Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
The structural parts of the VIRION.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (1/119)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

Recovery of 15N-lactoferrin is higher than that of 15N-casein in the small intestine of suckling, but not adult miniature pigs. (2/119)

Performance of biological functions of lactoferrin in the small intestine requires at least some resistance to degradation. Therefore, we studied prececal digestibility of lactoferrin in comparison to casein both in suckling and adult miniature pigs, applying 15N-labeled proteins. In study 1, 43 piglets (10-d-old), deprived of food for 12 h received 10 mL of sow's milk supplemented with 120 mg of 15N-labeled protein (porcine or bovine lactoferrin or bovine casein). Piglets were anesthetized 150 min later, after which the small intestine was excised, cut into three sections, and chyme was collected. In study 2, nine food-deprived boars fitted with T-canulae at the terminal ileum were given two semisynthetic experimental meals (204 g) in a cross-over design, 2 wk apart. One contained 7.5% (g/100 g) 15N-labeled bovine casein, the other 1.25% 15N-labeled bovine lactoferrin. Both were adjusted to 15% total protein with nonlabeled casein. Ileal chyme was collected from the canula over 33 h postprandially. All diets contained the indigestible marker chromic oxide. 15N-digestibility of lactoferrin, both porcine (84.4 +/- 3.2%) and bovine (82.3 +/- 4.8%), was significantly lower than casein digestibility (97.6 +/- 0.5%) in the distal small intestine of suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Based on immunoblotting after acrylamide electrophoresis, 4.5% of non- and partially digested lactoferrin was found in the last third of the small intestine of piglets. In adult miniature pigs there was no difference in 15N-digestibility of bovine lactoferrin compared to bovine casein (90.7 +/- 1.9% vs. 93.9 +/- 1.0%, P > 0.05). In suckling miniature pigs, the reduced digestibility of lactoferrin may provide the prerequisite for biological actions along the whole intestinal tract. The source of lactoferrin, porcine or bovine, made no difference in this respect.  (+info)

Dietary chromic oxide does not affect the utilization of organic compounds but can alter the utilization of mineral salts in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. (3/119)

This study was conducted to determine whether the level of chromic oxide supplemented to diets containing gelatinized starch as the carbohydrate source affects digestibility, body composition, growth performances, and liver enzyme activities in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings were fed diets containing gelatinized corn starch as the carbohydrate source and several levels of chromic oxide (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg) for 6 wk. No effect of dietary chromium level was detected on carbon, nitrogen, or dry matter digestibility. Calcium and phosphorus digestibility were higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with 5 g/kg chromic oxide than in fish fed the other supplemented diets. Dietary chromium did not affect dry matter, carbon, nitrogen, protein, or lipid concentrations in fish. However, fish fed 5 g/kg chromic oxide generally had higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, and ash than fish fed the other Cr-containing diets. Chromium concentration was significantly higher in fish fed the diets with 0.5 and 1% chromic oxide than in fish fed the control diet. Chromium supplementation of the diets did not affect the specific growth rate, the food efficiency ratio, the protein efficiency ratio, or, protein or nitrogen retention of the fish. Blood glucose and the activity of several liver enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were unaffected by dietary chromic oxide. Alanine aminotransferase was lower in the fish fed the diet with 10 g/kg of chromic oxide than in unsupplemented controls. Our results indicate that chromic oxide can be used as a neutral marker in fish nutrition studies involving organic compounds, but not mineral salts.  (+info)

Treatment of malignant pericardial effusion with 32P-colloid. (4/119)

Malignant pericardial effusion is usually treated only when signs of cardiac tamponade develop. Several methods of treatment have been reported with an overall response rate of approximately 75%. Since our initial study using intrapericardial 32P-colloid instillation as a treatment modality for pericardial effusion demonstrated a significant higher response rate, this study was conducted to further evaluate the efficacy of intrapericardial 32P-colloid in terms of response rates and duration of remissions. Intrapericardial instillation of 185-370 MBq (5-10 mCi) 32P-colloid in 36 patients with malignant pericardial effusion resulted in a complete remission rate of 94.5% (34 patients) whereas two patients did not respond to treatment due to a foudroyant formation of pericardial fluid. The median duration time was 8 months. No side-effects were observed. These results suggest that intrapericardial instillation of 32P-colloid is a simple, reliable and safe treatment strategy for patients with malignant pericardial effusions. Therefore, since further evidence is provided that 32P-colloid is significantly more effective than external radiation or non-radioactive sclerosing agents, this treatment modality should be considered for the management of malignant pericardial effusion.  (+info)

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis. (5/119)

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment.  (+info)

Chromium(III) hydrolytic oligomers: their relevance to protein binding. (6/119)

The nature of chromium(III) complexes has been found to show a profound influence in its interaction with collagen. The hydrothermal stability of rat tail tendon (RTT) fibres treated with dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric species of chromium(III) has been found to be 102, 87 and 68 degrees C, while that of native RTT is 62 degrees C. This shows that the efficiency of crosslinking of collagen by chromium(III) species is dimeric > trimeric > tetrameric. This order of stabilisation is again confirmed by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) cleavage of RTT collagen treated with dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric chromium(III) species. CNBr has been found to cleave the collagen treated with tetrameric chromium(III) species extensively. On the other hand, dimer-treated collagen does not undergo any cleavage on CNBr treatment. The equilibrium constants for the reaction of a nucleophile like NCS(-) to the dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric species of chromium(III) have been found to be 15.7+/-0.1, 14.6+/-0.1 and 1.2+/-0.1 M(-1), respectively. These equilibrium constant values reflect the relative thermodynamic stability of the chromium(III) species-nucleophile complex. The low stabilising effect of the tetrameric species can be traced to its low thermodynamic affinity for nucleophiles.  (+info)

Thirteen-week subchronic rat inhalation toxicity study with a recovery phase of trivalent chromium compounds, chromic oxide, and basic chromium sulfate. (7/119)

The toxicity of trivalent chromium compounds; chromic oxide and basic chromium sulfate, was investigated in rats in a 13-week nose-only inhalation study that included a 13-week recovery period. Nose-only exposures to insoluble chromic oxide dust at 4.4, 15, or 44 mg/m3 or soluble basic chromium sulfate dust at 17, 54, or 168 mg/m3 (trivalent chromium equivalent concentrations of 3, 10, and 30 mg/m3) were carried out for 6 h/day, 5 days/week. No compound-related mortality occurred. General toxic effects, only observed with high-exposure levels of basic chromium sulfate, included sporadic signs of labored breathing and depressed body weights. No apparent compound-related effects were noted for sperm motility or morphology, for any concentration of either test material. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid evaluations showed test material in mononuclear cells with chromic oxide and increased neutrophils, protein, lactic dehydrogenase and cellular debris with basic chromium sulfate. The principle effects for both materials were primarily to the respiratory tract. Chromic oxide caused pathological changes in the bronchial and mediastinal lymphatic tissue and lungs, consisting of the presence of pigment-laden macrophages, lymphoid and septal hyperplasia, and interstitial inflammation similar to that observed with other inert dusts. Basic chromium sulfate produced more severe and widespread effects in the nasal cavity, larynx, lungs, and mediastinal lymph node. Effects were characterized by accumulation of foreign material, infiltration of alveolar macrophages, septal cell hyperplasia, and granulomatous and chronic inflammation. Pigment was still present in chromic oxide and, to a lesser extent, in basic chromium sulfate-treated animals after the 13-week recovery period, with partial recovery of the pathological lesions. A NOAEL was not established for either test material, but 4.4 mg/m3 was thought to be near the NOAEL level for subchronic exposure to chromic oxide. The results of this study indicate significant differences in toxicity to the respiratory tract between trivalent chromium compounds chromic oxide and basic chromium sulfate. These are likely related to differences in acidity and water solubility, rather than chromium concentration per se. This conclusion is substantiated by the lack of effect on other internal organs.  (+info)

Dissimilatory metal reduction by the facultative anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans SP1. (8/119)

Anaerobic enrichments with acetate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor were obtained from sediments of Salt Pond, a coastal marine basin near Woods Hole, Mass. A pure culture of a facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducer was isolated, and 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated that this organism was most closely related to Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. This organism, designated strain SP1, can grow by coupling the oxidation of acetate or H(2) to the reduction of a variety of electron acceptors, including Fe(III), Mn(IV), Cr(VI), and the humic substance analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate, but not sulfate. To our knowledge, this is the first mesophilic facultative anaerobe reported to couple acetate oxidation to dissimilatory metal reduction.  (+info)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposure to chromite, trivalent chromium, or hexavalent chromium causes respiratory diseases, an excess of respiratory symptoms, a decrease in pulmonary function, or signs of pneumoconiosis among workers in an integrated chain of stainless steel production. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in 1993 and the inclusion criterion was a minimum of eight years of employment in the same production department. A self administered questionnaire was collected, and spirometry, measurement of diffusing capacity, chest radiography, and laboratory tests were carried out by a mobile research unit. RESULTS: There were 221 workers in the exposure groups and 95 in the control group. The average duration of employment was 18 years. No significant differences in the odds ratios (ORs) of the symptoms were found between the exposure and the control groups. In a logistic regression analysis age and smoking significantly explained the occurrence of most of ...
which is known per se, by impregnation of the support powder with an aqueous or organic solution of a chromium compound, followed by drying in an oxidizing atmosphere. For this purpose, a chromium compound chosen from soluble salts such as the oxides, acetate, chloride, sulphate, chromate and bichromate in aqueous solution, or such as the acetylacetonate in organic solution, may be used. After impregnation of the support with the chromium compound, the impregnated support is usually activated by heating it to a temperature of from 400 to 1000°C in order to convert at least part of the chromium into hexavalent chromium. The catalytic solid according to the invention may also be obtained by means of mechanical mixing of the support powder with a solid chromium compound, for example chromium acetylacetonate. Next, this mixture may be pre-activated at a temperature below the melting point of the chromium compound, before activating it conventionally as described above. In the catalytic solid used ...
Chromic phosphate P 32 is used to treat cancer or related problems. It is put by catheter into the pleura (sac that contains the lungs) or into the peritoneum (sac that contains the liver, stomach, and intestines) to treat the leaking of fluid inside these areas that is caused by cancer. It may also be given by injection to treat cancer in certain organs such as the ovaries and prostate.. Chromic phosphate P 32 is to be given only by or under the direct supervision of a doctor with specialized training in nuclear medicine.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Multi-Tabs Maxy information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Ferrosan, Multi-Tabs Maxy indications, usages and related health products lists
Information profiles were presented for the following inorganic chromium compounds deemed to be important because their commercial production exceeds 1 million pounds annually: chromic(VI)-acid (1333820), chromic(III)-hydroxide (1308141), chromic(III)-oxide (1308389), chromic(III)-sulfate (10101538), chromic(III)-sulfate (basic) (12336957), chromium-dioxide (12018018), potassium- dichromate(VI) (7
Learn more about Chromium at Memorial Hospital Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: Chromium Picolinate Chromium Polynicotinate Chromium Chloride High...
Learn more about Chromium at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: Chromium Picolinate Chromium Polynicotinate Chromium Chloride High...
Learn more about Chromium at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: Chromium Picolinate Chromium Polynicotinate Chromium Chloride High...
This study was carried out to assess the anti-hyperglycaemic effects if any of novel synthetic binary chromium (III)-amino acid complexes in a high sucrose (HS) induced insulin resistance (IR) and or impaired glucose tolerant male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Aqueous solutions of chromium chloride hexahydrate (CrCl3.6H2O) and D/L amino acids were mixed in 1:3 molar ratios, refluxed at 80°C for 4 hours and the resultant crude greenish-violet solid was extracted with acetone, dried in a hot air oven and their elemental composition and structure were determined. The chromium- amino acid [Cr-(AA)3] complexes were administered orally (~45 μg/kg body weight/day up to 12 weeks) to adult male SD rats in which IR and or impaired glucose tolerance were induced by feeding a HS diet. In line with literature reports, Cr-D-(Phe)3 complex improved insulin sensitivity and oral glucose tolerance in the HS fed rats. Interestingly, Cr-L-(Phe)3 complex also improved these parameters. Increased phosphorylation of
BASIC CHROMIUM SULPHATE - Browse to find BASIC CHROMIUM SULPHATE sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories.
