A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (1/1060)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/1060)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (3/1060)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

Contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to regulation of diameter in resistance vessels. (4/1060)

Endogenous carbon monoxide was proposed to subserve vasodepressor functions. If so, inhibition of heme oxygenase may be expected to promote vascular contraction. This hypothesis was examined in large and small arteries and in isolated first-order gracilis muscle arterioles of rat. The heme oxygenase inhibitors chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (0.175-102 micromol/l) decreased the diameter of pressurized (80 mmHg) gracilis muscle arterioles, whereas magnesium protoporphyrin, a weak heme oxygenase inhibitor, did not. CrMP also elicited development of isometric tension in the muscular branch of the femoral artery but not in the aorta or femoral artery. Arteriolar constrictor responses to CrMP varied in relation to the intravascular pressure, were blunted in preparations exposed to exogenous carbon monoxide (100 micromol/l), and were unaffected by an endothelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, CrMP amplified the constrictor response to increases of pressure in gracilis arterioles. Accordingly, the constrictor effect of heme oxygenase inhibitors is attributable to magnification of myogenic tone due to withdrawal of a vasodilatory mechanism mediated by endogenous carbon monoxide. The study suggests that the vascular carbon monoxide system plays a role in the regulation of basal tone in resistance vessels.  (+info)

Oxidative damage of DNA by chromium(V) complexes: relative importance of base versus sugar oxidation. (5/1060)

Chromium(V)-mediated oxidative damage of deoxy-ribonucleic acids was investigated at neutral pH in aqueous solution by utilizing bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-butanato)oxochromate(V) (I) and bis(hydroxyethyl)-amino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane)oxochromate(V) (II). Single-stranded and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus and human placenta DNA, as well as two oligomers, 5'-GATCTAGTAGGAGGACAAATAGTGTTTG-3' and 5'-GATCCAAGCAAACACTATTTGTCCTCCTACTA-3', were reacted with the chromium(V) complexes. Most products were separated and characterized by chroma-tographic and spectroscopic methods. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments reveal more damage at G sites in comparison to other bases. Three primary oxidation products, 5-methylene-2-furanone (5-MF), furfural and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, were characterized. A minor product, which appears to be thymine propenal, was also observed. The dsDNA produces more furfural than furanone. The formation of these two products resulted from hydrogen ion or hydride transfer from C1' and C5' positions of the ribose to the oxo-chromium(V) center. Since no enhancements of these products (except propenal) were observed in the presence of oxygen, mechanisms pertaining to the participation of activated oxygen species may be ruled out. The oxidation of the G base is most likely associated with an oxygen atom transfer from the oxo-metallates to the double bond between C8 and N7 of the purine ring. The formation of the propenal may be associated with an oxygen-activated species, since a marginal enhancement of this product was observed in the presence of oxygen. The formation of furfural in higher abundance over 5-MF for dsDNA was attributed to the ease of hydrogen ion (or hydride transfer) from the C5' compared to C1' position of the ribose within a Cr(V)-DNA intermediate in which the metal center is bound to the phosphate diester moiety.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs. (6/1060)

The present study addresses the hypothesis that CO produced from endogenous heme oxygenase (HO) can dilate newborn cerebral arterioles. HO-2 protein was highly expressed in large and small blood vessels, as well as parenchyma, of newborn pig cerebrum. Topically applied CO dose-dependently dilated piglet pial arterioles in vivo over the range 10(-11)-10(-9) M (maximal response). CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium chloride and iberiotoxin. The HO substrate heme-L-lysinate also produced tetraethylammonium-inhibitable, dose-dependent dilation from 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-7) M (maximal). The HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin blocked dilation of pial arterioles in response to heme-L-lysinate. In addition to inhibiting dilation to heme-L-lysinate, chromium mesoporphyrin also blocked pial arteriolar dilations in response to hypoxia but did not alter responses to hypercapnia or isoproterenol. We conclude that CO dilates pial arterioles via activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and that endogenous HO-2 potentially can produce sufficient CO to produce the dilation.  (+info)

Dietary protein and chromium tripicolinate in Suffolk wether lambs: effects on production characteristics, metabolic and hormonal responses, and immune status. (7/1060)

Thirty-two Suffolk wether lambs were fed for 84 d in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using two levels of dietary protein (9.0 to 12.1% CP, low protein, LP; or 12.8 to 14.4% CP, high protein, HP) and supplemental Cr (none, C; or 400 ppb Cr as chromium tripicolinate, Cr). At 14- to 21-d intervals, lambs were weighed, and jugular blood samples were collected. Mean ADG and carcass weight (P > .10) did not differ. In lambs fed HP, Cr reduced liver weight and increased kidney weight (P < .01). Lambs fed HP had elevated plasma urea N (PUN; P < .01) and albumin (P < .04). During an i.v. epinephrine challenge on d 43, plasma cortisol declined in lambs fed Cr (Cr x time, P < .03) and in lambs fed LP (CP x time, P < .001). An i.v. glucose tolerance test conducted 3 h later showed that supplemental Cr decreased glucose clearance rate in lambs fed HP (CP x Cr, P < .10) but not in lambs fed LP. On d 62, PUN was increased in lambs fed HP (P < .001) between 0 and 3 h postprandial, and there was a Cr x CP interaction (P < .04). Postprandial plasma NEFA declined with Cr vs C (Cr x time, P < .07) and with HP vs LP (CP x time, P < .10). By d 66, lambs fed Cr had an elevated (P < .03) blood platelet and fibrinogen content. Chromium increased erythrocyte count in lambs fed HP (Cr x CP, P < .08), and isolated peripheral lymphocytes had greater blastogenic response to 4 microg/mL of phytohemagglutinin (Cr x CP, P < .001). The lymphocyte response to pokeweed mitogen (.2 microg/mL) was reduced in lambs fed Cr (P < .10). In the present experiment, Cr supplementation had minimal and inconsistent effects on production and metabolic criteria of lambs.  (+info)

Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium. (8/1060)

Evidence for chromium(III) induced phosphorylation of a biomarker protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) is presented. Radiolabelled adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was reacted with BSA in the presence of various Cr(III) salts. While [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ brought about phosphorylation of BSA, several Cr(III) complexes, viz. [Cr(bpy)3]3+, [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(en)3]3+, [Cr(salen)(H2O)2]+ and [Cr(salprn)(H2O)2]+, did not phosphorylate BSA. The Cr(III) mediated the transfer of gamma- and alpha-phosphates but not the adenine and the sugar moieties of the ATP molecule to BSA. The observed stoichiometry was 0.75 mol Pi to mol BSA for the gamma-phosphate and 0.5 mol Pi to mol BSA for the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The presence of serine phosphate and threonine phosphate was detected in the hydrolysate of phosphorylated BSA by means of comparison of Rf values with authentic samples of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine after chromatographic separation and autoradiography. [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ at pH 7.4 is known to exist as the conjugate base [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ and is capable of ligand substitution involving metal-oxygen bond retention. Such anation reaction of [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ with ATP subsequently leads to the esterification of alcoholic hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine of BSA. Possible consequences of chromium(III) induced in vivo phosphorylation of proteins are discussed.  (+info)

Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Objective: The paper describes the results of a polycentric study for the assessment of reference values of urinary chromium (U-Cr) in the Italian population. Method: A total of 890 subjects (58.3% males and 41.7% females) were selected on the basis of standardized criteria in eight different areas of Italy. Urinary chromium was determined on morning spot samples collected using standardized procedures. The U-Cr was determined independently by three laboratories using an Electrothermic atomization-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) method with a detection limit of 0.05 mu g/l, adopting - for the statistical analysis - the median value of the results of the three laboratories. The between-laboratories within-subjects standard deviation was 0.049 mu g/l. Due to the high proportion (approx. 28%) of undetectable chromium levels, the geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were estimated using a procedure of linear interpolation. The analysis of the effects of some variables ...
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancerrisk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. ...
Chromium toxicity refers to the fact that chromium is toxic. Water-insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was the basis of the true story of Erin Brockovich, dramatised as Erin Brockovich (film). Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and its use in dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for ...
Background: Chromium is a micronutrient, considered to be essential for birnak carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect if chromium on the glycemic status and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To study the effect of chromium supplementation on glycemic status and serum lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to two groups. A double blind technique was used and the patients received either 250æg of chromium picolinate or placebo for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured at baseline and 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum insulin concentration was also measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: The fasting blood glucose, glycated ...
SUAREZ, O.J; OLAYA, J. J; SUAREZ, M.F y RODIL, S.E. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DECORATIVE CHROMIUM FILMS OBTAINED FROM TRIVALENT CHROMIUM SOLUTIONS. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.977-982. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000100005.. In this work, the resistance to corrosion of chromium films obtained from trivalent chromium solutions of different compositions and the influence of solution compounds on the coatings electrochemical behavior and the microstructure were studied. The chromium coatings were obtained from trivalent solutions in a chloride-based bath with different complexing agents adding also sodium hypophosphite and aluminum chloride. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out on all solutions before and after plating to observe changes in the chromium complexes chemical state due to the plating process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were performed to examine the coatings surface morphology and composition; ...
Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.. Anderson R. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270.. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.. Anderson RA, Roussell AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto magnetic natural zeolite-polymer composite. AU - Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.. AU - Onyango, Maurice S.. AU - Ochieng, Aoyi. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent was analyzed with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of magnetic zeolite loading within the composite, initial pH, sorbent dosage, temperature and Cr(VI) concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Up to 99.99% removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was 2 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 300 mg/L. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the ...
Chromium occurs naturally in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exist in several different forms. Depending on the form it takes, it can be a liquid, solid, or gas. The form of chromium of most concern from a health perspective is chromium(VI), also called hexavalent chromium. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium at high levels can damage the respiratory system and cause cancer. Other forms of chromium are chromium(0) and chromium(III). Chromium(0) is the metal form of chromium. It is used in steel manufacturing. Hexavalent chromium and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated air. It is odorless and tasteless. Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of chromium(III), and in the form of small particles or aerosols. The largest industrial ...
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DO FOR US?. What scientist have established is that chromium is involved in glucose metabolism. They are not sure how but they know it does. Insulin appears to be more effective when chromium levels are optimal. Because of its affect on insulin chromium also has an indirect role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism all of which insulin influences.. When chromium is ingested at the same time as vitamin C more chromium enters our blood stream.. Contrary to what the diet and exercise gurus might tell you chromium lll does not promote weight loss nor does it increase lean body mass or decrease body fat. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH CHROMIUM?. Chromium deficiency is the disorder that too little chromium in the diet produces. This deficiency was first observed in some extreme cases. These cases were hospitalized patients who were being fed intravenously. They developed problems with the way glucose was being managed in their bodies and they started to produce ...
