Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (1/119)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

Recovery of 15N-lactoferrin is higher than that of 15N-casein in the small intestine of suckling, but not adult miniature pigs. (2/119)

Performance of biological functions of lactoferrin in the small intestine requires at least some resistance to degradation. Therefore, we studied prececal digestibility of lactoferrin in comparison to casein both in suckling and adult miniature pigs, applying 15N-labeled proteins. In study 1, 43 piglets (10-d-old), deprived of food for 12 h received 10 mL of sow's milk supplemented with 120 mg of 15N-labeled protein (porcine or bovine lactoferrin or bovine casein). Piglets were anesthetized 150 min later, after which the small intestine was excised, cut into three sections, and chyme was collected. In study 2, nine food-deprived boars fitted with T-canulae at the terminal ileum were given two semisynthetic experimental meals (204 g) in a cross-over design, 2 wk apart. One contained 7.5% (g/100 g) 15N-labeled bovine casein, the other 1.25% 15N-labeled bovine lactoferrin. Both were adjusted to 15% total protein with nonlabeled casein. Ileal chyme was collected from the canula over 33 h postprandially. All diets contained the indigestible marker chromic oxide. 15N-digestibility of lactoferrin, both porcine (84.4 +/- 3.2%) and bovine (82.3 +/- 4.8%), was significantly lower than casein digestibility (97.6 +/- 0.5%) in the distal small intestine of suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Based on immunoblotting after acrylamide electrophoresis, 4.5% of non- and partially digested lactoferrin was found in the last third of the small intestine of piglets. In adult miniature pigs there was no difference in 15N-digestibility of bovine lactoferrin compared to bovine casein (90.7 +/- 1.9% vs. 93.9 +/- 1.0%, P > 0.05). In suckling miniature pigs, the reduced digestibility of lactoferrin may provide the prerequisite for biological actions along the whole intestinal tract. The source of lactoferrin, porcine or bovine, made no difference in this respect.  (+info)

Dietary chromic oxide does not affect the utilization of organic compounds but can alter the utilization of mineral salts in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. (3/119)

This study was conducted to determine whether the level of chromic oxide supplemented to diets containing gelatinized starch as the carbohydrate source affects digestibility, body composition, growth performances, and liver enzyme activities in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings were fed diets containing gelatinized corn starch as the carbohydrate source and several levels of chromic oxide (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg) for 6 wk. No effect of dietary chromium level was detected on carbon, nitrogen, or dry matter digestibility. Calcium and phosphorus digestibility were higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with 5 g/kg chromic oxide than in fish fed the other supplemented diets. Dietary chromium did not affect dry matter, carbon, nitrogen, protein, or lipid concentrations in fish. However, fish fed 5 g/kg chromic oxide generally had higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, and ash than fish fed the other Cr-containing diets. Chromium concentration was significantly higher in fish fed the diets with 0.5 and 1% chromic oxide than in fish fed the control diet. Chromium supplementation of the diets did not affect the specific growth rate, the food efficiency ratio, the protein efficiency ratio, or, protein or nitrogen retention of the fish. Blood glucose and the activity of several liver enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were unaffected by dietary chromic oxide. Alanine aminotransferase was lower in the fish fed the diet with 10 g/kg of chromic oxide than in unsupplemented controls. Our results indicate that chromic oxide can be used as a neutral marker in fish nutrition studies involving organic compounds, but not mineral salts.  (+info)

Treatment of malignant pericardial effusion with 32P-colloid. (4/119)

Malignant pericardial effusion is usually treated only when signs of cardiac tamponade develop. Several methods of treatment have been reported with an overall response rate of approximately 75%. Since our initial study using intrapericardial 32P-colloid instillation as a treatment modality for pericardial effusion demonstrated a significant higher response rate, this study was conducted to further evaluate the efficacy of intrapericardial 32P-colloid in terms of response rates and duration of remissions. Intrapericardial instillation of 185-370 MBq (5-10 mCi) 32P-colloid in 36 patients with malignant pericardial effusion resulted in a complete remission rate of 94.5% (34 patients) whereas two patients did not respond to treatment due to a foudroyant formation of pericardial fluid. The median duration time was 8 months. No side-effects were observed. These results suggest that intrapericardial instillation of 32P-colloid is a simple, reliable and safe treatment strategy for patients with malignant pericardial effusions. Therefore, since further evidence is provided that 32P-colloid is significantly more effective than external radiation or non-radioactive sclerosing agents, this treatment modality should be considered for the management of malignant pericardial effusion.  (+info)

Morphological study on pigmented cells in the horse testis. (5/119)

One of the most attractive characteristics of a horse testis is the change of the weight during development. As the testicular weight changes and the number of Leydig cells decreases, pigments appear in interstitial tissues. In the present study, the characteristics of the pigments found in the interstitial tissues were examined histochemically and ultrastructurally. Specific stainings indicated that the pigmented granules showed almost all of the histological and histochemical characteristics of ceroid or ceroid-like pigment. The cells showed positive reaction for acid phosphatase while the pigmented cells contained a lot of lysosomes ultrastructurally. These results suggest that macrophages might phagocytize Leydig cells, and store their digested materials as ceroid-like pigment.  (+info)