A new study finds that young women with early stage ovarian cancer can preserve future fertility by keeping at least one ovary or the uterus without increasing the risk of dying from the disease.
A look at the following clinical trial: Young Women Diagnosed With Early Stage Ovarian Cancer: A Focus on Fertility Issues and Sexual Function.
Contains fructose; ascorbic acid (vitamin C), acidity regulator: E 330, E 500, freeze dried orange juice powder (5.5%), cane sugar, potassium bicarbonate, natural orange flavour (3.3%), calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, potassium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, maltodextrin, potassium salts of orthophosphoric acid, acidity regulator: E 296, E 339, calcium phosphate, anticaking agent: E 551, zinc gluconate, nicotinamide, sweetener: E 950, pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6); calcium salts of orthophosphoric acid, calcium D-pantothenate, manganese gluconate, nicotinic acid, Sucrose, riboflavin (vitamin B2), thiamin (vitamin B1), gelatine (bovine), starch, partly hydrogenated soybean oil, freeze dried lemon juice powder, folic acid, chromium chloride, cyanocobalmin (vitamin B12), cholecalciferol (Vitamin D), natural lemon flavour with other natural flavouring, colour: E 162.. Please follow usage instructions found on Emergen-C Vitamin Sachets. For adults, just one sachet a day is ...
Overweight Cellulite? thanks to the natural active ingredients of fucus, birch, and burdock, the body contour formula provides the necessary impulse to purify and support the body while reducing your weight in a healthy way over the long term. Nutricosmetics (a combination of dias, formulas, phytos and cosmetic products) are used for targeted treatment by a Methode Brigitte Kettner specialist cosmetician.. Box of 60 capsules.. As a Nutricosmetic system, this can be combined with:. ...
Buy Alchimie Forever Optimizing Body Contour Gel 8oz , luxury hair care, skincare and cosmetics at, with Free Delivery.
Dillehay GL, Ellerbroek NA, Balon H, Brill DR, Grigsby PW, Macklis RM, Mauch PM, Mian TA, Potters L, Silberstein EB, Williams TR, Wong JC, Gaspar LE. Practice guideline for the performance of therapy with unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Apr 01; 64(5):1299-307 ...
The govt planned to more than double steel production capacity and per capita consumption from the present level, steel minister Chaudhary Birender Singh said.
98% of the iron ore mined is used to make steel. 51% of global steel is used for construction. 6.5% of CO2 emissions derive from iron and steel production
Steel production is a complex process which requires exact control of alloys, XRF is an ideal testing method to support this process.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites ...
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
Its bikini season. This time of year many of us are doing more than shopping for bathing suits. We are shopping for wrap-around attire or swimsuit cover-ups. Why worry about cover ups? We can bare skin to be proud of this summer with a little help from a bottle.. We have spent the winter indoors. Our skin may be flaky, dull, or lack tone. Cellulite is another big concern for many women summertime approaches. We can get out of the winter blues and feel confident being in our own skin, no matter what time of the year it is.. Body contour products that fight cellulite and offer slimming effects have significantly improved the appearance of problem skin and body contour issues. Many times, cellulite or body contour creams did not perform well for some women, only because the preparation and after care recommendations were not met. In order for these products to work effectively, it is important to understand how to use them and when to use them. STEP ONE - PREPARATION. Before using any contour ...
Large, dense chromic oxide refractory blocks containing from about 80 % to about 98 % chromic oxide are made by firing a green block comprising, in addition to the chromic oxide, titania and a colloidal silica having a surface area of at least about 90 m2/g. Blocks having porosities as low as 0 % are made in either an oxidizing or a reducing atmosphere. The blocks are crack-free and have a good resistance to corrosion by molten glass.
1. INTRODUCTION. Nowadays, heavy metals are among the most important pollutants in source and treated water and becoming a severe public health problem. Chromium, a toxic heavy metal ion, is found in wastewater of various industries, such as paint and pigment manufacturing, stainless steel production, corrosion control, leather tanning, chrome plating and wood preservation [1]. Chromium exists almost exclusively in the Cr(III) oxidation state or in the Cr(VI) oxidation state, however, Cr(VI) is 500 times more toxic than the trivalent form [2]. Thus, the presence of Cr(VI) ions in the environment is posing serious problems and causing great public concern [3]. According to USEPA, the permissible level of Cr(VI) in drinking water should be less than 100 µg/L [4].. Many physical-chemical methods, included reduction [5], ion exchange [6], precipitation [7] and membrane separation [8], have been proposed for Cr(VI) removal from industrial effluent. However, these methods are often inefficient and/or ...
With interest, we read the systematic review by Balk et al. (1). It reviewed the effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids. It is important to have an update of the systematic review performed by Althuis et al. (2) in 2002, since many studies have been published in the years thereafter.. However, we have some concerns with the conclusions of the current systematic review (1). Althuis et al. (2) excluded the study of Anderson et al. (3), performed in China, in their meta-analysis because this study caused heterogeneity problems. Furthermore, this study, which was rated by Balk et al. (1) as being of poor quality, has by far the most beneficial effects on A1C compared with all other studies. We cannot assess the effects, as they were found by combining the results of the studies with the methodological qualification of good in the subanalysis. We guess from Fig. 1 that this effect is about 0.2%, which, if significant, would not be very relevant.. Also, it would have ...
We are your comprehensive center for dermatological expertise. Bellaire Dermatology practices cutting-edge dermatological care in a compassionate environment that has a lasting impact on our patients, employees, community, and beyond.
A pelletized, thermally activated, lightweight power source composed of a lithium alloy solid anode, a transition metal chloride graphite solid cathode and an alkali metal tetrachloroaluminate solid state electrolyte positioned between and in contact with said anode and cathode. Patents. (MJM)*CHLORIDES
C fiber precursor in terms of averages and distributions of spun fiber diameters. Because of fusible character of PMSQ at low temperature, the spun fibers were exposed to vapors of various metal chlorides (SiCl4, Si(CH3)Cl3, TiCl4, and BCl3) to promote the fiber curing. Cured fibers were investigated by FTIR and TG analyses. In a case of the fiber synthesized with SiCl4 curing, tensile tests on the pyrolyzed fibers were performed. Exposure of the synthesized fiber at high temperature with a flame of an oxygen-gas burner was examined. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 ...
Please note that you only have to monitor for those parameters listed in your permit (see Exhibit 2-2 and Section 4). All samples must be collected from a discharge resulting from a storm of greater than 0.1 inch in rainfall and that occurs at least 72 hours after the previous storm of 0.1 inch or more. Grab samples must be taken during the first 30 minutes of the discharge, unless impracticable, in which case a grab sample may be taken during ale first hour. If the grab sample is not taken during the first 30 minutes, an explanation of why this was not possible must be submitted with the DMR. 8) Parameters - Sampled Pollutants Enter each parameter as specified in the monitoring requirements of your permit (see Exhibit 2-2 and Section 4). One line is needed for each sample type. Therefore, to report results for both grab and composite samples of the same parameter, use two lines. 9) Recording of Sample Results Enter the monitoring results for each parameter according to the following format ...
The Reed-Booth Showing is an exploration target on the Wawa-Holdsworth Project (Figure 2). In addition to the Oxide Sands, the Company continues to explore the area for lode gold targets. On July 17, 2017 MacDonald announced that a grab sample* containing 13.7 g/t gold was collected adjacent to the Reed-Booth Showing, and grab samples* from float at the main Reed-Booth Showing (considered representative of the main style of mineralization at the showing) contained 4.77 g/t and 6.0 g/t gold.. *Grab samples are selective and may not represent the true mineralization of the prospect.. The Company has mobilized an excavator and is conducting a trenching and channel sampling program in the area to sample and assess the potential of the Showing and the associated historical Reed Booth Mine.. Plans for Holdsworth Gold Project ...
Summary: Pure α-alumina and chromic oxide have been examined by means of the X-rag powder method. Tables are given showing intensities, indices (hexagonal and rhombohedral), and sinθ values from which accurate parameter values were calculated.. This paper is published by kind permission of Dr. T. Swinden, The United Steel Companies Limited, and Dr. Rees, The University, Sheffield.. ...
....are not my forte. But those valve covers were just begging for me to try again. Id asked the chrome plater who did the fenders how much hed...
Weve just released new dye-free cassettes for the BluePippin and Pippin Prep that use dye-labeled DNA markers* as internal standards, instead of typical external marker set. In the new product, the labeled markers will come premixed wi th the Ficoll … more ». ...
Women hCG diet is described during phase 1 and phase 2 of the hCG diet protocol, read over how hCG diet works in women reducing weight loss and fat, re-shaping her body contours and love handles.
Balego & Associates Inc. - Patients Choice® 2 in. square, 4/package [BAL644] - Long lasting .040 inch thick hydrogel - Superior conformability to body contours. Quick, moderately aggressive tac - Firm, yet gentle electrode to skin contact for multiple applications. High re-wettability/dryout resistance - Effective in high heat and humidity. Highly conductive carbon film - Even current distribution. Spun lace top coat - Flexible and conformable to a variety of application sites. Soft molded
A soft, melting cream with bamboo extract, ideal for massage application to effectively stimulate the circulation. It reduces stubborn curves, firms and envelops the skin in softness. On massaging the tissues are drained to promote more streamlined body contours and slow down the appearance of stubborn curves. Firms the skin and helps avoid the risk of stretch marks. It also moisturises, to leave skin soft and supple. Concentrate on problem areas such as waist, abdomen and hips. Apply a small amount of cream daily, with upwards sweeping movements.
Our formula contains 3 % of DMAE reinforced by Hyaluronic acid so we see an immediate lifting effect that stretches and tightens the skin smoothing wrinkles. We can see a lasting firming action after the first applications of the product and from the fourth or fifth week. Fight the flab improving endurance and muscle tonification. Redefine the body contour. These results remain even for a couple of weeks after stopping the application of the products with DMAE.. ...
Balego & Associates Inc. - Balego® 2 x 3.5 rectangle, 4/package [BAL647] - Long lasting .040 inch thick hydrogel - Superior conformability to body contours. Quick, moderately aggressive tac - Firm, yet gentle electrode to skin contact for multiple applications. High re-wettability/dryout resistance - Effective in high heat and humidity. Highly conductive carbon film - Even current distribution. Spun lace top coat - Flexible and conformable to a variety of application sites. Soft molded
By PFMA News Journal. The worldwide demand in Body Contouring is in constant increase. This growth is expected to reach +14.7%[1] a year until 2022. Today, patients are looking for non-invasive and custom aesthetic procedures with no downtime. They want a global body treatment for a natural and harmonious result.. Years of experience in aesthetic medicine leads me to understand that to get the best possible results, treatments have to be combined. It is rare for the fat element to be the sole culprit in some unsightly forms. Oftentimes, saggy skin or muscle is also present.. 360º Body Contouring is a new figure treatment approach in aesthetic medicine that allows a redefinition of the body contours in a targeted and harmonious manner. For the first time in figure treatment, it is possible to treat all these elements: adipocytes, muscles and skin.. This request is for men and women of all ages willing to tone their figure and strengthen their muscles.. The first step: fat. To redefine our ...
|p| Long lasting .040" thick hydrogel gives superior comformability to body contours. Quick, moderately aggressive tac provides a firm, yet gentle, electrode-to-skin contact for multiple applications. High re-wettability/dryout resistance is effect
Durable and Flexible: The Premium Soft-Touch white non-woven cloth of these electrode stimulation pads is very durable and provides perfect flexibility and comfort enabling curving to body contours and around Joints for high conductivity electric shock therapy without skin irritation or chafing. ...
