Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Picolinic acid is an organic compound that belongs to the class of pyridine derivatives, acting as a chelating agent in mammals, primarily found in the liver and kidneys, and playing a significant role in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
Welding is not typically considered a medical term, but rather refers to a process in manufacturing and construction involving the joining of metal components through heat or pressure, which isn't directly related to medicine or healthcare.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.

Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes. (1/174)

Analysis of perforin-deficient mice has identified the cytolytic pathway and perforin as the preeminent effector molecule in T cell-mediated control of virus infections. In this paper, we show that mice lacking both granzyme A (gzmA) and granzyme B (gzmB), which are, beside perforin, key constituents of cytolytic vesicles, are as incapable as are perforin-deficient mice of controlling primary infections by the natural mouse pathogen ectromelia, a poxvirus. Death of gzmAxgzmB double knockout mice occurred in a dose-dependent manner, despite the expression of functionally active perforin and the absence of an intrinsic defect to generate splenic cytolytic T cells. These results establish that both gzmA and gzmB are indispensable effector molecules acting in concert with perforin in granule exocytosis-mediated host defense against natural viral pathogens.  (+info)

Combined hepatic vein, umbilicoportal vein, and superior mesenteric artery catheterization in portal hypertension: estimation of the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow in cirrhotic patients. (2/174)

Hemodynamic data were obtained in 13 cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, undergoing combined hepatic vein, umbilicoportal vein, and superior mesenteric artery catheterization. The relative clearance of indocyanine green, the portohepatic gradient (difference between the free portal venous pressure and the free hepatic venous pressure), and the estimated hepatic blood flow were measured. The portal fraction (PF) of total hepatic blood flow was calculated in all patients using indicator dilution curves obtained from the portal bifurcation, a right hepatic vein, and when possible a left hepatic vein (six cases) after injection of (51)Cr-labeled red blood cells ((51)Cr RBC) into the superior mesenteric artery. Flows were overestimated because of loss of indicator through spontaneous portosystemic shunts; however, the ratio between hepatic and portal indicator dilution curves can be used to calculate the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow since no extrahepatic shunts existed after the bifurcation of the portal vein (as shown on portography). In 10 patients, 15 series of curves were calculable and the PF varied between 30.1 and 100% (mean +/- SE: 71.1 +/- 6.2%). In the three other patients, only delayed activity from recirculation was detected from portal and hepatic vein samples and PF was 0%; in these three cases, portography and arteriography revealed spontaneous portacaval shunting with reverse and/or stagnant circulation in the portal vein. In the 13 patients, no correlation existed between PF and the relative clearance of indocyanine green or the portohepatic gradient, parameters generally used as indices of severity in cirrhosis. In 10 patients, no correlation was found between PF and the estimated hepatic blood flow.These data indicate that (51)Cr RBC dilution curves can be used for the estimation of the portal fraction of total hepatic blood flow in conscious cirrhotic patients before portacaval shunts. Using this methodology, it could be assessed whether any critical level of portal fraction exists above which poor clinical results occur after portacaval shunting. This measurement could eventually be helpful in determining the appropriate surgical procedure to be applied in individual cases.  (+info)

Chromium isotopes and the fate of hexavalent chromium in the environment. (3/174)

Measurements of chromium (Cr) stable-isotope fractionation in laboratory experiments and natural waters show that lighter isotopes reacted preferentially during Cr(VI) reduction by magnetite and sediments. The 53Cr/52Cr ratio of the product was 3.4 +/- 0.1 per mil less than that of the reactant. 53Cr/52Cr shifts in water samples indicate the extent of reduction, a critical process that renders toxic Cr(VI) in the environment immobile and less toxic.  (+info)

The estimation of red cell volume with 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes and plasma volume with radioiodinated human serum albumin. (4/174)

The validity of a simplified procedure for the direct estimation of both red cell and plasma volume, using (51)Cr-labelled erythrocytes and radioiodinated human serum albumin, has been examined. It is suggested that the procedure, involving three venepunctures only, will yield accurate measurements of both compartments.  (+info)

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN. (5/174)

Serum haptoglobin has been estimated quantitatively in 25 patients with haemolytic disease, and its diagnostic value assessed by comparing the levels with those obtained in 110normal subjects, in 149 patients with other forms of anaemia, and in 37 patients with non-haematological disorders. The normal range was found to be 33 to 213 mg./100 ml.; subnormal levels were found in 80% of patients with haemolytic disease or megaloblastic anaemia, patients with haemorrhage into the tissues, and occasionally in association with other diseases. When taken in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory features this simple biochemical estimation can be of diagnostic value.  (+info)

JAK3/STAT5/6 pathway alterations are associated with immune deviation in CD8 T cells in renal cell carcinoma patients. (6/174)

 (+info)

Differential isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by an aquifer-derived bacterium under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions. (7/174)

 (+info)

NK cell-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on a Ca2+ increase in the target. (8/174)

In previous work we showed that programmed cell death (PCD) in thymocytes is mediated by a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, resulting in the activation of an endogenous endonuclease, DNA fragmentation, and cell death. In this study we investigated the roles of Ca2+ and DNA fragmentation in target cell killing by natural killer (NK) cells. The effector cells induced a rapid, sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Jurkat target cells. Buffering the target cell cytosolic Ca2+ with the Ca2(+)-selective dye, quin-2, prevented target cell killing. Extensive DNA fragmentation was associated with killing in every target tested, and this response was also blocked by quin-2. The endonuclease inhibitor, aurintricarboxylic acid, inhibited both DNA fragmentation and killing without influencing the Ca2+ increase in target cells. Thus, it is concluded that NK cell killing depends on a Ca2+ increase and appears to involve endogenous endonuclease activation in target cells.  (+info)

Chromium isotopes are different forms of the chemical element Chromium (Cr), which have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in each isotope having a different atomic mass, although they all have the same number of protons (24) and therefore share the same chemical properties.

The most common and stable chromium isotopes are Chromium-52 (Cr-52), Chromium-53 (Cr-53), Chromium-54 (Cr-54), and Chromium-56 (Cr-56). The other less abundant isotopes of Chromium, such as Chromium-50 (Cr-50) and Chromium-51 (Cr-51), are radioactive and undergo decay to become stable isotopes.

Chromium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of stainless steel and other alloys.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

Chromium compounds refer to combinations of the metallic element chromium with other chemical elements. Chromium is a transition metal that can form compounds in various oxidation states, but the most common ones are +3 (trivalent) and +6 (hexavalent).

Trivalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) chloride or chromium(III) sulfate, are essential micronutrients for human health, playing a role in insulin function and glucose metabolism. They are generally considered to be less toxic than hexavalent chromium compounds.

Hexavalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(VI) oxide or sodium dichromate, are much more toxic and carcinogenic than trivalent chromium compounds. They can cause damage to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.