Chromium(III) hydrolytic oligomers: their relevance to protein binding. (6/119)

The nature of chromium(III) complexes has been found to show a profound influence in its interaction with collagen. The hydrothermal stability of rat tail tendon (RTT) fibres treated with dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric species of chromium(III) has been found to be 102, 87 and 68 degrees C, while that of native RTT is 62 degrees C. This shows that the efficiency of crosslinking of collagen by chromium(III) species is dimeric > trimeric > tetrameric. This order of stabilisation is again confirmed by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) cleavage of RTT collagen treated with dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric chromium(III) species. CNBr has been found to cleave the collagen treated with tetrameric chromium(III) species extensively. On the other hand, dimer-treated collagen does not undergo any cleavage on CNBr treatment. The equilibrium constants for the reaction of a nucleophile like NCS(-) to the dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric species of chromium(III) have been found to be 15.7+/-0.1, 14.6+/-0.1 and 1.2+/-0.1 M(-1), respectively. These equilibrium constant values reflect the relative thermodynamic stability of the chromium(III) species-nucleophile complex. The low stabilising effect of the tetrameric species can be traced to its low thermodynamic affinity for nucleophiles.  (+info)

Thirteen-week subchronic rat inhalation toxicity study with a recovery phase of trivalent chromium compounds, chromic oxide, and basic chromium sulfate. (7/119)

The toxicity of trivalent chromium compounds; chromic oxide and basic chromium sulfate, was investigated in rats in a 13-week nose-only inhalation study that included a 13-week recovery period. Nose-only exposures to insoluble chromic oxide dust at 4.4, 15, or 44 mg/m3 or soluble basic chromium sulfate dust at 17, 54, or 168 mg/m3 (trivalent chromium equivalent concentrations of 3, 10, and 30 mg/m3) were carried out for 6 h/day, 5 days/week. No compound-related mortality occurred. General toxic effects, only observed with high-exposure levels of basic chromium sulfate, included sporadic signs of labored breathing and depressed body weights. No apparent compound-related effects were noted for sperm motility or morphology, for any concentration of either test material. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid evaluations showed test material in mononuclear cells with chromic oxide and increased neutrophils, protein, lactic dehydrogenase and cellular debris with basic chromium sulfate. The principle effects for both materials were primarily to the respiratory tract. Chromic oxide caused pathological changes in the bronchial and mediastinal lymphatic tissue and lungs, consisting of the presence of pigment-laden macrophages, lymphoid and septal hyperplasia, and interstitial inflammation similar to that observed with other inert dusts. Basic chromium sulfate produced more severe and widespread effects in the nasal cavity, larynx, lungs, and mediastinal lymph node. Effects were characterized by accumulation of foreign material, infiltration of alveolar macrophages, septal cell hyperplasia, and granulomatous and chronic inflammation. Pigment was still present in chromic oxide and, to a lesser extent, in basic chromium sulfate-treated animals after the 13-week recovery period, with partial recovery of the pathological lesions. A NOAEL was not established for either test material, but 4.4 mg/m3 was thought to be near the NOAEL level for subchronic exposure to chromic oxide. The results of this study indicate significant differences in toxicity to the respiratory tract between trivalent chromium compounds chromic oxide and basic chromium sulfate. These are likely related to differences in acidity and water solubility, rather than chromium concentration per se. This conclusion is substantiated by the lack of effect on other internal organs.  (+info)

Dissimilatory metal reduction by the facultative anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans SP1. (8/119)

Anaerobic enrichments with acetate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor were obtained from sediments of Salt Pond, a coastal marine basin near Woods Hole, Mass. A pure culture of a facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducer was isolated, and 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated that this organism was most closely related to Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. This organism, designated strain SP1, can grow by coupling the oxidation of acetate or H(2) to the reduction of a variety of electron acceptors, including Fe(III), Mn(IV), Cr(VI), and the humic substance analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate, but not sulfate. To our knowledge, this is the first mesophilic facultative anaerobe reported to couple acetate oxidation to dissimilatory metal reduction.  (+info)

Chromium compounds refer to combinations of the metallic element chromium with other chemical elements. Chromium is a transition metal that can form compounds in various oxidation states, but the most common ones are +3 (trivalent) and +6 (hexavalent).

Trivalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) chloride or chromium(III) sulfate, are essential micronutrients for human health, playing a role in insulin function and glucose metabolism. They are generally considered to be less toxic than hexavalent chromium compounds.

Hexavalent chromium compounds, such as chromium(VI) oxide or sodium dichromate, are much more toxic and carcinogenic than trivalent chromium compounds. They can cause damage to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.