METHOD FOR TREATING SLAG FLOWING FROM A METALLURGICAL VESSEL AND A DEVICE FOR CARRYING OUT SAID METHOD - The invention relates to steel production in the steel and iron industry. The inventive method consists in dividing a solid slag stream which flows from a metallurgical vessel and falls down, into individual streams along the solid stream, in forcedly cooling the thus obtained individual streams, in dividing the individual streams into parts (pieces) by cutting across the movement thereof, in forcedly cooling said parts and transferring to a belt conveyor, on which said separate parts/pieces are forcedly cooled and transported away from the vessel. A shaped (with containers) conveyor belt, on which the slag pieces are crushed by means of a cylindrical roll, is used for additional crushing. The inventive device for carrying out the totality of the above-listed operations, comprises at least three throat grates which are horizontally positioned in an assembled body and one of which is provided ...
Looking for online definition of Chromium compounds in the Medical Dictionary? Chromium compounds explanation free. What is Chromium compounds? Meaning of Chromium compounds medical term. What does Chromium compounds mean?
See more than 367,287 sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa complaints, sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa reviews, sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa scams, sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa lawsuits and sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa frauds reported. Click here and find all sono bello body contour center, king of prussia, pa Ripoff Reports.
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of chromium(III) as a nutrient added to foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) and foods intended for the general population (including food supplements). The Panel concluded that following oral administration, trivalent chromium is poorly absorbed. The results of in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assays have been consistently negative. The results of other genotoxicity studies are conflicting. The Panel also evaluated new in vitro and in vivo studies on the genotoxicity of chromium(III) compounds which were not covered by previous evaluations. The Panel concluded that in very large amounts, certain trivalent chromium compounds are cytotoxic and have been shown to cause chromosomal damage. The Panel also evaluated the data on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity for chromium(III). Based on the facts i) that maximum intake levels of up to 250 µg/day for supplemental ...
The WSA report showed production for 66 countries across globe where capacity utilisation ratios of the 66 countries were at 68.3%, same as the July 2015 levels. On sequential basis, however, utilisations dropped 3.7%age points.. In the European Union, Germanys crude steel production stood at 3.4 million tonne, down 6.1%, while United Kingdom produced meagre 0.7 million tonne, down 27.3%.. Turkeys crude steel production for July 2016 was 2.7 million tonne, up 6.5% from same period last year. Russia produced 6.1 million tonne crude steel, up 0.9% over last year. Ukraine produced 2.1 million tonne crude steel, up 10.5% compared to the same month in 2015. United States produced 6.9 million tonne, a decrease of 2.2% compared to July 2015, while Brazils crude steel production stood at 2.7 million tonne, down 6.0% on year-on-year basis.. Despite weak seasonality, this is a strong performance. We attribute this production rise to recent commissioning of capacities by most of the bigger integrated ...
Our body contour approach seeks to refine shape and provide muscle definition, often using a combination of open surgery and liposculpture with a tireless attention to detail. We are often consulted for combination procedures, such as breast rebalancing or augmentation with abdominoplasty, or mini - abdominoplasty, and thigh lift - liposuction combinations. Our approach to these bespoke surgeries is to deliver maximum effect for minimum discomfort and hidden scars. We use contemporary proven technologies, such as ultrasound guided liposculpture where required, and have assessed and incoporated newer technologies where they have a place.. All our body contour surgeries, including limb redefinition surgeries such as brachioplasty (arm reduction), and thigh lift, are planned meticulously, and undertaken with excellent anaesthetic support for maximum post operative comfort. We provide a programme of advice for postoperative recovery, and support garments to keep you comfortable and to sculpture ...
Genotoxicity in vitro Bacterial mutation The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) bacterial reverse mutation assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. In addition, an NTP Ames test (non-standard protocol) performed with sodium dichromate dihydrate was positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant Ames tests are available, further testing is not required based on the weight of evidence from the large number of existing studies. Chromosomal aberration The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) cytogenicity / clastogenicity / chromosomal aberration assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant studies are available, further testing is not required ...
Background: Chromium is a micronutrient, considered to be essential for birnak carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect if chromium on the glycemic status and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To study the effect of chromium supplementation on glycemic status and serum lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to two groups. A double blind technique was used and the patients received either 250æg of chromium picolinate or placebo for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured at baseline and 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum insulin concentration was also measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: The fasting blood glucose, glycated ...
DIRECTIONS FOR USE. Serving Size: 2 Level Scoops. Servings per Container: 80 (Approximately). Add 2 level scoops to 300ml of Water or Skimmed Milk and shake well before consumption. STORAGE. Store in a cool dry place and seal with lid after use. Keep out of reach of children. Do not use if seal under cap is broken prior to first use.. INGREDIENTS. Whey Protein Concentrate (MILK, SOYA), Flavouring, Green Tea Extract (22% Polyphenols), Natural Colouring (Beetroot Juice), Thickener (Xanthan Gum), L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate, Sweetener (Sucralose), Calcium Pantothenate, Chromium Chloride.. Allergens listed in BOLD. NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION. Per Serving (2 scoops). Energy 406 kj 96 kcal. Total Fat 1.82 g. of which Saturates 1.21 g. Carbohydrate 0.97 g. of which Sugars 0.97 g. Fibre nil. Protein 19.85 g. AMINO ACID PROFILE. Sodium 0.04 g. Potassium 121 mg. Phosphorus 85 mg. Calcium 133 mg. Green Tea 500 mg. Pantothenic Acid 6 mg. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate 100 mg. Chromium 100 ...
Proprietary mixture: zinc sulphate, magnesium chloride, copper sulphate, ascorbic acid, boric acid, niacinamide, ferrous fumarate, calcium pantothenate, riboflavin, d-alpha tocopherol, manganese chloride, chromium chloride, pyridoxine HCƖ, thiamine HCƖ, organically grown whole soya, sodium molybdate, folic acid, biotin, phytonadione, cyanocobalamin, vitamin D2 with enzyme digested S. cerevisiae (with soya); selenium, co-enzyme Q10, beta carotene enriched, enzyme digested S. cerevisiae; natural Lithothamnion calcarea, vegetarian capsule: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; magnesium ascorbate, natural kelp, silicon dioxide, flow agent: magnesium stearate*; carnitine, parsley, bromelain, vitamin A acetate* (stabilizer: gum Arabic; stabilizer: sucrose; anti-caking agent: maize starch; antioxidant: dl-alpha tocopherol; anti-caking agent: tricalcium phosphate), fenugreek seed, garlic, natural horsetail, artichoke, ginger, α-lipoic acid, broccoli extract, Lactobacillus sporogenes, capsicum fruit ...
Ingredients: Lactose-reduced skimmed milk powder, pea protein, fructose, minerals (sodium chloride, magnesium citrate, potassium chloride, magnesium phosphate, potassium phosphate, calcium phosphate, ferric pyrophosphate, sodium molybdate, zinc sulphate, chromium chloride, potassium iodide, sodium selenite, manganese sulphate, copper sulphate) and vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B3, vitamin B7, vitamin A, vitamin B5, vitamin B12, vitamin B9, vitamin B6, vitamin D3, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin K), chicory root fibre (inulin), vegetable oil (rapeseed), soy lecithin, flavouring, orange juice powder* (glucose syrup, concentrated orange juice), stabilizers xanthan gum and carrageenan, malic acid, colour beta-carotene, sweetener steviol glycoside. * the product contains 1 % orange. ...
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), di-Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Carbonate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Siberian Ginseng, Calcium-D-Pantothenate, Riboflavin, L Lysine, Thiamine HCl, Choline Dihydrogen Citrate, Acacia, Inositol, Ferrous Fumarate, Para Amino Benzoic Acid (PABA), Citrus Bioflavonoids, Zinc Gluconate, Rutin, Veg. Stearic Acid, Veg. Magnesium Stearate, Clear Coating: Polyvinyl Pyrolidone (PVP), Nicotinamide, Pyridoxine HCl, Vitamin A prep, D-alpha Tocopheryl Succinate, Selenomethionine, Vitamin D prep, Manganese Sulphate, Folacin, Copper Gluconate, Potassium Iodide, Biotin, Chromium Chloride, Vitamin B12.. ...
Bueverov AO. Lekarstvennii hepatyt: esly preparat nelzia otmenyt. Klynycheskye perspektyvy hastroenterolohyy y hepatolohyy 2007; 5: 13-19. Rakhymov KD, Palhova LK, Alenova AKh. Spravochnyk po pobochnym deistvyiam lekarstvennykh sredstv. Almaty; 2004: 224. Santhosh S, Sini T, Anandan R. Hepatoprotective activity of chitosan against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 572: 69-73. Posokhova KA, Shevchuk OO, Datsko TV. Porivnialna hepatotoksychnist antymikobakterialnykh zasobiv ta yikh kombinatsii. Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia 2010; 5: 41-46. Gliman AG. Antimicrobial agents: drugs used in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, in Goodman and Gilmans the pharmacologic basis of therapeutics. New York. Pergamon Press; 1990: 1149-1152. Yew WW, Leung CC. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology 2006; 11: 699-707. Sarich T, Youssefi M, Zhou T. Role of hydrazine in the mechanism of isoniazid hepatotoxicity in rabbits. Arch Toxicol 1996; ...
These catalyst systems are especially useful for the oligomerization of olefins, such as, for example, ethylene to 1-hexene. As used in this disclosure, the term oligomerization broadly encompasses the combination of two olefins (dimerization) to form an olefinic product, combination of three olefins (trimerization) to form an olefinic product and combination of more than three olefins to form an olefinic product, but does not include polymerization of olefins. An ohgomer can be defined as a compound made up of repeating units, whose properties can change with the addition or removal of one or a few repeating units. The properties of a polymer do not change markedly with such a modification The chromium source can be one or more organic or inorganic chromium compounds, wherein the chromium oxidation state is from 0 to 6. If the chromium oxidation state is 0, metallic chromium can be the chromium source. Generally, the chromium source can have a formula of CrXn, wherein X can be the same or ...
Body Contour is delighted to be able to offer Photodynamic therapy to their clients in Fort Lauderdale for the first time. This cutting edge LED technology was developed as a non-surgical light therapy to stimulate the skins own renewal process.
Hydrogen direct reduction is a technology to convert iron ore into iron using hydrogen as a reaction agent. The product is called sponge iron or direct reduced iron (DRI). Hydrogen can be produced in different ways. Most of the projects in the database developing this technology aim to produce hydrogen from water through electrolysis, an electrochemical process splitting water by applying an electric current. Carbon capture and storage cleans the carbon dioxide from the tailpipe of steel production processes and then transports it to a location of permanent storage. A few projects in the database aim to develop this technology.. Direct electrification of ironmaking is a novel way of converting iron ore to iron by applying an electric current to iron ore which is dissolved in a liquid. The database captures two different versions of this process, which are both in relatively early stages of technological development. ...
Chromium is a commonly used (or at least recommended) supplement in PCOS. What is it, why is it recommended, and should you be taking it?. Chromium is a metal, just like iron and copper. Its not really needed in large amounts to do its job, which in the body, is to help metabolize sugar and fats.. Some researchers have suggested that chromium supplementation in PCOS can help insulin function. There are two articles in the National Library of Medicine database looking specifically at the use of chromium supplementation in PCOS. One study, using a dose of 200 mcg per day, resulted in improved glucose tolerance but not fertility. The second study bumped the dose up to 1000 micrograms per day, resulting in a 38% better ability to remove glucose from the blood.. BEFORE YOU RUSH OUT AND BUY A YEARS SUPPLY…. There are more than a few articles in the very same database connecting chromium picolinate to DNA damage. The earliest one, for someone writing so much about infertility, really caught my eye, ...
SUN COVERAGE: CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link established Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It helps to control your blood sugar. It also helps insulin work well. You also need it to metabolize and store carbohydrates, fat, and protein. You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes in humans arent conclusive. R...
Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.. Anderson R. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270.. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.. Anderson RA, Roussell AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
1. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 2. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitis with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med. 1999;16:164-167. 4. Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51-chromium. Nutr Res. 1990;10:1401-1407. 5. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791. 6. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91-97. 7. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899. 8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et ...