It is important to note that while some chromium compounds have beneficial effects on human health, others can be highly toxic and should be handled with care. Exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds, in particular, should be minimized or avoided whenever possible.

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. This means they have different atomic masses, but share similar chemical properties. Some isotopes are stable and do not decay naturally, while others are unstable and radioactive, undergoing radioactive decay and emitting radiation in the process. These radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Chromates are the salts or esters of chromic acid (H2CrO4) that contain the chromate ion (CrO4 2-). They are characterized by their yellow or orange color. Chromates are widely used in industry, for example as corrosion inhibitors, pigments, and wood preservatives. However, they are also toxic and carcinogenic, and exposure to chromates can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and damage to the eyes and mucous membranes. Therefore, their use is regulated in many countries, and appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling them.

Nitrogen isotopes are different forms of the nitrogen element (N), which have varying numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common nitrogen isotope is N-14, which contains 7 protons and 7 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also heavier stable isotopes such as N-15, which contains one extra neutron.

In medical terms, nitrogen isotopes can be used in research and diagnostic procedures to study various biological processes. For example, N-15 can be used in a technique called "nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy" to investigate the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in the body. Additionally, stable isotope labeling with nitrogen-15 has been used in clinical trials and research studies to track the fate of drugs and nutrients in the body.

In some cases, radioactive nitrogen isotopes such as N-13 or N-16 may also be used in medical imaging techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) scans to visualize and diagnose various diseases and conditions. However, these applications are less common than the use of stable nitrogen isotopes.

Oxygen isotopes are different forms or varieties of the element oxygen that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei, which is 8, but a different number of neutrons. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16 (^{16}O), which contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons, and oxygen-18 (^{18}O), which contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons.

The ratio of these oxygen isotopes can vary in different substances, such as water molecules, and can provide valuable information about the origins and history of those substances. For example, scientists can use the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in ancient ice cores or fossilized bones to learn about past climate conditions or the diets of ancient organisms.

In medical contexts, oxygen isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or treatments, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where a radioactive isotope of oxygen (such as oxygen-15) is introduced into the body and emits positrons that can be detected by specialized equipment to create detailed images of internal structures.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

Picolinic acid is not specifically classified as a medical term, but it is a type of organic compound that belongs to the class of molecules known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are carboxylic acids derived from pyridine by the substitution of a hydrogen atom with a carboxyl group.

Picolinic acid, specifically, is a pyridine derivative with a carboxyl group at the 2-position of the ring. It is naturally produced in the body and can be found in various tissues and fluids, including the brain, where it plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly tryptophan.

In addition to its physiological functions, picolinic acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, and may also play a role in heavy metal chelation and neuroprotection. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical significance of this compound.

I must apologize, but "welding" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Welding is a process that is commonly used in manufacturing and construction to join two pieces of metal together by melting them and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten metal (the weld puddle) that cools to become a strong joint.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Potassium dichromate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula K2Cr2O7. It is a potassium salt of dichromic acid. In its pure form, potassium dichromate appears as a bright red or deep orange crystalline powder. It is highly soluble in water and has a sweetish, sour taste.

In the medical field, potassium dichromate has been historically used as an antiseptic and astringent, but its use has largely been discontinued due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe health effects. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the kidneys and liver. Long-term exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is important to handle potassium dichromate with care and use appropriate personal protective equipment when working with this compound.

Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc, each with a different number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus. Zinc has five stable isotopes: zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70. These isotopes have naturally occurring abundances that vary, with zinc-64 being the most abundant at approximately 48.6%.

Additionally, there are also several radioactive isotopes of zinc, including zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72, among others. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that decay over time, emitting radiation in the process. They are not found naturally on Earth and must be produced artificially through nuclear reactions.

Medical Definition: Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc with different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nucleus, including stable isotopes such as zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70, and radioactive isotopes such as zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72.

Carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), environmental carcinogens refer to "cancer-causing agents that people encounter in their daily lives, including substances or exposures in air, water, food, and in the workplace." These carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by damaging DNA or interfering with cellular processes that control growth.

Examples of environmental carcinogens include:

* Air pollution: Certain pollutants in the air, such as diesel exhaust particles and secondhand smoke, have been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.
* Radon: A naturally occurring radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and other buildings, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.
* UV radiation: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds can lead to skin cancer.
* Certain chemicals: Some chemicals found in the workplace or in consumer products, such as asbestos, benzene, and vinyl chloride, have been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
* Infectious agents: Certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites can increase the risk of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, and hepatitis B and C viruses are leading causes of liver cancer.

It's important to note that exposure to environmental carcinogens does not guarantee that a person will develop cancer. The risk depends on many factors, including the level and duration of exposure, as well as individual susceptibility. However, reducing exposure to these agents can help reduce the overall risk of cancer.

"Tanning" is not a medical term per se, but rather a common term used to describe the process of skin darkening as a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. Medically speaking, this process is known as "induction of cutaneous pigmentation."

The UV radiation stimulates the production of melanin, a pigment that absorbs and scatters UV light to protect the skin from further damage. There are two types of melanin: eumelanin (black or brown) and pheomelanin (yellow or red). The type and amount of melanin produced determine the color and tone of an individual's skin, hair, and eyes.

It is important to note that excessive sun exposure and tanning can lead to harmful health effects, including premature aging of the skin, eye damage, and increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to protect the skin with appropriate clothing, hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen when exposed to UV radiation.

Sulfur isotopes are different forms of the chemical element sulfur, each with a distinct number of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common sulfur isotopes are sulfur-32 (with 16 neutrons) and sulfur-34 (with 18 neutrons). These isotopes have similar chemical properties but different atomic masses, which can be used to trace the movement and cycling of sulfur through various environmental processes, such as volcanic emissions, bacterial metabolism, and fossil fuel combustion. The relative abundances of sulfur isotopes can also provide information about the origins and history of sulfur-containing minerals and compounds.

I must clarify that "Iron Isotopes" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific concept from the field of physics and chemistry. However, I can certainly provide a general explanation of isotopes and then focus on iron isotopes specifically.

An isotope is a variant of a chemical element that has the same number of protons (and thus the same atomic number) but a different number of neutrons within its nucleus. This results in variations of the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element. Some isotopes are stable, while others are unstable and will decay over time into other elements or isotopes, a process called radioactive decay.

Iron (Fe) has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58. These iron isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, resulting in slightly different atomic masses. The most abundant iron isotope is Fe-56, which contains 26 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus.

In the context of human health, iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as oxygen transport and energy production. However, the concept of iron isotopes does not have a direct medical relevance, but it can be useful in scientific research related to fields like geochemistry, environmental science, or nuclear physics.

Chromium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the chemical element chromium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes have an excess of energy and particles, making them unstable and capable of emitting ionizing radiation in the form of gamma rays or subatomic particles such as alpha or beta particles.

