... Isotope (so); Isotopo (war); आइसोटोप (new); izotop (sl); isotope (tl); Izotopi (sq); Изотоптор (ky); Isotop (ceb); izotopy (pl ...
Implications for fractionation during core formation Unlocking the zinc isotope systematics of iron meteorites Iron isotope ... Four papers are linked to this grant: Stable chromium isotopic composition of meteorites and metal-silicate experiments: ... CHROMIUM ISOTOPES EARTH CORE EARTH MANTLE IRON METEORITES ISOTOPES METEORITES OXIDATION PERIDOTITE PEROVSKITE PYROXENITE ... The oxygen fugacity of core segregation and the redox evolution of the mantle: constraints from iron and chromium isotopes ( ...
Chromium (11). Chromium isotopes (1). Clay minerals (1). Climate change (14). Climatology (14) ...
Isotope Chemical form Use Chromium 51. Chromate. Spleen scans. Do. Placenta localization. ... naturally occurring isotopes, or nonradioactive substances used in conjunction with isotopes. ... d)(1) In view of the extent of experience with the isotopes listed in paragraph (c) of this section, the Nuclear Regulatory ... 2) In view of the extent of experience with the isotopes listed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the Nuclear Regulatory ...
... chromium(III) acetylacetonate 0.2 %; find Sigma-Aldrich-717908 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... NMR reference standard, 50% in acetone-d6 (99.9 atom % D), chromium(III) acetylacetonate 0.2 %. ...
... à travers la mesure des isotopes 46-48 de largon. Les résultats dune précision améliorée confirment la présence dune forte ... Cette thèse présente les premières mesures de haute précision des isotopes 58-63Cr grâce à des techniques de spectrométrie de ... Nuclear Collectivity Studied through High Precision Mass Measurements of Neutron-rich Argon and Chromium Isotopes ... Cette thèse présente les premières mesures de haute précision des isotopes 58-63Cr grâce à des techniques de spectrométrie de ...
Chromium trioxide. Chromium oxides, hydroxides except chromium trioxide. Manganese dioxide. Manganese oxides other than ... Chromium sulphates. Nickel sulphates. Copper sulphates. Zinc sulphate. Barium sulphate. Sulphates of metals nes. Alums. ... Isotopes nes, compounds. Cerium compounds. Compounds, mixes of rare-earths, yttrium, scandium ne. Hydrogen peroxide. Phosphides ... Trade of goods , US$, HS 1992, 28 Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotope. Search glossaries. Source: Commodity ...
Main isotopes of Chromium. Isotope. % in Nature. Half Life. Decay type. Decay product. ... Most widespread minerals containing Chromium. This list of minerals containing Chromium is built from the locality ... Element association of Chromium in the Mineral World. This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with ... chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate. [Cr(H2O)6](NO3)3 · 3H2O. +3. ...
Isotopes. Two naturally occurring isotopes of rubidium exist: rubidium-85 and rubidium-87. Isotopes are two or more forms of an ... Although rubidium is much more abundant in the earths crust than chromium, copper, lithium, nickel, or zinc, and about twice ... Each variation is an isotope.. Rubidium-87 is a radioactive isotope. A radioactive isotope is one that breaks apart and gives ... the balance is the stable isotope rubidium-85. Fifteen other isotopes are known. Rubidium was discovered with cesium in 1861 by ...
... isotope ratio measurement of water and organic samples by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry using chromium as the ... isotope ratio measurement of water and organic samples by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry using chromium as the ...
Chromium reduction and associated stable isotope fractionation restricted to anoxic shelf waters in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum ... The marine chromium (Cr) cycle is still insufficiently understood, in particular the mechanisms modulating the spatial ... distribution of dissolved stable Cr isotopes in seawater. Redox transformations between its main oxidation states, Cr(VI) and ...
Chromium reduction sulfur line for extracting pyrite and acid-volatile sulfur; Soxhlet extraction apparatus for extracting ... OASIC currently has two isotope ratio mass spectrometers (MAT253 and Isoprime 100) and one laser absorption isotopic water ...