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of chromium(III) as a nutrient added to foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) and foods intended for the general population (including food supplements). The Panel concluded that following oral administration, trivalent chromium is poorly absorbed. The results of in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assays have been consistently negative. The results of other genotoxicity studies are conflicting. The Panel also evaluated new in vitro and in vivo studies on the genotoxicity of chromium(III) compounds which were not covered by previous evaluations. The Panel concluded that in very large amounts, certain trivalent chromium compounds are cytotoxic and have been shown to cause chromosomal damage. The Panel also evaluated the data on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity for chromium(III). Based on the facts i) that maximum intake levels of up to 250 µg/day for supplemental ...
74 ADSORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ONTO TAILORED ZEOLITES Ivonne Santiago, Research Assistant Vincent P. Worland, Research Assistant Enrique Cazares-Rivera, Research Assistant Fernando Cadena, Professor Department of Civil Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 CHROMIUM Chromium is used in a variety of industrial applications, including electroplating and as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling towers.1 Up to a few years ago, this metal was the favored corrosion control agent in cooling towers.2 Cooling water blowdown (waste) was dumped into rivers, pits, lakes and oceans. During the 1950s chromates were also used as a highway deicing agent in the United States. Chromium (Cr) occurs in the + 2, + 3 and + 6 oxidation states in water. The divalent slate is rarely found in field conditions because it becomes rapidly oxidized to + 3 in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.3 Insoluble Cr(III) occupies much of the Chromium Eh-pH diagram.4 Chromium (III) is less toxic than ...
OSHA Cr(VI) standards require employers to use feasible engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposures at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer must use such controls to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable, then supplement with respiratory protection and, in general industry, establish a regulated area to warn employees and limit access. Where a hazard is present or is likely to be present from skin or eye contact with Cr(VI) the employer must provide appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment. The Cr(VI) standards addresses other protective measures related to Cr(VI) exposure, including hygiene areas and practices, housekeeping and cleaning methods, medical surveillance, and employee information and training.. The following references provide possible solutions for hexavalent chromium ...
Natural News) Antioxidants such as vitamin C are often taken to boost immunity and prevent diseases, but these substances can also be used against a water contaminant called hexavalent chromium. This chemical contaminates the water supply in about 200 million American homes.. Researchers from Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois discovered that vitamin C and other antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary antioxidant in green tea, can reduce the harmful effects of hexavalent chromium. This chemical is often produced by industrial processes, so it usually enters the water supply through industrial waste. Additionally, it is known to cause cancer. (Related: Hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) was just found in 75% of drinking water… the mass chemical suicide of America is under way.). In this study, the researchers aimed to determine whether antioxidants can help avoid cell toxicity. To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different ...
Many of the metallic implants used in orthopaedics are made of stainless steel or cobalt-chromium alloys which contain 18-30% chromium. Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) has been shown to be the predominant form of chromium released following in vivo and in vitro corrosion of these metal implants (Merritt and Brown, 1995 K. Merritt and S.A. Brown, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995), pp. 627-633. Full Text via CrossRef , View Record in Scopus , Cited By in Scopus (67)Merritt and Brown, 1995). Blood chromium levels may be elevated between 50 and 250 times in patients with metal hip implants (Lhotka et al., 2003). At physiological pH, Cr (VI) exists predominantly as the chromate anion and as such can enter cells via non-specific anion channels. The anionic Cr (VI) diffuses readily through the red blood cell (RBC) membrane and is bound by the haemoglobin probably after its rapid reduction to the cationic trivalent state within the RBC (Gray and Sterling, 1950). The aims of this study were to investigate the ...
Chromium exists in the environment in two most stable oxidation states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), which are likely to be interconvertible in natural waters and in soils (Schroeder & Lee 1975; Handerson 1994). However, these two forms of chromium are mainly different in their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Cr3+ is soluble in acidic solutions and it precipitates as the hydroxide in alkaline solutions (Rai et al. 1987). Chromium (III) is less toxic, but in higher concentrations it is likely to produce genotoxic DNA effects in the cell nucleus (ATSDR 2012). Cr (VI) mainly exists in water as chromic acid (H2CrO4), hydrogen chromate (HCrO4−), chromate (CrO42−) and dichromate (Cr2O72−) depending on the pH and total chromium concentration (Palmer & Puls 1994). The distribution of Cr (VI) species as the function of the pH, are H2CrO4 below a pH of about 1, CrO42− above a pH of about 6, and HCrO4− at pHs between 1 and 6, when the concentrations of Cr (VI) are relatively low. The ...
Chromium is one of the most used ingredients in weight loss products. It is probably an active ingredient in well over dietary supplements. However, as the research will show, there is little evidence to suggest that chromium enhances fat loss.In the I970s, chromium deficiency was recognized in humans on long-term total parenteral nutrition and was characterized by insulin resistance and hypercholesterolemia.. Subsequent research reported that chromium acts as part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF) by enhancing the effectiveness of insulin. In type II diabetics, chromium supplementation improved fasting blood glucose and insulin levels after 2 and 4 months of treatment. This is important because chromium may improve insulin sensitivity in this population. Chromium appears to act by increasing the rate of insulin internalization, which could be due to an increase in membrane fluidity.. Human Studies. Because chromium may increase the muscle cells sensitivity to insulin and thus increase ...
Genotoxicity in vitro Bacterial mutation The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) bacterial reverse mutation assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. In addition, an NTP Ames test (non-standard protocol) performed with sodium dichromate dihydrate was positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant Ames tests are available, further testing is not required based on the weight of evidence from the large number of existing studies. Chromosomal aberration The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) cytogenicity / clastogenicity / chromosomal aberration assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant studies are available, further testing is not required ...
Significant exposure to hexavalent chromium, a metal with broad toxicity potential in humans, has been reported. In order to understand the mechanisms of dermal toxicity induced by hexavalent chromium, global gene expression profiling of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to potassium dichromate was performed. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the fibroblasts treated with potassi
Background: Hyperglycemia may induce endothelial dysfunction. Chromium Supplementation enhances endothelial relaxation and may improve endothelial dysfunction. Present study was planned to evaluate effect of proprietary chromium complex(PPC) and its individual components on endothelial dysfunction and lipid profile in type 2diabetics. Methodology: Study was done in two parts. In part I, PPC 400mcg produced significant improvement […]
Chromium toxicity is very low. According to some studies, a 150-lb. person could take approximately 175,000 doses of 200-mcg chromium tablets and show no signs of toxicity. ** However, since chromium might be deposited in the liver and kidneys and because extra high doses are generally unnecessary, there is no reason for the average person to take above the regular dosages found in chromium supplements. **. Caution: If you are diabetic, take chromium supplements only with a doctors supervision. Chromium may alter insulin requirements.. ** Source: Some of the above information was taken from the book Stop Aging Now! written by Jean Carper. Several authorities and articles on the benefits of chromium and health, provided additional information.. ...
In the past few years, Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI), a genotoxic carcinogen, has come under increased scrutiny as it is the most toxic form of chromium found
Increased serotonin levels are known to improve mood and decrease carbohydrate cravings.. Additional research on chromium was presented by scientists from the U.S.D.A. and from the Medical College of Georgia. The U.S.D.A. study in animals found that chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate reduced the expression of the gene in the brain that produces TAU proteins. The TAU protein is involved in the development of Alzheimers disease. Research by MCG demonstrated that high doses of chromium picolinate are safe and does not cause kidney dysfunction in animal models of obesity and of diabetes.. These results provide a mechanism by which chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate improves mood and reduces carbohydrate cravings, stated James Komorowski, Nutrition 21 VP technical services and scientific affairs. The research by the U.S.D.A. provides evidence to support additional research in new chromium applications that address significant quality of life issues in our society. The research ...
Workers chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium have elevated risk of lung cancer. Our study investigates the incidence of lung cancer types, age at onset of the disease, and survival time among chromium exposed workers with respect to the expression of anti-apoptotic p53 and pro-apoptotic survivin proteins. 67 chromium exposed workers and 104 male controls diagnosed with lung cancer were analyzed. The mean exposure time among workers was 16.7 ± 10.0(SD) years (range 1- 41 years). To investigate the possible regulation of survivin by p53 we examined the expression of both proteins using immohistochemical visualization. Chromium exposure significantly decreases the age of onset of the disease by 3.5 years (62.2 ± 9.1 in the exposed group vs. 65.7 ± 10.5 years in controls; P = 0.018). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) amounted for 25.4% of all cases in chromium exposed workers and for 16.3% in non-exposed individuals. The mean survival time in the exposed group was 9.0 ± 12.7 vs. 12.1 ± 21.9 months
Chromium can exist in air, water, soil, and food, and common exposure pathways include ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Chromium is commonly found in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium III) and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI). Chromium III is the most stable form of the element, and occurs naturally in animals, plants, rocks, and soils. Chromium VI rarely occurs in nature, and is usually the product of anthropogenic activities.. The health effects of chromium depend on the route of exposure and the form of the chromium. For example, inhaling chromium can cause damage to the respiratory system, whereas dermal or oral exposures generally do not. Gastrointestinal effects are generally associated with oral exposure, but not with dermal exposure. In addition, chromium VI typically causes greater health risks than chromium III. The reasons for the increased danger of chromium VI versus chromium III are complex, and relate in part to the varied paths of cellular uptake between the two ...
A high intake of chromium in your diet doesnt cause serious side effects. But you should check with a healthcare provider before taking it. This is vital if youre pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. They may also lower your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels closely if you start taking them. Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. These may reduce chromium levels:. ...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It helps to control your blood sugar. It also helps insulin work well. You also need it to metabolize and store carbohydrates, fat, and protein. You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes in humans arent conclusive. R...
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
Chromium is known to activate enzymes, maintain protein stability and enhance carbohydrate metabolism. Organic chromium (III) sources have been shown to enhance the availability of chromium. Nutritionists believe organic chromium should be supplemented in most animal diets. A search has therefore been underway to identify the biologically active form of chromium, viz. the biomolecule that binds chromium(III) and possesses an intrinsic function associated with insulin action in mammals (Vincent, 2000). We designed and synthesized a new chromium complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N2)2]Cl.. The Cr atom has site symmetry 2 and exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination, defined of four N atoms [Cr-N1: 2.062 (4) Å, Cr-N2: 2.073 (4) Å] from two symmetry-related 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and of two symmetry-related Cl ligands [2.2941 (15) Å]. The ligands are in a cis arrangement (Fig. 1.). The two planar 1,10-phenanthroline ligands show an approximate perpendicular orientation to each other [N1-Cr1-N2A: 91.81 ...