Chromium can exist in air, water, soil, and food, and common exposure pathways include ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Chromium is commonly found in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium III) and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI). Chromium III is the most stable form of the element, and occurs naturally in animals, plants, rocks, and soils. Chromium VI rarely occurs in nature, and is usually the product of anthropogenic activities.. The health effects of chromium depend on the route of exposure and the form of the chromium. For example, inhaling chromium can cause damage to the respiratory system, whereas dermal or oral exposures generally do not. Gastrointestinal effects are generally associated with oral exposure, but not with dermal exposure. In addition, chromium VI typically causes greater health risks than chromium III. The reasons for the increased danger of chromium VI versus chromium III are complex, and relate in part to the varied paths of cellular uptake between the two ...
Para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation catalyst compositions and processes for using such catalysts are provided. The catalyst compositions comprise a catalytically active iron compound, e.g., iron oxide; a potassium catalyst promoter, e.g., potassium carbonate; an optional chromium compound stabilizer, e.g., chromic oxide, and a gallium compound, e.g., gallium trioxide. Utilization of particular amounts of gallium compound in dehydrogenation catalyst compositions of this type will provide a catalyst especially suitable for promoting the selective dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene to form para-methylstyrene with sustained catalyst activity, with minimized aromatic ring loss and with minimal formation of popcorn polymer from the reaction effluent.
Chromium has been established to be an essential trace element in mammals in regard to maintenance of normal carbohydrate metabolism. Studies that provided chromium to human subjects in documented def
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DO FOR US?. What scientist have established is that chromium is involved in glucose metabolism. They are not sure how but they know it does. Insulin appears to be more effective when chromium levels are optimal. Because of its affect on insulin chromium also has an indirect role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism all of which insulin influences.. When chromium is ingested at the same time as vitamin C more chromium enters our blood stream.. Contrary to what the diet and exercise gurus might tell you chromium lll does not promote weight loss nor does it increase lean body mass or decrease body fat. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH CHROMIUM?. Chromium deficiency is the disorder that too little chromium in the diet produces. This deficiency was first observed in some extreme cases. These cases were hospitalized patients who were being fed intravenously. They developed problems with the way glucose was being managed in their bodies and they started to produce ...
No single CAS number applies to this NPRI listing.. (1) CAS Registry Number denotes the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number, as appropriate.. (2) and its salts - the CAS number corresponds to the weak acid or base. However, the substance includes the salts of these weak acids and bases. When calculating the weight of these substances and their salts, use the molecular weight of the acid or base, not the total weight of the salt.. (3) fume or dust. (4) fibrous forms. (5) Ammonia (total) means the total of both of ammonia (NH3 - CAS No. 7664-41-7) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) in solution.. (6) an d its compounds (7) friable form (8) and its compounds except hexavalent chromium compounds (9) all isomers including the individual isomers of cresol: m-cresol (CAS No. 108-39-4), o-cresol (CAS No. 95-48-7) and p-cresol (CAS No. 106-44-5). (10) ionic. (11) mixed isomers. (12) all isomers including, but not limited to, HCFC-122 (CAS No. 354-21-2).. (13) all isomers including, ...
The responses of dairy cattle to chromium (Cr) supplementation reported in the literature suggest that it has the potential to reduce the incidence of both mastitis and ketosis. The effect of Cr supplementation of pasture fed dairy cows in early lactation was studied. Ten lactating Jersey cows fitted with rumen fistula were infused with either Cr-yeast (n=4), casein (n=3) or buffer only (controls; n=3) directly into the abomasum. All cows were subjected to a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Preliminary results show that there was no effect of Cr supplementation on milk yield, cortisol and b-hydroxy butyrate concentrations and somatic cell counts ...
Elimination of the circumferential cutaneous redundancy through a longitudinal, full thickness skin resection between armpit and elbow ...
Copyright © 2017 Rodman Media. All rights reserved. Use of this constitutes acceptance of our privacy policy The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Rodman Media.. ...
Stretch Gauze Bandages are self adhering, staying in place with minimal taping and conforming to difficult body contours. These Stretch Gauze Bandages are highly absorbent, non-linting and ravel free to keep the wound site clean. Unique knit construction offers proper compression without constriction Self adhering; stays in place with minimal taping Conforms to difficult body contours Highly absorbent gauze roll is non-linting and ravel free to keep the wound site clean 4.1 yards, stretched Ideal for both primary and secondary wound care dressings Packed in peel-open poly pouches for aseptic handling
Micro-needling with Dermapen, Rejuvastamp and Rejuvapen allows Global patent growth factor infusion which is 400% stronger than prp to be infused into the skin to stimulate cellular regeneration and anti aging
Xeroform Petrolatum Gauze is 3% bismuth tribromophenate in a special petrolatum blend on fine-mesh gauze. Non-adherent. Clings and conforms to all body contours. 3% bismuth tribromophenate in a special petrolatum blend on fine-mesh gauze. Occlusive. Clings and conforms to all body contours. Bacteriostatic action.
A vacuum mattress having a casing which is loosely filled with a multitude of synthetic resin components so as to enable the mattress to adapt in shape to the body contour of a person thereon, and provided on said casing with a valve for evacuating the mattress so as to retain it in said body contour adapted shape.
Greinert, Jens; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Elvert, Marcus (2002): Carbonate mineralogical and isotopic analyses of TV-guided grab samples and TV-guided box corer samples from the Shumagin area. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Greinert, J et al. (2002): Stromatolitic fabric of authigenic carbonate crusts. Results of anaerobic methane oxidation at cold seeps in 4850m water depth. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 91, 698-711,
Pharmaceutical Intermediates and Agro... - (Pharmaceutical Intermediates and Agrochemicals):Nippon Chemical Industrial produces inorganic materials, organic materials, agricultural materials and electronic materials. Also we sales and imports those materials. Our main inorganic materials are phosphorous compounds, silicates, barium compounds and chromium compounds. Our products make it possible for people to create affluent society.
Ammonium nitrate activated or catalyzed with certain chromium compounds provides an excellent, low cost blowing or expanding agent(s) for many foamable polymers, including polyethylene(s), polystyrene(s), etc.
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
Insulin resistance is one of the metabolic syndrome symptoms. This syndrome is progressive and can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have indicated that chromium supplementation is effective in increasing the insulin sensitivity and control hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Therefore, current study aimed to review the available evidence regarding the relation between chromium and glucose homeostasis.&nbsp;This review study was done by searching on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of Science by entering &ldquo;diabetes mellitus&rdquo;, &ldquo;insulin sensitivity&rdquo;, &ldquo;insulin resistance&rdquo;, &ldquo;chromium&rdquo; and &ldquo;metabolic syndrome&rdquo; as keywords. In this study, clinical trial, cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies which were published during 1995 to 2014 were reviewed. Studies show that the consumption of high dose of chromium supplement (1000 &micro;g) during ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Hovite Capsules information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Raptakos Brett, Hovite Capsules indications, usages and related health products lists
Sodium/metal chloride storage batteries, used in hybrid propulsion applications, provide high energy and power densities safely and reliably.. To understand the dynamics of electrochemical cycling, a high-temperature sodium/ferrous chloride storage cell was modeled in two dimensions. The time-dependent solution shows that a reaction front, starting at the interface with the negative electrode, moves deeper into the positive electrode with increasing depth of discharge.. Cell potential falls continuously as the discharge front moves deeper; Ohmic resistance in the porous electrode limits cell performance.. ...
Sodium/metal chloride storage batteries, used in hybrid propulsion applications, provide high energy and power densities safely and reliably.. To understand the dynamics of electrochemical cycling, a high-temperature sodium/ferrous chloride storage cell was modeled in two dimensions. The time-dependent solution shows that a reaction front, starting at the interface with the negative electrode, moves deeper into the positive electrode with increasing depth of discharge.. Cell potential falls continuously as the discharge front moves deeper; Ohmic resistance in the porous electrode limits cell performance.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Measurement and correlation for solubilities of alkali metal chlorides in water vapor at high temperature and pressure. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Adapted process parameters and knowledge about the admissible limits of alloy content - based on the findings of the ongoing research - help to prevent negative effects of grain boundary oxidation in further steel processing and in-service properties of HSS car body parts.. High strength steels are an important backbone for applications in the automotive industry, but cost-efficient manufacture of those materials requires the suppression of oxides within the steel during sheet production.. When steel is produced using rolling mills at high temperatures, the surface oxidises quickly but the grain boundary oxides underneath define the depth of the corroded zone and also the materials forming limit. Hence, oxidation plays an essential role during the manufacturing of high strength steels for automotive applications which often contain a higher amount of manganese. Due to their unique mechanical properties, this allows for a significant reduction of sheet thickness, allowing a vehicle to be lighter ...
Grid energy storage as well questionable large-scale nuclear energy storage is a sum total of statistical method utilised to store electric energy Grid energy storage on a astronomical magnitude relation inside an electrical control grid Grid energy storage. Electrical nuclear energy is stored tube present times when steel production specially from sporadic control distillery much as renewable electricity Grid energy storage origin much as wind power Grid energy storage, tidal power Grid energy storage, solar power Grid energy storage transcend consumption, and turn back to the form when steel production cascade below consumption. The word stress are utilised - feeding control to the form - at times when swallow that cannot be deferred or delayed transcend production. In this way, electricity production need not be drastically scaled up and downward to gather momentary consumption - instead, transmission from the combination of setup plus storage facilities is maintained at a more constant ...
Sven Jacobi, Esteban Leon-Soto, Cristian Madrigal-Mora, and Klaus Fischer: Masdispo_xt: Annealing furnace planning inside the supply chain of steel production. In Proceedings of the 17th IFAC 2008 World Congress, pages 13888-13892, Seoul, Korea, 2008.. Sven Jacobi, David Raber, and Klaus Fischer: Masdispo_xt: Heat and sequence optimisation based on simulated trading inside the supply chain of steel production. In Proceedings of the AAMAS Industrial Track, pages 23-28, Estoril, Portugal, May 2008.. Christian Hahn and Klaus Fischer: The static semantics of the domain specific modeling language for multiagent systems. In Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE 2008), Workshop at AAMAS~08, Estoril, Portugal, 2008.. Klaus Hahn, Christian und~Fischer. The dynamic semantics of the domain specific modeling language for multiagent systems. In Proceedings of the AAMAS Workshop on Agent-based Technologies and applications for enterprise interOPerability ...
Chromium appears to be the most useful mineral in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Chromium and niacin are components of glucose tolerance factor, a molecule that improves insulins ability to lower blood sugar levels. Animal studies have shown that chromium deficient diets result in high blood sugar levels. Chromium deficient diets are extremely common: One survey estimated that over 90% of Americans consume less than the so-called minimum daily intake. Although the best food sources of chromium are mushrooms, brewers yeast, and eggs, chromium supplementation is advisable when a glucose-insulin tolerance test is abnormal. In my experience, the common commercially available 200 microgram quantity is inadequate for either prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes.. Researchers have shown that 200 micrograms of chromium daily is ineffective in lowering blood sugar in actual type 2 diabetes. But when levels are raised to 1,000 micrograms daily, blood sugar, serum insulin, and cholesterol ...
Evaluation of chromic oxide, lignin, crude fiber, nitrogen and indigestible dry matter as indicators to determine fecal production and forage intake
A high intake of chromium in your diet doesnt cause serious side effects. But you should check with a healthcare provider before taking it. This is vital if youre pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. They may also lower your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels closely if you start taking them. Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. These may reduce chromium levels:. ...
Electron microscopy was used to characterize the fine-grained products formed during the electrorefining of copper and to elucidate the chemical processes occurring during this metallurgical process. Copper anodes and the anode slimes from the electrorefining of copper at three Canadian refineries are studied to determine the behaviour of lead and selenium and the formation of various silver-copper selenides during the electrorefining process. Silver occurs in solid solution in the copper metal and dissolves with the copper. Silver then reacts with Cu2Se to form Ag-Cu selenides. Lead is present in the anode mostly as complex Pb-As or Pb-As-Sb-Bi oxides. On exposure to the electrolyte, the lead is rapidly converted to insoluble PbSO4. Although most of the nickel in the anodes dissolves, some accumulates as NiO or Cu-Ni-Sb oxide inclusions in the anode slimes.