The Chromium Isotope System as a Tracer of Ocean and Atmosphere Redox. Pris. 203,-. ... Application of Thallium Isotopes : Tracking Marine Oxygenation through Manganese Oxide Burial. Pris. 311,-. ... Barium Isotopes : Drivers, Dependencies, and Distributions through Space and Time. Pris. 203,-. ...
2016) Oxygenation of the mid-Proterozoic atmosphere: Clues from chromium isotopes in carbonates. Geochem Perspect Lett 2:178- ... 2009) Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461:250-253. ... 2016) A shale-hosted Cr isotope record of low atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic. Geology 44:555-558. ... 2013) The effect of particulate dissolution on the neodymium (Nd) isotope and rare earth element (REE) composition of seawater ...
2009) Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461(7261):250-253. ... 1992) Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment. Nature 359(6396):605-609. ... An alternative isotope model incorporates seafloor weathering as a carbon removal pathway (28) and produces similar forg ... S6), our predicted forg fits the isotope model (8) more closely. However, the present work is primarily concerned with the ...
Isotopes in Extraterrestrial Materials (1963) * Isotopic Measurement of Chromium Induced by Cosmic Rays in Iron Meteorites. ( ...
Over 131 Isotope pictures to choose from, with no signup needed. Download in under 30 seconds. ... Chromium atom, with elements symbol, number, mass and element type color. Stock Videosby oneo20/21. Samarium atom, with ...
The different chromium isotopic compositions of chondrites and the mantle offer insight into Earths early history. ...
Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Titanium Alloy Ni Fe Cr Mo Ti bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, ... Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium is found ... Chromium. 24 Cr 51.996100000 Chromium See more Chromium products. Chromium (atomic symbol: Cr, atomic number: 24) is a Block D ... The chromium atom has a radius of 128 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 189 pm. In its elemental form, chromium has a lustrous ...
  • All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 minute, the least stable being 66Cr with a half-life of 10 milliseconds. (
  • This element also has 2 meta states, 45mCr, the more stable one, and 59mCr, the least stable isotope or isomer. (
  • The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. (
  • Chromium has 26 isotopes, 4 of them are stable and naturally occurring. (
  • Is Chromium-52 isotope stable? (
  • The calcium isotopes are indicated from the last stable calcium-48 out to calcium isotopes that can only be reached with FRIB. (
  • Stable" isotopes live forever, while some heavy isotopes might only live for a few seconds. (
  • That's 12 more neutrons than the heaviest of the stable calcium isotopes, calcium-48. (
  • This stable isotope disintegrates after living for hundreds of quintillion years, or 40 trillion times the age of the universe. (
  • The discovery of stable ''isotopes" began with J. J. Thomson's identification of neon-22 in 1912 (Bievre et al. (
  • they exist as nearly 270 stable isotopes-that is, forms of the elements that do not decay or emit radiation-and hundreds of radioactive isotopes. (
  • Iron is mostly iron-56 (92 percent), but it contains small amounts of three other isotopes as well, and tin is a mixture of 10 stable isotopes, the most abundant of which makes up only 33 percent of the total. (
  • The use of enriched stable isotopes and their applications as they are presently known emerged from early work with metabolites labeled with deuterium (Schoenheimer and Rittenberg, 1935). (
  • In the last two decades the use of enriched stable isotopes has offered substantial advantages to scientists and clinicians involved in the rapid growth of research on human body composition, energy balance, protein turnover, and fuel utilization (Whitehead and Prentice, 1991). (
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988) as well as diagnostic and therapeutic adjuncts (obesity, inborn errors of metabolism, heart disease) has created an explosion in the need for stable isotopes at a time when the production capacity is questionable. (
  • Although stable isotopes occur naturally, their utility can be greatly enhanced when they are isolated and enriched through processes such as electromagnetic separation, cryogenic distillation, thermal diffusion, or other physical and chemical processes. (
  • These enriched stable isotopes are used as target materials in the preparation of radioisotopes with particle accelerators and nuclear reactors and as biological tracers in biomedical research and clinical applications. (
  • Table 1-1 in the previous chapter lists some of the many fields that use stable or radioactive isotopes. (
  • Selected biomedical research topics and potential clinical uses of stable isotopes are given in Table 2-1 . (