It is important to note that while some chromium compounds have beneficial effects on human health, others can be highly toxic and should be handled with care. Exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds, in particular, should be minimized or avoided whenever possible.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

Chromates are the salts or esters of chromic acid (H2CrO4) that contain the chromate ion (CrO4 2-). They are characterized by their yellow or orange color. Chromates are widely used in industry, for example as corrosion inhibitors, pigments, and wood preservatives. However, they are also toxic and carcinogenic, and exposure to chromates can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and damage to the eyes and mucous membranes. Therefore, their use is regulated in many countries, and appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling them.

Potassium dichromate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula K2Cr2O7. It is a potassium salt of dichromic acid. In its pure form, potassium dichromate appears as a bright red or deep orange crystalline powder. It is highly soluble in water and has a sweetish, sour taste.

In the medical field, potassium dichromate has been historically used as an antiseptic and astringent, but its use has largely been discontinued due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe health effects. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the kidneys and liver. Long-term exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is important to handle potassium dichromate with care and use appropriate personal protective equipment when working with this compound.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromium(II) ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Organic compounds containing Cr(IV) state such as chromium tetra t-butoxide are also known. Most chromium(I) compounds are ... Bis(benzene)chromium and chromium hexacarbonyl are highlights in organochromium chemistry. Chromium(II) compounds are uncommon ...
Chromium-oxygen compounds, Audio engineering, Transition metal oxides, Ferromagnetic materials, Chromium(IV) compounds). ... Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2. It is a black synthetic magnetic solid. ... "Chromium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067.{{cite ... Acicular chromium dioxide was first synthesized in 1956 by Norman L. Cox, a chemist at E.I. DuPont, by decomposing chromium ...
... (also known as chromium(VI) oxide or chromic anhydride) is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3. It is ... Chromium trioxide is a powerful oxidiser, a mutagen, and a carcinogen. Chromium trioxide is generated by treating sodium ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic. It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an environmental ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ...
Chromium nitrate can be prepared by dissolving chromium oxide in nitric acid. "Chromium(III) compounds [as Cr(III)]". ... Chromium(III) nitrate describes several inorganic compounds consisting of chromium, nitrate and varying amounts of water. Most ... Chromium(III) nitrate compounds are of a limited commercial importance, finding some applications in the dyeing industry. It is ... "Chromium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067. Lazar, ...
The hydrated salts of chromium sulfate can also be produced, albeit impure, by extraction of various other chromium compounds, ... Chromium(III) sulfate usually refers to the inorganic compounds with the formula Cr2(SO4)3.x(H2O), where x can range from 0 to ... The most useful source of chromium(III) sulfate are the Cr(III) wastes from the chromate oxidation of various organic compounds ... "Chromium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067.{{cite ...
"Chromium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Vol. 9. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 178. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Organopotassium compounds illustrate nonionic compounds of potassium. They feature highly polar covalent K-C bonds. Examples ... Megatons of these compounds are produced annually. KOH is a strong base, which is used in industry to neutralize strong and ... In general, potassium compounds are ionic and, owing to the high hydration energy of the K+ ion, have excellent water ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CrF3. It forms several hydrates. The compound CrF3 is ... The anhydrous form sublimes at 1100-1200 °C. Like almost all compounds of chromium(III), these compounds feature octahedral Cr ... 3 HF A mixed valence compound Cr2F5 (chromium(II,III) fluoride) is also known. Chromium(III) fluoride finds some applications ... Chromium(III) compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... compounds fact sheet NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards IARC Monograph "Chromium and Chromium compounds" (CS1 German- ... Similar hydration isomerism is seen with other chromium(III) compounds. Anhydrous chromium(III) chloride may be prepared by ... Although trivalent chromium is far less poisonous than hexavalent, chromium salts are generally considered toxic. "Chromium(III ... 12 HCl Chromium(III) chloride is used as the precursor to many organochromium compounds, for example bis(benzene)chromium, an ...
... (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is chromium in any chemical compound that contains the element in the +6 ... There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). IARC (1999-11-05) [1990]. Volume 49: Chromium, Nickel ... Chromium compounds, Chromium(VI) compounds, Element toxicology, IARC Group 1 carcinogens, Chemical hazards). ...
Effects evaluation". Inorganic Chromium(III) Compounds. World Health Organization. p. 42-43. ISBN 978-92-4-153076-7. Archived ... He is credited as the first to understand a link between chromium and cancer. His 1997 paper based on the follow-up of 332 ... He is credited for being the first to understand that beryllium and chromium could cause cancer. During World War II, Mancuso ... Mancuso, Thomas F. (February 1997). "Chromium as an industrial carcinogen: Part I". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 31 ...