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), derived from the so-called high lime processing of chromite ore, contains high levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and has a pH between 11 and 12. Ferrous sulfate, which is used for remediation of Cr(VI) contamination in wastewater and soils via reduction to Cr(III) and subsequent precipitation of iron(III)/chromium(III) hydroxide, has also been proposed for remediation of Cr(VI) in COPR. Instead, however, addition of FeSO4 to the infiltrating solution in column experiments with COPR greatly increased leaching of Cr(VI). Leached Cr(VI) increased from 3.8 to 12.3 mmol kg(-1) COPR in 25 pore volumes with 20 mM FeSO4, reaching solution concentrations as high as 1.6 M Fe(II) was ineffective in reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) because it precipitated when it entered the column due to the high pH of COPR, while Cr(VI) in solution was transported away with the infiltrating solution. The large increase in leaching of Cr(VI) upon infiltration of sulfate, either as FeSO4 or ...
Bueverov AO. Lekarstvennii hepatyt: esly preparat nelzia otmenyt. Klynycheskye perspektyvy hastroenterolohyy y hepatolohyy 2007; 5: 13-19. Rakhymov KD, Palhova LK, Alenova AKh. Spravochnyk po pobochnym deistvyiam lekarstvennykh sredstv. Almaty; 2004: 224. Santhosh S, Sini T, Anandan R. Hepatoprotective activity of chitosan against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 572: 69-73. Posokhova KA, Shevchuk OO, Datsko TV. Porivnialna hepatotoksychnist antymikobakterialnykh zasobiv ta yikh kombinatsii. Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia 2010; 5: 41-46. Gliman AG. Antimicrobial agents: drugs used in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, in Goodman and Gilmans the pharmacologic basis of therapeutics. New York. Pergamon Press; 1990: 1149-1152. Yew WW, Leung CC. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology 2006; 11: 699-707. Sarich T, Youssefi M, Zhou T. Role of hydrazine in the mechanism of isoniazid hepatotoxicity in rabbits. Arch Toxicol 1996; ...
Few people know that Chromium and insulin play an important role in their life and health. Without chromium , the hormone insulin would not work properly. Insulin controls blood sugar levels and many other aspects of carbohydrate breakdown and storage. Insulin also directs your metabolism involving how you break down fat, protein and obtain energy.. Many people will not think about chromium unless a doctor recommends it but its easential in the body.. Because insulin requires chromium to function properly, chromium must have very important biological effects in your body. The exact way in which chromium and insulin work is not known but is under scientific investigation. There is evidence that supplementation of people with type 2 diabetes with chromium improves their glucose intolerance. This supports that chromiun plays an essential role in the prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes.. We know that insulin mainly works in muscle, fat and the liver, and exerts profound effects on many ...
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A study examining chromium excretion during pregnancy found that persistently elevated excretion in normal pregnancies seemed to be associated with a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity. In turn, it was speculated that enhanced chromium excretion had the potential to put a mother at risk gestational or post-partum abnormal glucose metabolism. Morris BW, Samaniego S, Fraser R, MacNeil S. Increased chromium excretion in pregnancy is associated with insulin resistant. Journal Trace Element Expert Medicine 2000; 13:389-96. ...
1. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 2. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitis with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med. 1999;16:164-167. 4. Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51-chromium. Nutr Res. 1990;10:1401-1407. 5. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791. 6. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91-97. 7. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899. 8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et ...
Chromium is a commonly used (or at least recommended) supplement in PCOS. What is it, why is it recommended, and should you be taking it?. Chromium is a metal, just like iron and copper. Its not really needed in large amounts to do its job, which in the body, is to help metabolize sugar and fats.. Some researchers have suggested that chromium supplementation in PCOS can help insulin function. There are two articles in the National Library of Medicine database looking specifically at the use of chromium supplementation in PCOS. One study, using a dose of 200 mcg per day, resulted in improved glucose tolerance but not fertility. The second study bumped the dose up to 1000 micrograms per day, resulting in a 38% better ability to remove glucose from the blood.. BEFORE YOU RUSH OUT AND BUY A YEARS SUPPLY…. There are more than a few articles in the very same database connecting chromium picolinate to DNA damage. The earliest one, for someone writing so much about infertility, really caught my eye, ...
The objective of this research was to validate the use of sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate in reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from electroplating, and industrial wastewaters. Jars tests, and dynamic tests, were conducted using distilled water, electroplating rinse waters, and industrial wastewaters from Tinker AFB Industrial Waste Treatment Plant. Optimum process parameters were evaluated as well as analysis of the effects of typical contaminants and complexing agents, along with the effects of the process on downstream treatment. The information obtained verified that the sulfide treatment process will meet discharge permit requirements while reducing chemical and disposal costs. The results were the basis for continuing to Phase II, Pilot-Scale Study On Actual Industrial Wastewaters. Keywords: Metals treatment, Chromium reduction, Sulfide treatment, Heavy metals removal, Ferrous sulfide, Industrial wastewater, Treatment, Sludge reduction, Electroplating. (jes)*WASTE TREATMENT
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Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
SUN COVERAGE: CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link established Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds...
The extraction of chromium from chromite ore is based on the oxidative alkali roasting of the mineral forming water-soluble alkali chromates. Previous investigations reported the formation of a molten Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 binary mixture during roasting of chromite with sodium carbonate. The physical properties of the Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 liquid phase, which are dependent on temperature, charge and gangue composition, play an important role in the oxidation reaction and may limit the chromium recovery by hindering the oxygen transport to the reaction interface. This investigation focuses on the alkali roasting of chromite ore at 1000oC using NaOH and KOH, and subsequent water leaching. The influence of the alkali ratio on the chromium extraction yield is analysed, and the results obtained with both hydroxides are compared. The formation of molten salt phase under different roasting conditions and its effect on chromium recovery is studied by means of sample characterization and phase diagram analysis.. ...
The effects of chromium methionine supplementation on performance and serummetaboliteswere evaluated in broiler chickens.Two experiments were conducted at22 oC, thermoneutral, (TN) and33±2 oC, heat stressed (HS) conditions. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments with 0 (control), 200, 400 or 800 ppb of chromium methionine for 42-d experimental period carried out. Serum metabolitesand performance were determined. Supplementing the diet of TN and HS conditions broilerswith chromium methionine improved feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) (P|0.05), but Feed conversion ration (FCR) of broilers was not affected by different levels of supplemental chromium.Chromium methionine increased serum HDL contents, but decreased glucose, (GLU), cholesterol (CHL),triacylglycerol (TG) and LDL concentrations (P|0.05) in both TN and HS temperature. The results of these experiments indicated that supplementation of
This study presents potential application of different forms of carbon including: carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, activated carbon, and fly ash into the removal of some of the high toxic heavy metals that may present in water resources. The study was based on intensive experimental work to measure the removal percentage of hexavalent chromium and cadmium from water under different situations. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of carbon in its different forms, through the experimental removal of chromium hexavalent and cadmium divalent ions from water. Five parameters were studied during this experimental work: the pH of solution, the agitation speed, the contact time, the carbon dosage rate, and concentration of the heavy metal in water. Matrix design was developed in this experimental study in order to find the optimal conditions of the Cr (VI) and Cd (II) removal from water. In addition to these four forms of carbon, each form was modified for ...
The occurrence of pseudotumours following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) has been associated with high serum metal ion levels and consequently higher than normal bearing wear. Measuring ground reaction force is a simple method of collecting information on joint loading during a sit-to-stand (STS). We investigated vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) asymmetry during sit-to-stand for 12 MoMHRA patients with known serum metal ion levels. Asymmetry was assessed using two methods: a ratio of VGRF for implanted/unimplanted side and an absolute symmetry index (ASI). It was found that subjects with high serum metal ion levels preferentially loaded their implanted sides. The difference between the two groups was most apparent during the first 22% of STS. VGRF ratio showed significant and strong correlation with serum metal ion levels (Spearmans rho = 0.8, p = 0.003). These results suggest that individual activity patterns play a role in the wear of MoMHRA and preferential loading of an
A series of chromium(III) complexes bearing imino-furfural ligands (Cr1-Cr4) were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). All chromium precatalysts, activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO), exhibited moderate to high activities for ethylene oligomerization [turnover frequency (TOF) = 11,008-23,200 mol(ethylene) mol(Cr)-1 h-1)] producing oligomers in the range C4-C12+ with good selectivity for α-olefins. The in situ chromium precatalysts formed by mixing imino-furfural ligand L1 with [CrCl3(THF)3] or [Cr(acac)3] showed low activities, producing oligomers together with varying amounts of polyethylene. The use of different chromium sources and cocatalysts influences the activity as well as the selectivities toward α-olefin production, which suggests that different active species are formed.
Made infamous by the activist Erin Brockovich and the film produced about her, the heavy metal hexavalent chromium will now be receiving a little more attention. Also, known as Chromium 6, the California EPA have set limits on the arguably cancer causing chemical found in water within the state.. On Wednesday, the California EPA imposed a statewide limit of chromium 6 of 0.02 parts per billion, the maximum amount of the chemical before it is considered to be a significant health risk. Current federal regulations limit chromium, both chromium 6 and chromium 3, to 100 ppb in water, but there are no regulations on chromium 6 itself. Chromium 3 is non-toxic and is important to glucose metabolism of the body.. Chromium 6, however, is a rather toxic substance. It is commonly discharged as waste by steel and pulp mills and also used in metal-plating and leather-tanning factories.. As the only state in the nation to require testing, California originally proposed a public health goal (PHG) for chromium ...
Chromium (picolinate) Supports lipid and glucose metabolism Chromium is important for fat metabolism, enzyme activation, and glucose support. It promotes healthy lipid and carbohydrate utilization. Chromium picolinate is a highly utilizable form of chromium, promoting healthy glucose and lipid metabolism. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: chromium (picolinate) 500 mcg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 1-2 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
Since neither of the above-mentioned extraction methods was conducted in ultra-basic aqueous environments, it could be expected that not all Cr(VI) containing salts would quantitatively be extracted. Therefore, Cr(VI) values reported in this paper should not be considered to represent the total Cr(VI) quantitatively. However, absolute total Cr(VI) concentrations were not considered as a pre-requisite for this work, since the main aim was to determine Cr(VI) generation trends.. Cr(VI) determination. The Cr(VI) content of the extracted solutions was determined with a Pharmacia Biotech Ultrospec 3 000 uv/visible spectrophotometer. Analysis was conducted in a 100 mm optical cell at a wavelength of 540 nm. Prior to analysis, s-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) in a phosphate medium was added, as recommended by Bartlett (1991). The uv/visible DPC method has some weaknesses. This includes the fact that it is usually utilised in conjunction with acidic extraction of Cr(VI) that does not extract partially ...
Significant industrial waste is haphazardly dumped into the Meycauayan River, a source of domestic and agricultural water for 250,000 people living in and around Manila. Substantial contamination comes from small scale lead recycling facilities along the river at Marilao, and from the many tanneries that dump untreated hexavalent chromium into the river. This river also feeds directly into the Manila Bay, and its effluents contaminate shellfish in commercial fishing areas.
Phosphorus and chromium[edit]. Concentrations of polyphosphates or phosphonates with zinc and chromates or similar compounds ... Blowdown may also contain chromium leached from cooling towers constructed of wood preserved with chromated copper arsenate. ...
