A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (1/1060)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/1060)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (3/1060)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

Contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to regulation of diameter in resistance vessels. (4/1060)

Endogenous carbon monoxide was proposed to subserve vasodepressor functions. If so, inhibition of heme oxygenase may be expected to promote vascular contraction. This hypothesis was examined in large and small arteries and in isolated first-order gracilis muscle arterioles of rat. The heme oxygenase inhibitors chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (0.175-102 micromol/l) decreased the diameter of pressurized (80 mmHg) gracilis muscle arterioles, whereas magnesium protoporphyrin, a weak heme oxygenase inhibitor, did not. CrMP also elicited development of isometric tension in the muscular branch of the femoral artery but not in the aorta or femoral artery. Arteriolar constrictor responses to CrMP varied in relation to the intravascular pressure, were blunted in preparations exposed to exogenous carbon monoxide (100 micromol/l), and were unaffected by an endothelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, CrMP amplified the constrictor response to increases of pressure in gracilis arterioles. Accordingly, the constrictor effect of heme oxygenase inhibitors is attributable to magnification of myogenic tone due to withdrawal of a vasodilatory mechanism mediated by endogenous carbon monoxide. The study suggests that the vascular carbon monoxide system plays a role in the regulation of basal tone in resistance vessels.  (+info)

Oxidative damage of DNA by chromium(V) complexes: relative importance of base versus sugar oxidation. (5/1060)

Chromium(V)-mediated oxidative damage of deoxy-ribonucleic acids was investigated at neutral pH in aqueous solution by utilizing bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-butanato)oxochromate(V) (I) and bis(hydroxyethyl)-amino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane)oxochromate(V) (II). Single-stranded and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus and human placenta DNA, as well as two oligomers, 5'-GATCTAGTAGGAGGACAAATAGTGTTTG-3' and 5'-GATCCAAGCAAACACTATTTGTCCTCCTACTA-3', were reacted with the chromium(V) complexes. Most products were separated and characterized by chroma-tographic and spectroscopic methods. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments reveal more damage at G sites in comparison to other bases. Three primary oxidation products, 5-methylene-2-furanone (5-MF), furfural and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, were characterized. A minor product, which appears to be thymine propenal, was also observed. The dsDNA produces more furfural than furanone. The formation of these two products resulted from hydrogen ion or hydride transfer from C1' and C5' positions of the ribose to the oxo-chromium(V) center. Since no enhancements of these products (except propenal) were observed in the presence of oxygen, mechanisms pertaining to the participation of activated oxygen species may be ruled out. The oxidation of the G base is most likely associated with an oxygen atom transfer from the oxo-metallates to the double bond between C8 and N7 of the purine ring. The formation of the propenal may be associated with an oxygen-activated species, since a marginal enhancement of this product was observed in the presence of oxygen. The formation of furfural in higher abundance over 5-MF for dsDNA was attributed to the ease of hydrogen ion (or hydride transfer) from the C5' compared to C1' position of the ribose within a Cr(V)-DNA intermediate in which the metal center is bound to the phosphate diester moiety.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs. (6/1060)

The present study addresses the hypothesis that CO produced from endogenous heme oxygenase (HO) can dilate newborn cerebral arterioles. HO-2 protein was highly expressed in large and small blood vessels, as well as parenchyma, of newborn pig cerebrum. Topically applied CO dose-dependently dilated piglet pial arterioles in vivo over the range 10(-11)-10(-9) M (maximal response). CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium chloride and iberiotoxin. The HO substrate heme-L-lysinate also produced tetraethylammonium-inhibitable, dose-dependent dilation from 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-7) M (maximal). The HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin blocked dilation of pial arterioles in response to heme-L-lysinate. In addition to inhibiting dilation to heme-L-lysinate, chromium mesoporphyrin also blocked pial arteriolar dilations in response to hypoxia but did not alter responses to hypercapnia or isoproterenol. We conclude that CO dilates pial arterioles via activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and that endogenous HO-2 potentially can produce sufficient CO to produce the dilation.  (+info)

Dietary protein and chromium tripicolinate in Suffolk wether lambs: effects on production characteristics, metabolic and hormonal responses, and immune status. (7/1060)

Thirty-two Suffolk wether lambs were fed for 84 d in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using two levels of dietary protein (9.0 to 12.1% CP, low protein, LP; or 12.8 to 14.4% CP, high protein, HP) and supplemental Cr (none, C; or 400 ppb Cr as chromium tripicolinate, Cr). At 14- to 21-d intervals, lambs were weighed, and jugular blood samples were collected. Mean ADG and carcass weight (P > .10) did not differ. In lambs fed HP, Cr reduced liver weight and increased kidney weight (P < .01). Lambs fed HP had elevated plasma urea N (PUN; P < .01) and albumin (P < .04). During an i.v. epinephrine challenge on d 43, plasma cortisol declined in lambs fed Cr (Cr x time, P < .03) and in lambs fed LP (CP x time, P < .001). An i.v. glucose tolerance test conducted 3 h later showed that supplemental Cr decreased glucose clearance rate in lambs fed HP (CP x Cr, P < .10) but not in lambs fed LP. On d 62, PUN was increased in lambs fed HP (P < .001) between 0 and 3 h postprandial, and there was a Cr x CP interaction (P < .04). Postprandial plasma NEFA declined with Cr vs C (Cr x time, P < .07) and with HP vs LP (CP x time, P < .10). By d 66, lambs fed Cr had an elevated (P < .03) blood platelet and fibrinogen content. Chromium increased erythrocyte count in lambs fed HP (Cr x CP, P < .08), and isolated peripheral lymphocytes had greater blastogenic response to 4 microg/mL of phytohemagglutinin (Cr x CP, P < .001). The lymphocyte response to pokeweed mitogen (.2 microg/mL) was reduced in lambs fed Cr (P < .10). In the present experiment, Cr supplementation had minimal and inconsistent effects on production and metabolic criteria of lambs.  (+info)

Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium. (8/1060)

Evidence for chromium(III) induced phosphorylation of a biomarker protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) is presented. Radiolabelled adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was reacted with BSA in the presence of various Cr(III) salts. While [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ brought about phosphorylation of BSA, several Cr(III) complexes, viz. [Cr(bpy)3]3+, [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(en)3]3+, [Cr(salen)(H2O)2]+ and [Cr(salprn)(H2O)2]+, did not phosphorylate BSA. The Cr(III) mediated the transfer of gamma- and alpha-phosphates but not the adenine and the sugar moieties of the ATP molecule to BSA. The observed stoichiometry was 0.75 mol Pi to mol BSA for the gamma-phosphate and 0.5 mol Pi to mol BSA for the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The presence of serine phosphate and threonine phosphate was detected in the hydrolysate of phosphorylated BSA by means of comparison of Rf values with authentic samples of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine after chromatographic separation and autoradiography. [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ at pH 7.4 is known to exist as the conjugate base [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ and is capable of ligand substitution involving metal-oxygen bond retention. Such anation reaction of [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ with ATP subsequently leads to the esterification of alcoholic hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine of BSA. Possible consequences of chromium(III) induced in vivo phosphorylation of proteins are discussed.  (+info)

Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Objective: The paper describes the results of a polycentric study for the assessment of reference values of urinary chromium (U-Cr) in the Italian population. Method: A total of 890 subjects (58.3% males and 41.7% females) were selected on the basis of standardized criteria in eight different areas of Italy. Urinary chromium was determined on morning spot samples collected using standardized procedures. The U-Cr was determined independently by three laboratories using an Electrothermic atomization-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) method with a detection limit of 0.05 mu g/l, adopting - for the statistical analysis - the median value of the results of the three laboratories. The between-laboratories within-subjects standard deviation was 0.049 mu g/l. Due to the high proportion (approx. 28%) of undetectable chromium levels, the geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were estimated using a procedure of linear interpolation. The analysis of the effects of some variables ...