Chromium has several radioisotopes, including chromium-50, chromium-51, and chromium-53, among others. Chromium-51 is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes in medical applications, particularly in diagnostic procedures such as red blood cell labeling and imaging studies.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their potential radiation hazards.

Deuterium is a stable and non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The atomic nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, giving it an atomic weight of approximately 2.014 atomic mass units (amu). It is also known as heavy hydrogen or heavy water because its hydrogen atoms contain one neutron in addition to the usual one proton found in common hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium occurs naturally in trace amounts in water and other organic compounds, typically making up about 0.015% to 0.018% of all hydrogen atoms. It can be separated from regular hydrogen through various methods such as electrolysis or distillation, and it has many applications in scientific research, particularly in the fields of chemistry and physics.

In medical contexts, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer to study metabolic processes in the body. By replacing hydrogen atoms in specific molecules with deuterium atoms, researchers can track the movement and transformation of those molecules within living organisms. This technique has been used to investigate various physiological processes, including drug metabolism, energy production, and lipid synthesis.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Diphenylcarbazide is a colorimetric reagent that is used in chemistry and in some medical tests. It is an orange, crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In chemistry, it is often used as a reducing agent or as a complexing agent. In medicine, it is most commonly used as a reagent in the diphenylcarbazide test for metals such as chromium and nickel. When mixed with solutions containing these metals, diphenylcarbazide reacts to form a purple or violet-colored complex that can be measured and used to determine the concentration of the metal ions in the solution. It is also known as carbazide diethanol or carbazide DEE.

Strontium isotopes are different forms of the element strontium that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common strontium isotopes are Sr-84, Sr-86, Sr-87, and Sr-88, with atomic masses of 83.913, 85.909, 86.909, and 87.905 atomic mass units (amu), respectively.

Strontium-87 is a radioactive isotope that is produced naturally in the Earth's crust through the decay of rubidium-87. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 can be used as a geological dating tool, as well as a forensic tool for determining the origin of objects or materials.

In medical applications, strontium ranelate, which contains stable strontium isotopes, has been used in the treatment of osteoporosis due to its ability to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fractures. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about potential side effects, including cardiovascular risks.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