Fairhurst, S.; Minty, C. (1989). The toxicity of chromium and inorganic chromium compounds. Toxicity Review; 21. London: H.M.S. ... This bright-red coordination compound is derived from chromium(III) and picolinic acid. Large quantities of chromium are needed ... Chromium(III) picolinate is a pinkish-red compound and was first reported in 1917. It is poorly soluble in water, having a ... Chromium Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, 2003 Statement on the Mutagenicity of Trivalent Chromium and Chromium ...
Hexavalent-chromium compounds are genotoxic carcinogens. In 1993, legal clerk Erin Brockovich began an investigation into the ... PG&E used chromium 6, or hexavalent chromium (a cheap and efficient rust suppressor), in its compressor station for natural-gas ... California was the first state to put into effect an MCL for hexavalent chromium (chromium 6) in drinking water in July 2014, ... According to CalEPA in 2015, "At the time Total Chromium MCLs were established, ingested Hexavalent Chromium associated with ...
Generally speaking chromium (VI) compounds are carcinogenic. Fillmore Freeman (2001). "Dipyridine Chromium(VI) Oxide". e-EROS ... "Compounds of chromium(VI): The Pyridine.Chromic Anhydride Complex, Benzimidazolinium Dichromate, and Three 2-Alkyl-1H- ... Collins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane. This metal-pyridine complex, a red solid ... Sarett oxidation Oxidation with chromium(VI)-amine complexes Collins reagent can be used as an alternative to the Jones reagent ...
Chromium compounds used in electroplating are toxic. In most countries, their disposal is tightly regulated. Some fume ... Trivalent chromium plating, also known as tri-chrome, Cr3+, and chrome (III) plating, uses chromium sulfate or chromium ... In some cases, the activation step is done in the chromium bath. The chromium bath is a mixture of chromium trioxide and ... Hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of chromium. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency regulates it heavily. ...
Titanium compounds Chromium compounds Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). ... Vanadium(II) compounds are reducing agents, and vanadium(V) compounds are oxidizing agents. Vanadium(IV) compounds often exist ... Vanadium compounds are compounds formed by the element vanadium (V). The chemistry of vanadium is noteworthy for the ... CS1 German-language sources (de), CS1 errors: periodical ignored, Chemical compounds by element, Vanadium, Vanadium compounds) ...
Hexavalent chromium and its compounds are toxic when inhaled or ingested. Trivalent chromium is a trace mineral that is ... Trivalent chromium, or chromium(III), is the form of chromium that is essential to human health. Hexavalent chromium, or ... Hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium are chromium ions-they have different numbers of electrons and, therefore, different ... Hexavalent chromium, also called chromium(VI), is hemotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic. When hexavalent chromium enters the ...
Chromium telluride (Cr2Te3) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is composed of the chromium(III) cation and the telluride ... In addition, the compound also shows ferromagnetic properties. By creating thin films of chromium telluride, the compound can ... Chromium(III) compounds, Tellurides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chromium telluride samples that are highly saturated with tellurium were found to crystallize in a hexagonal structure, but ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... to the corresponding carbonyl compounds or metal oxides while the chromium(VI) centre in CaCrO4 is reduced to chromium(III). ... Also positive associations have been observed between exposure to Chromium (VI) compounds and cancer of the nose and nasal ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... Also positive associations have been observed between exposure to Chromium (VI) compounds and cancer of the nose and nasal ... "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_067 ...
Costa M, Klein CB (February 2006). "Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans". Critical Reviews in ... Each category includes pharmaceutical compounds and environmental compounds. Estrogenic or androgenic compounds will cause the ... Hexavalent chromium ( Cr VI) is used in the electronics industry and for metal plating. Chromium exposure is primarily ... Lipid soluble compounds that can cross the cell lipid bilayer and bind cytoplasmic steroid hormone receptors can translocate to ...
... s are compounds of chromium and hydrogen, and possibly other elements. Intermetallic compounds with not-quite- ... The other such compound is Chromium(I) hydride which is several times more stable. Both these compounds are stable at cryogenic ... Titanium in chromium hydride make the β-chromium form of the chromium-hydrogen solution more stable.[citation needed] Bradley, ... The first such compound found is dichromium hydride (Cr 2H), where the chromium-to-hydrogen ratio is 1/0.5, corresponding to a ...
... describes inorganic compounds with the formula CrCl2(H2O)n. The anhydrous solid is white when pure, ... Chromium(II) chloride has no commercial uses but is used on a laboratory-scale for the synthesis of other chromium complexes. ... Sigma-Aldrich Co., Chromium(II) chloride. Retrieved on 2014-07-04. "MSDS of Chromium(II) chloride". fishersci.ca. Fisher ... Chromium(II) chloride is used as precursor to other inorganic and organometallic chromium complexes. Alkyl halides and ...
Chromium-halogen compounds, Chlorides, Metal halides, Chromium(IV) compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chromium(IV) chloride (CrCl4) is an unstable chromium compound. It is generated by combining chromium(III) chloride and ...