"Chromium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 9. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 178. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_ ... Organopotassium compounds illustrate nonionic compounds of potassium. They feature highly polar covalent K---C bonds. Examples ... In general, potassium compounds are ionic and, owing to the high hydration energy of the K+ ion, have excellent water ... Megatons of these compounds are produced annually. Potassium hydroxide KOH is a strong base, which is used in industry to ...
Hexavalent-chromium compounds are genotoxic carcinogens. In 1993, legal clerk Erin Brockovich began an investigation into the ... California was the first state to put into effect an MCL for hexavalent chromium (chromium 6) in drinking water in July 2014, ... According to CalEPA in 2015, "At the time Total Chromium MCLs were established, ingested Hexavalent Chromium associated with ... Hexavalent chromium is measured in μg/L (micrograms per liter). The EPA does not have an MCL for hexavalent chromium in ...
Generally speaking chromium(VI) compounds are carcinogenic. Fillmore Freeman (2001). "Dipyridine Chromium(VI) Oxide". ... "Compounds of chromium(VI): The Pyridine.Chromic Anhydride Complex, Benzimidazolinium Dichromate, and Three 2-Alkyl-1H- ... Collins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane. This metal-pyridine complex, a red solid ... Sarett oxidation Oxidation with chromium(VI)-amine complexes Collins reagent can be used as an alternative to the Jones reagent ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... to the corresponding carbonyl compounds or metal oxides while the chromium(VI) centre in CaCrO4 is reduced to chromium(III). ... Also positive associations have been observed between exposure to Chromium (VI) compounds and cancer of the nose and nasal ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... Also positive associations have been observed between exposure to Chromium (VI) compounds and cancer of the nose and nasal ... "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067 ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... Like all hexavalent chromium compounds, sodium dichromate is carcinogenic. The compound is also corrosive and exposure may ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... Virtually all chromium ore is processed via conversion to sodium dichromate and virtually all compounds and materials based on ...
This paper describes the isostructure chromium and iron compounds. Blake, Antony B.; Yavari, Ahmad; Hatfield, William E.; ... form analogous compounds. Iron(III) acetate (lacking the oxo ligand) has been claimed as a red coloured compound from the ... The compound was an early example of a molecular complex of iron that features an oxide ligand. The cation has idealized D3h ... Mixed metal species are known such as [Fe2CoO(OAc)6(H2O)3]. Chromium(III), ruthenium(III), vanadium(III), and rhodium(III) ...
Ceramic pads usually contain chromium compounds to resist heat. For wet-weather use, brake pads containing iron (iii) oxide are ... The heavier fork and wheels compound the weight disadvantage of the brake assembly itself. Heat build-up can lead to failure ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric acid, chromium compounds, lead compounds, and chlorine. The Center for Public Integrity has ...
Major pollutants included nickel compounds, chromium compounds, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Progress has also been ...
Major pollutants included sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, chromium compounds, and hydrogen fluoride. The Political Economy ... volatile organic compounds) 29 tons per year - F (fluorides) This list is partially complete due to the July 3, 2012, merger ...
It is used as a commercial source of chromium and its compounds. It is also used as a catalyst in the synthesis of hydrogen (H2 ... Iron(II) chromite is an inorganic mineral composed primarily of chromium(III) oxide and iron(II) oxide compounds with the ... It is created by the sintering of chromium(III) oxide and iron(II) oxide at 1600 °C. It also occurs in nature as the mineral ...
... plant of chromium compounds is the only enterprise in the country producing chromium oxide, chromic anhydride, tannins, ... The largest enterprises of the city are the Aktobe ferroalloy plant, Aktyubrentgen, Aktobe plant of chromium compounds and a ... It houses plants of ferroalloys, chromium compounds, agricultural machinery, X-ray equipment, etc. The chemical, light, and ... Chromium also began to be mined and processed in the region. In the 1960s, an extensive expansion of the city was undertaken by ...
Major pollutants include sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, and chromium, manganese and nickel compounds. Overall, electric power ...
... was reported to exist also in a compound containing a quintuple chromium-chromium bond with diazadiene bridging ligands. Other ... A Coordination Compound with an Ultrashort Chromium-Chromium Bond". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47 (38): 7246-7249. doi:10.1002/anie. ... The species is stable up to 200 °C. The chromium-chromium quintuple bond has been analyzed with multireference ab initio and ... "Synthesis of a Stable Compound with Fivefold Bonding Between Two Chromium(I) Centers". Science. 310 (5749): 844-847. Bibcode: ...
"Synthesis of a Stable Compound with Fivefold Bonding Between Two Chromium(I) Centers". Science. 310 (5749): 844-847. Bibcode: ... His research focuses on low-coordinate main group and transition metal compounds. Much of this work hinges on the use of ... and physical and chemical characterization of inorganic and organometallic compounds. ...
In 2010, a study was conducted on four hexavalent chromium compounds to test the carcinogenic effects of chromium. The chromium ... The compound is often used as a carrier for the chromium ions. One such case is the use of barium chromate as a sulfate ... 2010) "Comparative Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Four Haxevalent Chromium Compounds in Human Bronchial Cells." Chem. Res. ... Over time the chromium concentration of the bath will decrease until the bath is no longer functional. Adding barium chromate ...
A method that yields more methcathinone is oxidizing (pseudo)ephedrine with chromium (VI) compounds. Methcathinone as free base ... due to the compound manganese dioxide which is a byproduct of synthesis with permanganate. The Convention on Psychotropic ... Methcathinone is a beta-keto N-methylamphetamine and is closely related to the naturally occurring compounds, cathinone and ... which yields a biologically inactive compound. Methcathinone hydrochloride increases spontaneous rodent locomotor activity, ...
In this compound, as in all chromates and dichromates, chromium is in a +6 oxidation state, commonly known as hexavalent ... Ammonium dichromate, like all chromium (VI) compounds, is highly toxic and a proven carcinogen. It is also a strong irritant. ... The compound is also used in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in ZrCl4/wet SiO2 ... At room temperature and pressure, the compound exists as orange, acidic crystals soluble in water and alcohol. It is formed by ...
Major pollutants indicated by the study include sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and chromium compounds. On November 10, 2004 ...
Chromium VI and compounds fact sheet NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards IARC Monograph "Chromium and Chromium compounds" ... There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... Like other chromium(VI) compounds (chromium trioxide, sodium dichromate), potassium dichromate has been used to prepare " ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ...
Soda Industry now is the leading producer of chromium compounds and the 4th greatest producer of sodium compounds (such as ... In 1979, the Kromsan Chromium Compounds Plant (Turkish: Kromsan Krom Bileşikleri Fabrikası) was founded. It is situated just to ... In 2011 Soda Industry also acquired the Italian Chromium Products factory Cromital . The Soda Plant and the Kromsan Chromium ... Turkey producing soda ash and chromium compounds mainly for the glass industry in its parent's group of companies. It is owned ...
Some compounds of ammonia and chromium, 1861). He also wrote several more papers on complex compounds, including the compounds ... Cleve worked on the synthesis of complex chemical compounds until 1872. He theorized in 1874 that the element didymium ... Additionally, Cleve synthesized several hundred complex platinum compounds. Cleve visited a number of laboratories in England, ...
... is an inorganic compound of chromium and silicon with the chemical formula Cr3Si. Haynes, William M., ed ...
The compound chromium acetate hydroxide, Cr3(OH)2(OAc)7, has also been described as isostructural. Analogous ruthenium(III), ... vanadium(III), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) compounds with trinuclear structures are known. Copper(II) acetate and chromium( ... These three compounds are distinct in the solid phase but are usually treated as a group and described collectively as ... According to the formal rules for naming inorganic compounds, the name for Al(CH 3CO 2) 3 is aluminium acetate, though more ...
Heavy metals including cadmium, chromium, lead and uranium are unlike organic compounds and cannot be biodegraded. However, ... Microorganisms can be used to reduce the toxicity and mobility of chromium by reducing hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI) to trivalent ... and aromatic compounds can be very high. As molecular weight of the compound increases, the resistance to biodegradation ... Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and uranium (U[VI]) can be reduced to less mobile and/or less toxic forms (e.g., Cr[III], U[IV]). ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Norm Stanley Colorful Chromium Compounds, 23 August 2002 Harry H. Sisler; Louis E. ... It is a water-soluble orange compound is used occasionally for oxidation of organic compounds. It is sometimes called Péligot's ... Potassium chlorochromate is an inorganic compound with the formula KCrO3Cl. It is the potassium salt of chlorochromate, [CrO3Cl ...
Major pollutants indicated by the study include sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chromium compounds, and manganese compounds ...
... is a crystalline mineral composed primarily of iron(II) oxide and chromium(III) oxide compounds. It can be represented ... The chromium present in soil is a mixture of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Certain types of chromium such as Chromium-VI has the ... The chromium extracted from chromite has a lot of benefits when it comes to its uses and applications. The use of chromium in ... Chromium-III and VI will accumulate in the tissues of humans and animals. The excretion of this type of chromium from the body ...
There are large Chemical Works "Alwernia" S.A (from 1923/1924), mainly producing phosphorus and chromium compounds. Industrial ...
... metal and compounds - Specific Medical Tests or Examinations Published in the Literature for OSHA-Regulated Substances ... Chromium, metal and compounds. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ... Chromium, metal and compounds. CAS No: Varies. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH ...
Chromium compounds synonyms, Chromium compounds pronunciation, Chromium compounds translation, English dictionary definition of ... Chromium compounds. n. Symbol Cr A lustrous, hard, steel-gray metallic element, resistant to tarnish and corrosion and found ... Chromium compounds - definition of Chromium compounds by The Free Dictionary ... chromium. (redirected from Chromium compounds). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. chro·mi·um. (krō′mē-əm). n. ...
Appearance and odor vary depending upon the specific compound. ...
... Re: Is chromium oxide ... Re: Is chromium oxide honing compound still releva Re: Is chromium oxide honing compound still releva Re: Is chromium oxide ... Re: Is chromium oxide honing compound still releva Appearance... Re: Appearance... Re: Is chromium oxide honing compound still ... Re: Is chromium oxide vs aluminum oxide +... Two questions remain My opinion.. Marketing with the compounds... G-456--not that ...
Find suppliers of Chromium and Compounds of, Nitrides serving the ceramic, glass, brick, decorating and related markets in the ... Companies in CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS OF, Nitrides Ceramic Color & Chemical Mfg. Co.. Manufacturer of ceramic pigments, specialty ... Chromium & Compounds * CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS OF, Borides * CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS OF, Carbides * CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS OF, Nitrides ... Home » Directories » Materials Handbook » CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS OF, Nitrides. Materials Handbook. Directory & Buying Guide. * ...
Chromium compounds explanation free. What is Chromium compounds? Meaning of Chromium compounds medical term. What does Chromium ... Looking for online definition of Chromium compounds in the Medical Dictionary? ... chromium. (redirected from Chromium compounds). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. chromium. (Cr) [kro´me-um] ... chromium picolinate, chromium polynicotinate, or chromium chloride.. chro·mi·um (krōmē-ŭm) A metallic element and essential ...
California health officials proposed stricter limits on the carcinogenic compound chromium-6 in drinking water. The chemical is ... California Proposes New Limits For Carcinogenic Chromium-6 In Drinking Water: First State In Nation To Target Compound. Aug 24 ... California health officials proposed stricter limits on the carcinogenic compound chromium-6 in drinking water. The chemical is ... New measures to limit the amount of the cancer-causing contaminant hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) in California drinking ...