... , Chromium, Lists of isotopes by element). ... Chromium-51 is a synthetic radioactive isotope of chromium ... The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 70Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is ... Chromium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Audi, ... Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most ...
... isotopes are typically collocated (and compounded) with manganese isotopes. This circumstance is useful in isotope ... Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromium(II) ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Most chromium(I) compounds are obtained solely by oxidation of electron-rich, octahedral chromium(0) complexes. Other chromium( ...
Large kinetic isotope effects are observed. (2) Oxidative annulation of alkenols to form six-membered rings may be accomplished ... Oxidation with chromium(VI) complexes involves the conversion of alcohols to carbonyl compounds or more highly oxidized ... Oxidation with chromium(VI) has two primary limitations. Operationally, the tarry byproducts lead to lowered yields. In ... "Chromium-based Reagents". Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones. Basic Reactions in Organic Synthesis. 2006. pp. 1-95 ...
... precipitated chromium isotope ratios in sediments abundant in ferric iron accurately reflect seawater chromium isotope ratios ... is associated with negative chromium isotope excursions. Following the riverine transport of oxidised chromium into the ocean, ... Chromium isotopes also show that during the Cryogenian interglacial interval, between the Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations, ... Further positive carbon isotope excursions occurred during the Cryogenian. Although several negative carbon isotope excursions ...
... and the soluble oxidized chromium carried into the ocean shows this enhancement of the heavier isotope. The chromium isotope ... However, the chromium data may conflict with the sulfur isotope data, which calls the reliability of the chromium data into ... "Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature. 461 (7261): 250-253. Bibcode: ... In any case, Isotope geochemistry data from sulfate minerals have been interpreted to indicate a decrease in the size of the ...
"On-Line Hydrogen-Isotope Measurements of Organic Samples Using Elemental Chromium: An Extension for High Temperature Elemental- ... isotope ratios of the bulk chemical mixture, or isotope ratios of individual constituent compounds. Stable isotopes of carbon ... In any isotope system, kinetic effects are stronger for larger mass differences. Light isotopes in most systems also tend to ... In the equilibrium isotope reactions of Hydrogen and Deuterium in general, enrichment of the heavy isotope is observed in the ...
... with different isotope ratios. The three stable O-isotopes are 16O, 17O, and 18O. A "three-isotope plot" (17O/16O axis versus ... Nickel, chromium, and other alloying elements are then shed as tiny grains. This oxidation appears to have occurred in multiple ... Oxygen isotope studies had been performed before the modern era, both on Earth rocks and meteorites. However, isotope ... Although the carbon and nitrogen isotopes are closer to CI, the oxygen isotopes, which predominate, are not CI-like. Tagish ...
This was later called into question as iron chromium sulfide is very rare with a relative abundance of 0.4%. By the 1980s, CCF ... Extinct isotopes of superheavy elements are isotopes of superheavy elements whose half-lives were too short to have lasted ... Carbonaceous chondrite fission xenon, often abbreviated as CCF Xe, are a collection of different isotopes of xenon that were ... Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W. (1983-01-01). "Barium Isotopes in Allende Meteorite: Evidence against ...
"Isotope dilution measurement of inorganic chromium(III) and total chromium in seawater". Marine Chemistry. 14 (4): 347-364. ... doi:10.1016/0012-821X(93)90104-H. Jeandel, C.; Bishop, J.K.; Zindler, A. (1995). "Exchange of neodymium and its isotopes ... Catherine Jeandel is a French geochemical oceanographer known for her research on isotope geochemistry and trace elements in ... doi:10.1016/0012-821X(93)90104-H. Lacan, Francois; Jeandel, Catherine (April 2005). "Neodymium isotopes as a new tool for ...
... the resulting 44Ti nucleus can then fuse with another alpha particle to form chromium-48. The age of supernovae may be ... The isotopes of titanium range in atomic mass from 38.01 u (38Ti) to 62.99 u (63Ti). The primary decay mode for isotopes ... their respective decay products are scandium isotopes and the primary products after are vanadium isotopes. mTi - Excited ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ...
"Absolute Isotopic Abundance Ratios and the Atomic Weight of a Reference Sample of Chromium" (PDF). Journal of Research of the ... Isotopic labeling Isotopes of hydrogen Isotopes of carbon; δ13C Isotopes of oxygen; δ18O Isotopes of nitrogen; δ15N Isotopes of ... Isotope Isotopologue Isotopomer Isotope analysis Isotopic signature Stable Isotope Ratio Isotope geochemistry Isotope-ratio ... Clumped isotopes present a distinct set of challenges for isotopic reference materials. By convention the clumped isotope ...
The isotope Bh-262 was the fusion of bismuth-209 and chromium-54. For the first time, the seat of a member of the United States ...
Schauble E, Rossman GR, Taylor HP (2004) Theoretical estimates of equilibrium chromium-isotope fractionations. Chemical Geology ... Schauble, EA; Rossman, GR; Taylor, HP (2001) Theoretical estimates of equilibrium Fe-isotope fractionations from vibrational ...
Computer components contain many toxic substances, like dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cadmium, chromium, ... radioactive isotopes and mercury. A typical computer monitor may contain more than 6% lead by weight, much of which is in the ...
The circuit boards in a computer contain mercury, and chromium. When these types of materials, and chemicals are disposed ... radioactive isotopes and mercury. Circuit boards contain considerable quantities of lead-tin solders that are more likely to ... It contains lead and chromium in the metal plates. Resistors, semi-conductors, infrared detectors, stabilizers, cables, and ... Computer components contain many toxic substances, like dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cadmium, chromium, ...
Wei, Wei; Klaebe, Robert; Ling, Hong-Fei; Huang, Fang; Frei, Robert (2020). "Biogeochemical cycle of chromium isotopes at the ... Soluble hexavalent chromium is the most common type of chromium in oceans, where over 70% of dissolved chromium in the ocean is ... Chromium commonly exists in soil and rocks as highly insoluble trivalent chromium, such as chromite (Fe(II)Cr(III) 2O 4, or FeO ... Hexavalent chromium is reduced to trivalent chromium in oxygen minimum zones or at the surface of the ocean by divalent iron ...
Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 65, p9-16 Pitre,J. , Bédard, M. , Hineman, A. 2011. Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores ... Ferrochromes, and Chromium Slags for ICP-OES without using HF or HClO4. Spectrocopy Online, May 1, 2014. Volume 29, Issue 5. ( ... Determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium and iridium in geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled ...
Other sources of anthropogenic Os include combustion of fossil fuels, smelting chromium ore, and smelting of some sulfide ores ... Os isotope ratios may also be used as a signal of anthropogenic impact. The same 187Os/188Os ratios that are common in ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ... The other natural isotopes, 184Os, and 186Os, have extremely long half-life (1.12×1013 years and 2×1015 years, respectively) ...
Natural calcium is a mixture of five stable isotopes (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, and 46Ca) and one isotope with a half-life so ... It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of chromium, zirconium, thorium, and uranium. It can also be used to ... Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the ... Mass-dependent differences in calcium isotope composition are conventionally expressed by the ratio of two isotopes (usually ...
Manganese isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ... The isotopes of manganese range in atomic weight from 46 u (46Mn) to 72 u (72Mn). The primary decay mode before the most ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 3 hours and the majority of these have half-lives ...
... various isotopes). Promethium-145 is the most stable promethium isotope, but the only isotope with practical applications is ... chromium, and platinum). In 1934, Josef Mattauch finally formulated the isobar rule. One of the indirect consequences of this ... The production methods for different isotopes vary, and only those for promethium-147 are given because it is the only isotope ... The primary decay products are neodymium and samarium isotopes (promethium-146 decays to both, the lighter isotopes generally ...
... chromium) isotopes. mV - Excited nuclear isomer. ( ) - Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the ... Naturally occurring vanadium (23V) is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V with a half-life of ... with all of the isotopes lighter than it, and none of the heavier, have unknown half-lives. In 4 isotopes, metastable excited ... Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC ...