Chromium. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... "Chromium". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016. Sardesai VM (December ... For example, there is no scientific consensus on whether chromium is an essential trace element in humans. The United States ... Overview of Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for chromium". ...
"The Chromium Blog: WebP in Chrome, Picasa, Gmail With a Slew of New Features and Improvements". 21 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May ... Google Chrome and all Chromium-based browsers, Firefox (and its forks Pale Moon and Waterfox), GNOME Web, Midori, and Falkon ... Microsoft Edge versions released after January 2020 are based on the Chromium browser, and have native WebP support. EdgeHTML ... Rabbat, Richard (30 September 2010). "WebP, a new image format for the Web". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 1 October 2010. "RIFF ...
"Issue 77024". Chromium. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-13. "Media Type Review". W3C Media Fragments Working Group. 2009. Retrieved ...
"QUIC: Design Document and Specification Rationale". Jim Roskind, Chromium Contributor. "First Chromium Code Landing: CL ... in Chromium, while the current evolution of the IETF protocol QUIC is the general purpose transport protocol. Chromium ... "Experimenting with QUIC". Chromium Official Blog. Retrieved 2013-07-16. "QUIC, Google wants to make the web faster". François ... This led to the use of a rapid fallback-to-TCP system; Chromium's network stack opens both a QUIC and traditional TCP ...
Chromium. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 14 Sep 2020. Gold. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 October ...
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"chromium". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "iron". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "nickel". Online ...
... chromium; iron; magnesium; manganese; nickel; nitrate; pH; phosphorus; potassium; sodium; and sulfate, as well as the presence ...
Haines, AT; Nieboer, E (1988). "Chromium hypersensitivity". In Nriagu, JO; Nieboer, E (eds.). Chromium in the Natural and Human ... compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI ... In Australia, chromium was released from the Newcastle Orica explosives plant on August 8, 2011. Up to 20 workers at the plant ... Barceloux DG (1999). "Chromium". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 37 (2): 173-94. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102418. PMID 10382554. Blake J ( ...
... chromium; and energy. The business is organised into three divisions: Specialty Products, Chromium and Surfactants. Eric Miller ... One negative was the unprofitability of the UK chromium business and the plant was controversially closed in 2009. Further ... British and American Chrome were world leaders in chromium chemicals. Durham Chemicals also had a substantial market position ... Elementis now stood as the world's largest producer of chromium chemicals; Elementis Pigments the world's second largest ...
In the 1920s chromium mines were opened along the Great Dyke in the Lomagundi district both north and south of town. Darwendale ... 1929). "Chromium". Mineral Resources of the United States, Part 1: Metals. United States Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of ...
"Network Portal Detection". Chromium. Retrieved 2019-03-06. Laliberte, Marc (August 26, 2016). "Lessons from DEFCON 2016 - ...
The shell itself may contain a number of trace elements, including: aluminium; barium; chromium; copper; iron; magnesium; ...
tracker, chromium. "no movement in favicon". chromium.org. Retrieved 11 April 2016. tracker, chromium. "Animated Favicons not ... supported". chromium.org. Retrieved 8 November 2018. "Support for SVG in favicons - Chrome Platform Status". 19 November 2019. ...
PPAPI was initially only supported by Google Chrome and Chromium. Later, other Chromium-based browsers such as Opera and ... "Getting Started: Background and Basics - The Chromium Projects". chromium.org. "Concepts - ppapi - Important concepts for ... "The final countdown for NPAPI". Chromium Blog. Google will start blocking most Netscape Plug-In API plug-ins in January 2014, ... In August 2020, Google announced that support for PPAPI would be removed from Google Chrome and Chromium in June 2022. Netscape ...
"The Chromium Blog: Native Client Brings Sandboxed Native Code to Chrome Web Store Apps". Blog.chromium.org. 18 August 2011. ... "Getting Started: Background and Basics - The Chromium Projects". Chromium.org. Retrieved 25 April 2012. "Pepper.wiki". 24 ... Chromium, was the only web browser to use the new browser plug-in model. As of 2020, Pepper is supported by Chrome, Chromium ... It is currently used in Chromium and Google Chrome to enable the PPAPI version of Adobe Flash and the built-in PDF viewer. On ...
"Disk Format - The Chromium Projects". Chromium.org. Retrieved 2014-01-29. "Constants and IDs". CoreOS. Retrieved 2018-07-26. ... Chromium.org. Retrieved 2017-10-04. "Ubuntu on MacBook". Community Documentation. Ubuntu. "GNU Parted FAQ". "mklabel". Parted ...
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chromium-dev] Yesterday's Mac canary was 64-bit". Retrieved July 1, 2014. Google. "Re: [chromium-dev] Re: Chromium 64-bit on ... "Home (Chromium Developer Documentation)". Chromium Developer Documentation. 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009. "Chromium Terms and ... src.chromium.org. Retrieved April 8, 2012. "SPDY Proxy Examples - The Chromium Projects". www.chromium.org. Retrieved April 8, ... "Change log for Chromium wiki showing removal of a part that said PDF support were different between Chromium and Google Chrome ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Chromium Blog: 64 bits of awesome: 64-bit Windows Support, now in Stable!". Chromium ...
Source code comment on line 31 "Chromium Blog: DNS Prefetching (or Pre-Resolving)". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 21 July 2015. ... "Google Chrome, Chromium, and Google". Retrieved 28 January 2010. See Which Google Domain "View of /trunk/src/chrome/browser/ ... "SRWare Iron is based on the Soucecode of Chromium. It is licensed under the BSD-license." SRWare Iron installer. Accessed 2020- ... SRWare Iron is a Chromium-based web browser developed by the German company SRWare. It primarily aims to eliminate usage ...
"Chrome Frame - The Chromium Projects". www.chromium.org. Retrieved 2020-08-14. Amy Willis (2009-09-25). "IE8 browser runs ... "Introducing Google Chrome Frame". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 2020-08-14. "Google Chrome Frame: Stable and Speedy". Chromium Blog ... Google Chrome Frame was a plug-in designed for Internet Explorer based on the open-source Chromium project, first announced on ... "Non-Admin Chrome Frame Reaches Stable Channel". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 2020-08-14. "Google Chrome Frame Developer Updates". ...
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Knox, Dru (2017-10-18). "Building unified documentation for the web". Chromium Blog. Erika Doyle Navara (2017-10-18). " ...
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Chromium SPDY client implementation. Chromium: SPDY proxy examples. List of Chromium Command Line Switches. Bentzel, Chris; ... Chromium is expected to remove support for SPDY and Next Protocol Negotiation in early 2016, in favor of HTTP/2 and ALPN. ... "Issue 303957 - chromium - Make Chrome support only SPDY/3 and above - An open-source project to help move the web forward. - ... "SPDY frequently asked questions". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved 2015-02-23. We wanted a name that captures speed. SPDY, ...
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chromium trioxide.. *ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Chromium Toxicity U.S ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic.[11] It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ... The solid consists of chains of tetrahedrally coordinated chromium atoms that share vertices. Each chromium center, therefore, ...
Chromium is also found in chromic acid (CrO3), chromium compounds, and chromates. It is harmful to the skin, eyes, blood, and ... Chromium metal (Cr) is a bluish to steel-gray brittle solid, often seen in gray powder form that burns if flame heated. ... EPA Air Toxics: Chromium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. *EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Chromiumexternal icon (Chromium Compounds ... IPCS INCHEM: Chromium and Chromium (III) Compoundsexternal icon. *IPCS ICHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromiumexternal ...
... hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium( ... Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 ... Hexavalent chromium can be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. In ... In the Asopos River, total chromium values were up to 13 μg/L, hexavalent chromium was less than 5 μg/L and other toxic ...
Hexavalent chromium is harmful to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. NIOSH considers all Cr(VI) compounds to be ... Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are a large group of chemicals with varying properties, uses, and workplace exposures. ... NLM Hazardous Substance Data Bank: Chromiumexternal icon. *NTP Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth Edition): Hexavalent Chromium ... International Chemical Safety Card: Chromium (VI) Oxideexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromium ...
These slides briefly describe the chemistry of chromium within the scope of … ... Related blog post: http://www.wewwchemistry.com/2014/06/chemistry-of-chromium ] ... the various oxidation states of chromium and the reactions of common chromium compounds like chromium(III) chloride, chromium( ... These slides briefly describe the chemistry of chromium within the scope of the Singapore-Cambridge GCE A Level 9647 H2 ...
Chromium (Cr) toxicokinetics is the toxicokinetics of two different oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), linked by reduction ... Total Chromium Chromium Compound Chromium Picolinate Lead Chromate Sodium Chromate These keywords were added by machine and not ... Langård S, Gundersen N, Tsalev DL, Gylseth B (1978) Whole blood chromium level and chromium excretion in the rat after zinc ... Witmer CM, Harris R (1991) Chromium content of bone after oral and intraperitoneal (ip) administration of chromium (VI) to rats ...
Interaction of chromium(III) or chromium(VI) with catalase and its effect on the structure and function of catalase: An in ... Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated ... Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review. Shahid M et al. ... Selenium alleviated chromium stress in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) by regulating root morphology ...
Chromium(VI) at high levels can damage the nose and can cause cancer. Chromium has been found at 1,036 of the 1,591 National ... Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated workplace air. ... The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome ... The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. ...
... in the form of hexavalent chromium, or chromium-6) can be significant. At the top of the list for higher-risk chromium exposure ... Strong chromium nutrition is one of many reasons this would be true. Note that some of our chromium-rich Worlds Healthiest ... Toxicity from dietary chromium has not been reported, and not very likely to occur. Studies where researchers use chromium like ... The NAS did not set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for chromium. The Daily Value (DV) for chromium is 120 micrograms (mcg ...
Chromium web browser. Chromium is the upstream project that Google Chrome browser is based on. Fedora did not include Chromium ... it is now possible to package Chromium in Fedora and Tom already created a package review for chromium and its dependencies. ... Tom is building Chromium packages using copr, but because of how copr works, he does not currently have full multilib support ... Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. In addition to that, Fedora does not include Google ...
Chromium; Diabetes; Glucose tolerance factor; Trivalent chromium Trivalent chromium plays an important role in potentiating the ... The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from ... A deficiency in chromium could lead to an impaired response and thereby diabetes. Supplementing chromium in patients with ... Kleefstra N. (2013) Chromium and Diabetes. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of ...
Stable vs Unstable Chromium. It is better not to use Tom Callaways chromium repo because it installs unstable Chromium 11 that ... yum install chromium. Google Chrome. Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. In addition to ... Chromium web browser. Fedora does not include Chromium web browser in the official repository due to problems outlined in ... repos.fedorapeople.org/repos/spot/chromium/fedora-chromium.repo and drop it in /etc/yum.repos.d as root user. ...
The most common forms are chromium(0), trivalent (or chromium(III)), and hexavalent (or chromium(VI)). ... Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. ... Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. ... NIOSH recommends an exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 chromium as chromium metal and chromium(II) and chromium(III) compounds in air ...