There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) compounds cause cancer ... Like all hexavalent chromium compounds, sodium dichromate is carcinogenic. The compound is also corrosive and exposure may ... There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of chromium (VI) compounds. Chromium (VI) ... Virtually all chromium ore is processed via conversion to sodium dichromate and virtually all compounds and materials based on ...
This paper describes the isostructure chromium and iron compounds. Blake, Antony B.; Yavari, Ahmad; Hatfield, William E.; ... form analogous compounds. Iron(III) acetate (lacking the oxo ligand) has been claimed as a red coloured compound from the ... The compound was an early example of a molecular complex of iron that features an oxide ligand. The cation has idealized D3h ... Mixed metal species are known such as [Fe2CoO(OAc)6(H2O)3]. Chromium(III), ruthenium(III), vanadium(III), and rhodium(III) ...
Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromium(II) ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Organic compounds containing Cr(IV) state such as chromium tetra t-butoxide are also known. Most chromium(I) compounds are ... Bis(benzene)chromium and chromium hexacarbonyl are highlights in organochromium chemistry. Chromium(II) compounds are uncommon ...
Chromium(II) compounds, Sulfates, Chromium-oxygen compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chromium(II) sulfate refers to inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CrSO4·n H2O. Several closely related hydrated ... the reduction of chromium(III) sulfate with zinc. In aqueous solutions chromium(II) sulfate forms metal aquo complexes, ... Solutions of chromium(II) are easily oxidized by air to Cr(III) species. Solutions of Cr(II) are used as specialized reducing ...
Chromium-halogen compounds, Fluorides, Metal halides, Chromium(V) compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chromium difluoride Chromium trifluoride Chromium tetrafluoride Perry, Dale L. (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, Second ... Chromium pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CrF5. It is a red volatile solid that melts at 34 °C ... It is the highest known chromium fluoride, since the hypothetical chromium hexafluoride has not yet been synthesized. Chromium ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula CrI2. It is a red-brown or black solid. The compound is made by ... Treatment of chromium powder with concentrated hydroiodic acid gives a blue hydrated chromium(II) iodide, which can be ... Holah, David G.; Fackler, John P. (1967). "Chromium(II) Salts and Complexes". Inorganic Syntheses: 26-35. doi:10.1002/ ... Reflecting the effects of its d4 configuration, chromium's coordination sphere is highly distorted. ...
Like other chromous compounds, chromium(II) fluoride is oxidized to chromium(III) oxide in air. The compound is prepared by ... Chromium(II) fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula CrF2. It exists as a blue-green iridescent solid. Chromium(II) ... Chromium(II) compounds, Fluorides, Metal halides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Chromyl fluoride Chromium(II) chloride Perry, Dale L. (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, Second Edition. Boca Raton, ...
Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. Many chromium(II) ... A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) ... Organic compounds containing Cr(IV) state such as chromium tetra t-butoxide are also known. Most chromium(I) compounds are ... Bis(benzene)chromium and chromium hexacarbonyl are highlights in organochromium chemistry. Chromium(II) compounds are uncommon ...
draft CCO for Chromium VI and Chromium VI Compounds wherein followed by an open forum. participated by representatives from the ... Chromium VI and Chromium VI Compounds.. Ms. Emmanuelita Mendoza, Chief of the Chemical Management Section (CMS) presented three ... Consultative Meeting on the Chemical Control Order (CCO) for Chromium VI and Chromium VI Compounds. *February 20, 2018 ... Consultative Meeting on the Chemical Control Order (CCO) for Chromium VI and Chromium VI Compounds. ...
Hexavalent chromium compound. Hexavalent chromium[change , change source]. Another type of chromium (Cr6+ (chromate, hexavalent ... Trivalent chromium compound. Trivalent chromium[change , change source]. There are two main types of chromium ions, which are ... found in chromium compounds. One type of chromium ion (Cr3+, trivalent chromium ) is required by our body and by those of other ... Not to be confused with Chromium (web browser).. Chromium metal. Chromium is a chemical element. Its symbol on the periodic ...
Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which n is equal to 7 or 8 and ... Compounds that consist of a perfluorinated alkyl group that has the molecular formula CnF2n+1 in which 8≤n≤ 20 and that is ... Compounds that contain one of the following groups: C8F17SO2, C8F17SO3 or C8F17SO2N ... Hexavalent chromium compounds. *. 30 Creosote-impregnated waste materials from creosote-contaminated sites ...
Chromium(III) compounds (as Cr). 1988. Chromium metal. 7440-47-3. 1988. ...
Langard, S. (1983). "The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in man and animals." In: Burrow, C., Ed. Chromium: Metabolism ... Polak, L., J. L. Turk, et al. (1973). "Studies on contact hypersensitivity to chromium compounds." Progress in Allergy 17: 145- ... De Flora, S., M. Bagnasco, et al. (1990). "Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. A review." Mutation Research 238(2): 99-172. ... Korallus, U., H. Ehrlicher, et al. (1974b). "Trivalent chromium compounds - results of a study in occupational medicine. Part 2 ...
The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds ... The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome ... Chromium(III) occurs naturally in the environment and is an essential nutrient. Chromium(VI) and chromium(0) are generally ... Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. ...
Christina Marrongelli to lead World Congress on Pharmacology & Chemistry of Natural Compounds ...
This waste contains carcinogenic compounds like arsenic, chromium and mercury.. Besides outright pollutants, floodwaters ...