... The 2021-2026 World Outlook ... for Chromium Compounds Excluding Sodium Bichromate and Sodium - Market research report and industry analysis - 12925877 ... The 2021-2026 World Outlook for Chromium Compounds Excluding Sodium Bichromate and Sodium Chromate. This study covers the world ... The 2021-2026 World Outlook for Chromium Compounds Excluding Sodium Bichromate and Sodium Chromate. Lowest Prices Guaranteed. ...
I. Substituted Bis-Arene-Chromium Compounds. Ii. Structures of Hydrocarbons From the Polyphosphoric Acid Induced Condensation ... I. Substituted Bis-Arene-Chromium Compounds. Ii. Structures of Hydrocarbons From the Polyphosphoric Acid Induced Condensation ... I. Substituted Bis-Arene-Chromium Compounds. Ii. Structures of Hydrocarbons From the Polyphosphoric Acid Induced Condensation ...
"Chromium Compounds" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromium Compounds" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromium Compounds" by people in Profiles. ...
On the contrary, Cr(III) salts such as chromium polynicotinate, chromium chloride and chromium picolinate (CrP) are used as ... For this reason, dietary supplement or slimming aid usually contain chromium(III) chloride, chromium(III) picolinate, chromium( ... belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds ... Chromium(VI) compounds in solution can be detected by adding acidic hydrogen peroxide solution. A dark blue unstable chromium( ...
Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3. It is the acidic anhydride of chromic acid, and is sometimes ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chromium trioxide.. *ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Chromium Toxicity U.S ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic.[11] It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ...
Inorganic chromium(‎VI)‎ compounds  International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound ... Strontium and strontium compounds  International Programme on Chemical Safety; Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound ...
... chemical compounds. ... chromium ion (CHEBI:61310) is a chromium molecular entity ( ... chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237) has part chromium atom (CHEBI:28073) chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237) is a ... chromium coordination entity (CHEBI:35403) is a chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237). ... CHEBI:23237 - chromium molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is an inorganic compound with the formula Cr. 2O. 3. It is one of the principal oxides of ... Chromium(III) oxide is amphoteric. Although insoluble in water, it reacts with acid to produce salts of hydrated chromium ions ... The oxide is also formed by the decomposition of chromium salts such as chromium nitrate, or by the exothermic decomposition of ... Because of the very high melting point of chromium, chromium thermite casting is impractical. ...
Find hexavalent chromium requirement articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... published their findings on chromium and chromium compounds as carcinogens. Chromium may be isolated in any of three volume ... Chromium detection in water and soil... What is chromium? Chromium is a metal that is widely distributed in the earths crust ( ... Deadly Hexavalent Chromium in Soil Merging technologies will change over Hexavalent Chromium in soil to Trivalent Chromium, ...
Find chromium monitoring articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... Refractories, plastics, insulation or textiles containing chromium compounds - Case study Purpose The original version of this ... chromium monitoring Articles. Related terms for "chromium monitoring ": hexavalent chromium monitoring articles ... decision ordering Respondent Elementis Chromium Inc., f/k/a Elementis Chromium, LP (Elementis or Company), to pay a $2,571,800 ...
... chromium and compounds; selenium; tanning industry. Descriptors (secondary). Poland; determination in urine; chromium; ... The results suggest a specific adaptation of the body to the working environment containing chromium compounds.. ... glutathione peroxidase were determined in the blood of 34 tannery workers who worked in an area containing chromium compounds. ... Tanners working in areas of high chromium concentrations had lower concentrations of selenium in blood and urine than did other ...
CHROMIUM (IC) OXALATE Precursor products, CHROMIUM (IC) OXALATE Downstream products ect. ... Current Page: Home › Chemical Dictionary › 814-90-4 › CHROMIUM (IC) OXALATE 814-90-4 Precursor and Products ... CHROMIUM (IC) OXALATE 814-90-4 Precursor and Downstream products, ...
Chromium Compounds - US EPA. Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of trivalent chromium, and in the form of small ... Chromium Mining, Chromium Mine, Chromium Mines, Metal .... Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr2O4) ore. About 2/5ths of the ... Process for extracting chromium from chromium ores .... Jun 15, 1976· Process of extracting chromium from a chromium ore or ... Chromium , Minerals Education Coalition. Chromium. Chromium (Cr) is a hard, bluish metallic element. The only ore of chromium ...
Kane-Maguire, N. A. P. Photochemistry and Photophysics of Coordination Compounds: Chromium. In Photochemistry and Photophysics ... of Coordination Compounds I; Balzani, V., Campagna, S., Eds.; Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007; pp 37-67. ...
Chromium oxide polishing compound - CHROME STAR CHEMICAL WORKS in Gurgaon, Haryana, India.... Optimum Diabetics is ... Chromium Oxide Buffing Compound, Wholesale Various High Quality Chromium Oxide Buffing Compound Products from Global Chromium ... Chromium Oxide Compound, Chromium Oxide... - ( pound.html) Find ... Chromium Oxide Buffing Compound, Chromium Oxide Buffing... ( fing-compound. ...
Inorganic chromium(VI) compounds.(in IRIS) by World Health Organization , Internationa Programme on Chemical Safety , Inter- ... Inorganic chromium(III) compounds. by World Health Organization , United Nations Environment Programme , International Labour ...
Chromium compounds oxicity -- adverse effects , Chromium hexavalent ion , Environmental exposure -- adverse effects , Maximum ... Inorganic chromium(VI) compounds.(in IRIS) Contributor(s): World Health Organization , Internationa Programme on Chemical ...
Chromium Hexavalent Compounds. Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition (2011) National Toxicology Program, Department of Health ... Chromium. Chromium-2004* 17.1 C hromium By*John*F.*Papp Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Joseph M. Krisanda, ... Chromium. What Is It? Chromium is found naturally in rocks, soil .... Argonne National Laboratory, EVS Human Health Fact Sheet ... Chromium. Public Health Statement for Chromium CAS# 7440-47-3 September 2000 This Public Health Statement is the summary ...
Chromium metal and chromium(III) compounds are not usually considered health hazards, but hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) ... Compounds. Chromium(III) oxide. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four ... As chromium compounds have been used in dyes and paints and the tanning of leather, these compounds are often found in soil and ... Chromium compounds of oxidation state +6 are powerful oxidants.. Isotopes. The isotopes of chromium range in atomic weight from ...
Find out why chromium is an essential supplement for diabetics and how it can help reduce blood sugar. ... While there is an ongoing debate over the status of chromium as an essential nutrient, experts are unanimous in the conclusion ... Chromium: Essential Nutrient or Toxic Compound?. Chromium, the element, is a gray, steely, shinning, odorless, tasteless, hard ... How Chromium Improves Glycemic Control. *Enhance insulin action; the organic forms of chromium (chromium picolinate, for ...
Process for the Manufacture of Complex Organic Compounds of Chromium Oxide. Notes on the Mountain Sheep of North America, with ...
Purchase Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium, Volume 5 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444804419, ... 2. Chromium Compounds: Production and Occupational Exposure. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Production of Chromium Metal, Alloys and ... Water Chromium Concentrations. 3.7. Water Chromium Chemistry. 3.8. Air. 3.9. Sources of Chromium. 3.10. Effect of Chromium ... Topics covered range from the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, ...
Langard, S. (1983). "The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in man and animals." In: Burrow, C., Ed. Chromium: Metabolism ... Polak, L., J. L. Turk, et al. (1973). "Studies on contact hypersensitivity to chromium compounds." Progress in Allergy 17: 145- ... De Flora, S., M. Bagnasco, et al. (1990). "Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. A review." Mutation Research 238(2): 99-172. ... Korallus, U., H. Ehrlicher, et al. (1974b). "Trivalent chromium compounds - results of a study in occupational medicine. Part 2 ...
  • Merging technologies will change over Hexavalent Chromium in soil to Trivalent Chromium, effectively stopping Hexavalent Chromium from becoming dangerously airborne or becoming even more deadly by migrating into the water table. (
  • Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of trivalent chromium, and in the form of small particles or aerosols. (
  • The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism , but hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is very toxic. (
  • Trivalent chromium is the healthful form of the mineral. (
  • The cell only needs a very small amount of trivalent chromium. (
  • 1984). "Urinary excretion of chromium as an indicator of exposure to trivalent chromium sulphate in leather tanning. (
  • Toxicological Review of Trivalent Chromium. (
  • The element chromium occurs naturally in various states, including trivalent chromium which is an essential nutrient. (
  • In the United States, trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin , sugar and lipid metabolism . (
  • Trivalent chromium from yeast extract is sometimes referred to as glucose tolerance factor (GTF) in over-the-counter products. (
  • Trivalent chromium is the most stable oxidation state for chromium, and it is this form that is found in common nutritional supplements, generally as the picolinate. (
  • To date, no chromium-containing biomolecules have been definitively described, and no clinical manifestation of trivalent chromium deficiency in humans has been established. (
  • The toxicity of chromium within the cell may result from damage to cellular components during the hexavalent to trivalent chromium reduction process, by generation of free radicals, including DNA damage [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule. (
  • Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO 3 . (
  • Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed. (
  • Chromium (III) oxide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ( Chromium (III) oxide is the inorganic compound of the formula Cr2O3. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Inorganic chromium(VI) compounds. (
  • The organic form of chromium exists in a dinicotino-glutathionine complex in natural foods and is better absorbed than the inorganic form. (
  • Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2. (
  • Chromium trioxide (also known as chromium(VI) oxide or chromic anhydride) is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3. (
  • Chromium is passivated by oxygen, forming a thin protective oxide surface layer. (
  • 3 has the corundum structure, consisting of a hexagonal close packed array of oxide anions with ​ 2 ⁄ 3 of the octahedral holes occupied by chromium. (
  • The oxide is also formed by the decomposition of chromium salts such as chromium nitrate, or by the exothermic decomposition of ammonium dichromate . (
  • Unlike the classic thermite reaction involving iron oxides, the chromium oxide thermite creates few or no sparks, smoke or sound, but glows brightly. (
  • Experiments were conducted to study the kinetics and effects of pH, temperature, irradiation, and initial hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) concentration on Cr(VI) reduction by GA. Results indicated that Cr(VI) could be reduced to chromium oxide (Cr(III)) with GA in a wide range of pH values from 2.0 to 8.5. (
  • Manufacturer of Chrome Oxide Green for Buffing Compounds ( r_buffing.html) VR Chrome Oxide is manufacturer of Chrome Oxide Green color for Buffing Compound . (
  • Tool Sharpening Compound ( und.aspx) This is a chromium oxide buffing compound which cuts faster and polishes more smoothly than traditional red rouge. (
  • Aluminum, Tin, Cerium, Chrome Oxide ( -i-use/) A number of polishing compounds have been successfully used in rock tumbling. (
  • Where can I get some chromium oxide ? (
  • CHROME STAR CHEMICAL WORKS in Gurgaon, Haryana, India ( R-CHEMICAL-WORKS-/) Chromium Oxide Polishing Powder oxide, di chromium tri oxide, chrome oxide , chrome oxide green, polishing compound , polishing material, pigment. (
  • Blue Moon compound vs Blue Buffing Compound and green rouges ( stions/15876-blue-moon-compound-vs-blue-buffing-com pound-green-rouges-print.html) 21 Jul 2013 the green stainless buffing compound ( Chromium oxide + Aluminum oxide), the Green Rouge J-52 (only Chromium oxide ? (
  • Chromium metal is usually produced by reducing chromite with carbon in an electric-arc furnace, or reducing chromium(III) oxide with aluminium or silicon. (
  • Various chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) oxide and lead chromate, are brightly colored and used in paints and pigments. (
  • In addition, chromium(VI) oxide is used in manufacturing high-performance audiotapes. (
  • By mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid , he was able to produce chromium oxide, with the chemical formula CrO 3 . (
  • In 1798, Vauquelin discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven. (
  • This produces sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ), which is reduced with carbon to chromium(III) oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). (
  • A novel aqueous method was used to synthesise mixed chromium-vanadium oxide hydrates with various chromium content, via the reaction of peroxo-polyacids of chromium and vanadium. (
  • 8. The process according to claim 7 wherein the olefin polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of chromium oxide catalysts, organochromium catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts, metallocene catalysts and olefin polymerization catalysts that polymerize olefins to produce homopolymers and interpolymers of olefins having a molecular weight distribution (MWD) of from 1 to 2.5. (