Chromium-6 in U.S. Tap Water. Laboratory tests commissioned by EWG have detected hexavalent chromium, the carcinogenic "Erin ... EWG found cancer-causing chromium-6 in tap water from 31 of 35 cities it tested. Americans deserve the protection of official ... with a carcinogenic chemical called chromium-6. When... ...
Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause asthma. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause nasal ulceration. This may result in perforation of the nasal septum. The substance may have effects on the kidneys. This may result in kidney impairment. This substance is carcinogenic to humans. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxicity to human reproduction or development ...
... has part chromium atom (CHEBI:28073) chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237) is a ... chromium coordination entity (CHEBI:35403) is a chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237). chromium ion (CHEBI:61310) is a ... CHEBI:23237 - chromium molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Chromium ores and concentrates - Determination of silicon content - Molecular absorption spectrometric method and gravimetric ... Chromium ores - Determination of hygroscopic moisture content in analytical samples - Gravimetric method ...
Microsoft Will Push Chromium Edge Out on Wednesday January 14, 2020 at 8:17 am Microsofts new Chromium-flavored version of ... Microsofts Chromium-Based Edge Browser Is Available Today January 15, 2020 at 4:02 pm Today is the big day - after a year of ... Microsoft Will Release Chromium Edge as Part of Windows 10 Update in January 2020 December 17, 2019 at 3:33 pm Microsoft says ... Microsoft Releases First Chromium Edge Browser Beta August 20, 2019 at 2:12 pm Just head over to Microsofts Edge landing page ...
Found 4 sites for chromium. *http://www.chromium.org/Home*https://www.chromium.org/*http://code.google.com/p/chromium/*http:// ... chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.x86_64.rpm. chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el7.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 7 ... chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.aarch64.rpm. chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 8 ... chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el8.x86_64.rpm. chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 7 ...
... dopo lultimo aggiornamento del browser Chromium su whezzy ,, (35.0.1916.153-1~deb7u1) il plugin flash ha smesso di ,, ...
Toxicological profile for Chromium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
The concerns over the second most common form of chromium, GTF chromium, are not so serious and in fact would be laughable if ... Chromium nicotinate and chromium polynicotinate are the same thing; however, this material is poorly defined as well. Some ... "I personally would not use chromium picolinate," he wrote me in a separate email message. "The problem with the GTF chromium ... If you are still determined to use a chromium supplement, you have another choice-chromium chloride. However, for some reason ...
Chromium is an essential element that is not made by the body. It must be obtained from the diet. ... Lack of chromium may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It occurs in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with ... Chromium is important in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates. It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. They are ... Taking a chromium supplement may help improve insulin resistance but is not recommended as the sole treatment for people with ...
This article discusses the test to check the amount of chromium in your blood. ... Chromium is a mineral that affects insulin, carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the body. ... Chromium. Dietary supplement fact sheet. ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/. Updated July 9, 2019. Accessed ... Serum chromium level normally is less than or equal to 1.4 micrograms/liter (µg/L) or 26.92 nanomoles/L (nmol/L). ...
WebRTC has its own renamed import of the Chromium base library, so generally they shouldnt need to borrow our Chromium bits ... For the AArch64 Windows port, I wrote some dodgy code to use the x86 code from MSVC for chromium atomics. As you might imagine ... Its *possible* that step 2 will, since it removes the need for Chromium atomics, still require touching WebRTC headers. Would ... ipc/chromium/src/chrome/common/ipc_channel.cc @@ +17,4 @@ , namespace { , , // Global atomic used to guarantee channel IDs are ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Chromium Picolinate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chromium Picolinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... In the US, Chromium Picolinate (chromium picolinate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is ... Chromium Picolinate. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
config/chromium. as following: # chown -R yourusername:yourusergroup ~/.config/chromium WebGL. Sometimes, Chromium will disable ... links with Chromium: ~/.config/mimeo.conf. /usr/bin/chromium ^http:// If all of that still does not get it working, you can try ... The easiest way to install libpdf for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-libpdf-stableAUR ... The easiest way to install pepper-flash for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-pepper-flash- ...
  • Chromium is also found in chromic acid (CrO 3 ), chromium compounds, and chromates. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to chromium and its compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses chromium-based compounds, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] Additional hexavalent chromium compounds are chromium trioxide and various salts of chromate and dichromate , among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexavalent chromium compounds are genotoxic carcinogens . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are a large group of chemicals with varying properties, uses, and workplace exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Topics include the unusual electronic configuration of chromium, the various oxidation states of chromium and the reactions of common chromium compounds like chromium(III) chloride, chromium(III) nitrate, chromium(III) hydroxide,potassium chromate(VI) and potassium dichromate(VI). (slideshare.net)
  • Bianchi V, Levis AG (1988) Review of genetic effects and mechanisms of action of chromium compounds. (springer.com)
  • No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • The concentrations of chromium in air that can cause these effects may be different for different types of chromium compounds, with effects occurring at much lower concentrations for chromium(VI) compared to chromium(III). (cdc.gov)
  • The main health problems seen in animals following ingestion of chromium(VI) compounds are irritation and ulcers in the stomach and small intestine and anemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium(III) compounds are much less toxic and do not appear to cause these problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with certain chromium(VI) compounds can cause skin ulcers. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have determined that chromium(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color, because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data presented in Table 5-1 are for chromium metal and the data from Table 5-2 are for all chromium compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • The major manufacturers of chromium compounds in 2007 are summarized in Table 5-3 (SRI 2007). (cdc.gov)
  • Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds from the former Baltimore Chrome Works , which processed chrome for coloring paints, tanning leather, protecting engine parts and other uses for 140 years. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Evaluates the carcinogenic risk to humans posed by industrial exposure to chromium and its compounds, nickel and its compounds, and welding fumes and gases. (who.int)
  • The first and most extensive monograph evaluates the carcinogenicity of chromium and its compounds. (who.int)
  • The monograph is divided into subsections based on the oxidation state and solubility of the compounds, with separate evaluations made for metallic chromium, chromi-um[III] compounds, chromium [VI] compounds, and for a fourth group of tested agents that were of mixed or unknown oxidation states. (who.int)
  • Various chromium compounds, such as chromium(III) oxide and lead chromate, are brightly colored and used in paints and pigments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chromium was named after the Greek word "chroma" meaning color , because of the many colorful compounds made from it. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hexavalent chromium compounds have been found in drinking water . (nih.gov)
  • There has been much talk about pretreatment of Aluminium prior to powder coating in the last few years with the imminent ban this year on using chromium compounds in the pretreatment process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transition metals such as iron, magnesium or chromium react to form varied colored compounds. (reference.com)
  • Chromium trioxide is mainly used in chrome plating . (wikipedia.org)
  • Useful search terms for chromium include "chrome," "elemental chromium," and "chromium metal. (cdc.gov)
  • Useful search terms for hexavalent chromium include "chromate" and "chrome six. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium is the upstream project that Google Chrome browser is based on. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Stainless steel and chrome plating (electroplating with chromium) together comprise 85% of the commercial use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new Edge uses a Chromium base just like Google Chrome, and that means it can run many existing Chrome extensions. (extremetech.com)
  • See these two articles for an explanation of the differences between Stable/Beta/Dev, as well as Chromium vs. Chrome and the version numbers. (archlinux.org)
  • See these two articles [2] [3] for an explanation of the differences between Chromium and Chrome. (archlinux.org)
  • Copr repository === Use the Chromium [http://copr.fedoraproject.org/coprs/spot/chromium/ Copr] repository == Google Chrome == Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Google's browser Chrome, is built from the Chromium source code, so Chromium has many of the features that make Google Chrome so great, separate processes for each window, the omnibar, the Task Manager, and incognito browsing but none of the hassles like Google's Update Utility or an EULA. (tucows.com)
  • The Chromium-based WebView means Android developers can now build apps (Google specifically names games, social networks, news and blog readers, in-app ads, and even complete web browsers) that leverage many of the features found in the Chromium (and Chrome) desktop browser. (thenextweb.com)
  • For those who don't know, Chromium is the open source Web browser project that shares much of the same code as Google Chrome, while Android's WebView is used for embedding a web page in an app. (thenextweb.com)
  • The Chrome team is proud to introduce the Chromium Chronicle, a monthly series geared specifically to Chromium developers - the developers who build the browser. (google.com)
  • As I understand Chromium is the open source version for Google's Chrome? (linuxquestions.org)
  • first can I have both Chrome and Chromium on my PC or will there be a conflict, secondly forgetting for the moment about open source would I be better off with Chrome as one of my browsers or should I stay with Chromium? (linuxquestions.org)
  • Someone is bound to ask why would I want both Chrome and Chromium seeing how they are basically the same? (linuxquestions.org)
  • As far as features or speed there's not much difference between Chromium and Chrome to be honest. (linuxquestions.org)
  • Chromium is likely to be updated (only) via your package manager while an install of Chrome, right from Google's website, is capable of updating itself. (linuxquestions.org)
  • I want to thank both sag47 and JaseP for their feedback on my question visa vie Chrome or Chromium. (linuxquestions.org)
  • There is one other thing to be mentioned here, Chrome is built by Google and supports all apps from the chrome store, and is exactly the same on every distribution, Chromium on the other hand is built for the distribution you are installing it on and depending on the maintainer it is slightly different across distros. (linuxquestions.org)
  • I have encountered the situation before (don't remember if it was opensuse or another distro) that Chromium could not run some of the apps from the chrome store. (linuxquestions.org)
  • I'm unclear why you've customized the actual Chromium app, though, especially since the FF & Chrome Portable apps themselves aren't customized. (portableapps.com)
  • Chromium is an open-source browser that is the basis for Google Chrome, so there's nothing inherently wrong with having and using it. (wikihow.com)
  • Once it's open, look for any running processes with chromium.exe or chrome.exe in the name. (wikihow.com)
  • If you liked the Chrome iPhone Mod - Chromium …here is an addition to the set (or just an individual mod if you do not want the entire Chrome theme). (appleiphoneschool.com)
  • Chromium is the open source Web browser project that shares much of the same code as Google Chrome, and new features are often added there first. (thenextweb.com)
  • In other words, someone finally got fed up and decided the feature was worth adding to Chromium, in the hope that it will show up in Chrome (as well as Opera). (thenextweb.com)
  • The industry, operating through the Chrome Coalition and the Chromium Chemicals Health and Environment Committee, hired consultants to re-analyze data from the largest, most comprehensive study conducted to-date on the effects of workplace Cr(VI) exposure. (scienceblogs.com)
  • They say the pollution comes from unmonitored Anaplex tanks containing chrome plating solution and chrome based paints, and that chromium-laced dust has drifted from an Aerocraft factory in the neighborhood. (courthousenews.com)
  • [5] Inside the cell, hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) without the aid of any enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trivalent chromium plays an important role in potentiating the insulin response in cells sensitive to insulin. (springer.com)
  • Sun Y, Ramirez J, Woski SA, Vincent JB (2000) The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from transferrin and chromium picolinate to LMWCr. (springer.com)