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancerrisk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. ...
Chromium toxicity refers to the fact that chromium is toxic. Water-insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was the basis of the true story of Erin Brockovich, dramatised as Erin Brockovich (film). Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and its use in dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for ...
Background: Chromium is a micronutrient, considered to be essential for birnak carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect if chromium on the glycemic status and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To study the effect of chromium supplementation on glycemic status and serum lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to two groups. A double blind technique was used and the patients received either 250æg of chromium picolinate or placebo for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured at baseline and 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum insulin concentration was also measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: The fasting blood glucose, glycated ...
SUAREZ, O.J; OLAYA, J. J; SUAREZ, M.F y RODIL, S.E. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DECORATIVE CHROMIUM FILMS OBTAINED FROM TRIVALENT CHROMIUM SOLUTIONS. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.977-982. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000100005.. In this work, the resistance to corrosion of chromium films obtained from trivalent chromium solutions of different compositions and the influence of solution compounds on the coatings electrochemical behavior and the microstructure were studied. The chromium coatings were obtained from trivalent solutions in a chloride-based bath with different complexing agents adding also sodium hypophosphite and aluminum chloride. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out on all solutions before and after plating to observe changes in the chromium complexes chemical state due to the plating process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were performed to examine the coatings surface morphology and composition; ...
Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.. Anderson R. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270.. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.. Anderson RA, Roussell AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto magnetic natural zeolite-polymer composite. AU - Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.. AU - Onyango, Maurice S.. AU - Ochieng, Aoyi. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent was analyzed with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of magnetic zeolite loading within the composite, initial pH, sorbent dosage, temperature and Cr(VI) concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Up to 99.99% removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was 2 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 300 mg/L. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the ...
Chromium occurs naturally in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exist in several different forms. Depending on the form it takes, it can be a liquid, solid, or gas. The form of chromium of most concern from a health perspective is chromium(VI), also called hexavalent chromium. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium at high levels can damage the respiratory system and cause cancer. Other forms of chromium are chromium(0) and chromium(III). Chromium(0) is the metal form of chromium. It is used in steel manufacturing. Hexavalent chromium and chromium(III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated air. It is odorless and tasteless. Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of chromium(III), and in the form of small particles or aerosols. The largest industrial ...
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DO FOR US?. What scientist have established is that chromium is involved in glucose metabolism. They are not sure how but they know it does. Insulin appears to be more effective when chromium levels are optimal. Because of its affect on insulin chromium also has an indirect role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism all of which insulin influences.. When chromium is ingested at the same time as vitamin C more chromium enters our blood stream.. Contrary to what the diet and exercise gurus might tell you chromium lll does not promote weight loss nor does it increase lean body mass or decrease body fat. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH CHROMIUM?. Chromium deficiency is the disorder that too little chromium in the diet produces. This deficiency was first observed in some extreme cases. These cases were hospitalized patients who were being fed intravenously. They developed problems with the way glucose was being managed in their bodies and they started to produce ...
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of chromium(III) as a nutrient added to foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) and foods intended for the general population (including food supplements). The Panel concluded that following oral administration, trivalent chromium is poorly absorbed. The results of in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assays have been consistently negative. The results of other genotoxicity studies are conflicting. The Panel also evaluated new in vitro and in vivo studies on the genotoxicity of chromium(III) compounds which were not covered by previous evaluations. The Panel concluded that in very large amounts, certain trivalent chromium compounds are cytotoxic and have been shown to cause chromosomal damage. The Panel also evaluated the data on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity for chromium(III). Based on the facts i) that maximum intake levels of up to 250 µg/day for supplemental ...
74 ADSORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM ONTO TAILORED ZEOLITES Ivonne Santiago, Research Assistant Vincent P. Worland, Research Assistant Enrique Cazares-Rivera, Research Assistant Fernando Cadena, Professor Department of Civil Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 CHROMIUM Chromium is used in a variety of industrial applications, including electroplating and as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling towers.1 Up to a few years ago, this metal was the favored corrosion control agent in cooling towers.2 Cooling water blowdown (waste) was dumped into rivers, pits, lakes and oceans. During the 1950s chromates were also used as a highway deicing agent in the United States. Chromium (Cr) occurs in the + 2, + 3 and + 6 oxidation states in water. The divalent slate is rarely found in field conditions because it becomes rapidly oxidized to + 3 in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.3 Insoluble Cr(III) occupies much of the Chromium Eh-pH diagram.4 Chromium (III) is less toxic than ...
Natural News) Antioxidants such as vitamin C are often taken to boost immunity and prevent diseases, but these substances can also be used against a water contaminant called hexavalent chromium. This chemical contaminates the water supply in about 200 million American homes.. Researchers from Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois discovered that vitamin C and other antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary antioxidant in green tea, can reduce the harmful effects of hexavalent chromium. This chemical is often produced by industrial processes, so it usually enters the water supply through industrial waste. Additionally, it is known to cause cancer. (Related: Hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) was just found in 75% of drinking water… the mass chemical suicide of America is under way.). In this study, the researchers aimed to determine whether antioxidants can help avoid cell toxicity. To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different ...
Many of the metallic implants used in orthopaedics are made of stainless steel or cobalt-chromium alloys which contain 18-30% chromium. Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) has been shown to be the predominant form of chromium released following in vivo and in vitro corrosion of these metal implants (Merritt and Brown, 1995 K. Merritt and S.A. Brown, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995), pp. 627-633. Full Text via CrossRef , View Record in Scopus , Cited By in Scopus (67)Merritt and Brown, 1995). Blood chromium levels may be elevated between 50 and 250 times in patients with metal hip implants (Lhotka et al., 2003). At physiological pH, Cr (VI) exists predominantly as the chromate anion and as such can enter cells via non-specific anion channels. The anionic Cr (VI) diffuses readily through the red blood cell (RBC) membrane and is bound by the haemoglobin probably after its rapid reduction to the cationic trivalent state within the RBC (Gray and Sterling, 1950). The aims of this study were to investigate the ...
Chromium exists in the environment in two most stable oxidation states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), which are likely to be interconvertible in natural waters and in soils (Schroeder & Lee 1975; Handerson 1994). However, these two forms of chromium are mainly different in their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Cr3+ is soluble in acidic solutions and it precipitates as the hydroxide in alkaline solutions (Rai et al. 1987). Chromium (III) is less toxic, but in higher concentrations it is likely to produce genotoxic DNA effects in the cell nucleus (ATSDR 2012). Cr (VI) mainly exists in water as chromic acid (H2CrO4), hydrogen chromate (HCrO4−), chromate (CrO42−) and dichromate (Cr2O72−) depending on the pH and total chromium concentration (Palmer & Puls 1994). The distribution of Cr (VI) species as the function of the pH, are H2CrO4 below a pH of about 1, CrO42− above a pH of about 6, and HCrO4− at pHs between 1 and 6, when the concentrations of Cr (VI) are relatively low. The ...
Genotoxicity in vitro Bacterial mutation The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) bacterial reverse mutation assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. In addition, an NTP Ames test (non-standard protocol) performed with sodium dichromate dihydrate was positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant Ames tests are available, further testing is not required based on the weight of evidence from the large number of existing studies. Chromosomal aberration The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) cytogenicity / clastogenicity / chromosomal aberration assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant studies are available, further testing is not required ...