  • 9. The process according to claim 8 wherein the olefin polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of chromium oxide catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts and metallocene catalysts. (
  • With the increasing popularity of CDs and DVDs, the use of chromium(IV) oxide has declined. (
  • Unlike the imperfectly formed ferric oxide coating commonly used, the chromium dioxide crystals were perfectly formed and could be evenly and densely dispersed in a magnetic coating leading to higher signal/noise ratios in audio recordings. (
  • Sigma-Aldrich Co., Chromium(VI) oxide. (
  • In 1990, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), an agency of the World Health Organization (WHO), published their findings on chromium and chromium compounds as carcinogens. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have determined that chromium(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. (
  • Chromium (VI) and its compounds are listed as human carcinogens in the Fourteenth Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program because they have been known to increase rates of lung cancer. (
  • NIOSH considers all hexavalent chromium compounds to be potential occupational carcinogens, reported Ben Sublasky, National Director of Client Services for LA Testing and EMSL Analytical. (
  • According to data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, refineries can also emit large amount of toxic compounds, including carcinogens and respiratory irritants. (
  • But chromium is very toxic by dermal and inhalation routes and causes lung cancer, nasal irritation, nasal ulcer, hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. (
  • Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic. (
  • Chromium: Essential Nutrient or Toxic Compound? (
  • Hexavalent chromium is toxic and known to cause contact dermatitis. (
  • Chromium (Cr) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and is discharged into the environment through various human activities. (
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1998) Toxicological profile for chromium (update). (
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2001) Toxicological profile for chromium. (
  • Chromium(III) compounds are much less toxic and do not appear to cause these problems. (
  • While chromium metal and Cr(III) ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium , Cr(VI), is both toxic and carcinogenic . (
  • Chromium and uranium are highly toxic metals that contaminate many natural environments. (
  • DeBetto P, Luciani S (1988) Toxic effect of chromium on cellular metabolism. (
  • Chromium (III) is an essential nutrient, which can be toxic in large doses. (
  • Nickel carbonyl is identified as the most acutely toxic nickel compound, causing severe damage to the respiratory system in experimental animals and in humans. (
  • Chromium , like many transition metal elements, is essential to life at low concentrations yet toxic to many systems at higher concentrations. (
  • The following review does not seek to embellish upon the proposed mechanisms of the toxic and carcinogenic actions of chromium , but rather provides a comprehensive review of these theories. (
  • Last month MSNBC reported that a toxic plume of chromium has spread to numerous groundwater wells in a California desert town made famous by actress Julia Roberts in the Erin Brockovich movie. (
  • Naturally occurring chromium occurs mainly in the chromium (III) form as chromite ore, which contains oxygen, chromium (III) and other metals such as iron. (
  • Chromium (VI) compounds are produced commercially from chromite ore for a wide variety of uses. (
  • Jun 18, 2018· The important ore of chromium is Chromite or chrome ore, FeO Cr2 O3 The chief ore of chromium is chromite ore. (
  • About 15 million tons of marketable chromite ore were produced in 2000 and converted into roughly four million tons of ferrochrome (consisting of 70 percent chromium alloyed with iron), with an approximate market value of 2.5 billion U.S. dollars. (
  • Chromium metal is commercially produced in the United States by the reduction of chromite ore with carbon, aluminum, or silicon, and subsequent purification. (
  • Chromium is an essential nutrient required by the human body to promote the action of insulin for the utilization of sugars, proteins and fats. (
  • While there is an ongoing debate over the status of chromium as an essential nutrient, experts are unanimous in the conclusion that the mineral can improve glucose tolerance, insulin action and glycemic control. (
  • Chromium(III) occurs naturally in the environment and is an essential nutrient. (
  • Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient. (
  • Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. (
  • Chromium (III) occurs naturally in the environment and is an essential nutrient for the human body. (
  • this kind of chromium is an essential nutrient. (
  • On the contrary, Cr(III) salts such as chromium polynicotinate, chromium chloride and chromium picolinate (CrP) are used as micronutrients and nutritional supplements and have been demonstrated to exhibit a significant number of health benefits in animals and humans. (
  • Another chromium supplement, chromium chloride, is generally not recommended because it is very poorly absorbed. (
  • It is an essential dietary trace element, but hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic. (
  • California health officials proposed stricter limits on the carcinogenic compound chromium-6 in drinking water. (
  • Evaluates the carcinogenic risk to humans posed by industrial exposure to chromium and its compounds, nickel and its compounds, and welding fumes and gases. (
  • On the basis of this evaluation, the monograph concludes that chromium[VI] is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • The evaluation concludes that nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and that metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans. (
  • Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated workplace air. (
  • We do not know if exposure to chromium will result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to chromium? (
  • Prolonged industrial exposure to chromium compounds can cause chronic bronchitis and sinusitis. (
  • Industrial exposure to chromium fumes can cause "metal fume fever," which is a flu-like illness with metallic taste, fever, chills, aches, tightness of the chest, and cough. (
  • Long-term exposure to chromium (0) can damage lung tissue. (
  • Who is at risk for exposure to Chromium? (
  • Exposure to chromium can complicate pregnancy and childbirth. (
  • If you think your health has been affected by exposure to chromium, contact your health care professional. (
  • The most commonly used chromium salts used as supplements are chromium picolinate and chromium polynicotinate. (
  • Health experts recommend either chromium picolinate or chromium polynicotinate for improving blood sugar control by diabetics. (
  • Chromium picolinate is made from chromium and picolinic acid (a metabolite of the amino acid, tryptophan). (
  • Some believe that chromium polynictotinate is superior to chromium picolinate because the nicotine in the former improves absorption and bioavailability of chromium. (
  • In one patient while taking chromium picolinate in addition to other dietary supplements. (
  • chromium picolinate 60 to 1,000 mcg/day. (
  • Limited animal experimentation showed skeletal and neurological defects in the offspring of mice fed chromium picolinate. (
  • 7 , 10 , 11 , 12 The US Food and Drug Administration concludes that, based on very limited credible evidence, chromium picolinate may reduce the risk of insulin resistance and therefore may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. (
  • Chromium trioxide is mainly used in chrome plating . (
  • Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. (
  • Stainless steel and chrome plating ( electroplating with chromium) together comprise 85% of the commercial use. (
  • However, chromium (III) salts tanning agent has a strong impact on the environment owing to the pollution of wastewater and the solid waste containing chrome. (
  • This paper provides a promising chrome-free method to reduce the pollution of chromium tanning waste. (
  • Industries that may use chromium include stainless steel production and welding, chromate production, chrome plating, ferrochrome production, chrome pigment production, and leather tanning. (
  • BASF eventually became the largest producer of both the chromium dioxide pigment and chrome tapes, basing its VHS & S-VHS video tape, audio cassettes, and 3480 data cartridges on this formulation. (
  • The reactions are shown below: Primary alcohols to carboxylic acids 4 CrO3 + 3 RCH2OH + 12 H+ → 3 RCOOH + 4 Cr3+ + 9 H2O Secondary alcohols to ketones 2 CrO3 + 3 R2CHOH + 6 H+ → 3 R2C=O + 2 Cr3+ + 6 H2O Chromium trioxide is mainly used in chrome plating. (
  • Studies of workers in the chromium pigment, chrome plating, and ferrochromium industries showed a statistically significant association between worker exposure to Cr(VI) and lung cancer and nasal and sinus cancer [ 8 - 12 ]. (
  • Inhalation is the most important route for occupational exposure, whereas non-occupational exposure occurs via ingestion of chromium-containing food and water. (
  • In workers, inhalation of chromium(VI) has been shown to cause lung cancer. (
  • Hexavalent chromium is an established human carcinogen in certain occupational settings as a result of inhalation exposure. (
  • Hexavalent chromium, or chromium 6, is believed to be a human carcinogen and is recognized as such via inhalation exposure. (
  • Not only can hexavalent chromium contaminate groundwater, it is also a threat to many industrial workers due to inhalation exposure. (
  • Crocoite was used as a pigment, and after the discovery that the mineral chromite also contains chromium this latter mineral was used to produce pigments as well. (
  • 3 . It is one of the principal oxides of chromium and is used as a pigment. (
  • and nitrate, vanadium and zinc compounds. (
  • 3. The process according to claim 2 wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, vanadium, iron, chromium, nickel and aluminum. (
  • Elements & Compounds) a hard grey metallic element that takes a high polish, occurring principally in chromite: used in steel alloys and electroplating to increase hardness and corrosion-resistance. (
  • Now its primary use is for metal alloys, accounting for 85 percent of the use of chromium. (
  • Naturally-occurring chromium (III) is used as brick lining for high-temperature industrial furnaces and for making metals, alloys, and chemical compounds. (
  • Chromium (0) is a steel-gray solid metal that is used for making steel and other alloys. (
  • The second monograph presents similar information for metallic nickel and nickel alloys, nickel oxides and hydroxides, nickel sulfides, nickel salts, and other nickel compounds. (
  • Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium occurs during the production of stainless steel, chromate chemicals and chromate pigments. (
  • Some compounds, particularly potassium and sodium dichromate, are oxidizing agents useful for the oxidation of organic compounds and (with sulfuric acid) for cleaning laboratory glassware. (
  • For example, basic chromic sulfate (Cr(OH)SO4), commonly used in tanning, is commercially produced by the reduction of sodium dichromate with organic compounds (e.g., molasses) in the presence of sulfuric acid or by the reduction of dichromate with sulfur dioxide. (
  • Hazardous air pollutants include heavy metals, volatile and semi volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. (
  • Astellas sets voluntary numerical targets for reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) it discharges accompanying the use of solvents in production and research activities. (
  • The major non-occupational source of chromium for humans is food such as vegetables, meat, urban air, hip or knee prostheses and cigarettes. (
  • Still another embodiment of the present invention provides a catalyst system for olefin oligomerization comprising i) a source of chromium, the above-described ligand compound, and a cocatalyst, or ii) the above-described organic chromium compound, and a cocatalyst. (
  • Adverse effects of gadolinium administration in hemodialysis patients: a role for chromium supplementation? (
  • Because only a very little chromium is absorbed while most of it is excreted, acute toxicity is unlikely to result from chromium supplementation. (
  • There is no clear evidence to show that chromium supplementation is effective for improving glucose metabolism, losing weight, or building muscle mass. (
  • Preliminary studies suggest some benefits with chromium supplementation for some types of depression and mood symptoms. (
  • In human studies, chromium supplementation with biotin may help to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) (4) (5) (6) . (
  • In a trial of patients with poorly controlled T2D, chromium supplementation had beneficial effects on glycemic control without affecting lipid profiles (33) . (
  • Chromium supplementation has been studied for a variety of indications, especially diabetes and weight loss, but clinical studies have shown inconsistent results. (
  • 4 , 7 The argument for chromium supplementation relies on evidence from case reports of resolution of diabetic symptoms refractory to insulin via chromium added to total parenteral nutrition, and experiments in which animals deficient in chromium exhibited impaired glucose metabolism. (
  • Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of chromium compounds in rats. (
  • If your well water has high levels of chromium, contact your local or state health agency or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for information on how to correct the problem. (
  • The main health problems seen in animals following ingestion of chromium(VI) compounds are irritation and ulcers in the stomach and small intestine and anemia. (
  • Hexavalent chromium ingestion: biological markers of nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity. (
  • Ingestion or exposure to certain forms of chromium may cause or contribute to GI irritation and ulcers, dermatitis, hemorrhage, circulatory shock, and renal tubule damage. (
  • In 2001, the daily dietary requirement for chromium was lowered in the United States. (
  • After receiving nominations in 2000-2001 to study the safety of hexavalent chromium in drinking water, NTP began preliminary studies and designed long-term, two-year studies. (
  • In 2001 the California Department of Health Services (now known as the CDPH) adopted regulations that added chromium 6 to the list of unregulated chemicals for which requiring monitoring is required (UCMR). (