  • In the United States, trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin, sugar, and lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of chromium: trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. (webmd.com)
  • Trivalent chromium from yeast extract is sometimes referred to as glucose tolerance factor (GTF) in over-the-counter products. (mskcc.org)
  • The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism , but hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is very toxic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The element chromium occurs naturally in various states, including trivalent chromium which is an essential nutrient. (nih.gov)
  • however, it appeared when glucose tolerance was improved and when trace amounts of trivalent chromium were given as a dietary supple-ment. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have seen evidence of chromium deficiency leading to abnormally high blood sugar as well as evidence that restoring chromium supply back toward normal or higher can enhance blood sugar control even in some people with diabetes. (whfoods.com)
  • A deficiency in chromium could lead to an impaired response and thereby diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Supplementing chromium in patients with diabetes with this deficiency could potentially improve glycemic control. (springer.com)
  • Jeejeebhoy KN, Chu RC, Marliss EB, Greenberg GR, Bruce-Robertson A (1977) Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, scientists don't know of any indicator of chromium deficiency besides the reversal of symptoms. (mendosa.com)
  • This test may be done to diagnose chromium poisoning or deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the US, Chromium Picolinate (chromium picolinate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is used to treat Diabetes - Type 2 and Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Deficiency . (drugs.com)
  • The effects of a chromium deficiency in healthy people are not well known. (clemson.edu)
  • Although a deficiency is rare, it can look like diabetes, since chromium works closely with insulin. (clemson.edu)
  • Chromium deficiency. (webmd.com)
  • Taking chromium by mouth is effective for preventing chromium deficiency. (webmd.com)
  • Although most people consume adequate amounts through diet, chromium deficiency has been implicated in the development of diabetes (25) . (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium is a mineral, promoted as a dietary supplement to deal with deficiency or to assist in weight loss. (patientslikeme.com)
  • The body needs only trace amounts of chromium, and deficiency of this mineral in humans is rare. (cigna.com)
  • Chromium picolinate has been used in alternative medicine to treat chromium deficiency, as an aid to controlling blood sugar in people with diabetes or prediabetes, to lower cholesterol, and as a weight-loss supplement. (cigna.com)
  • Chromium deficiency is rare in people. (rochester.edu)
  • Balk EM, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Pittas AG (2007) Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. (springer.com)
  • Still, chromium supplementation may well do some good. (mendosa.com)
  • After dozens of studies, the consensus is that chromium supplementation has no effect on glucose, insulin, or blood lipids. (mendosa.com)
  • There is no clear evidence to show that chromium supplementation is effective for improving glucose metabolism, losing weight, or building muscle mass. (mskcc.org)
  • Preliminary studies suggest some benefits with chromium supplementation for some types of depression and mood symptoms. (mskcc.org)
  • In human studies, chromium supplementation with biotin may help to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) (4) (5) (6) . (mskcc.org)
  • In a trial of patients with poorly controlled T2D, chromium supplementation had beneficial effects on glycemic control without affecting lipid profiles (33) . (mskcc.org)
  • The authors, Gregory M. Singer and Jeff Geohas, call it "The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. (mendosa.com)
  • There's a doctor in the US who claims liquid chromium picolinate can alleviate atypical depression completely, that it's caused by insulin resistance, which the chromoium supplementation overrides. (healingwell.com)
  • A review of 41 clinical studies on the effects of chromium supplementation (including chromium picolinate, chromium nicotinate, chromium chloride and brewer's yeast) in doses from 1.28 mcg to 1,000 mcg per day and lasting from three to eight months concluded chromium supplementation may have a "modest beneficial effect" in people with type 2 diabetes. (consumerlab.com)
  • The researchers noted that, on average, "chromium picolinate supplementation lowered A1C by 0.6% and that brewer's yeast and chromium picolinate lowered fasting glucose by 1.1 and 0.8 mmol/l, respectively. (consumerlab.com)
  • According to a 2002 study published in the "Alternative Medicine Review," chromium supplements, including chromium dinicotinate glycinate, chromium supplementation appears to be safe for most individuals. (livestrong.com)
  • Some evidence shows that taking chromium picolinate (a chemical compound that contains chromium) by mouth, either alone or along with biotin, can lower fasting blood sugar, lower insulin levels, and help insulin work in people with type 2 diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • In one patient while taking chromium picolinate in addition to other dietary supplements. (mskcc.org)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking chromium picolinate? (cigna.com)
  • What should I avoid while taking chromium picolinate? (cigna.com)
  • [5] [7] Liver toxicity shows the body's apparent inability to detoxify chromium(VI) in the GI tract where it can then enter the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the low absorption and high excretion rates of chromium, toxicity is not common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result of these nominations, NTP studied the short-term toxicity and long-term carcinogenicity of sodium dichromate dihydrate, a hexavalent chromium compound, administered to rodents in drinking water. (nih.gov)
  • The results of NTP's two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on a hexavalent chromium compound ( NTP TR 546 ) were cited in the initial statement to adopt a maximum contaminant level for hexavalent chromium in drinking water in California. (nih.gov)
  • The discussion also focused on the design of proposed laboratory toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of hexavalent chromium administered in drinking water to rodents. (nih.gov)
  • In 2007, NTP published the results of the short-term, three-month toxicity studies ( TOX-72 ) on a hexavalent chromium compound. (nih.gov)
  • In 2008, NTP published the results of the two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies ( TR-546 ) on a hexavalent chromium compound. (nih.gov)
  • Due to its structural similarity to sulfate, chromate (a typical form of chromium(VI) at neutral pH) is transported into cells via sulfate channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have several concerns about the picolinate form of chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • The concerns over the second most common form of chromium, GTF chromium, are not so serious and in fact would be laughable if fewer people hadn't been deceived. (mendosa.com)
  • This form of chromium has been found to cause DNA damage in cell culture studies. (clemson.edu)
  • In fact, our rating system only calculated one excellent source of chromium. (whfoods.com)
  • The best source of chromium is brewer's yeast. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The source of chromium which became elevated was most likely an internal pool. (sciencemag.org)
  • Foods rich in chromium, specifically brewer's yeast, have been used to help balance blood sugar since the time of the Civil War. (whfoods.com)
  • They thought to be present in foods like brewer's yeast, which they described as superior sources of chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • If you are still determined to use a chromium supplement, you have another choice-chromium chloride. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium nanoparticle exhibits higher absorption efficiency than chromium picolinate and chromium chloride in Caco2 cell monolayers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taking 200 mcg of chromium chloride daily for three months seemed to improve symptoms and increase blood glucose levels in patients with reactive hypoglycemia ( Anderson, Metabolism 1987 ). (consumerlab.com)
  • Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary J (1987) Supplemental chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. (springer.com)
  • Prior to discovery of LMWCr, a much less clearly defined molecule called glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, had been the subject of much interest in nutrition and was typically thought to involve a combination of chromium, vitamin B3, and select amino acids. (whfoods.com)
  • Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Chi J, Feng J (1997) Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • The second most common form, GTF chromium-for glucose tolerance factor-probably doesn't exist. (mendosa.com)
  • It was in 1959 that Walter Mertz and his associates seemed to have demonstrated that chromium helped glucose to enter cells body by first converting chromium into a large chemical called glucose tolerance factor. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium also aids in insulin action and glucose breakdown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lack of chromium may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromium, which is considered to play an important role in normal functions of the body, is one of the most popular substances for maintaining adequate glucose homeostasis in the human body. (isteroids.com)
  • Chromium works with insulin to maintain normal blood glucose, or blood sugar levels. (clemson.edu)
  • A lack of chromium may affect glucose uptake into cells. (clemson.edu)
  • Chromium may help to regulate blood glucose in some people, but the long-term effects are unknown. (mskcc.org)
  • Based on laboratory experiments, scientists think that chromium is involved in maintaining adequate levels of glucose, fats, and insulin activity in the body. (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium may interact with insulin receptors and enhance the effects of insulin on cells, including improved glucose uptake. (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium is sometimes combined with GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor) in over-the-counter products. (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium is a trace element that is necessary for glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism in humans (1) (9) . (mskcc.org)
  • But a pilot study clearly shows that a combination of chromium picolinate and biotin can help people with poorly controlled diabetes to improve blood glucose levels. (mendosa.com)
  • If my blood glucose levels were less well controlled, this new study might persuade me to add chromium picolinate to the arsenal of supplements I take. (mendosa.com)
  • Influence of chromium picolinate on glucose usage and metabolic criteria in growing Holstein calves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin has been shown to affect both lipid and glucose levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending on the dose and formulation, regular use of chromium picolinate may help control blood glucose levels in some patients, which may lead to a reduction in your dosage requirement of metFORMIN or any other diabetic medications you are receiving. (drugs.com)
  • Chromium picolinate may be of modest benefit to some people with type 2 diabetes decrease fasting blood glucose levels as well as levels of insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), although the evidence is mixed. (consumerlab.com)
  • Sharp increases in the concentration of chromium in plasma were found in five subjects with normal glucose utilization after administration of glucose by mouth. (sciencemag.org)
  • This image, taken with an electron microscope, shows two compact chromium oxide resistors in series with a quantum phase-slip nanowire. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, chromium(VI) oxide is used in manufacturing high-performance audiotapes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • By mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid , he was able to produce chromium oxide, with the chemical formula CrO 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In 1798, Vauquelin discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This produces sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ), which is reduced with carbon to chromium(III) oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Using chromium supplements for 6 to 16 weeks in various studies has had no effect on people with diabetes. (mendosa.com)
  • For four months, they received supplements of chromium picolinate in doses of 0, 100, or 500 mg. (mendosa.com)
  • Currently the American Diabetes Association does not recommend chromium supplements for persons with diabetes, however. (clemson.edu)
  • Most people get enough chromium from their normal diet, and supplements are not advised. (clemson.edu)
  • The majority of people with diabetes do not need supplements, because they are not chromium deficient. (clemson.edu)
  • Chromium supplements may offer no benefits and could even have adverse effects, such as interfering with iron in the body. (clemson.edu)
  • Excessive chromium intake through supplements also has been linked to kidney failure. (clemson.edu)
  • Some researchers think that chromium supplements benefit only people with poor nutrition or low chromium levels. (webmd.com)
  • Also, taking chromium alone or along with other supplements seems to reduce levels of blood fats in people with high blood fat levels. (webmd.com)
  • There have been some case reports of liver and kidney toxicities with chromium supplements. (mskcc.org)
  • In two patients who took chromium supplements to enhance weight loss. (mskcc.org)
  • In a 29-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who took chromium supplements in addition to insulin. (mskcc.org)