  • In many areas of research, the need for enriched stable isotopes is as vital as the need for pure chemicals (Friedlander and Wagner, 1982). (
  • Stable isotopes used primarily for research are usually purchased intermittently in relatively small amounts, from fractions of a gram to a few grams at a time. (
  • The marine chromium (Cr) cycle is still insufficiently understood, in particular the mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of dissolved stable Cr isotopes in seawater. (
  • Element: Chromium (Cr) Atomic Number: 24 Mass: Four "stable" isotopes between 50 and 54 amu. (
  • Use of carbon stable isotopes to monitor biostimulation and electron donor fate in chromium-contaminated groundwater. (
  • Naturally occurring silicon has three stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring nickel has five stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring chromium has four stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring tellurium has eight stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring molybdenum has seven stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring xenon has nine stable isotopes. (
  • Natural occurring selenium has six stable isotopes. (
  • Naturally occurring iridium has two stable isotopes. (
  • Natural occurring titanium has five stable isotopes. (
  • The stable Tungsten isotopes can be enriched or depleted by Urenco Stable Isotopes to any concentration. (
  • Trivalent chromium is the most stable oxidation state for chromium, and it is this form that is found in common nutritional supplements, generally as the picolinate. (
  • and isotopic tracers, including the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance. (
  • Application of stable isotopes to biological and medical sciences. (
  • Looking at the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes in the nitrogen, Harries found that it was very close to the ratio in the nitrogen that makes up three-quarters of Earth's atmosphere today. (
  • Using 15N stable isotope as a tracer to quantify N transformation rates in isotope-enrichment experiments improves understanding of the N cycle in various ecosystems. (
  • Caroline Thaler (2010-14) (co-advisers: B. Menez and F. Guyot) Stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with carbonate precipitation induced by subsurface bacteria. (
  • Thomas Giunta (2010-15) (co-adviser: P. Agrinier) Constraints on the geochemistry of Cl and Br stable isotopes in subsurface waters. (
  • Pierre Cadeau (2014-17 ANR grant) (co-adviser: C. Leboulanger-ECOSYM) Stable isotope insights into the biogeochemical cycles of the Dziani Dzaha Lake, Mayotte: viewed as an analogue of lacustrine source rock depositional environments. (
  • Most elements have at least two stable isotopes. (
  • By contrast, tin has the largest number of stable isotopes of any element, ten. (
  • This isotope breaks down into a stable isotope of potassium, 39 K or potassium-39. (
  • Radioactive isotopes are much more common than are stable isotopes. (
  • The atmospheric concentration of oxygen is also likely to have increased over this time, resulting in higher ocean sulfate concentration ( 3 ) and increased isotopic fractionation of chromium ( 4 ) and sedimentary sulphides ( 5 ). (
  • Here we show that GEOCARBSULF oversimplifies the geochemistry of sulphur isotope fractionation, returning unrealistic values for the O 2 sourced from pyrite burial when oxygen is low. (
  • The first rise in atmospheric O 2 concentration to appreciable levels around 2.45-2.32 Ga, termed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), is well-defined due to the loss of mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation as stratospheric ozone abundance increased 1 . (
  • Chromium isotope fractionation in ferruginous sediments. (
  • Recent higher-precision (~ 0.1‰) K isotope data show K isotopic fractionation of ~0.4‰ between the Earth and the Moon ( 7 ), interpreted as a result of incomplete vapor condensation during Moon formation. (
  • The geological evidence places the global rise of atmospheric oxygen, termed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), between ~2.45 and ~2.32 Ga, and it is captured within the Duitschland Formation, which shows a transition from mass-independent to mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation. (
  • The delta notation (δ 34 S) describes the permil level deviation of an isotope ratio in a sample from that in a reference material, and the capital delta notation (Δ 33 S and Δ 36 S) describes the deviation of an isotope ratio from a reference fractionation array. (
  • Long Li (2007-09)(co-advisers: A. Prinzhofer, IFPEN) Experimental study of Cl isotope fractionation during its transport through rocks. (
  • Christian Millo (2006-10) (co-adviser: B. Menez) C isotope fractionation associated with carbonate precipitation induced by Ueolysis. (
  • Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotope systematics must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. (
  • Yamakawa A., Yamashita K., Makishima A., and Nakamura E. (2010) Chromium isotope systematics of achondrites: chronology and isotopic heterogeneity of the inner Solar System bodies. (
  • How many neutrons does Chromium-52 isotope have? (
  • Isotopes of each element contain the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. (
  • The heaviest isotope of an element represents the limit of how many neutrons the nucleus can hold. (
  • The various isotopes of a given element differ from one another only in the number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus (the number of protons in the nucleus differentiates the elements from one another), and even highly purified samples of an element are generally a mixture of several isotopes. (
  • all isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their atoms, but each has a different number of neutrons - for instance, each atom of chromium-52 has 28 neutrons, while atoms of chromium-53 have 29. (
  • protons and neutrons does each isotope possess? (
  • Examining chromium by analyzing how it attracts and repulses neutrons can help engineers "how chromium interacts with other constituencies in the melt," ORNL explains. (
  • Another way of defining isotopes, then, is to say that they are different forms of an atom with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. (
  • It has a short half-life of about 3.7 million years and decays into one of the four chromium isotopes - element variants with different numbers of neutrons. (
  • The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism , but hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is very toxic. (
  • In the United States, trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin , sugar and lipid metabolism . (
  • There are two forms of chromium: trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. (
  • To date, no chromium-containing biomolecules have been definitively described, and no clinical manifestation of trivalent chromium deficiency in humans has been established. (
  • Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of trivalent chromium, and in the form of small particles or aerosols. (
  • Various chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) oxide and lead chromate, are brightly colored and used in paints and pigments. (
  • Chromium was named after the Greek word "chroma" meaning color , because of the many colorful compounds made from it. (
  • [5] The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma , meaning color , [6] because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. (
  • The chemical reaction, which can be found in the study and involved manganese oxide handing off oxygens to chromium, would be a little like adding pontoons to chromium compounds. (
  • Chromium strongly resists corrosion and is used extensively to plate other metals, harden steel, and, in combination with other elements, form colored compounds. (
  • Sort the following chromium compounds by whether the cation is chromium(II) or chromium(III). (
  • The same isotope is preferentially involved in certain leaching reactions, thereby allowing its abundance in seawater sediments to be used as a proxy for atmospheric oxygen concentrations. (
  • Crowe and his colleagues analyzed levels of chromium and other metals in samples from South Africa that could serve as markers of reactions between atmospheric oxygen and minerals in Earth's rocks. (
  • When atmospheric oxygen reacts with rock - a process known as weathering -heavier chromium isotopes, such as chromium-53, often get washed out to sea by rivers. (
  • This means heavier chromium isotopes are often depleted from soils on land and enriched in sediments in the ocean when oxygen is around. (
  • Common molecules called ligands can bias the results of a popular chemical tracer called the chromium (Cr) isotope system, which is used to test sedimentary rock layers for clues about atmospheric oxygen levels during the epoch when the rock formed. (
  • On a global level, the chromium isotope system is still a great indicator of atmospheric oxygen levels through the ages," Tang said. (
  • Without a dominant oxygen presence, ligands likely made a great reactive substitute, as the researchers demonstrated in reactions with chromium. (
  • And like reactions with oxygen, reactions with ligands enable metals like chromium to move around more easily in the world. (
  • They were more apt to match oxygen's mobility effect on chromium that made it end up as the signals in sedimentary rock that scientists, today, look for as a sign of ancient atmospheric oxygen. (
  • Today, researchers test deep rock layer samples for the relation between two chromium isotopes, 52Cr, by far the most common Cr isotope, and 53Cr, to get a read on oxygen presence across geological eras. (