Significant exposure to hexavalent chromium, a metal with broad toxicity potential in humans, has been reported. In order to understand the mechanisms of dermal toxicity induced by hexavalent chromium, global gene expression profiling of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to potassium dichromate was performed. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the fibroblasts treated with potassi
Chromium toxicity is very low. According to some studies, a 150-lb. person could take approximately 175,000 doses of 200-mcg chromium tablets and show no signs of toxicity. ** However, since chromium might be deposited in the liver and kidneys and because extra high doses are generally unnecessary, there is no reason for the average person to take above the regular dosages found in chromium supplements. **. Caution: If you are diabetic, take chromium supplements only with a doctors supervision. Chromium may alter insulin requirements.. ** Source: Some of the above information was taken from the book Stop Aging Now! written by Jean Carper. Several authorities and articles on the benefits of chromium and health, provided additional information.. ...
In the past few years, Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI), a genotoxic carcinogen, has come under increased scrutiny as it is the most toxic form of chromium found
Increased serotonin levels are known to improve mood and decrease carbohydrate cravings.. Additional research on chromium was presented by scientists from the U.S.D.A. and from the Medical College of Georgia. The U.S.D.A. study in animals found that chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate reduced the expression of the gene in the brain that produces TAU proteins. The TAU protein is involved in the development of Alzheimers disease. Research by MCG demonstrated that high doses of chromium picolinate are safe and does not cause kidney dysfunction in animal models of obesity and of diabetes.. These results provide a mechanism by which chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate improves mood and reduces carbohydrate cravings, stated James Komorowski, Nutrition 21 VP technical services and scientific affairs. The research by the U.S.D.A. provides evidence to support additional research in new chromium applications that address significant quality of life issues in our society. The research ...
Workers chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium have elevated risk of lung cancer. Our study investigates the incidence of lung cancer types, age at onset of the disease, and survival time among chromium exposed workers with respect to the expression of anti-apoptotic p53 and pro-apoptotic survivin proteins. 67 chromium exposed workers and 104 male controls diagnosed with lung cancer were analyzed. The mean exposure time among workers was 16.7 ± 10.0(SD) years (range 1- 41 years). To investigate the possible regulation of survivin by p53 we examined the expression of both proteins using immohistochemical visualization. Chromium exposure significantly decreases the age of onset of the disease by 3.5 years (62.2 ± 9.1 in the exposed group vs. 65.7 ± 10.5 years in controls; P = 0.018). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) amounted for 25.4% of all cases in chromium exposed workers and for 16.3% in non-exposed individuals. The mean survival time in the exposed group was 9.0 ± 12.7 vs. 12.1 ± 21.9 months
Chromium can exist in air, water, soil, and food, and common exposure pathways include ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Chromium is commonly found in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium III) and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI). Chromium III is the most stable form of the element, and occurs naturally in animals, plants, rocks, and soils. Chromium VI rarely occurs in nature, and is usually the product of anthropogenic activities.. The health effects of chromium depend on the route of exposure and the form of the chromium. For example, inhaling chromium can cause damage to the respiratory system, whereas dermal or oral exposures generally do not. Gastrointestinal effects are generally associated with oral exposure, but not with dermal exposure. In addition, chromium VI typically causes greater health risks than chromium III. The reasons for the increased danger of chromium VI versus chromium III are complex, and relate in part to the varied paths of cellular uptake between the two ...
A high intake of chromium in your diet doesnt cause serious side effects. But you should check with a healthcare provider before taking it. This is vital if youre pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. They may also lower your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels closely if you start taking them. Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. These may reduce chromium levels:. ...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It helps to control your blood sugar. It also helps insulin work well. You also need it to metabolize and store carbohydrates, fat, and protein. You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes in humans arent conclusive. R...
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
Chromium is known to activate enzymes, maintain protein stability and enhance carbohydrate metabolism. Organic chromium (III) sources have been shown to enhance the availability of chromium. Nutritionists believe organic chromium should be supplemented in most animal diets. A search has therefore been underway to identify the biologically active form of chromium, viz. the biomolecule that binds chromium(III) and possesses an intrinsic function associated with insulin action in mammals (Vincent, 2000). We designed and synthesized a new chromium complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N2)2]Cl.. The Cr atom has site symmetry 2 and exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination, defined of four N atoms [Cr-N1: 2.062 (4) Å, Cr-N2: 2.073 (4) Å] from two symmetry-related 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and of two symmetry-related Cl ligands [2.2941 (15) Å]. The ligands are in a cis arrangement (Fig. 1.). The two planar 1,10-phenanthroline ligands show an approximate perpendicular orientation to each other [N1-Cr1-N2A: 91.81 ...
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
Bueverov AO. Lekarstvennii hepatyt: esly preparat nelzia otmenyt. Klynycheskye perspektyvy hastroenterolohyy y hepatolohyy 2007; 5: 13-19. Rakhymov KD, Palhova LK, Alenova AKh. Spravochnyk po pobochnym deistvyiam lekarstvennykh sredstv. Almaty; 2004: 224. Santhosh S, Sini T, Anandan R. Hepatoprotective activity of chitosan against isoniazid and rifampicin-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 572: 69-73. Posokhova KA, Shevchuk OO, Datsko TV. Porivnialna hepatotoksychnist antymikobakterialnykh zasobiv ta yikh kombinatsii. Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia 2010; 5: 41-46. Gliman AG. Antimicrobial agents: drugs used in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, in Goodman and Gilmans the pharmacologic basis of therapeutics. New York. Pergamon Press; 1990: 1149-1152. Yew WW, Leung CC. Antituberculosis drugs and hepatotoxicity. Respirology 2006; 11: 699-707. Sarich T, Youssefi M, Zhou T. Role of hydrazine in the mechanism of isoniazid hepatotoxicity in rabbits. Arch Toxicol 1996; ...
Attachment 52786 [details] did not pass style-queue: Failed to run WebKitTools/Scripts/check-webkit-style exit_code: 1 WARNING: Skipping non-existent file: WebCore/platform/graphics/skia/LayerRendererSkia.h WARNING: Skipping non-existent file: WebCore/platform/graphics/skia/GraphicsLayerSkia.cpp WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:72: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] [4] WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:75: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] [4] WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:78: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] [4] WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:81: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] [4] WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:84: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] [4] WebCore/platform/graphics/chromium/LayerChromium.h:90: More than one command on the same line [whitespace/newline] ...
A study examining chromium excretion during pregnancy found that persistently elevated excretion in normal pregnancies seemed to be associated with a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity. In turn, it was speculated that enhanced chromium excretion had the potential to put a mother at risk gestational or post-partum abnormal glucose metabolism. Morris BW, Samaniego S, Fraser R, MacNeil S. Increased chromium excretion in pregnancy is associated with insulin resistant. Journal Trace Element Expert Medicine 2000; 13:389-96. ...
1. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 2. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitis with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med. 1999;16:164-167. 4. Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51-chromium. Nutr Res. 1990;10:1401-1407. 5. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791. 6. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91-97. 7. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899. 8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et ...
Chromium is a commonly used (or at least recommended) supplement in PCOS. What is it, why is it recommended, and should you be taking it?. Chromium is a metal, just like iron and copper. Its not really needed in large amounts to do its job, which in the body, is to help metabolize sugar and fats.. Some researchers have suggested that chromium supplementation in PCOS can help insulin function. There are two articles in the National Library of Medicine database looking specifically at the use of chromium supplementation in PCOS. One study, using a dose of 200 mcg per day, resulted in improved glucose tolerance but not fertility. The second study bumped the dose up to 1000 micrograms per day, resulting in a 38% better ability to remove glucose from the blood.. BEFORE YOU RUSH OUT AND BUY A YEARS SUPPLY…. There are more than a few articles in the very same database connecting chromium picolinate to DNA damage. The earliest one, for someone writing so much about infertility, really caught my eye, ...