  • The FSA now believes certain vitamins and minerals may have long-term health implications and has proposed to ban the mineral chromium picolinate , which is used in a range of supplements including slimming products, amid concern it could cause cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several studies suggest that chromium supplements may improve diabetes control, but we don't have enough information to recommend it to treat diabetes yet. (webmd.com)
  • If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. (rochester.edu)
  • Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. (rochester.edu)
  • Certain forms may be better absorbed than others (See Chromium from supplements ). (consumerlab.com)
  • CDG binds chromium with niacin and glycine to enhance the uptake of chromium in your body and is the preferred form of supplement manufacturers due to its increased bioavailability, according to the 2008 book "Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • According to the Office of Dietary Supplements, the Institute of Medicine has not established a tolerable upper intake level, or UL, for chromium because there is not enough evidence related to its effects in high doses. (livestrong.com)
  • For every molecule of chromium in CDG that is absorbed by your body, one molecule of glycine is also absorbed, according to the authors of "Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements. (livestrong.com)
  • However, high doses of chromium supplements may interfere with some of your body's hormones, which can cause changes in blood sugar regulation and insulin sensitivity. (livestrong.com)
  • Chromium supplements also promote the storage of chromium in various body tissues, especially your kidneys, which may be cause for concern if you suffer from kidney disease or renal failure, although no clear connection has been established. (livestrong.com)
  • A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carcinogenicity of chromium[III] and of metallic chromium could not be determined on the basis of available evidence. (who.int)
  • they thus contribute less to metallic bonding, and hence the melting and boiling points and the enthalpy of atomisation of chromium are lower than those of the preceding element vanadium. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that health effects seen in children exposed to high amounts of chromium will be similar to the effects seen in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • However, chromium is present in many foods in very small amounts (1-2 micrograms or less). (whfoods.com)
  • As a result, we know that many foods contain small amounts of chromium, but we are still not sure about exact amounts or how amounts might vary under different circumstances. (whfoods.com)
  • Because the amounts of chromium in foods are quite small, researchers have struggled to clearly quantify dietary chromium intake in the same way we can with other nutrients. (whfoods.com)
  • Tables 5-1 and 5-2 list the facilities in each state that manufacture or process chromium, the intended use, and the range of maximum amounts of chromium that are stored on site. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium, one of the trace minerals, is found in very small amounts in our bodies. (clemson.edu)
  • Exact amounts of chromium content have not been determined, partly because it varies depending on soil types and other factors. (clemson.edu)
  • therefore, cooking an acidic food like tomato sauce in a stainless steel pot adds small amounts of chromium to the food. (clemson.edu)
  • It is very unlikely that you will consume harmful amounts of chromium from dietary sources. (clemson.edu)
  • It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of chromium are necessary for human health. (webmd.com)
  • Chromium is an element required by the body in very small amounts (0.025 mg a day). (mskcc.org)
  • Below are approximate amounts of chromium in some foods. (rochester.edu)
  • These amounts can be obtained from the diet (see Adequate intake and Chromium from food ). (consumerlab.com)
  • You can take chromium with water or food, but it may be best not to take it along with a supplement or dairy foods providing large amounts of calcium because calcium may reduce chromium absorption. (consumerlab.com)
  • Chromium is an essential trace mineral, meaning that your body needs small amounts of it. (consumerlab.com)
  • Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Geohas J, Juturu V, Finch MR, Komorowski JR (2007) Combination of chromium and biotin improves coronary risk factors in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. (springer.com)
  • Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Bakker SJ, Verhoeven S, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bilo HJ (2007) Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have linked type 2 diabetes and chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium is taken by mouth for improving blood sugar control in people with prediabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes , and high blood sugar due to taking steroids and HIV treatments . (webmd.com)
  • Also, chromium picolinate might decrease weight gain and fat accumulation in people with type 2 diabetes who are taking a class of antidiabetes medications called sulfonylureas. (webmd.com)
  • Studies of using chromium to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes don't have definite results. (rochester.edu)
  • Supplementing with chromium may be of modest benefit to some people with type 2 diabetes. (consumerlab.com)
  • However, a study in the Netherlands among 46 men and women with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin found no benefit compared to placebo from either 250 mcg or 500 mcg of chromium picolinate taken twice daily with meals for six months ( Kleefstra, Diabetes Care 2006 ). (consumerlab.com)
  • Eating food containing chromium(III). (cdc.gov)
  • You might think by looking at the chart above that chromium is a mineral mostly missing in the food supply. (whfoods.com)
  • Chromium is provided by every food group-including vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, nuts/seeds, seafood, meats and dairy-so it is definitely not a missing mineral in our foods. (whfoods.com)
  • While we don't know the exact chromium content of many of the World's Healthiest Foods, it appears that our strategy of eating-based around minimally processed and plant-rich meals with liberal use of spices-would be expected to ensure a consistent supply of this mineral. (whfoods.com)
  • If you search the online vitamin (and mineral) retailer Vitamin Shoppe for "chromium picolinate," it finds 58 matching products. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium is a mineral that affects insulin, carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromium (hexavalent) in drinking water may be due to industrial pollution or natural occurrences in mineral deposits and groundwater. (ewg.org)
  • Chromium is absorbed very poorly, and it would take a high dose of this mineral to cause a toxic reaction. (clemson.edu)
  • Chromium is a mineral. (webmd.com)
  • This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Chromium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. (mindat.org)
  • Chromium is a mineral found in certain foods. (cigna.com)
  • Chromium is an essential trace mineral needed for insulin function. (consumerlab.com)
  • Chromium dinicotinate glycinate, or CDG, is a form of the mineral chromium that is used for its potential health benefits. (livestrong.com)
  • The 36 participants in the study got 600 micrograms of chromium picolinate and 2 mg of biotin or a placebo. (mendosa.com)
  • Since this was a short study, Drs. Singer and Geohas found it impractical to use A1C tests to judge how well the chromium and biotin worked. (mendosa.com)
  • 14) In a 2007 randomized, double-blind, placebo-control led trial, 348 participants were randomly assigned to receive either CPB (600 mg chromium picolinate and 2 mg biotin) or a matching placebo daily for 90 days. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • While chromium metal and Cr(III) ions are considered non-toxic, hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is toxic and carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory tests commissioned by EWG have detected hexavalent chromium, the carcinogenic "Erin Brockovich chemical," in tap water from 31 of 35 American cities. (ewg.org)
  • In the film "Erin Brockovich," the environmental crusader confronts the lawyer of a power company that polluted the tap water of Hinkley, Calif., with a carcinogenic chemical called chromium-6. (ewg.org)
  • On the basis of this evaluation, the monograph concludes that chromium[VI] is carcinogenic to humans. (who.int)
  • LOS ANGELES (CN) - Residents of a Los Angeles suburb filed a class action against seven metal finishing factories, claiming they polluted the City of Paramount with carcinogenic hexavalent chromium, a chemical made famous by the movie "Erin Brockovich. (courthousenews.com)
  • [5] The resultant chromium(III) forms stable complexes with nucleic acids and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • chromium-pepper-flash-stable AUR for the stable version. (archlinux.org)
  • chromium-ozone AUR - stable release with Wayland support enabled. (archlinux.org)
  • He also maintains his own test packages of Chromium Stable repo: http://repos.fedorapeople.org/repos/spot/chromium-stable/ To use this repo, download the repo file from from http://repos.fedorapeople.org/repos/spot/chromium-stable/fedora-chromium-stable.repo and drop it in /etc/yum.repos.d as root user. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Chromium is an open-source browser project that provides a safer, faster, and more stable way for all Internet users to experience the web. (tucows.com)
  • Sugar converts the toxic chromium into the naturally occurring and more stable chromium III-a nutrient necessary for life. (technologyreview.com)
  • Chromium is an open source web browser that strives for a secure, fast and stable web browsing experience for its users. (debian.org)
  • Microsoft has finally released the official, stable version of its Chromium-based Edge web browser. (lifehacker.com)
  • chromium-55.0.2883.87-1.fc25 has been pushed to the Fedora 25 stable repository. (redhat.com)
  • Other researchers think that chromium might only help people with diabetes and insulin resistance . (webmd.com)
  • I reported then that some experts think that chromium picolinate, the most common form, might harm individuals with depression, bipolar disease, or schizophrenia. (mendosa.com)
  • [4] Workers in many occupations are exposed to hexavalent chromium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Workers who are exposed to hexavalent chromium are at increased risk of developing lung cancer, asthma, or damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • EPA filed a complaint under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) against the world's largest producer of chromium chemicals for failing to inform the agency of findings from an epidemiological study showing a "substantial risk" of injury to health among workers exposed to hexavalent chromium (CrVI). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of lung cancer for workers who weld on stainless steel appears to be associated with exposure to fumes that contain nickel and chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to hexavalent chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria Document: Criteria for a Recommendation Standard for an Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium pdf icon - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013-128 (2013). (cdc.gov)
  • However, certain detectable differences in chromium disposition depend upon whether exposure is to a Cr(III) or a Cr(VI) salt. (springer.com)
  • Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated workplace air. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to chromium will result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to chromium? (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic exposure to hexavalent chromium can damage organs and produce skin rashes. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Officials have encouraged Garfield, N.J., residents to stay out of their basements to avoid exposure to toxic dust they fear could have been created from thousands of pounds of hexavalent chromium that leaked from a factory 30 years ago, The Associated Press reported in March. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne chromium (VI) that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. (osha.gov)
  • Objective data means information such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition or chemical and physical properties of a substance demonstrating the employee exposure to chromium (VI) associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, operation, or activity. (osha.gov)
  • Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this section shall determine the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee exposed to chromium (VI). (osha.gov)
  • Hexavalent chromium is an established human carcinogen in certain occupational settings as a result of inhalation exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that hexavalent chromium causes lung cancer in humans in certain occupational settings as a result of inhalation exposure," said Michelle Hooth, Ph.D., NTP study scientist for the technical report. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged exposure to chromium 6 increases the risk of lung cancer and asthma. (courthousenews.com)
  • Some people take chromium by mouth for body conditioning including weight loss , increasing muscle, and decreasing body fat . (webmd.com)
  • How should I take chromium picolinate? (cigna.com)
  • This mine is a kimberlite pipe rich in diamonds, and the reducing environment helped produce both elemental chromium and diamond. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Donaldson RM Jr, Barreras RF (1966) Intestinal absorption of trace quantities of chromium. (springer.com)
  • Chromium is an essential trace metal. (rochester.edu)
  • In October 2016, investigators found chromium 6 levels more than 350 times higher than typical background levels, the Los Angeles Times reported in January. (courthousenews.com)
  • [7] Chromium trioxide is a powerful oxidiser and a suspected carcinogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhaled hexavalent chromium is recognized as a human carcinogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium (hexavalent) is a carcinogen that commonly contaminates American drinking water. (ewg.org)
  • Chromium 6 is a known carcinogen when inhaled. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers in New Orleans have found that simple fructose and sucrose remove highly toxic hexavalent chromium, the pollutant made famous by Erin Brockovich. (technologyreview.com)