  • Here, mid-ocean seasonality is resolved through time, using differences in the oxygen isotope composition between individual shells of the commonly used (sub)polar planktonic foraminifera species in ocean-climate reconstruction, N. pachyderma and G. bulloides . (
  • Northwest Africa 12217, 12319, and 12562 are dunites and lherzolite cumulates that have siderophile element abundances consistent with origins on highly differentiated asteroidal bodies that experienced core formation, and with trace element and oxygen and chromium isotopic compositions associated with the howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. (
  • Jun 15, 1976· Process of extracting chromium from a chromium ore or concentrate by oxidation, which comprises suspending the chromium ore or concentrate in a bath of molten salts and introducing an oxygen-containing gas into the suspension in a sufficient amount and for a sufficient amount of time to oxidize chromium therein. (
  • Jun 18, 2018· The important ore of chromium is Chromite or chrome ore, FeO Cr2 O3 The chief ore of chromium is chromite ore. (
  • What happened to the chromium market in 2017 and what is the chromium outlook for 2018? (
  • While chromium metal and Cr(III) ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium , Cr(VI), is both toxic and carcinogenic . (
  • It is an essential dietary trace element, but hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic. (
  • Hexavalent chromium is the highest oxidation state of elemental chromium. (
  • The most interesting short-lived isotopes synthesized during a recent experiment at RIKEN's Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) were calcium-59 and calcium-60, which are now the most neutron -laden calcium isotopes known to science. (
  • In the future, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University will allow scientists might be able to make calcium-68 or even calcium-70, which may be the heaviest calcium isotopes . (
  • In addition, chromium(VI) oxide is used in manufacturing high-performance audiotapes. (
  • By mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid , he was able to produce chromium oxide, with the chemical formula CrO 3 . (
  • In 1798, Vauquelin discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven. (
  • This produces sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ), which is reduced with carbon to chromium(III) oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). (
  • Chromium-52 isotope is available to order from in Chromium-52 metal (Cr) chemical form and in Chromium-52 oxide (Cr2O3) chemical form. (
  • The lead (II) salt of chromium (VI) oxide gives a vivid yellow. (
  • We have the technology to supply a range of isotopes in various chemical forms including oxide, metal, gaseous or elemental. (
  • In a reaction, 41.8 g of chromium(III) oxide reacts with 14.8 g of aluminum to produce chromium and aluminum oxide. (
  • If 28.6 g of chromium is produced, what mass of aluminum oxide is produced? (
  • when solid aluminum is heated with chromium(II) oxide, solid chromium and aluminum oxide are produced. (
  • If you are using 125 g of aluminum and 225 g of chromium (II) oxide, how many grams of chromium are produced. (
  • Chromium metal is usually produced by reducing chromite with carbon in an electric-arc furnace, or reducing chromium(III) oxide with aluminium or silicon. (
  • Write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions for a silver-chromium voltaic cell. (
  • The catalytic activity of picolinic acid, 1,10-phenanthroline, oxalic acid, 2,2 -bipyridyl and ethylenediamine tetracetic acid have been investigated in the chromium(VI) oxidation of indole in aqueous acetic acid medium. (
  • Some radioactive isotopes occur naturally. (
  • At least 1,000 radioactive isotopes occur in nature or have been produced synthetically in particle accelerators (atom-smashers) or nuclear reactors (devices used to control the release of energy from nuclear reactions). (
  • Later that year he successfully isolated chromium atoms. (
  • The existence of isotopes can be understood by reviewing the structure of atoms. (
  • If the thermal processing (evaporation/condensation) that depleted K has also fractionated K isotopes, a correlation between K isotopic compositions and K depletions is expected. (
  • Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology. (
  • Endress and his collaborators chose to study chromium-53, the daughter isotope of manganese-53, in carbonate fragments of the two CI chondrites known as Ivuna and Orgueil. (
  • Chromium (chemical symbol Cr , atomic number 24) is a hard, shiny, steel-gray metal that takes a high polish and does not tarnish. (
  • Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. (
  • Chromium (atomic symbol: Cr, atomic number: 24) is a Block D, Group 6, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 51.9961. (