The objective of this research was to validate the use of sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate in reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from electroplating, and industrial wastewaters. Jars tests, and dynamic tests, were conducted using distilled water, electroplating rinse waters, and industrial wastewaters from Tinker AFB Industrial Waste Treatment Plant. Optimum process parameters were evaluated as well as analysis of the effects of typical contaminants and complexing agents, along with the effects of the process on downstream treatment. The information obtained verified that the sulfide treatment process will meet discharge permit requirements while reducing chemical and disposal costs. The results were the basis for continuing to Phase II, Pilot-Scale Study On Actual Industrial Wastewaters. Keywords: Metals treatment, Chromium reduction, Sulfide treatment, Heavy metals removal, Ferrous sulfide, Industrial wastewater, Treatment, Sludge reduction, Electroplating. (jes)*WASTE TREATMENT
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
SUN COVERAGE: CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link established Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds...
The extraction of chromium from chromite ore is based on the oxidative alkali roasting of the mineral forming water-soluble alkali chromates. Previous investigations reported the formation of a molten Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 binary mixture during roasting of chromite with sodium carbonate. The physical properties of the Na2CO3-Na2CrO4 liquid phase, which are dependent on temperature, charge and gangue composition, play an important role in the oxidation reaction and may limit the chromium recovery by hindering the oxygen transport to the reaction interface. This investigation focuses on the alkali roasting of chromite ore at 1000oC using NaOH and KOH, and subsequent water leaching. The influence of the alkali ratio on the chromium extraction yield is analysed, and the results obtained with both hydroxides are compared. The formation of molten salt phase under different roasting conditions and its effect on chromium recovery is studied by means of sample characterization and phase diagram analysis.. ...
The effects of chromium methionine supplementation on performance and serummetaboliteswere evaluated in broiler chickens.Two experiments were conducted at22 oC, thermoneutral, (TN) and33±2 oC, heat stressed (HS) conditions. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments with 0 (control), 200, 400 or 800 ppb of chromium methionine for 42-d experimental period carried out. Serum metabolitesand performance were determined. Supplementing the diet of TN and HS conditions broilerswith chromium methionine improved feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) (P|0.05), but Feed conversion ration (FCR) of broilers was not affected by different levels of supplemental chromium.Chromium methionine increased serum HDL contents, but decreased glucose, (GLU), cholesterol (CHL),triacylglycerol (TG) and LDL concentrations (P|0.05) in both TN and HS temperature. The results of these experiments indicated that supplementation of
This study presents potential application of different forms of carbon including: carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, activated carbon, and fly ash into the removal of some of the high toxic heavy metals that may present in water resources. The study was based on intensive experimental work to measure the removal percentage of hexavalent chromium and cadmium from water under different situations. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of carbon in its different forms, through the experimental removal of chromium hexavalent and cadmium divalent ions from water. Five parameters were studied during this experimental work: the pH of solution, the agitation speed, the contact time, the carbon dosage rate, and concentration of the heavy metal in water. Matrix design was developed in this experimental study in order to find the optimal conditions of the Cr (VI) and Cd (II) removal from water. In addition to these four forms of carbon, each form was modified for ...
The occurrence of pseudotumours following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) has been associated with high serum metal ion levels and consequently higher than normal bearing wear. Measuring ground reaction force is a simple method of collecting information on joint loading during a sit-to-stand (STS). We investigated vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) asymmetry during sit-to-stand for 12 MoMHRA patients with known serum metal ion levels. Asymmetry was assessed using two methods: a ratio of VGRF for implanted/unimplanted side and an absolute symmetry index (ASI). It was found that subjects with high serum metal ion levels preferentially loaded their implanted sides. The difference between the two groups was most apparent during the first 22% of STS. VGRF ratio showed significant and strong correlation with serum metal ion levels (Spearmans rho = 0.8, p = 0.003). These results suggest that individual activity patterns play a role in the wear of MoMHRA and preferential loading of an
Made infamous by the activist Erin Brockovich and the film produced about her, the heavy metal hexavalent chromium will now be receiving a little more attention. Also, known as Chromium 6, the California EPA have set limits on the arguably cancer causing chemical found in water within the state.. On Wednesday, the California EPA imposed a statewide limit of chromium 6 of 0.02 parts per billion, the maximum amount of the chemical before it is considered to be a significant health risk. Current federal regulations limit chromium, both chromium 6 and chromium 3, to 100 ppb in water, but there are no regulations on chromium 6 itself. Chromium 3 is non-toxic and is important to glucose metabolism of the body.. Chromium 6, however, is a rather toxic substance. It is commonly discharged as waste by steel and pulp mills and also used in metal-plating and leather-tanning factories.. As the only state in the nation to require testing, California originally proposed a public health goal (PHG) for chromium ...
Chromium (picolinate) Supports lipid and glucose metabolism Chromium is important for fat metabolism, enzyme activation, and glucose support. It promotes healthy lipid and carbohydrate utilization. Chromium picolinate is a highly utilizable form of chromium, promoting healthy glucose and lipid metabolism. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: chromium (picolinate) 500 mcg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 1-2 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
Since neither of the above-mentioned extraction methods was conducted in ultra-basic aqueous environments, it could be expected that not all Cr(VI) containing salts would quantitatively be extracted. Therefore, Cr(VI) values reported in this paper should not be considered to represent the total Cr(VI) quantitatively. However, absolute total Cr(VI) concentrations were not considered as a pre-requisite for this work, since the main aim was to determine Cr(VI) generation trends.. Cr(VI) determination. The Cr(VI) content of the extracted solutions was determined with a Pharmacia Biotech Ultrospec 3 000 uv/visible spectrophotometer. Analysis was conducted in a 100 mm optical cell at a wavelength of 540 nm. Prior to analysis, s-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) in a phosphate medium was added, as recommended by Bartlett (1991). The uv/visible DPC method has some weaknesses. This includes the fact that it is usually utilised in conjunction with acidic extraction of Cr(VI) that does not extract partially ...
Significant industrial waste is haphazardly dumped into the Meycauayan River, a source of domestic and agricultural water for 250,000 people living in and around Manila. Substantial contamination comes from small scale lead recycling facilities along the river at Marilao, and from the many tanneries that dump untreated hexavalent chromium into the river. This river also feeds directly into the Manila Bay, and its effluents contaminate shellfish in commercial fishing areas.
Introduction: Over 1 million metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements were performed between 2003 and 2010. These prostheses were intended to be more durable than previous models, but have been associated with a higher failure rate. There have also been isolated cases of fulminant cardiomyopathy in patients with very high serum cobalt levels. We screened a cohort of asymptomatic patients with these prostheses for subclinical cardiac abnormalities. Methods: All patients with MOM hip replacements at our centre undergo regular follow-up in the orthopaedic clinic with serum cobalt and chromium levels, and periodic magnetic resonance scanning of the affected joint. We recruited consecutive asymptomatic patients to receive echocardiography and recorded demographic data including age, height, weight, serum cobalt and chromium levels, and date of prosthesis implantation. Echocardiographers were blinded to medical history and laboratory results. The cohort was split into quartiles of serum cobalt. ANOVA, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increase of olfactory threshold in plating factory workers exposed to chromium in Korea. AU - Kitamura, Fumihiko. AU - Yokoyama, Kazuhito. AU - Araki, Shunichi. AU - Nishikitani, Mariko. AU - Choi, Jae Wook. AU - Yum, Youg Tae. AU - Park, Hee Chan. AU - Park, Sang Hwoi. AU - Sato, Hajime. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - To disclose the effects of chromium (Cr) on olfactory function, olfactory threshold tests were conducted on 27 male plating workers (Cr workers) with signs and symptoms of olfactory irritation but without nasal septum perforation or ulcer and on 34 male control subjects in Korean plating factories. The Cr workers had been exposed to Cr fume for 0.9 to 18.2 (mean 7.9) years; their blood Cr concentrations (0.16-3.69, mean 1.29 μg/dl) were significantly higher than those of the 34 control subjects (0.04-1.95, mean 0.55 μg/dl). Scores on recognition thresholds among the Cr workers were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (p,0.05) and related ...