Metals (chromium/chromates, platinum salts, nickel compounds, copper, lead, cis-platinum). *Nitrites ...
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Survey; Field-Study; IWS-74-21A; Region-5; Painting; Organic-solvents; Chromium-compounds; Agricultural- ... Recommendations are offered on the work activities of certain painters and the respiratory protection used; chromium exposure; ... All measurements for total chromium (7440473) were below the OSHA limit, but about 85% of these measurements exceeded the NIOSH ...
The fate of chromium in the environment is dependent on its oxidation state. Hexavalent chromium primarily enters the cells and ... The soluble hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is an environmental contaminant widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and ... undergoes metabolic reduction to trivalent chromium, resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species together with ... Chromium (VI) compounds have been reported to be more toxic and carcinogenic than chromium (III) ones [12,13] because the ...
Beryllium-compounds; Metallic-dusts; Lead-dust; Lead-compounds; Chromium-compounds; Cobalt-compounds; Cadmium-dust; Cadmium- ... chromium, cobalt, and lead; (3) testing employees blood for lead and cadmium; (4) measuring noise exposures; and (5) ... compounds; Author Keywords: Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers; electronic scrap; e-scrap; recycling; lead; cadmium; ...
It is an iron-chromium oxide, FeCr2O4, with traces of magnesium and aluminum. Its crystals are octahedral, but rare; it usually ... The only commercial source of chromium and its compounds, chromite is used in the manufacture of refractory materials. ... It is an iron-chromium oxide, FeCr2O4, with traces of magnesium and aluminum. Its crystals are octahedral, but rare; it usually ...
Chromium Hydroxide(Cr(OH)3). Synonyms. Chromic Hydroxide; Chromic Hydroxide [Chromium And Chromium Compounds]; Chromic Oxide ... Chromium Hydroxide(Cr(OH)3) (molecular formula: CrH6O3). ... Home >> Chemical Listing >> Page 335 >> Chromium Hydroxide(Cr( ...
WARNING: This product contains the following: Chromium (hexavalent compounds), Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This product ...
6] Other etiologic agents have been reported including mineral oils, chromium and chromium compounds, isopropyl oils, lacquer ...
WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (Hexavalent Compounds), which is known to the State of ...
Chromium (total). Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Chromium (total) results for ... and applies to both the less-toxic trivalent chromium and the more-toxic hexavalent chromium forms of this compound. This limit ... One form, hexavalent chromium, causes cancer. Total chromium is not a good indicator of the amount of hexavalent chromium in ... Chromium (total). Jonesborough Water Department. Chromium is a naturally occurring metal, but industrial uses can elevate its ...
This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (hexavalent compounds), which is known to the State of California ... ": "WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (hexavalent compounds), which is known to the State of ... ": "WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (hexavalent compounds), which is known to the State of ... ": "WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (hexavalent compounds), which is known to the State of ...
WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Chromium (Hexavalent Compounds), which is known to the State of ...
California regulators voted Wednesday to establish a drinking water limit on hexavalent chromium, a toxic chemical compound ... California regulators voted Wednesday to establish a drinking water limit on hexavalent chromium, a toxic chemical compound ... A compound used to treat sour gas thats been linked to fertility issues in cattle has been found throughout groundwater in the ...
WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including chromium (hexavalent compounds), which are known to the State of ...
... chromium and their compounds, HRVATSKE VODE - legal entity for water management. * 2015-2020: Center of excellence for marine ... Intra-Species Variations of Bioactive Compounds of Two Dictyota Species from the Adriatic Sea: Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, ... Less polar compounds and targeted antioxidant potential (in vitro and in vivo) of Codium adhaerens C. Agardh 1822 // ... Microbiological biodiversity and compounds composition of peloid mud in service of health // Aquaculture Europe 2021 - oceans ...
Chromium compounds. 272. 0. 43,000,000. 16,168. 6.48%. 16.6%. 37.9%. 31.7%. 13.3%. 10.9%. ... Polycyclic aromatic compounds. 2,507. 0. 390,000. 2,420. 0.97%. 17.6%. 37.6%. 38.7%. 27.1%. 6.8%. ... Barium compounds. 10,188. 0. 7,000. 289. 0.12%. 17.6%. 38.2%. 38.8%. 25.7%. 8.2%. ... Manganese compounds. 9,104. 0. 12,000. 441. 0.18%. 17.0%. 37.6%. 33.8%. 20.8%. 6.2%. ...
This product can expose you to chemicals including chromium (hexavalent compounds), which are known to the State of California ...
1) PFOS, PFOA, and other PFAS compounds; (2) chromium-6; (3) 1, 4 dioxane; and (4) any other public water system pollutants for ...
... chromium VI, cadmium, nickel compounds, polonium-210, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene,benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[j ... It is estimated that a tobacco leaf contains more than 6000 chemical compounds that undergo a lot of changes till the final ...
  • The legal limit for total chromium, established in 1991, was based on a 1958 toxicity study in laboratory animals, and applies to both the less-toxic trivalent chromium and the more-toxic hexavalent chromium forms of this compound. (ewg.org)
  • Chromium (more specifically, trivalent chromium ) is a mineral required in small quantities by the body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Inorganic chromium(VI) compounds. (who.int)
  • Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic. (bvsalud.org)
  • One form, hexavalent chromium, causes cancer. (ewg.org)