  • This mine is a kimberlite pipe rich in diamonds, and the reducing environment helped produce both elemental chromium and diamond. (
  • they thus contribute less to metallic bonding, and hence the melting and boiling points and the enthalpy of atomisation of chromium are lower than those of the preceding element vanadium. (
  • Two naturally occurring isotopes of rubidium exist: rubidium-85 and rubidium-87. (
  • Moreover, chromium-6 occurs naturally in rocks and soils throughout the U.S. It is not solely a byproduct of coal burning or industrial processes. (
  • 4 , 5 A number of naturally occurring isotopes have been identified, the most common of which is 52 Cr (approximately 84% of the isotopes). (
  • The element chromium (Cr) is abundant in the earth's crust and is found in concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 ppm. (
  • oxides and hydrides from any injected water) is often necessary for useful measurement of low abundant isotopes and mass-limited samples. (
  • Two common isotopes of uranium exist, 235 U and 238 U. Of these two, 238 U is much more abundant, making up about 99.3 percent of the uranium found in nature. (
  • Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan discovered eight new rare isotopes of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, argon, potassium, scandium and, most importantly, calcium. (
  • Charge radii of exotic potassium isotopes challenge nuclear theory and the magic character of N = 32, Nature Physics (2021). (
  • Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). (
  • As an example, potassium has a radioactive isotope with mass number 40, 40 K or potassium-40. (
  • OASIC currently has two isotope ratio mass spectrometers (MAT253 and Isoprime 100) and one laser absorption isotopic water analyzer (Los Gatos IWA-35d-EP with auto-injector and water vapor standard source). (
  • The delta notation (e.g., δ 13 C, δ 15 N values) describes the permil level deviation of an isotope ratio in a sample from that in a reference material. (
  • Hydrogen and D/H analysis of apatite by Elemental-Analyzer-Chromium/High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS). (
  • Multicollector ICP-MS instruments are widely used in geochemistry for high precision isotope ratio measurements. (
  • Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in various percentages yield an incredible variety of the most important metals in modern technology. (
  • Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Titanium is one of numerous metal alloys sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Alloys™ . (
  • Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium Cr(VI), cobalt, lead, nickel and thorium are identified as being carcinogenic in humans or animals but most are pro-carcinogens which become activated to advance cellular uptake and genotoxic or epigenetic action. (
  • This melt sheet has high abundances of chromium, nickel, cobalt, and the platinum-group elements. (
  • 1958). 99m Tc, the isotope used in more than 80 percent of the diagnostic nuclear imaging studies performed today, is the short-lived "daughter" resulting from the decay of 99 Mo. (
  • How long will it take 360.00 g of chromium-48 to decay to 11.25g. (
  • Although these isotopes have by now decayed completely, researchers can infer their presence in the early solar system by looking for an excess abundance of their decay isotopes. (
  • Isotopic Measurement of Chromium Induced by Cosmic Rays in Iron Meteorites. (
  • We propose that K isotope anomalies are inherited from an isotopically heterogeneous protosolar molecular cloud, and were preserved in bulk primitive meteorites. (
  • The researchers found a hint of an excess of the chromium-54 isotope in their first session, but as luck would have it, they had to search 1,500 microscopic grains of the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites before finding just one with definitely high levels. (
  • We rebuild the model from first principles, utilizing an improved numerical scheme, the latest carbon isotope data, and we replace the sulphur cycle equations in line with forwards modelling approaches. (
  • Apr 26, 2011· Chromium was discovered in a red lead ore from Siberia by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, however, he was in Normandy, France at the time. (
  • However, there is some evidence that taking chromium daily for 10 weeks does not improve cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. (
  • It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of chromium are necessary for human health. (
  • As a result, we know that many foods contain small amounts of chromium, but we are still not sure about exact amounts or how amounts might vary under different circumstances. (
  • chromium 51 a radioactive isotope of chromium having a half-life of 27.7 days and decaying by electron capture, emitting gamma rays. (