Three months of supplementation with 400 micrograms of elemental chromium in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate produced 30% improvements in reduced fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance, compared with no significant improvements in the placebo or chromium picolinate.. Results of this study indicate that the presence of the cysteinate molecule in chromium dinicocysteinate helps provide better protection against the oxidative stress and the activation of signal transduction pathways associated with the insulin resistance and vascular inflammation of type 2 diabetes,​ wrote researchers in the peer-review journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research​.​. Whether or not chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can similarly prevent insulin resistance and vascular inflammation and thereby, delay or prevent the onset of diabetes in the prediabetic population is not known and will be interesting to investigate. ​. If it works as well as this research hints that it may, then ...
Almost anyone is capable of increasing the level of physical activity. While walking is one of the best forms of activity for improving insulin resistance, any activity that creates muscular activity is beneficial. Losing weight, however is not so simple.. Since Insulins primary function is to convert sugar to fat, high levels of insulin promote weight gain. As body weight rises, insulin resistance increases. In response the body produces more insulin, which converts more sugar to fat, and the vicious cycle continues.. Chromium Plus was for formulated to address the causes of insulin resistance in a comprehensive manner. Chromium Polynicotinate is the key ingredient. Chromium is an insulin co-factor, and chromium deficiencies, which are widespread in our society, are indistinguishable from what is called type 2 diabetes. The polynicotinate form is the most bioavailable, meaning that it is the form that is best absorbed and utilized by the body.. Chromium alone will reverse some, but not all ...
Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. The most common forms are chromium(0), trivalent (or chromium(III)), and hexavalent (or chromium(VI)).
The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for chromium in 2001. For chromium there was not sufficient information to set EARs and RDAs, so needs are described as estimates for Adequate Intakes (AIs). The current AIs for chromium for women ages 14 and up is 25 μg/day up to age 50 and 20 μg/day for older. AI for pregnancy is 30 μg/day. AI for lactation is 45 μg/day. For men ages 14 and up 35 μg/day up to age 50 and 30 μg/day for older. For infants to children ages 1-13 years the AI increases with age from 0.2 to 25 μg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of chromium there is not yet enough information and hence no UL. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).[8] Japan designate chromium as an essential nutrient, identifying 10 μg/day as an Adequate Intake for ...
"Issue 77024". Chromium. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-13. "Media Type Review". W3C Media Fragments Working Group. 2009. Retrieved ...
"chromium". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "iron". Online Etymology Dictionary. Harper, Douglas. "nickel". Online ...
The shell itself may contain a number of trace elements, including: aluminium; barium; chromium; copper; iron; magnesium; ...
tracker, chromium. "no movement in favicon". chromium.org. Retrieved 11 April 2016. tracker, chromium. "Animated Favicons not ... supported". chromium.org. Retrieved 8 November 2018. "Support for SVG in favicons - Chrome Platform Status". 19 November 2019. ...
PPAPI was initially only supported by Google Chrome and Chromium. Later, other Chromium-based browsers such as Opera and ... "Getting Started: Background and Basics - The Chromium Projects". chromium.org. "Concepts - ppapi - Important concepts for ... "The final countdown for NPAPI". Chromium Blog. Google will start blocking most Netscape Plug-In API plug-ins in January 2014, ... In August 2020, Google announced that support for PPAPI would be removed from Google Chrome and Chromium in June 2022. Netscape ...
Chromium SPDY client implementation. Chromium: SPDY proxy examples. List of Chromium Command Line Switches. Bentzel, Chris; ... Chromium is expected to remove support for SPDY and Next Protocol Negotiation in early 2016, in favor of HTTP/2 and ALPN. ... "Issue 303957 - chromium - Make Chrome support only SPDY/3 and above - An open-source project to help move the web forward. - ... "SPDY frequently asked questions". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved 2015-02-23. We wanted a name that captures speed. SPDY, ...
"chrome does a search when i want to open a website on a custom TLD". Chromium bugs. Retrieved March 3, 2018. "Coalition for ...
The Chromium Projects, retrieved 21 March 2016 "Issue 2093007: Chromium side changes for enabling VP8 and WebM support", Code ... "WebM and VP8 land in Chromium". Chromium Blog. Kersey, Jason (3 June 2010), "Dev Channel Update", Chrome Releases, retrieved 1 ... Although it has been removed from Chromium, as of January 2021[update] it has yet to be removed from Google Chrome ten years ... Notes On 11 January 2011 the removal of support for H.264 was announced on Chromium Blog. As of 7 November 2016[update] neither ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Chromium Bugs containing 'FOUC'". bugs.chromium.org. Retrieved 14 October 2016. CS1 ...
Bankoski, Jim (May 19, 2010). "WebM and VP8 land in Chromium". The Chromium Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved March 8, 2011. ... Jazayeri, Mike (January 14, 2011). "More about the Chrome HTML Video Codec Change". The Chromium Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved ...
"Issue 1826: iMessage: malformed message bricks iPhone". bugs.chromium.org. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019. CS1 maint ...
Fette, Ian (25 January 2010). "Chromium Blog: More Resources for Developers". Blog.chromium.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013. " ...
"Security FAQ - The Chromium Projects". www.chromium.org. Retrieved 2015-07-07. "RFC 7469 - Public Key Pinning Extension for ...
As an example of conflation, Chromium's and Mozilla's pages listing their video format support both call video coding formats ... "VP9 Bitstream & Decoding Process Specification" (PDF). "Audio/Video". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved 2016-05-23. "Media ...
"Tabs can steal focus using alert/prompt/confirm popups". bugs.chromium.org. Retrieved 25 April 2016. Mozilla Focus Stealing ... Mozilla Firefox Debian Iceweasel Debian Iceape Chrome Chromium Edge Programs have been written to identify what is stealing ...
"Chromium HSTS Preloaded list". cs.chromium.org. Retrieved 10 July 2019. Butcher, Simon (11 September 2011). "HTTP Strict ... The Chromium Developers (17 November 2010). "Strict Transport Security - The Chromium Projects". Retrieved 17 November 2010. ... Chromium and Google Chrome since version 4.0.211.0 Firefox since version 4; with Firefox 17, Mozilla integrates a list of ... Includes Chromium preloads as of some date and processes HSTS headers". on Twitter. Retrieved 20 December 2013. "HTTP Strict ...
"Chromium-based Reagents". Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones. Basic Reactions in Organic Synthesis. 2006. pp. 1-95 ... 4 HCrO4− + 3 RCH2OH + 16 H+ + 11 H2O → 4 [Cr(H2O)6]3+ + 3 RCOOH The inorganic products are green, characteristic of chromium( ... Jones reagent is a solution prepared by dissolving chromium trioxide in aqueous sulfuric acid. To effect a Jones oxidation, ... Alternatively, potassium dichromate can be used in place of chromium trioxide. The oxidation is very rapid and quite exothermic ...
Chromium release assay. This assay measures the release of (biological) radioactive chromium from cells as a result of killer ...
"Running Custom Containers Under Chrome OS". Chromium OS Docs. Retrieved 2019-03-28. Jujjuri, Venkateswararao; Van Hensbergen, ...
"section 2, part A:Standard specification for chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for pressure ... The high chromium and nickel content give the steel excellent oxidation resistance as well as high strength at high temperature ... Increased chromium for improved high temperature corrosion/oxidation resistance. Type 440-a higher grade of cutlery steel, with ... Type 304-the most common grade; the classic 18/8 (18% chromium, 8% nickel) stainless steel. Outside of the US it is commonly ...
Copper(II) acetate and chromium(II) acetate both have dinuclear dihydrate structures, M2(OAc)4(H2O)2, as does rhodium(II) ... "Chromium(III) Acetate Hydroxide". chemicalbook.com. The chemical book. 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016. Catterick, Janet; ... The compound chromium acetate hydroxide, Cr3(OH)2(OAc)7, has also been described as isostructural. Analogous ruthenium(III), ...