  • Total chromium is not a good indicator of the amount of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. (ewg.org)
  • This limit does not protect against the risk of cancer from ingestion of hexavalent chromium. (ewg.org)
  • Fumes from the welding of stainless-steel and other alloys contain nickel compounds and chromium[VI] and [III]. (who.int)
  • There is also no evidence that chromium picolinate benefits body composition or cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It was later decided to include nitions of carcinogens were based on pollution, occupational exposure to a review of lifestyle factors that are the January 2013 list of agents classified carcinogenic compounds, and lifestyle known to influence cancer risk. (who.int)
  • All measurements for total chromium (7440473) were below the OSHA limit, but about 85% of these measurements exceeded the NIOSH recommended limit of 0.001mg/m3. (cdc.gov)
  • This kind of reaction is also observed with solutions of chrome alum and other water-soluble chromium(III) salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fume particles contain a wide variety of oxides and salts of metals and other compounds, which are produced mainly from electrodes, filler wire and flux materials. (who.int)
  • Some other notable chromium(II) compounds include chromium(II) oxide CrO, and chromium(II) sulfate CrSO 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known, such as chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) acetate, and chromium(III) oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is dehydrated by heating to form the green chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3), a stable oxide with a crystal structure identical to that of corundum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an iron-chromium oxide, FeCr 2 O 4 , with traces of magnesium and aluminum. (factmonster.com)
  • Bis(benzene)chromium and chromium hexacarbonyl are highlights in organochromium chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • and controls to limit exposure to highly toxic, potentially caner causing compounds, such as benzene and chromium. (ca.gov)
  • The only commercial source of chromium and its compounds, chromite is used in the manufacture of refractory materials. (factmonster.com)
  • Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. (cdc.gov)
  • Water-stable chromium(II) chloride CrCl 2 that can be made by reducing chromium(III) chloride with zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting bright blue solution created from dissolving chromium(II) chloride is stable at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercially available chromium(III) chloride hydrate is the dark green complex [CrCl2(H2O)4]Cl. (wikipedia.org)
  • If anhydrous violet chromium(III) chloride is dissolved in water, the violet solution turns green after some time as the chloride in the inner coordination sphere is replaced by water. (wikipedia.org)
  • They exist at an equilibrium, determined by pH: 2 [CrO4]2− + 2 H+ ⇌ [Cr2O7]2− + H2O Chromium(VI) oxyhalides are known also and include chromyl fluoride (CrO2F2) and chromyl chloride (CrO 2Cl 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium chloride is the least effective form. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • For the purposes of one study, researchers at the University of Ohio compared the abilities of chromium picolinate, chromium chloride, and two other chromium-providing ingredients used in supplements. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • The resulting data shows supplementation with chromium chloride only produced a 40 percent improvement over baseline chromium levels. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Chromium(III) occurs naturally in the environment and is an essential nutrient. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium(III) is considered an essential nutrient and can be found in dietary supplements. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium is a member of group 6, of the transition metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute ingestion of chromium exceeding dietary recommendation s may result in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring metal, but industrial uses can elevate its levels in water. (ewg.org)
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring element with trace levels normally found in the diet. (cdc.gov)
  • Both the chromate and dichromate anions are strong oxidizing reagents at low pH: Cr 2O2− 7 + 14 H 3O+ + 6 e− → 2 Cr3+ + 21 H 2O (ε0 = 1.33 V) They are, however, only moderately oxidizing at high pH: CrO2− 4 + 4 H 2O + 3 e− → Cr(OH) 3 + 5 OH− (ε0 = −0.13 V) Chromium(VI) compounds in solution can be detected by adding an acidic hydrogen peroxide solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium(VI) compounds may be converted to chromium(III) in acidic environments. (cdc.gov)
  • Although chromium deficiency impairs insulin function, supplementation has not been shown to help people with diabetes, except for small changes in blood sugar. (msdmanuals.com)
  • WARNING: This product contains the following: Chromium (hexavalent compounds), Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). (finditparts.com)
  • In addition, efficiently contemplating on the doping impact from various concentrations of transition metal elements such as Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) on Iron (Fe) in the La0.7Pr0.3Fe11.4Si1.6 compound is likewise discussed. (intechopen.com)
  • By regulating insulin levels, chromium picolinate helps prevent this sad case of cause and effect from occurring. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Chromium forms a compound in the body that seems to enhance the effects of insulin and lower glucose levels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromium might tend to lower blood sugar, particularly when combined with insulin or metformin , but neither this drug combination nor others have been proven. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Welders who weld painted mild steel can also be exposed to a range of organic compounds produced by pyrolysis. (who.int)