  • Chromium-51 is a radioisotope that is used to assess the lifetime of red blood cells The half-life of chromium-51 is 27.7 days. (
  • Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan have discovered eight new rare isotopes, including the heaviest known calcium atom, calcium-60. (
  • To synthesize these new isotopes, researchers accelerated an intense beam of heavy zinc particles onto a block of beryllium. (
  • Historically, isotopes were provided to researchers by the Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Agency and are now provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). (
  • The researchers focused on the different levels of chromium isotopes within their samples. (
  • However, researchers are looking carefully at the results that show chromium might be effective for treating diabetes. (
  • Some researchers think that chromium supplements benefit only people with poor nutrition or low chromium levels. (
  • Other researchers think that chromium might only help people with diabetes and insulin resistance . (
  • In the 1950s, researchers discovered the role of chromium in blood sugar control, a role we describe below in the Role in Health Support section. (
  • Because the amounts of chromium in foods are quite small, researchers have struggled to clearly quantify dietary chromium intake in the same way we can with other nutrients. (
  • The question of the persistence of the N=28 shell closure in the Argon chain is also studied in this PhD work through the measurement of the neutron-rich 46-48Ar isotopes. (
  • Two of the other new isotopes of sulfur and chlorine, S-49 and Cl-52, were not predicted to exist by a number of models that paint a lower resolution picture of nuclei. (
  • Chromium(VI) is a strong oxidising agent in contrast to the molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) oxides. (
  • Ingestion or exposure to certain forms of chromium may cause or contribute to GI irritation and ulcers, dermatitis, hemorrhage, circulatory shock, and renal tubule damage. (
  • Some experts estimate that the safe and adequate daily intake of chromium ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 mg, depending on the age of the individual. (
  • Once again, these factors shift the focus onto an overall healthy diet when evaluating intake of chromium. (
  • The effectiveness of these products has not been established, although they represent nutritionally sound sources of chromium. (
  • 1,2) The most important industrial sources of chromium in the atmosphere are those related to ferrochrome production. (
  • Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . (
  • Isotope signal enhancement and/or mass spectral interference reduction (ex. (
  • What is atomic mass for Chromium-52 isotope? (
  • This thesis reports on the first high-precision mass measurements of the neutron-rich 58-63Cr isotopes using the well established Penning trap mass spectrometry technique as well as the MRToF-MS technique pioneered at ISOLTRAP in recent years. (
  • Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number . (
  • If the original sample had a mass of 28.0 grams, what mass of chromium -51 sample remains after 84 days? (
  • If 5.026g chromium is combined with 3.04L of chlorine gas at 0.955atm and 220C, what mass of chromium (III) chloride is produced? (
  • If you begin with 30.1 mg of this isotope, what mass remains after 44.6 days have passed? (
  • Axetris MFCs used for CO2 isotope tracking Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) is using Axetris mass flow controllers (MFCs) in its research laboratory at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station, located at the "Top of Europe. (
  • Isotopes are two forms of an element with the same atomic number but different mass number . (
  • First, they may be designated by writing the name of the element followed by the mass number of the isotope. (
  • Second, isotopes may be designated by the chemical symbol of the element with a superscript that shows their mass number. (
  • The advantage of using two or more isotopes of the same element is that the isotopes will all have the same chemical properties but may differ from each other because of their mass differences. (
  • But because the difference in mass between the two isotopes is not very great, the diffusion had to be repeated many times before the two isotopes could be separated very well. (
  • A car bumper is plated with chromium using chromium(III) ions in solution. (
  • Using NOMAD, Khaykovich was able to see how each positively charged chromium ion attracted six negative chlorine ions. (
  • Our new high-precision K isotope data correlate with other neutron-rich nuclides (e.g., 64 Ni and 54 Cr) and suggest that the observed 41 K variations have a nucleosynthetic origin. (
  • Small isotopic anomalies have been found in chondrites for many neutron-rich isotopes ( 13 - 17 ). (