... chromium metal. The mine's total reserves amount to 0.652 million tonnes of ore grading 38% chromium metal. The mine was ... chromium metal. The Thekna mine began operating in 1959. Between 1957 and 1959 it produced chromium ore only from occurrences. ... The total combined chromium ore production from the mine between 1959 and 2006 amounted to 1,198,000 tonnes. The deepest level ... "Chromium in Albania" (PDF). mete.gov.al. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2010-09-23.. ...
30 Leadamalgam 01.AE Iron-chromium family: 05 Kamacite? (Iron var.), 05 Iron, 05 Chromium; 10 Antitaenite*, 10 Taenite, 10 ... The following elements occur as native element minerals or alloys: Aluminium Antimony Arsenic Bismuth Carbon Cadmium Chromium ...
Other inserts include 20 different autographed cards; 12 "All American Chromium" cards; eight "Hottie Chromium" cards; and ...
It has 12% chromium so it doesn't resist corrosion as well as high chromium tool steels (like 440C and ATS-34) and can rust if ... 321 is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel with a high chromium content of 18.00%. 400 series The 400 series remains one of the ... 6150, a chromium-vanadium alloy. Similar to 4140, 6150 is a tough steel with good impact resistance that can be hardened to the ... Due to the high levels of carbides and lack of high levels of chromium the steel is prone to corrosion. The composition is as ...
Chromium and nickel are depleted. The island is a habitat for Formosan sika deer, Reeves's muntjacs, Ryukyu flying foxes, and ...
The coloring agent is chromium. Colors can gradually fade. Hiddenite has a strong vitreous luster and displays strong colors ...
The concept of a nesting vector is illustrated in the Figure for the famous case of chromium, which transitions from a ... "Spin-density-wave antiferromagnetism in chromium". Reviews of Modern Physics. American Physical Society (APS). 60 (1): 209-283 ...
Inclusion of Opera Dragonfly ended after Opera 12.x, when Opera switched from the Presto layout engine to Blink and a Chromium ... Subsequent versions included Chromium's DevTools instead. As of 2019, Dragonfly has not been reintroduced, although in 2013, ...
Thomas, A. W., & Kelly, M. W. (1926). Does chromium combine with the basic or acidic groups of hide protein? Journal of the ... Thomas, A. W., & Wicklen, F. C. v. (1934). The nature of chromium oxychloride hydrosols. Journal of the American Chemical ... Rapid estimation of chromium in chrome liquor by use of the immersion refractometer. Journal of the American Leather Chemists ...
CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link ... Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium ... The nails will be tested for traces of chromium. Because toenails grow slowly, it is possible to see how much chromium has ... is probably the nations best-known case of hexavalent chromium pollution. Hinkley residents, who claimed that chromium applied ...
Chromium Other name(s):. trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate. General description. Chromium is an essential trace metal. It ... The amount of chromium in your body declines with age.. When you take it by mouth, chromium is not absorbed well. Many chromium ... Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you ... Chromium deficiency is rare in people. Studies of using chromium to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes dont have definite ...
The chromium you get from foods is not the same as the industrial form of chromium that is absorbed by the lungs, digestive ... Chromium. Overview. Chromium is an essential mineral that plays a role in how insulin helps the body regulate blood sugar ... Chromium supplements. Most studies have used 200 mcg chromium, 1 to 3 times a day. Some studies of people with diabetes have ... Glucose tolerance factor chromium (GTF) Chromium is available as part of many multivitamins or alone in tablet and capsule ...
Metallic chromium is in the zero valence state and naturally occurring chromium oxide contains chromium in the positive 3 ... The term "hexavalent chromium" is a shorthand designation for chemical compounds that contain the element chromium in the ... Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, with the major route of exposure through inhalation of vapors or dust. The primary ... One final avenue for Cr(VI) worker exposure is in high-temperature processing of chromium-containing materials, such as welding ...
Find hexavalent chromium requirement articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Chromium detection in water and soil... What is chromium? Chromium is a metal that is widely distributed in the earths crust ( ... Deadly Hexavalent Chromium in Soil Merging technologies will change over Hexavalent Chromium in soil to Trivalent Chromium, ... hexavalent chromium requirement Articles. Related terms for "hexavalent chromium requirement ": hexavalent chromium articles ...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It ... Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 ... You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. ... Chromium. Other name(s):. trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate. General description. Chromium is an essential trace metal. ...
... in its proposed rule for hexavalent chromium, which is significantly lower than the agencys current general industry and ... Hexavalent chromium can be inhaled when hexavalent chromium dust, fumes or mists are in the air. Particles of chromium dust can ... Lower Limits Coming for Hexavalent Chromium. OSHAs proposed rule on hexavalent chromium promises a sharp drop in exposure ... for chromium, chromates and other chromium compounds. These range from 0.5 µg/m3 to 500 µg/m3 (as Cr). The TLV for water- ...
Chromium supplementation (220 μg/day chromium delivered as chromium nicotinate) also had no significant effect versus placebo ... 23.3 μg chromium/day) and chromium chloride (200 μg chromium/day) on glucose tolerance, serum lipids, and antidiabetic drug ... Chromium is now routinely added to TPN solutions (5).. The results of these studies strongly implicated chromium as a critical ... Assessment of chromium status.. Many of the earlier reported studies did not address the role of chromium blood levels at ...
The chromium is in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate, which is a combination of chromium, niacin and L-cysteine. ... 400 micrograms of elemental chromium) or chromium picolinate (400 micrograms of elemental chromium) daily. ... Three months of supplementation with 400 micrograms of elemental chromium in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate produced 30 ... At the time of the launch, Paul Dijkstra, CEO of InterHealth, said that the chromium market had not seen anything new for about ...
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. Chromium may also refer to: Chromium (computer graphics), a ... Isotopes of chromium All pages with titles beginning with Chromium All pages with titles containing Chromium This ... a 2015 Albanian film Chromium deficiency, for the role of chromium in biology and nutrition Chromium B.S.U., an open-source ... the open source counterpart to Google Chrome Chromium OS, the open source operating system counterpart to Google Chrome OS ...
Chromium(II) silicide or chromium disilicide is an inorganic compound of chromium and silicon. Its chemical formula is CrSi2. ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chromium trioxide.. *ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Chromium Toxicity U.S ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic.[11] It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ... The solid consists of chains of tetrahedrally coordinated chromium atoms that share vertices. Each chromium center, therefore, ...
Chromium is also found in chromic acid (CrO3), chromium compounds, and chromates. It is harmful to the skin, eyes, blood, and ... Chromium metal (Cr) is a bluish to steel-gray brittle solid, often seen in gray powder form that burns if flame heated. ... EPA Air Toxics: Chromium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. *EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Chromiumexternal icon (Chromium Compounds ... IPCS INCHEM: Chromium and Chromium (III) Compoundsexternal icon. *IPCS ICHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromiumexternal ...
... hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium( ... Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 ... Hexavalent chromium can be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. In ... In the Asopos River, total chromium values were up to 13 μg/L, hexavalent chromium was less than 5 μg/L and other toxic ...
Hexavalent chromium is harmful to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. NIOSH considers all Cr(VI) compounds to be ... Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are a large group of chemicals with varying properties, uses, and workplace exposures. ... NLM Hazardous Substance Data Bank: Chromiumexternal icon. *NTP Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth Edition): Hexavalent Chromium ... International Chemical Safety Card: Chromium (VI) Oxideexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromium ...
These slides briefly describe the chemistry of chromium within the scope of … ... Related blog post: http://www.wewwchemistry.com/2014/06/chemistry-of-chromium ] ... the various oxidation states of chromium and the reactions of common chromium compounds like chromium(III) chloride, chromium( ... These slides briefly describe the chemistry of chromium within the scope of the Singapore-Cambridge GCE A Level 9647 H2 ...