... chromium) isotopes. The chemistry of vanadium is noteworthy for the accessibility of the four adjacent oxidation states 2-5. In ... At least four isotopes have metastable excited states. Electron capture is the main decay mode for isotopes lighter than 51V. ... Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope, 51V, and one radioactive isotope, 50V. The latter has a half- ... The most stable of these isotopes are 49V with a half-life of 330 days, and 48V with a half-life of 16.0 days. The remaining ...
Chromium and Titanium Isotopes, and Mid-IR Spectroscopy". Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 203: 381-403. Bibcode:2017GeCoA.203..381G. ... Chromium and Titanium Isotopes, and Mid-IR Spectroscopy". Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 203: 381-403. Bibcode:2017GeCoA.203..381G. ...
The oxygen and chromium isotope results from Bunburra Rockhole are quite different to the bulk of the HED meteorite clan. ... The differences in oxygen and chromium isotopes and variable trace element compositions relative to the bulk HED measurements ... Oxygen Isotope analyses have contributed to the classification of meteorites and identification of potential origins. Typically ... Wiechert, U. H.; Halliday, A. N.; Palme, H.; Rumble, D. (2004-04-30). "Oxygen isotope evidence for rapid mixing of the HED ...
... isotopic contents are typically combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope ... Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Chromium. National Academy Press. pp. ... The primary decay mode in isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 55Mn, is electron capture and the primary ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than three hours, and the majority of less than one minute. ...
Dysprosium is the most magnetic fermionic element, and terbium and the bosonic isotopes of Dy are the most magnetic bosonic ... Together with prior work on BECs of chromium, Lev's work opened new research directions using highly magnetic dipolar quantum ...
... chromium(II) chloride, chromium(III) oxide, chromium(IV) chloride, potassium tetraperoxochromate(V), and chromium(VI) ... Seaborgium is a radioactive synthetic element that is not found in nature; the most stable known isotope has a half-life of ... Most naturally occurring chromium is in the hexavalent state. About two-fifths of the worlds chromium are produced in South ... Its members are chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), and seaborgium (Sg). These are all transition metals and chromium ...
... that the impact hypothesis is further supported by chromium isotope evidence for the presence of extraterrestrial material. The ... Extraterrestrial Chromium at the Graphite Peak P/Tr boundary and in the Bedout Impact Melt Breccia. Lunar and Planetary Science ...
As the neutron energy increases, the neutron cross section of most isotopes decreases. The boron isotope 10B is responsible for ... The tubes can be made of stainless steel or other "neutron window" materials such as zirconium, chromium, silicon carbide, or ... over metastable conditions like for isotope 235mU, which has a half-life of about 26 min. Other means of controlling reactivity ... chromium, and niobium for corrosion resistance, and with molybdenum for wear resistance, hardness, and machineability. Such ...
Isotopes of chromium, Chromium, Lists of isotopes by element). ... Chromium-51 is a synthetic radioactive isotope of chromium ... The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 70Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is ... Chromium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Projects Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Audi, ... Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most ...
Detailed decay information for the isotope chromium-52 including decay chains and daughter products. ... Chromium Pictures Page. Al. Si. P. S. Cl. Ar. K. Ca. Chromium Technical Data. Sc. Ti. V. Cr. Mn. Fe. Co. Ni. Cu. Zn. Ga. Ge. As ... Isotopes of Chromium (click to see decay chain):. 42Cr 43Cr 44Cr 45Cr 46Cr 47Cr 48Cr 49Cr 50Cr 51Cr 52Cr 53Cr 54Cr 55Cr 56Cr 57 ... Click any isotope in diagram to see its data.. Decay chain image generated by Mathematicas GraphPlot and IsotopeData functions ...
Detailed decay information for the isotope chromium-51 including decay chains and daughter products. ... Chromium Pictures Page. Al. Si. P. S. Cl. Ar. K. Ca. Chromium Technical Data. Sc. Ti. V. Cr. Mn. Fe. Co. Ni. Cu. Zn. Ga. Ge. As ... Isotopes of Chromium (click to see decay chain):. 42Cr 43Cr 44Cr 45Cr 46Cr 47Cr 48Cr 49Cr 50Cr 51Cr 52Cr 53Cr 54Cr 55Cr 56Cr 57 ... Show only decay products of this isotope.. Click any isotope in diagram to see its data.. Decay chain image generated by ...
Chromium is the 24th element on the periodic table where it is represented by the chemical symbol Cr. It is a shiny, gray, hard ... How many isotopes does chromium have?. The four stable isotopes of chromium are known as 50Cr , 52Cr, 53Cr and 54Cr. However, ... Naturally occurring chromium is found as one of four stable isotopes. However, there are many other isotopes that have been ... About 83% of the natural chromium found on Earth is 52Cr. There have also been 22 radioactive (unstable) isotopes of chromium ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains the essentials for the element chromium ... Chromium: isotopes. Isotope abundances of chromium with the most intense signal set to 100%.. ... Several Chromium isotopes are used for medical applications. Cr-50 is used for the production of the radioisotope Cr-51 which ... The ground state electronic configuration of neutral chromium is [Ar].3d5.4s1 and the term symbol of chromium is 7S3. ...
Chondrite diversity revealed by chromium, calcium and magnesium isotopes. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal ... In this study, we present high-precision mass-independent Cr, Ca and Mg isotope data for 17 ungrouped chondrites. The ε54Cr and ... and the radiogenic Mg isotope ratios (μ26Mg*) can be used to track the early solar system history. We also present the first ... ε48Ca (ε expresses parts per ten thousand mass-independent isotope deviation) data for ungrouped chondrites also provide ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains chromium hexafluoride for the element chromium ... Isotope pattern for CrF6. The chart below shows the calculated isotope pattern for the formula CrF6 with the most intense ion ... The oxidation number of chromium in chromium hexafluoride is 6.. Synthesis. CrF6 is only stable at low temperatures (below -100 ...
To see the isotopes that exist in the ScientificConstants package for a particular element, use the GetIsotopes function with ... Home : Support : Online Help : Science and Engineering : Scientific Constants : Initial Elements and Isotopes ...
Chromium Isotopes * Serum Albumin * Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated ...
The nearly 160,000 pounds of chromium comes from a non-nuclear power plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. , Local News from ... Isotopes players help kids pick out clothes with … 11 hours ago. .cls-3{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. ... Chromium plume cleanup near Los Alamos National Labs halts as State, federal officials argue over next steps by: Natalie Wadas ... This operation to clean up the chromium began in 2018. In that time, the DOE said the plume moved back 500 feet on the southern ...
... and the soluble oxidized chromium carried into the ocean shows this enhancement of the heavier isotope. The chromium isotope ... However, the chromium data may conflict with the sulfur isotope data, which calls the reliability of the chromium data into ... "Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature. 461 (7261): 250-253. Bibcode: ... Isotopes[edit]. Some of the most persuasive evidence for the Great Oxidation Event is provided by the mass-independent ...
... and Cr-48 is reference to chromium, the chemical element. Its a chromium isotope - a particularly unstable chromium isotope. ... The company is developing Chrome OS via the open source Chromium OS project, ...
chromium-labeled red blood cells. *Gd-DTPA-labeled dextran. *Gd-DTPA-labeled albumin ... Isotopes are atomic species of the same chemical element (and therefore with the same atomic number (Z) or number of protons) ... Therefore each isotope of an element has a different mass number (A), which is the simple summation of the number of protons ... For example, the element carbon has six protons and its commonest isotope on earth has six neutrons, resulting in a mass number ...
When alloyed with aluminum, magnesium and chromium, it acts to strengthen those metals. It is also used as a material in ... An isotope of yttrium, Y90, is used in needles for certain surgical procedures. ...
Long considered the domain of high-energy, in-flight rare-isotope facilities, chromium has now been produced at ISOLDE in ... The masses of the newly forged chromium isotopes, as measured by ISOLDEs precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, ... ISOLDEs resonant ionisation laser-ion source (RILIS), which provided the first beams of neutron-rich chromium isotopes. Credit ... Chromium has 24 protons, situating it squarely between magic calcium (with 20 protons) and nickel (with 28). Of particular ...
Precision Mass Measurements of Nutron-rich Chromium Isotopes into the ,i,N,/i,=40 Island of Inversion: From a New ISOL Beam ... Particle-bound isotopes along the neutron dripline have been searched for fluorine (Z = 9) and neon (Z = 10) isotopes at the ... It is thus found that the most neutron-rich isotopes 31F and 34Ne previously observed are the heaviest of these isotopes. The ... Unlike the even A isotopes, for the odd A isotopes the negative parity intruder states lie at higher excitation energies and ...