  • Dosages for chromium, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromium usage must not exceed the recommended dietary allowance for pregnant, pregnancy-suspecting or nursing mothers. (isteroids.com)
  • The recommended dietary allowance of chromium picolinate increases with age. (cigna.com)
  • The National Institutes of Health says the dietary intake of chromium can't be determined. (rochester.edu)
  • Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, and has an electron configuration of [Ar] 3d5 4s1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical element chromium belongs to group 6 of the periodic table, which is classified as a group of transition metals. (reference.com)
  • In workers, inhalation of chromium(VI) has been shown to cause lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium(VI) also causes lung cancer in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The September 2, 2010 notice alleges that Elementis Chromium failed or refused to submit to EPA a study conducted for an industry trade group that showed evidence of excess lung cancer risk among workers in chromium production facilities. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The researchers would again be assessing mortality risk, but the funders expected that in these modern chromium facilities, (two in the U.S., two in Germany) workers would no longer be at any excess risk of lung cancer. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium trioxide, being a powerful oxidizer, will ignite organic materials such as alcohols on contact . (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization of chromium trioxide from the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetic behaviors of these two major oxidation states of chromium are very different. (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies suggest that chromium produces beneficial modulatory effects under hyperglycemic conditions (26) . (mskcc.org)
  • Advance data tables (XLSX format) for the chromium chapter of the Minerals Yearbook 2017. (usgs.gov)
  • Google has committed a long-requested feature to the latest Chromium build: folder support in bookmarks search. (thenextweb.com)
  • After slowly deploying the new Chromium-based Edge over the past several months, Microsoft is rolling the browser out widely. (extremetech.com)
  • Today is the big day - after a year of work, Microsoft has launched its revamped Edge browser with a Chromium base. (extremetech.com)
  • Microsoft launched test versions of Chromium Edge earlier this year, and now we have a final date (and logo) for the new browser. (extremetech.com)
  • zh-CN:Chromium Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end Chromium is an open source graphical web browser from Google, based on the WebKit rendering engine. (archlinux.org)
  • Chromium is an open-source graphical web browser based on the Blink rendering engine. (archlinux.org)
  • To set Chromium as the default browser and to change which applications Chromium launches when opening downloaded files, see default applications . (archlinux.org)
  • Fedora did not include Chromium web browser in the official repository due to problems outlined in http://ostatic.com/blog/making-projects-easier-to-package-why-chromium-isnt-in-fedora Tom 'spot' Callaway is [http://code.google.com/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=28287 working with Google] to fix the problems in Chromium. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Several vulnerabilities have been discovered in the chromium web browser. (debian.org)
  • Vi anbefaler at du opgraderer dine chromium-browser-pakker. (debian.org)
  • Chromium Portable is a custom-built version of the dev channel of the Chromium web browser, optimized for portable use and packaged in the PortableApps.com Format, so you can run it from an iPod, USB flash drive, portable hard drive, CD or any other portable media. (portableapps.com)
  • And while that doesn't mean that your old-school Edge is going away today, Microsoft will start rolling out the Chromium browser in small batches before eventually replacing it via Windows Update this summer. (lifehacker.com)
  • Summary: Updated chromium-browser packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Supplementary. (redhat.com)
  • Description: Chromium is an open-source web browser, powered by WebKit (Blink). (redhat.com)
  • Ubuntu daily builds of the Chromium browser. (linuxtoday.com)
  • Microsoft officially launched its new Edge Chromium browser across both Windows and macOS operating systems this week and is available for download now. (itbusiness.ca)
  • Jimmy Tom, research director at Info-Tech, noted in a recent presentation shared with IT World that the Chromium-based browser opens up new opportunities for Microsoft. (itbusiness.ca)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on chromium -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on hexavalent chromium - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • If you expand the search for all chromium products, it finds 132 matching products. (mendosa.com)
  • Open the Control Panel to search for Chromium. (wikihow.com)
  • Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS (1985) Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. (springer.com)
  • Chen NSC, Tsai A, Dyer IA (1973) Effect of chelating agents on chromium absorption in rats. (springer.com)
  • The just-released and latest version of Google's mobile operating system, Android 4.4 KitKat , has made a big change to the WebView component: it is now powered by Chromium. (thenextweb.com)
  • Anderson RA (1986) Chromium metabolism and its role in disease processes in man. (springer.com)
  • DeBetto P, Luciani S (1988) Toxic effect of chromium on cellular metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Serum chromium level normally is less than or equal to 1.4 micrograms/liter (µg/L) or 26.92 nanomoles/L (nmol/L). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Action level means a concentration of airborne chromium (VI) of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m 3 ) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). (osha.gov)
  • The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of chromium (VI) in excess of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m 3 ), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). (osha.gov)
  • And according to a CNN report , "case reports have linked chronic use of 600 micrograms or more per day [of chromium] to kidney and muscle damage. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium is measured in micrograms (mcg). (rochester.edu)
  • Thanks to the the 2000 film "Erin Brockovich," groundwater contamination in Hinkley, Calif., is probably the nation's best-known case of hexavalent chromium pollution. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The chromium contamination from the former plant at Baltimore's Harbor Point development site was capped instead of removed in part because of "technical difficulties associated with excavation of a site surrounded by water," a spokeswoman for the plant owner's corporate descendant, Honeywell, said in an Aug. 31 Baltimore Sun article. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Companies that share responsibility for chromium 6 contamination in groundwater, including PG&E and Lockheed Corp., considered that level far too strict. (latimes.com)
  • At the hearing in Los Angeles, Brockovich, whose battle against PG&E over chromium 6 contamination in the town of Hinkley became the basis for a movie starring Julia Roberts, denounced the scientific panel. (latimes.com)
  • The firm represented Hinkley, California residents in the chromium contamination case made famous by "Erin Brockovich," starring Julia Roberts. (courthousenews.com)
  • [2] Hexavalent chromium can also be found in drinking water and public water systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Ingestion of chromium(VI) through drinking water has been found to cause cancer in the oral cavity and small intestine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium has been found in at least 1,127 of the 1,669 National Priorities List (NPL) sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, and disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process. (cdc.gov)
  • EWG found cancer-causing chromium-6 in tap water from 31 of 35 cities it tested. (ewg.org)
  • But the EAR issued last year found insufficient evidence to set one for chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • The adduct was found to be a strong oxidizing agent, liquid at room temperature with a melting point of −23 °C. Chromium difluoride Chromium trifluoride Chromium tetrafluoride Perry, Dale L. (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • That earlier report found no link between ingesting chromium 6 and cancer. (latimes.com)
  • Regulators found last fall that Anaplex and Aerocraft had discharged elevated levels of chromium 6 into the neighborhood. (courthousenews.com)
  • A small, placebo-controlled study found that chromium (1,000 mcg daily from chromium picolinate) did not improve learning and memory , nor depression scores, in older adults with early memory decline. (consumerlab.com)
  • Fumes containing various chemicals including hexavalent chromium contribute to these risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Becker N, Claude J, Frenzel-Beyme R (1985) Cancer risk of arc welders exposed to fumes containing chromium and nickel. (springer.com)
  • Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving chromium cannot release dusts, fumes, or mists of chromium (VI) in concentrations at or above 0.5 µg/m 3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any expected conditions of use. (osha.gov)
  • There are safety concerns about the third most common form, chromium polynicotinate-sometimes known as nicotinate. (mendosa.com)
  • The state Department of Health Services is considering a recommendation to lower that to 2.5 ppb to reduce concentrations of the toxic chromium 6. (latimes.com)
  • In the 1950s, researchers discovered the role of chromium in blood sugar control, a role we describe below in the Role in Health Support section. (whfoods.com)
  • The state has still not adopted a new standard for chromium 6, though it continues to have a standard for all forms of chromium of 50 parts per billion, which is twice as strict as the federal standard. (latimes.com)
  • Environmental hexavalent chromium is usually man-made and associated with industrial sources, setting it apart from other types of chromium as a subject of study. (nih.gov)
  • Ingesting high levels of chromium(VI) may result in anemia or damage to the stomach or intestines. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing high levels of chromium(VI) can cause irritation to the lining of the nose, nose ulcers, runny nose, and breathing problems, such as asthma, cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing. (cdc.gov)
  • This article discusses the test to check the amount of chromium in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The amount of chromium in your body declines with age. (rochester.edu)
  • Once again, these factors shift the focus onto an overall healthy diet when evaluating intake of chromium. (whfoods.com)
  • A high intake of chromium in your diet doesn't cause serious side effects. (rochester.edu)
  • and stainless steel represent the bulk of the market for chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Read the side effects of Chromium Picolinate as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • What are the possible side effects of chromium picolinate? (cigna.com)
  • Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Histopathology of Pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These slides briefly describe the chemistry of chromium within the scope of the Singapore-Cambridge GCE A Level 9647 H2 Chemistry syllabus. (slideshare.net)
  • Dr. Vincent is the leading expert working at present on the chemistry of chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • The Chemistry of chromium pentafluoride II. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report increases awareness and recommends work practices to reduce exposures to hexavalent chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Other research suggests that taking chromium for 7-16 months lowers triglycerides and LDL and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol. (webmd.com)
  • Kleefstra N. (2013) Chromium and Diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Taking a chromium supplement may help improve insulin resistance but is not recommended as the sole treatment for people with diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The role played by Chromium in the treatment of diabetes is unmatched. (isteroids.com)
  • Early research shows that chromium picolinate might have the same benefits in people with type 1 diabetes, people who have diabetes as a result of steroid treatment, and people with diabetes the develops during pregnancy. (webmd.com)
  • However, researchers are looking carefully at the results that show chromium might be effective for treating diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • Chromium levels can be below normal in people with diabetes. (webmd.com)
  • Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. (rochester.edu)
  • This TSCA 8(e) allegation continues a long saga of the chromium industry's efforts to obscure evidence about the metal's carcinogenicity. (scienceblogs.com)
  • and clinically studied to be twice as effective as chromium picolinate for maintaining healthy insulin function," among others. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromium is important for insulin function. (consumerlab.com)
  • Possibly there is a relation between chromium and insulin function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hinkley residents, who claimed that chromium applied to gas pumping plant pipes to prevent corrosion gave them cancer and other illnesses after it seeped into - and lingered in - the drinking supply, received a $333-million settlement from Pacific Gas & Electric in 1996. (chicagotribune.com)
  • If you want to get the full multilib tree with signed packages (notably for libusbx.i686 and libusbx.x86_64), go to https://repos.fedorapeople.org/repos/spot/chromium/ and use that repository instead. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Since Fedora does nowaday allow packages to bundle librariers, it is now possible to package Chromium in Fedora and Tom already created a [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1270322 package review] for chromium and its dependencies. (fedoraproject.org)