  • Now its primary use is for metal alloys, accounting for 85 percent of the use of chromium. (
  • When chromium is used in stainless steel alloys and polished, the specular reflection decreases with the inclusion of additional metals, yet is still high in comparison with other alloys. (
  • During the 1800s chromium was primarily used as a component of paints and in tanning salts but now metal alloys account for 85% of the use of chromium. (
  • Foods rich in chromium, specifically brewer's yeast, have been used to help balance blood sugar since the time of the Civil War. (
  • Khaykovich studied chromium traces in his samples of sodium chloride, which are important because of the way they get into the molten salt to begin with: usually as corrosion from a reaction between the molten salt and the metal alloy container that holds it. (
  • fig. S2A] K isotope measurements of samples from a number of solar system objects. (
  • Research journals typically show less than 10 total measurements for chromium in any particular food, and many of these measurements show little consistency. (
  • Single-specimen isotope measurements during the deglacial period revealed a surprising bimodality, the cause of which was investigated. (
  • Single specimen isotope measurements during the deglacial period revealed a surprising bimodality of the polar N. pachyderma not seen in concurrent specimens of subpolar G. bulloides , the cause of which was investigated. (
  • A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel . (
  • Mn-Cr isotope ratios reinforce the evidence from 26Al and 107Pd for the early history of the solar system. (
  • Their laboratory analyses show that the meteorite has chondritic chromium isotope ratios and identical platinum-group element ratios to the bulk impact melt. (
  • However, chromium is present in many foods in very small amounts (1-2 micrograms or less). (
  • The solar system began with a small amount of the short-lived radiogenic isotope aluminum-26. (
  • He and Robert Grimm of Arizona State University in Tempe had proposed such a theory in 1989 but were stymied by arguments that water had remained frozen for 50 to 100 million years-long after the short-lived aluminum isotope would have expired. (
  • May 22, 2017· Chromium is an essential trace mineral that can improve insulin sensitivity and enhance protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. (
  • To get more accurate timing of these early events, Endress and his colleagues needed to trace an isotope with a half-life of no more than a few million years-short enough to reflect activity within the first 10 million years of the solar system. (
  • Traces of chromium occur in plants and animals, and there is evidence that this element may be important in human nutrition, especially in carbohydrate metabolism. (
  • Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, and has an electron configuration of [ Ar ] 3d 5 4s 1 . (
  • She became rich and famous by promoting "toxic chromium" scares, co-authored a recent letter with the radical Environmental Working Group raising Cr-6 alarms, and will speak on election eve at Catawba College in North Carolina to stir things up still further. (
  • Chromium deficiency. (
  • Taking chromium by mouth is effective for preventing chromium deficiency. (
  • We have seen evidence of chromium deficiency leading to abnormally high blood sugar as well as evidence that restoring chromium supply back toward normal or higher can enhance blood sugar control even in some people with diabetes. (
  • Other reactor-produced radioisotopes continue to play a major role in research, and recent advances in many fields (such as molecular biology, including the Human Genome Project) could not have been accomplished without the use of 32 P. In addition, many of the isotopes useful for therapeutic applications, such as strontium-89 for the palliation of metastatic bone pain, are produced in reactors. (
  • When rubidium-87 breaks down in the rock, it changes into a new isotope, strontium -87. (
  • One of the isotopes of strontium found in these rocks is strontium-86. (
  • It will contain two isotopes of strontium. (
  • A standard method using strontium isotopes had indicated that liquid water made its debut sometime within the first 50 million years after solid bodies formed. (
  • Chromium is a hard silvery transition element. (
  • Also, isotopes of the same element have different physical properties. (
  • Tarasov explained that proving the existence of a certain isotope of an element can advance scientists' understanding of the nuclear force. (
  • The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Chromium and the element listed for that row. (
  • Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. (
  • Chromium is extremely hard, and is the third hardest element behind carbon (diamond) and boron. (