By analysing the isotopes of chromium in iron-rich sediments formed in the ancient oceans, the team has found that a rise in ... Distinctive chromium isotope signals occur when continental rocks are altered and weathered as a result of oxygen levels rising ... The chromium released by this weathering is then washed into the seas and deposited in the deepest oceans - trapped in iron- ...
In fact, every element, like oxygen, can have several isotopes which differ in their number of neutrons, the particles which ... 1. a silicate of calcium, aluminium, vanadium and chromium.. 2. related to gemstones: fine, precious or ornamental stones ... These were rich in elements, particularly vanadium and chromium -which eventually give the garnet crystals their green colour. ... On the strength of their previous discoveries about other gemstones, the researchers applied this isotope analysis method to ...
Constraints from trace elements and manganese-chromium isotope systematics in Vaca Muerta silicate clasts. Geochimica et ... Constraints from trace elements and manganese-chromium isotope systematics in Vaca Muerta silicate clasts. Geochimica et ... Irvine, G. J.; Pearson, D. G.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Kopylova, M. G.; Dreibus, G.: A Re-Os isotope and PGE study ... Irvine, G. J.; Pearson, D. G.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Kopylova, M. G.; Dreibus, G.: A Re-Os isotope and PGE study ...
Cr-51 is a synthetic radioactive isotope of chromium used to label RBCs to facilitate measurement of circulating RBC mass, ... Additionally, the U.S. has only one producer of Chromium-51 which could result in less product availability and potential ... Hoxworth Blood Center will conduct pre-clinical and clinical trials to compare Biotinylation to Chromium-51 to evaluate the ... as a safe and effective option to replace chromium 51 (Cr-51) as the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDAs) current "gold ...
Heres roughly how the chromium isotope system works, followed by how organic ligands could make for false positives. ... "On a global level, the chromium isotope system is still a great indicator of atmospheric oxygen levels through the ages," Tang ... Today, researchers test deep rock layer samples for the relation between two chromium isotopes, 52Cr, by far the most common Cr ... Its relatively simple to take a chromium isotope reading on a rock sample. First, crush the sample. Second, dissolve the ...
The amount of chromium reducible sulfur content ranges from zero weight percent to 0.98 weight percent in the sample shown here ... Authigenic Pyrite Methane-bearing Sediments In Situ Sulfur Isotope Analysis SIMS Pyrite Generations Diagenetic History ... Journal / Environment / Preparation of Authigenic Pyrite from Methane-bearing Sediments for In Situ Sulfur Isotope Analysis ... For SIMS analysis, use a cesium primary ion beam to measure the sulfur isotope ratios of pyrite. Focus the cesium primary ion ...
2012) Chromium Isotope Fractionation during Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions Jamieson-Hanes J, Gibson B, ... 2013) Reactive Transport Modeling of Chromium Isotope Fractionation during Cr(VI) Reduction Under Saturated Flow Conditions ... 2016) Sulfate Reduction and Zinc Isotope Fractionation Observed Using a Flow-Through Cell and in situ XAS Analysis Jamieson- ... 2017) Selenium Reduction by Zero Valent Iron with Real Time XANES Measurements and Accompanying Se Stable Isotope Data ...
The reaction between the electron neutrinos from the chromium 51 and the gallium produces the isotope germanium 71. ... Chromium 51 is a synthetic radioisotope of chromium and the 3.4 megacurie source of electron neutrinos. ... A set of 26 irradiated disks of chromium 51 are the source of electron neutrinos that react with gallium and produce germanium ... BEST used 26 irradiated disks of chromium 51 to irradiate an inner and outer tank of gallium, a soft, silvery metal also used ...
"Ryugu also contains chromium, calcium and oxygen isotopes that indicate it preserved the most primitive source of materials ...
We offer key stable isotopes with high level of purity and enrichment ... Isotopes are. Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number (number of protons in their nuclei) and ... Stable isotopes. Stable. Stable isotopes on Earth are believed to have been formed in processes of nucleosynthesis, either in ... Isotope.one accepts no responsibility for the security or confidentiality of information transmitted in this way to Isotope.one ...
Materials: Work included: development of techniques for modelling iron-chromium alloys in the high-temperature limit; modelling ... deposition and hydrogen-isotope retention in tiles removed from the JET tokamak.. ITER Systems: CCFE has secured lead roles in ...
The researchers found a hint of an excess of the chromium-54 isotope in their first session, but as luck would have it, they ... "Its remarkable that you can look at an isotope like chromium 54 and potentially find out a whole lot about what happened in ... These isotopes could have come from a type II supernova, caused by the core-collapse of a massive star. "It seems likely that ... Their evidence: traces of aluminum 26 and iron 60, two short-lived isotopes found in meteorites but not on Earth. ...
  • Chromium is the 24th element on the periodic table where it is represented by the chemical symbol Cr. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number (number of protons in their nuclei) and position in the periodic table (and hence belong to the same chemical element), and that differ in nucleon numbers (mass numbers) due to different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. (isotope.one)
  • All you need to know to answer this question is where chromium is on the periodic table. (chemcafe.net)
  • All you need to know to answer the question of how many electrons are in Cr-52 is where chromium is on the periodic table. (chemcafe.net)
  • This element also has two meta states, 45mCr, the more stable one, and 59mCr, the least stable isotope or isomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • This isotope is stable and thus has no decay products, so instead we show decay chains that lead down to it. (periodictable.com)
  • Naturally occurring chromium is found as one of four stable isotopes. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • The four stable isotopes of chromium are known as 50 Cr , 52 Cr, 53 Cr and 54 Cr. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • The most stable of these isotopes is 51 Cr, with a half life of 27.7 days. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • When such nuclides are referred to in relation to specific elements, they are usually termed stable isotopes . (isotope.one)
  • The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element. (isotope.one)
  • Promethium-145 is the most stable promethium isotope, but the only isotope with practical applications is promethium-147, chemical compounds of which are used in luminous paint , atomic batteries and thickness-measurement devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divalent Be and Ni cations were stable in artificial sweat over time (did not precipitate) whereas hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions decayed over time. (cdc.gov)
  • High-spin levels in the heaviest stable isotope of chromium were observed following the fusion-evaporation reaction C-12(Ca-48, alpha 2n)Cr-54 at a beam energy of 157 MeV, using the GAMMASPHERE and MICROBALL detector arrays. (lu.se)
  • Cr isotopes are said to be stable and do not go through radioactive decay and hence the system does not function the way radiocarbon dating does that depend on the decay of carbon 14. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • The stable isotopes are atoms of the same element that have extra neutrons but need not give off energy or particles to remain in balance. (examplespedia.com)
  • We will use brachiopod shells as archive and determine trace element ratios, stable (δ 18 O and δ 13 C) as well as traditional and non-tradition isotope systems (δ 11 B, δ 26 Mg, δ 44/40 Ca, clumped isotopes Δ 47 ) in order to gain marine environmental proxy information. (baseline-earth.eu)
  • Chromium stable isotopes have a wide range of applications in both environmental field and earth science field. (bvsalud.org)
  • Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cr-51 is a synthetic radioactive isotope of chromium used to label RBCs to facilitate measurement of circulating RBC mass, volume, and survival time. (uc.edu)
  • The half - life is the parameter indicating the time it takes to disintegrate half of the mass of a radioactive isotope. (examplespedia.com)
  • The chemical reaction, which can be found in the study and involved manganese oxide handing off oxygens to chromium, would be a little like adding pontoons to chromium compounds. (phys.org)
  • Chemical reaction that had been discovered in the research, including manganese oxide handing off oxygen to chromium could be somewhat like adding pontoons to chromium compounds. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • Scientists have known for 4 decades that a supernova probably occurred approximately 4.5 billion years ago, possibly triggering the birth of the Sun. Their evidence: traces of aluminum 26 and iron 60, two short-lived isotopes found in meteorites but not on Earth. (astronomy.com)