  • Chronic, prolonged inhalational and skin exposure to chromium(VI) has been associated with chronic lung disease and ulceration of skin and mucous membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical treatment for chromium exposure is supportive as indicated from the clinical presentation. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no specific antidote to treat chromium exposure, and there is no evidence to support the use of chelation therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Mean chromium levels in the general U.S. population are below limits of detection (LOD) in whole blood (LOD=0.41 µg/L) and urine (LOD=0.19 µg/L), as reported in the CDC National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals . (cdc.gov)
  • Picolinate is often paired with chromium in supplements ( chromium picolinate), supposedly to help the body absorb chromium more efficiently. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is estimated that a tobacco leaf contains more than 6000 chemical compounds that undergo a lot of changes till the final product is formed. (who.int)
  • This is a toxic form of chromium that may pollute the atmosphere in the vicinity of chromium metal production plants. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Clinicians may consider testing urine, blood, or serum chromium levels but results may be difficult to interpret and do not guide clinical management. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium levels in blood or urine reflect recent exposures and are not reflective of body burden. (cdc.gov)
  • Lead chromate, which contains chromium(VI), has been used to adulterate turmeric and other spices. (cdc.gov)
  • While harm resulting from ingesting lead-contaminated food is relatively well researched , the effects of eating food contaminated with chromium(VI), as a constituent of lead chromate, are not well understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). (cdc.gov)
  • Some forms of chromium may cause stomach irritation or ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This red solid has a melting point of 30 °C and a boiling point of 117 °C. It can be prepared by treating chromium metal with fluorine at 400 °C and 200 bar pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. (cdc.gov)
  • The Cr3+ ion has a similar radius (63 pm) to Al3+ (radius 50 pm), and they can replace each other in some compounds, such as in chrome alum and alum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the biologically active form of chromium that you obtain from food. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Furthermore, research shows chromium picolinate is the most effective form of chromium to use in supplements and numerous human and animal-based studies show that it's safe. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • It's the reason why chromium, in one form or another, is such a popular diet pill ingredient. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Chromium picolinate raised chromium levels 625 percent over baseline. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • This relationship between chromium and blood sugar levels is important. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • FDA product testing has also identified high levels of chromium in cinnamon samples and recalled apple cinnamon puree pouches. (cdc.gov)
  • The bioavailability of the combination is superior to that of other chromium-providing ingredients. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Use of chromium as a dietary supplement is not recommended, even though such use may result in a small decrease in blood sugar or weight. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromium supplements interfere with iron absorption. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromium supplements should not be used by people with kidney or liver disorders or by people with iron deficiency. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromium picolinate is used for diabetes, high cholesterol, as well as a hormonal disorder in which women have enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS), and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromium(VI) and chromium(0) are generally produced by industrial processes. (cdc.gov)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'atteindre les objectifs de santé fixés par le pays pour 2011-2016, une analyse qualitative de l'exposition aux facteurs de risque de cancer au Qatar a été conduite en 2013. (who.int)
  • Les risques de cancer les plus élevés pour les Qatariens proviendraient de facteurs associés aux modes de vie, en particulier l'obésité, la sédentarité et le tabagisme. (who.int)
  • Some evidence suggests that chromium damages chromosomes and consequently may be harmful or perhaps cause cancer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The results of this study alone show chromium picolinate significantly outperforms the alternatives. (researchedsupplements.com)
  • Soft ferromagnetic cubic NaZn13-type La0.7Pr0.3Fe11.4Si1.6 has turned out to be a standout amongst the most fascinating compounds for investigating substantial magnetocaloric effect (MCE) on the grounds that the attractive properties of this compound shows large enough spontaneous magnetization for applications, strongly doping dependent, and as well as delicate soft ferromagnetism. (intechopen.com)
  • charges of +1, +4 and +5 for chromium are rare, but do nevertheless occasionally exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium Deficiency Chromium deficiency is rare in developed countries and can result from intravenous feeding (total parenteral nutrition) used for a long time. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although chromium supplements are usually safe at doses of up to 1,000 micrograms per day, there appears to be little benefit to offset the small risk of harmful side effects. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Consequently, the certification of the quality management system according to DIN EN ISO 9001 is just a matter of course. (leathermag.com)