Chromium (Cr) toxicokinetics is the toxicokinetics of two different oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), linked by reduction ... Total Chromium Chromium Compound Chromium Picolinate Lead Chromate Sodium Chromate These keywords were added by machine and not ... Langård S, Gundersen N, Tsalev DL, Gylseth B (1978) Whole blood chromium level and chromium excretion in the rat after zinc ... Witmer CM, Harris R (1991) Chromium content of bone after oral and intraperitoneal (ip) administration of chromium (VI) to rats ...
Interaction of chromium(III) or chromium(VI) with catalase and its effect on the structure and function of catalase: An in ... Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated ... Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review. Shahid M et al. ... Selenium alleviated chromium stress in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) by regulating root morphology ...
Chromium(VI) at high levels can damage the nose and can cause cancer. Chromium has been found at 1,036 of the 1,591 National ... Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated workplace air. ... The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome ... The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. ...
... in the form of hexavalent chromium, or chromium-6) can be significant. At the top of the list for higher-risk chromium exposure ... Strong chromium nutrition is one of many reasons this would be true. Note that some of our chromium-rich Worlds Healthiest ... Toxicity from dietary chromium has not been reported, and not very likely to occur. Studies where researchers use chromium like ... The NAS did not set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for chromium. The Daily Value (DV) for chromium is 120 micrograms (mcg ...
Chromium web browser. Chromium is the upstream project that Google Chrome browser is based on. Fedora did not include Chromium ... it is now possible to package Chromium in Fedora and Tom already created a package review for chromium and its dependencies. ... Tom is building Chromium packages using copr, but because of how copr works, he does not currently have full multilib support ... Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. In addition to that, Fedora does not include Google ...
Chromium; Diabetes; Glucose tolerance factor; Trivalent chromium Trivalent chromium plays an important role in potentiating the ... The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from ... A deficiency in chromium could lead to an impaired response and thereby diabetes. Supplementing chromium in patients with ... Kleefstra N. (2013) Chromium and Diabetes. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of ...
Stable vs Unstable Chromium. It is better not to use Tom Callaways chromium repo because it installs unstable Chromium 11 that ... yum install chromium. Google Chrome. Since Chromium is upstream for Google Chrome, all the same issues apply. In addition to ... Chromium web browser. Fedora does not include Chromium web browser in the official repository due to problems outlined in ... repos.fedorapeople.org/repos/spot/chromium/fedora-chromium.repo and drop it in /etc/yum.repos.d as root user. ...
The most common forms are chromium(0), trivalent (or chromium(III)), and hexavalent (or chromium(VI)). ... Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. ... Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. ... NIOSH recommends an exposure limit of 0.5 mg/m3 chromium as chromium metal and chromium(II) and chromium(III) compounds in air ...
Chromium-6 in U.S. Tap Water. Laboratory tests commissioned by EWG have detected hexavalent chromium, the carcinogenic "Erin ... EWG found cancer-causing chromium-6 in tap water from 31 of 35 cities it tested. Americans deserve the protection of official ... with a carcinogenic chemical called chromium-6. When... ...
Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause asthma. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause nasal ulceration. This may result in perforation of the nasal septum. The substance may have effects on the kidneys. This may result in kidney impairment. This substance is carcinogenic to humans. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxicity to human reproduction or development ...
... has part chromium atom (CHEBI:28073) chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237) is a ... chromium coordination entity (CHEBI:35403) is a chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237). chromium ion (CHEBI:61310) is a ... CHEBI:23237 - chromium molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Chromium ores and concentrates - Determination of silicon content - Molecular absorption spectrometric method and gravimetric ... Chromium ores - Determination of hygroscopic moisture content in analytical samples - Gravimetric method ...
Microsoft Will Push Chromium Edge Out on Wednesday January 14, 2020 at 8:17 am Microsofts new Chromium-flavored version of ... Microsofts Chromium-Based Edge Browser Is Available Today January 15, 2020 at 4:02 pm Today is the big day - after a year of ... Microsoft Will Release Chromium Edge as Part of Windows 10 Update in January 2020 December 17, 2019 at 3:33 pm Microsoft says ... Microsoft Releases First Chromium Edge Browser Beta August 20, 2019 at 2:12 pm Just head over to Microsofts Edge landing page ...
Found 4 sites for chromium. *http://www.chromium.org/Home*https://www.chromium.org/*http://code.google.com/p/chromium/*http:// ... chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.x86_64.rpm. chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el7.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 7 ... chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.aarch64.rpm. chromium-87.0.4280.66-1.el8.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 8 ... chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el8.x86_64.rpm. chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64.html. A WebKit (Blink) powered web browser. EPEL 7 ...
Toxicological profile for Chromium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
The concerns over the second most common form of chromium, GTF chromium, are not so serious and in fact would be laughable if ... Chromium nicotinate and chromium polynicotinate are the same thing; however, this material is poorly defined as well. Some ... "I personally would not use chromium picolinate," he wrote me in a separate email message. "The problem with the GTF chromium ... If you are still determined to use a chromium supplement, you have another choice-chromium chloride. However, for some reason ...
Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body. It must be obtained from the diet. ... Lack of chromium may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It occurs in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with ... Chromium is important in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates. It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. They are ... Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body. It must be obtained from the diet. ...
This article discusses the test to check the amount of chromium in your blood. ... Chromium is a mineral that affects insulin, carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the body. ... Chromium. Dietary supplement fact sheet. ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/. Updated July 9, 2019. Accessed ... Serum chromium level normally is less than or equal to 1.4 micrograms/liter (µg/L) or 26.92 nanomoles/L (nmol/L). ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Chromium Picolinate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chromium Picolinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... In the US, Chromium Picolinate (chromium picolinate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is ... Chromium Picolinate. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
config/chromium. as following: # chown -R yourusername:yourusergroup ~/.config/chromium WebGL. Sometimes, Chromium will disable ... links with Chromium: ~/.config/mimeo.conf. /usr/bin/chromium ^http:// If all of that still does not get it working, you can try ... The easiest way to install libpdf for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-libpdf-stableAUR ... The easiest way to install pepper-flash for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-pepper-flash- ...