  • Gross alpha-particle activities and beta-particle activities for all 47 samples were analyzed at 72 hours after sample collection and again at 30 days after sample collection, allowing for the measurement of the activity of short-lived isotopes. (usgs.gov)
  • Meanwhile, we also provide a description of the main influencing factors controlling Cr isotope fractionation, chromium isotope analytical methods, and terrestrial Cr release. (bvsalud.org)
  • Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotope systematics must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will be achieved through a combination of methods involving field collections, systematics, SEM ultrastructural analyses and geochemical trace-isotope analyses. (baseline-earth.eu)
  • Today, researchers test deep rock layer samples for the relation between two chromium isotopes, 52Cr, by far the most common Cr isotope, and 53Cr, to get a read on oxygen presence across geological eras. (phys.org)
  • Tang's team had portrayed in the lab with a small assortment of organic ligands that reaction of chromium with ligands had led to 53Cr/52Cr signals which had nearly represented those stemming from oxygen-chromium reactions. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • ISOLDE's resonant ionisation laser-ion source (RILIS), which provided the first beams of neutron-rich chromium isotopes. (cerncourier.com)
  • Oxidation of this ore by air in molten alkali gives sodium chromate, Na 2 CrO 4 in which the chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. (webelements.com)
  • The oxidation number of chromium in chromium hexafluoride is 6 . (webelements.com)
  • Chromium is a hard, steely-gray or bluish-gray, brittle metal with a lustrous or mirror-like/shiny finish that has a high melting point and is resistant to weathering and oxidation. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • The hexavalent chromium plume is in the regional aquifer under the Pajarito Plateau, beneath Los Alamos National Laboratory and near the boundary with the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. (krqe.com)
  • Most commonly, chromium is found in two forms: trivalent (+3) chromium and hexavalent (+6) chromium. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • Hexavalent chromium occurs naturally, but is also associated with manufacturing and is an industrial contaminant. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • Hexavalent chromium is more readily bioavailable and is more readily adsorbed by the body, i.e., the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal system. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • In the USA, there is no specific standard for hexavalent chromium, but in Canada the standard is 0.05 mg/L or 50 ppb for hexavalent chromium, because of concerns related to effects on skin and the respiratory system. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • Further analysis using speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry revealed that the decay of Cr(VI) was accompanied by the formation of Cr(III) in the sweat model. (cdc.gov)
  • Zhang Y, Wang Q, Zhang G, Jia W, Ren Y, Wu Y. Biomarker analysis of hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide enantiomers for mid-term internal exposure assessment by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • Hielscher J, Monien BH, Abraham K, Jessel S, Seidel A, Lampen A. An isotope-dilution UPLC-MS/MS technique for the human biomonitoring of the internal exposure to glycidol via a valine adduct at the N-terminus of hemoglobin. (cdc.gov)
  • Determination of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and its major metabolites in urine by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • In anything other than trace amounts, chromium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic. (webelements.com)
  • Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of chromium where known. (webelements.com)
  • from the Greek word " chroma " meaning " colour ", named for the many coloured compounds known for chromium. (webelements.com)
  • Isotope effects in the chemistry of atmospheric trace compounds. (mpg.de)
  • Magic-number nuclides have filled orbitals that favour spherical shapes, but not so the chromium nuclides weighed by ISOLTRAP, which are deformed.Whereas in some areas of the nuclear chart deformation sets in very suddenly with the addition of a further neutron, the remarkably smooth neutron binding energies of chromium show that deformation sets in very gradually - contrary to previous conclusions. (cerncourier.com)
  • The solid state structure of chromium is: bcc (body-centred cubic). (webelements.com)
  • Here's roughly how the chromium isotope system works, followed by how organic ligands could make for false positives. (phys.org)
  • The chromium isotope system tends to work thus followed by how organic ligands tend to make for false positives - The Earth, a massive chemical laboratory performing reactions in conditions tend to differ from arctic cold to volcanic heat, thus from crushing ocean depths to no-pressure upper atmospheres. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • These were rich in elements, particularly vanadium and chromium -which eventually give the garnet crystals their green colour. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Chromium, iron, selenium, and vanadium were detected in 24 or more of the 47 source-water samples. (usgs.gov)
  • There have also been 22 radioactive (unstable) isotopes of chromium discovered and all of these have been synthetically created. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • The remaining unstable isotopes have half lives of less than 1 day, and most are actually shorter than 1 minute. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • The most unstable isotope of chromium is 66 Cr with a half life of just 10 milliseconds. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • It is likely that most unstable isotopes of chromium will be discovered in the future. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • It's a chromium isotope - a particularly unstable chromium isotope. (theregister.com)
  • The ground state electronic configuration of neutral chromium is [ Ar ]. (webelements.com)
  • Therefore, all neutral chromium atoms, regardless of mass number, contain not only 24 protons in their nuclei, but also 24 electrons in their electron clouds. (chemcafe.net)
  • Isotopes are atomic species of the same chemical element (and therefore with the same atomic number (Z) or number of protons ) which differ with respect to their number of neutrons . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Therefore each isotope of an element has a different mass number (A), which is the simple summation of the number of protons and neutrons. (radiopaedia.org)
  • For example, the element carbon has six protons and its commonest isotope on earth has six neutrons, resulting in a mass number of 12 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Of particular interest to nuclear physics are isotopes with a large excess of neutrons. (cerncourier.com)
  • An isotope is any atom with a different number of neutrons than protons. (chemcafe.net)
  • Isotopes are identified by their mass, which is the total number of protons and neutrons. (chemcafe.net)
  • Whether you are trying to understand the basics of isotopes or searching for answers to specific questions, understanding the number of protons and neutrons in different elements can help. (chemcafe.net)
  • Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. (chemcafe.net)
  • In isotopes, these give the atom a greater atomic mass (A), a property that is calculated with protons and neutrons. (examplespedia.com)
  • Chromium atoms have 24 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.13.1. (webelements.com)
  • This means that all chromium atoms have 24 protons in their nuclei. (chemcafe.net)
  • Chromium has 24 protons, situating it squarely between magic calcium (with 20 protons) and nickel (with 28). (cerncourier.com)
  • Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists formerly believed that chromium 54 and other elements and their isotopic variations became evenly spread throughout the cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to form the solar system. (astronomy.com)
  • The unusual mineralogy and chemistry of E chondrites is consistent with formation relatively close to the Sun. This is further supported by isotope measurements (verified for oxygen, nitrogen, ruthenium, chromium and titanium): E chondrites are the only groups of chondrites that have the same isotopic composition as the Earth and Moon system. (eso.org)
  • Emerald is a form of beryl (a beryllium aluminium silicate) which is green because of the inclusion of a little chromium into the beryl crytal lattice in place of some of the aluminium ions. (webelements.com)
  • Similarly, traces of chromium incorporated into the crystal lattice of corundum (crystalline aluminium oxide, Al 2 O 3 ) as a replacement for some of the Al 3+ ions results in another highly coloured gem stone, in this case the red ruby. (webelements.com)
  • However, it was suggested that a so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like ions of the same isotope can be used to cancel nuclear structure effects and provide an accurate test of QED [Shabaev et al. (fnal.gov)