  • Some forms of chromium in air or water can be harmful in unusually high concentrations. (
  • There are several forms of chromium, which are described by different numbers in parentheses. (
  • Ingesting high levels of chromium(VI) may result in anemia or damage to the stomach or intestines. (
  • Breathing high levels of chromium(VI) can cause irritation to the lining of the nose, nose ulcers, runny nose, and breathing problems, such as asthma, cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing. (
  • Acidic foods that come into contact with stainless steel cooking utensils might contain higher levels of chromium than other foods because of leaching from the stainless steel. (
  • Breathing high levels of chromium (VI) can irritate the nose and cause nosebleeds, ulcers, holes in the nasal septum, and asthma attacks. (
  • Acidic foods that are cooked in stainless steel cookware may contain higher levels of chromium. (
  • 1,2) The most important industrial sources of chromium in the atmosphere are those related to ferrochrome production. (
  • The effectiveness of these products has not been established, although they represent nutritionally sound sources of chromium. (
  • Public Health Statement for Chromium CAS# 7440-47-3 September 2000 This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Chromium . (
  • Toxicological Profile for Chromium. (
  • chromium trioxide chromic acid . (
  • [7] Chromium trioxide is a powerful oxidiser and a suspected carcinogen . (
  • Chromium trioxide, being a powerful oxidizer, will ignite organic materials such as alcohols on contact . (
  • Crystallization of chromium trioxide from the reaction. (
  • Acicular chromium dioxide was first synthesized in 1956 by Norman L. Cox, a chemist at E.I. DuPont, by decomposing chromium trioxide in the presence of water at a temperature of 800 K and a pressure of 200 MPa. (
  • Chromium trioxide is generated by treating sodium chromate or the corresponding sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid: H2SO4 + Na2Cr2O7 → 2 CrO3 + Na2SO4 + H2O Approximately 100,000 tonnes are produced annually by this or similar routes. (
  • Chromium trioxide decomposes above 197 °C, liberating oxygen and eventually giving Cr2O3: 4 CrO3 → 2 Cr2O3 + 3 O2 It is used in organic synthesis as an oxidant, often as a solution in acetic acid, or acetone in the case of the Jones oxidation. (
  • Reaction between chromium trioxide and ethanol Lide, David R., ed. (2009). (
  • A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel . (
  • The industrial use of chromium for metallic plating, industrial catalysts, and pesticides has led to wide scale environmental contamination ( Ayres, 1992 ). (
  • The monograph is divided into subsections based on the oxidation state and solubility of the compounds, with separate evaluations made for metallic chromium, chromi-um[III] compounds, chromium [VI] compounds, and for a fourth group of tested agents that were of mixed or unknown oxidation states. (
  • The carcinogenicity of chromium[III] and of metallic chromium could not be determined on the basis of available evidence. (
  • This study covers the world outlook for chromium compounds excluding sodium bichromate and sodium chromate across more than 190 countries. (
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for chromium compounds excluding sodium bichromate and sodium chromate. (
  • As a result of these nominations, NTP studied the short-term toxicity and long-term carcinogenicity of sodium dichromate dihydrate, a hexavalent chromium compound, administered to rodents in drinking water. (
  • For a full list of studies, see the NTP testing status page for sodium dichromate dihydrate, a hexavalent chromium compound. (
  • A 170.00 g sample of an unidentified compound contains 29.84 g sodium, 67.49 chromium, and 72.67 g oxygen. (
  • Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . (
  • A second trader said downstream demand for chromium chemicals for all applications was high and costs were increasing. (
  • The main routes for the excretion of chromium are via kidney/urine and the bile/feces. (
  • However, foods rich in simple sugars can leach chromium from the body by increasing its excretion. (
  • Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS (1985) Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. (
  • Tanners working in areas of high chromium concentrations had lower concentrations of selenium in blood and urine than did other tanners. (
  • The concentrations of chromium in air that can cause these effects may be different for different types of chromium compounds, with effects occurring at much lower concentrations for chromium(VI) compared to chromium(III). (
  • The element chromium (Cr) is abundant in the earth's crust and is found in concentrations ranging from 100 to 300 ppm. (
  • According to the article, regulators have reported increasing concentrations of chromium that had been discharged decades ago in wells near the town of Hinkley. (
  • The trivalent ions of chromium are found in food and water in trace amounts. (
  • Therefore, some experts do believe that chromium is essential to the body in trace amounts. (
  • To ensure that only this amount gets through, the body has a specific transport mechanism that ferries only limited amounts of chromium into cells. (
  • It is likely that health effects seen in children exposed to high amounts of chromium will be similar to the effects seen in adults. (
  • Tables 5-1 and 5-2 list the facilities in each state that manufacture or process chromium, the intended use, and the range of maximum amounts of chromium that are stored on site. (
  • Chromium is an element required by the body in very small amounts (0.025 mg a day). (
  • Although most people consume adequate amounts through diet, chromium deficiency has been implicated in the development of diabetes (25) . (
  • Accidental or intentional swallowing of large amounts of chromium (VI) can cause death, kidney and liver damage, and ulcers. (
  • Stainless steels are more than 10% chromium and strongly resist rusting. (
  • chromium metal in the production of stainless steel. (
  • A common source of dietary chromium is stainless steel (18% chromium) from cooking pans and product cans. (
  • and stainless steel represent the bulk of the market for chromium. (
  • [4] Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel , to which it adds anti-corrosive properties. (
  • 1993). "Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity. (
  • Living near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites containing chromium or industries that use chromium. (
  • The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates that contribute to the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI)-containing compounds. (
  • 1990). "Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. (
  • Bianchi V, Levis AG (1977) Recent advances in chromium genotoxicity. (
  • No risk of genotoxicity at low dosages over the short-term exists for chromium as a dietary supplement. (
  • Along with many other oxides, it is used as a compound when polishing (also called stropping ) the edges of knives, razors, surfaces of optical devices etc. on a piece of leather, balsa, cloth or other material. (
  • The highly celebrated high T c ceramic superconducting oxides are indeed mixed valency compounds. (
  • The concentration of selenium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were determined in the blood of 34 tannery workers who worked in an area containing chromium compounds. (
  • Though misidentified as a lead compound with selenium and iron components, the material was in fact lead chromate , with the chemical formula PbCrO 4 . (
  • Studies on Selenium Related Compounds. (
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found in the environment commonly in trivalent, Cr(III), and hexavalent, Cr(VI), forms. (
  • It does suffer from nitrogen embrittlement - chromium reacts with nitrogen from air and forms brittle nitrides at temperatures necessary to work the metal parts. (
  • Chromium is a metal that is widely distributed in the earth's crust (soil and rocks), air and water. (
  • An ore of the metal chromium, usually the principal ore mineral is chromite. (
  • Chromium is an important metal and has a wide range of industrial uses. (
  • Aluminothermic production of high purity chromium metal accounts for over 95% of chromium metal produced today. (
  • Chromium (chemical symbol Cr , atomic number 24) is a hard, shiny, steel-gray metal that takes a high polish and does not tarnish. (
  • Deposits of native chromium metal are rare, but they have been discovered. (
  • The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. (
  • The data presented in Table 5-1 are for chromium metal and the data from Table 5-2 are for all chromium compounds. (
  • Chromium is also highly valued as a metal that is able to be highly polished while resisting tarnishing . (
  • Chromium metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness . (
  • Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, and has an electron configuration of [ Ar ] 3d 5 4s 1 . (
  • The poorly soluble substance chromium iron hematite is evaluated by comparing the dissolved metal ion levels resulting from the transformation/dissolution test after 7 and 28 days at a loading rate of 1 mg/L with the lowest acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) as determined for the (soluble) metal ions. (
  • The toxicity of chromium compounds depends on the oxidation state of the metal. (
  • Chromium can be in metal-on-metal hip replacements. (
  • The growth was were inoculated with 1 ml aliquot from 0.2 recorded as Nephelometric Turbidity Unit or µgm/ml tube for each metal compounds. (
  • 2. The offset printing plate precursor as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the substance capable of absorbing radiant rays and converting the radiant energy to heat energy is a metal or a metal compound accompanied by a self exothermic reaction. (
  • Chromium is also categorized as a refractory metal, which exhibits thermal, corrosion and wear resistance. (
  • However, the precise mechanisms by which chromium is both an essential metal and a carcinogen are not yet fully clear. (
  • Hexavalent chromium compounds are regularly used in the chemical industry in pigments, metal plating and chemical synthesis. (
  • These members are either explicitly mentioned in the specific restriction entry, or they are identified by ECHA in case the entry is of general nature (like cadmium and its compounds). (
  • There has been much talk about pretreatment of Aluminium prior to powder coating in the last few years with the imminent ban this year on using chromium compounds in the pretreatment process. (
  • Environmental hexavalent chromium is usually man-made and associated with industrial sources, setting it apart from other types of chromium as a subject of study. (
  • [11] It is the main example of hexavalent chromium , an environmental hazard . (
  • Chromium has been found in at least 1,127 of the 1,669 National Priorities List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (
  • Abandoned chromium production sites often require environmental cleanup . (
  • Chromium iron hematite can be considered environmentally and biologically inert due to the characteristics of the synthetic process (calcination at a high temperature of approximately 1000°C), rendering the substance to be of a unique, stable crystalline structure in which all atoms are tightly bound and not prone to dissolution in environmental and physiological media. (
  • Thus, the rate and extent to which chromium iron hematite produces soluble (bio)available ionic and other chromium- and iron-bearing species in environmental media is limited. (
  • The environmental impact of hexavalent chromium inspired the 2000 biographical Hollywood movie Erin Brockovich. (
  • Chromium is widely used in numerous industrial processes, and as a result is a contaminant of many environmental systems. (
  • To learn more about hexavalent chromium or other environmental testing services please visit , email [email protected] or call (800) 755-1794. (
  • Skin contact with certain chromium(VI) compounds can cause skin ulcers. (
  • In the case of preexisting small skin lesions, impact of hexavalent chromium compounds will lead to slowly healing chromium ulcers. (
  • However, others are concerned that the improved bioavailability of chromium from the polynicotinate salt may increase the risk of acute chromium toxicity. (
  • The most common oxidation states of chromium are +2, +3, and +6, with +3 being the most stable. (
  • The kinetic behaviors of these two major oxidation states of chromium are very different. (
  • 9.12 YourT.R.U.E. TEST result sindicatethatyou have a contact allergy to potassium dichromate, a form of chromium . (
  • Cavalleri A, Minoia C, Richelmi P, Baldi C, Micoli G (1985) Determination of total and hexavalent chromium in bile after intravenous administration of potassium dichromate in rats. (
  • In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin) affection and chromium (potassium dichromate) intoxication. (
  • The experimental affection of rats of different ages was performed by combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (a solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg), isoniazid (0.05 g/kg) and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg). (
  • 3 occurs naturally as the mineral eskolaite , which is found in chromium-rich tremolite skarns, metaquartzites, and chlorite veins. (
  • Gallic acid (GA) is a naturally occurring plant polyphenol compound. (
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. (
  • Becker N, Claude J, Frenzel-Beyme R (1985) Cancer risk of arc welders exposed to fumes containing chromium and nickel. (
  • On the other hand, chromium deficiency has been shown to affect glucose tolerance. (
  • Chromium deficiency is rare and has only been reported in long-term care patients fed with liquid foods through parenteral infusions. (
  • People with a high risk of chromium deficiency include pregnant women, the elderly and those who regularly do high-intensity exercises . (
  • The major symptom of chromium deficiency is impaired glucose tolerance. (
  • In addition, chromium deficiency may cause unhealthy weight loss and mental confusion. (
  • However, at higher dosages, such as those used in trials evaluating the efficacy of chromium in glycemic control, concern exists for potential genotoxic effects. (
  • A number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted to determine the effect of chromium on glycemic control, although large, quality trials are limited. (