  • Metallic chromium is in the zero valence state and naturally occurring chromium oxide contains chromium in the positive 3 valence state, also called trivalent chromium or Cr(III). (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Merging technologies will change over Hexavalent Chromium in soil to Trivalent Chromium, effectively stopping Hexavalent Chromium from becoming dangerously airborne or becoming even more deadly by migrating into the water table. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Air emissions of chromium are predominantly of trivalent chromium, and in the form of small particles or aerosols. (kbt.co.za)
  • We need chromium in its so-called trivalent form. (pharmanord.ie)
  • Trivalent means that it is able to form three chemical bonds with other atoms (industrial chromium is hexavalent). (pharmanord.ie)
  • The term "hexavalent chromium" is a shorthand designation for chemical compounds that contain the element chromium in the positive 6 valence state [written as Cr(VI) or Cr 6+ ]. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • In 1990, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), an agency of the World Health Organization (WHO), published their findings on chromium and chromium compounds as carcinogens. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chromium (VI) compounds are produced commercially from chromite ore for a wide variety of uses. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chromium deficiency is rare in people. (rochester.edu)
  • Chromium may be useful for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Chromium deficiency may be an underlying cause of some cases of Diabetes Mellitus. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Hypoglycemia may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency and supplemental Chromium may alleviate the symptoms of Hypoglycemia. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Helps to prevent chromium deficiency. (momsvitaminfix.com)
  • 1,2) The most important industrial sources of chromium in the atmosphere are those related to ferrochrome production. (kbt.co.za)
  • It has an excellent bioavailability in the body ensuring that it is up to 10 times more absorbable than other approved sources of chromium. (pharmanord.ie)
  • The most concentrated sources of chromium are brewer's yeast and calf liver. (epnet.com)
  • Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, with the major route of exposure through inhalation of vapors or dust. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is recognized as a human carcinogen via inhalation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the past few years, Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI), a genotoxic carcinogen, has come under increased scrutiny as it is the most toxic form of chromium found in the environment, and requires regulatory monitoring as a primary drinking water contaminant in the U.S. As per regulations, it needs to be monitored in drinking water, groundwater, industrial wastewater, and solid waste extracts. (analyteguru.com)
  • Daily supplements of InterHealth's Zychrome chromium dinicocysteinate product may improve insulin management measures and outperform established chromium picolinate supplements, says a new study. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Most studies have concluded that chromium supplementation has no benefit over a healthy diet and exercise. (umm.edu)
  • Three months of supplementation with 400 micrograms of elemental chromium in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate produced 30% improvements in reduced fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance, compared with no significant improvements in the placebo or chromium picolinate. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The chromium is in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate, which is a combination of chromium, niacin and L-cysteine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Major raw materials used for production comprise chromium trioxide, orthophosphoric acid, ethanol, and ammonium dichromate. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The market value chain consists of manufacture and sourcing of raw materials such as chromium trioxide, ammonium dichromate, ethanol and orthophosphoric acid, etc. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. (rochester.edu)
  • Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. (rochester.edu)
  • Some evidence suggests that chromium supplements may help people with diabetes lower blood sugar levels. (umm.edu)
  • For many years, researchers have studied the effects of chromium supplements for type 2 diabetes. (umm.edu)
  • While some clinical studies found no benefit, other clinical studies reported that chromium supplements may reduce blood sugar levels, as well as the amount of insulin people with diabetes need. (umm.edu)
  • Chromium is popular with some body builders, and can be found in sports nutrition supplements. (umm.edu)
  • Chromium supplements can decrease insulin requirements in diabetics. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Lack of effect of chromium supplementation on mental state and body weight in people with schizophrenia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chromium is measured in micrograms (mcg). (rochester.edu)
  • For the new randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, researchers led by Dr Sushil Jain from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center recruited 74 type-2 diabetics and randomly assigned them to receive placebo, Zychrome (400 micrograms of elemental chromium) or chromium picolinate (400 micrograms of elemental chromium) daily. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Each tablet of BioActive Chromium contains 100 micrograms of elementary chromium. (pharmanord.ie)
  • Others contain chromium as chromium nicotinate, which bears a faint resemblance to the proposed GTF molecule. (epnet.com)
  • Whether or not chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can similarly prevent insulin resistance and vascular inflammation and thereby, delay or prevent the onset of diabetes in the prediabetic population is not known and will be interesting to investigate. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Results of the three month study indicated that the chromium dinicocysteinate group displayed significant reductions of about 30% in both fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • On the other hand, the chromium picolinate group did not display significant changes in insulin levels, insulin resistance, TNF-alpha and protein carbonyl levels compared to baseline values, said the researchers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • You should consider taking GO Chromium 3,340mcg if you suffer from any of the following: Carbohydrate cravings, sugar cravings, low blood sugar levels, insulin resistance. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Listed below are the adequate intake (AI) levels for chromium. (rochester.edu)
  • The National Institutes of Health says the dietary intake of chromium can't be determined. (rochester.edu)
  • A high intake of chromium in your diet doesn't cause serious side effects. (rochester.edu)
  • Scandinavian, British, and American dietary analyses show that the average chromium intake is somewhere around 30-40 µg daily. (pharmanord.ie)
  • In other applications, weapons systems components are placed in tanks containing chromic acid solutions, in which the chromium is in the hexavalent state, for either anodization or for hard chrome plating. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Jun 18, 2018· The important ore of chromium is Chromite or chrome ore, FeO Cr2 O3 The chief ore of chromium is chromite ore. (kbt.co.za)
  • Chromium is a project developed by Google that led to its Chrome browser. (malavida.com)
  • It was confirmation of what I had always said, Edge was a stinker, and I was already using Chrome which was built on top of the Chromium engine , obviously, so what on Earth could Edge possibly offer me? (toddklindt.com)
  • Below are approximate amounts of chromium in some foods. (rochester.edu)
  • Vegetables, fruits, and most refined and processed foods (except for processed meats) have low amounts of chromium. (umm.edu)
  • Amounts of chromium are based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine. (umm.edu)
  • To disclose the effects of chromium (Cr) on olfactory function, olfactory threshold tests were conducted on 27 male plating workers (Cr workers) with signs and symptoms of olfactory irritation but without nasal septum perforation or ulcer and on 34 male control subjects in Korean plating factories. (elsevier.com)
  • Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. (elsevier.com)
  • To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different concentrations of hexavalent chromium. (naturalnews.com)
  • The results showed that adding vitamin C at 10 parts per million (ppm) or EGCG at 15 ppm blocked the harmful effects of high hexavalent chromium concentrations. (naturalnews.com)
  • Jun 15, 1976· Process of extracting chromium from a chromium ore or concentrate by oxidation, which comprises suspending the chromium ore or concentrate in a bath of molten salts and introducing an oxygen-containing gas into the suspension in a sufficient amount and for a sufficient amount of time to oxidize chromium therein. (kbt.co.za)
  • Studies of using chromium to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes don't have definite results. (rochester.edu)
  • Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. (rochester.edu)
  • Low chromium levels can increase blood sugar, triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood), cholesterol levels, and increase the risk for a number of conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease. (umm.edu)
  • In one well-designed study, people with type 2 diabetes who took chromium picolinate had better HbA1c values -- used to measure long-term control of blood sugar levels -- than those who took placebo. (umm.edu)
  • One study found that women who have diabetes as a result of being pregnant improved their blood sugar control when they took chromium. (umm.edu)
  • If it works as well as this research hints that it may, then chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation could be used as an adjunct therapy for those with established diabetes. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Chromium is an essential trace metal. (rochester.edu)
  • May 22, 2017· Chromium is an essential trace mineral that can improve insulin sensitivity and enhance protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. (kbt.co.za)
  • Chromium is an essential trace element which is required for normal insulin function. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Chromium is a trace mineral and is essential to the body's production of insulin. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Also, in June 2011, The Column featured an article titled, Sensitive Testing of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water , written by Lipika Basumallick (Staff Chemist), Jeffrey S. Rohrer (Director of Applications Development), and Richard Jack (Market Development Manager). (analyteguru.com)
  • For many years it was thought that chromium was included as part of a substance called GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor). (pharmanord.ie)
  • Experiments were conducted to study the kinetics and effects of pH, temperature, irradiation, and initial hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) concentration on Cr(VI) reduction by GA. Results indicated that Cr(VI) could be reduced to chromium oxide (Cr(III)) with GA in a wide range of pH values from 2.0 to 8.5. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chromium metal is usually produced by reducing chromite with carbon in an electric-arc furnace, or reducing chromium(III) oxide with aluminium or silicon. (kbt.co.za)
  • GTF were along with chromium believed to consist of the B vitamin, niacin, and the amino acids glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. (pharmanord.ie)
  • The ATI Elements Chromium Supplement for Reef Aquariums is available in a 100 ml bottle . (marinedepot.com)
  • The effect of a chromium supplement is determined by how effectively the nutrient is absorbed in the body. (pharmanord.ie)
  • Chromium may help to prevent obesity (by improving the body's utilisation of glucose) and may stimulate weight loss in people afflicted with obesity. (kiwidrug.com)
  • The body's chromium reserve is around 4-6 mg. (pharmanord.ie)
  • Chromium is known to activate enzymes, maintain protein stability and enhance carbohydrate metabolism. (iucr.org)
  • Chromium helps to reduce carbohydrate and sugar cravings, which could be of further benefit to those looking at weight loss. (kiwidrug.com)
  • Half the people in the study took chromium picolinate and biotin, and the other half took placebo. (umm.edu)