  • Beryllium metal (Be), nickel metal (Ni), and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) particles were characterized and masses of sensitizing ions were measured using established reactant-assisted digestion procedures and extraction in artificial sweat under physiologically relevant conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium ions released into artificial sweat were speciated to understand valence states. (cdc.gov)
  • In the NexION ICP-MS, ions then pass through a focusing region, the Universal Cell (UCT), the quadrupole mass filter, and finally are counted in rapid sequence at the detector allowing individual isotopes of an element to be determined. (cdc.gov)
  • The same isotope is preferentially involved in certain leaching reactions, thereby allowing its abundance in seawater sediments to be used as a proxy for atmospheric oxygen concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without a dominant oxygen presence, ligands likely made a great reactive substitute, as the researchers demonstrated in reactions with chromium. (phys.org)
  • And like reactions with oxygen, reactions with ligands enable metals like chromium to move around more easily in the world. (phys.org)
  • Similar to reactions with oxygen, reactions with ligands permits metals such as chromium to move around with ease in the world. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • Mn-Cr isotope ratios reinforce the evidence from 26Al and 107Pd for the early history of the Solar System. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ε54Cr and ε48Ca (ε expresses parts per ten thousand mass-independent isotope deviation) data for ungrouped chondrites also provide important constraints for assessing their relationships to the known chondrite groups, and the radiogenic Mg isotope ratios (μ26Mg*) can be used to track the early solar system history. (ku.dk)
  • More than a mile underground in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in Russia's Caucasus Mountains, BEST used 26 irradiated disks of chromium 51 to irradiate an inner and outer tank of gallium, a soft, silvery metal also used in previous experiments, though previously in a one-tank set-up. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The reaction between the electron neutrinos from the chromium 51 and the gallium produces the isotope germanium 71. (scitechdaily.com)
  • A set of 26 irradiated disks of chromium 51 are the source of electron neutrinos that react with gallium and produce germanium 71 at rates that can be measured against predicted rates. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The radioactive isotopes are altered over time, emitting radiation in the form of alpha rays (helium nuclei), beta rays (electrons or positrons energy and speed) or gamma (high frequency energy of the electromagnetic spectrum). (examplespedia.com)
  • The researchers found a hint of an excess of the chromium-54 isotope in their first session, but as luck would have it, they had to search 1,500 microscopic grains of the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites before finding just one with definitely high levels. (astronomy.com)
  • On a global level, the chromium isotope system is still a great indicator of atmospheric oxygen levels through the ages," Tang said. (phys.org)
  • And characteristics of chromium deposits in ancient layers of rock became a great indicator of how much O2 was in the atmosphere. (phys.org)
  • Tang had commented that on a global level, the chromium isotope system is yet a great indicator of atmospheric oxygen levels through the ages and the issue exposed in the lab tends to be more local with isolated samples, particularly during eras when there was not much atmospheric oxygen. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • Characteristics of chromium deposits in ancient layers of rock had become a great indicator of how much O2 was in the atmosphere. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • Chromium is an essential trace element and has a role in glucose metabolism. (webelements.com)
  • Isotope and trace element variations in lavas from Raivavae and Rapa, Cook-Austral islands: constraints on the nature of HIMU- and EM-mantle and the origin of mid-plate volcanism in French Polynesia. (mpg.de)
  • So the recent chromium measurements are constructive and important for advancing this promising technique, which bridges the gap between first-principle calculations and the structure of nuclei at the extremes of the nuclear landscape. (cerncourier.com)
  • When alloyed with aluminum, magnesium and chromium, it acts to strengthen those metals. (purdue.edu)
  • Chromium +6 has been released to the environment through improper and inadequate contaminant and poor waste-disposal practices. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • The EPA drinking water standards for total chromium is set at a maximum contaminant level or MCL of 0.1 mg/L or 100 ppb. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • Chromium isotope tracing of contaminant sources is a new application method, it has a tremendous advantage in searching for the source of Cr pollution, which has not been covered in previous reviews. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ryugu also contains chromium, calcium and oxygen isotopes that indicate it preserved the most primitive source of materials from the protosolar nebular," according to the report, led by Professor Eizo Nakamura of Okayama University's Institute for Planetary Material. (courthousenews.com)
  • For example, different isotopes of carbon can be used to measure the age of organic material. (chemcafe.net)
  • By analysing the isotopes of chromium in iron-rich sediments formed in the ancient oceans, the team has found that a rise in atmospheric oxygen levels 580 million years ago was closely followed by the evolution of animal life. (eurekalert.org)
  • Common molecules called ligands can bias the results of a popular chemical tracer called the chromium (Cr) isotope system, which is used to test sedimentary rock layers for clues about atmospheric oxygen levels during the epoch when the rock formed. (phys.org)
  • They were more apt to match oxygen's mobility effect on chromium that made it end up as the signals in sedimentary rock that scientists, today, look for as a sign of ancient atmospheric oxygen. (phys.org)
  • Under the agreement, BARDA will provide funding and expertise for a clinical trial to validate biotin, a naturally occurring vitamin, as a safe and effective option to replace chromium 51 (Cr-51) as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) current "gold standard" labeling method for measurement of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). (uc.edu)
  • Trivalent chromium is the form that is found naturally in our food supply and is biologically active and is very water soluble but is poorly absorbed by the human body. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • The nearly 160,000 pounds of chromium comes from a non-nuclear power plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. (krqe.com)
  • Some isotopes are used to produce nuclear energy. (examplespedia.com)
  • An isotope of yttrium, Y90, is used in needles for certain surgical procedures. (purdue.edu)
  • The masses of the newly forged chromium isotopes, as measured by ISOLDE's precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, offer insights into its shape and structure. (cerncourier.com)
  • In this study, we present high-precision mass-independent Cr, Ca and Mg isotope data for 17 ungrouped chondrites. (ku.dk)
  • Distinctive chromium isotope signals occur when continental rocks are altered and weathered as a result of oxygen levels rising in the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • This operation to clean up the chromium began in 2018. (krqe.com)
  • On the strength of their previous discoveries about other gemstones, the researchers applied this isotope analysis method to green garnet. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ligands, deprived of a dominant oxygen presence tend to make a great reactive substitute as demonstrated by the researchers in reaction with chromium. (elixirofknowledge.com)
  • If available, isotope studies can measure zinc status more accurately. (msdmanuals.com)
  • SHORT DESCRIPTION This PhD project generates a Phanerozoic marine Mg isotope record, based on the analysis of δ 26 Mg values in calcitic shells of modern and fossil brachiopods. (baseline-earth.eu)
  • Chromium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's Kondev, F. G. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click any isotope in diagram to see its data. (periodictable.com)
  • Note: In the 1960s, chromium deficiency was linked to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which indicates the body was not properly managing blood sugar levels. (knowyourh2o.com)
  • Then place the solution in a mass spectrometer, which determines how much chromium 53 and how much chromium 52 is in the sample. (phys.org)
  • This means that different isotopes of the same element can have different mass numbers. (chemcafe.net)
  • This is the chromium isotope with the mass number of 52, or Cr-52. (chemcafe.net)
  • Chromium 51 is a synthetic radioisotope of chromium and the 3.4 megacurie source of electron neutrinos. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Hoxworth Blood Center will conduct pre-clinical and clinical trials to compare Biotinylation to Chromium-51 to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using a non-radioactive alternative labeling method to assess blood products. (uc.edu)

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