Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Chromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Picolinic AcidsWeldingPotassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Diphenylcarbazide: Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Proteins that enhance gene expression when associated with ligand bound activated NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. The coactivators may act through an enzymatic process that affects the rate of transcription or the structure of chromatin. Alternatively nuclear receptor coactivators can function as adaptor proteins that bring nuclear receptors into close proximity with transcriptional complexes.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.MarylandDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.South CarolinaNorth CarolinaMinerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)EstersNursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).United States

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (1/1060)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/1060)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (3/1060)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

Contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to regulation of diameter in resistance vessels. (4/1060)

Endogenous carbon monoxide was proposed to subserve vasodepressor functions. If so, inhibition of heme oxygenase may be expected to promote vascular contraction. This hypothesis was examined in large and small arteries and in isolated first-order gracilis muscle arterioles of rat. The heme oxygenase inhibitors chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (0.175-102 micromol/l) decreased the diameter of pressurized (80 mmHg) gracilis muscle arterioles, whereas magnesium protoporphyrin, a weak heme oxygenase inhibitor, did not. CrMP also elicited development of isometric tension in the muscular branch of the femoral artery but not in the aorta or femoral artery. Arteriolar constrictor responses to CrMP varied in relation to the intravascular pressure, were blunted in preparations exposed to exogenous carbon monoxide (100 micromol/l), and were unaffected by an endothelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, CrMP amplified the constrictor response to increases of pressure in gracilis arterioles. Accordingly, the constrictor effect of heme oxygenase inhibitors is attributable to magnification of myogenic tone due to withdrawal of a vasodilatory mechanism mediated by endogenous carbon monoxide. The study suggests that the vascular carbon monoxide system plays a role in the regulation of basal tone in resistance vessels.  (+info)

Oxidative damage of DNA by chromium(V) complexes: relative importance of base versus sugar oxidation. (5/1060)

Chromium(V)-mediated oxidative damage of deoxy-ribonucleic acids was investigated at neutral pH in aqueous solution by utilizing bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-butanato)oxochromate(V) (I) and bis(hydroxyethyl)-amino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane)oxochromate(V) (II). Single-stranded and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus and human placenta DNA, as well as two oligomers, 5'-GATCTAGTAGGAGGACAAATAGTGTTTG-3' and 5'-GATCCAAGCAAACACTATTTGTCCTCCTACTA-3', were reacted with the chromium(V) complexes. Most products were separated and characterized by chroma-tographic and spectroscopic methods. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments reveal more damage at G sites in comparison to other bases. Three primary oxidation products, 5-methylene-2-furanone (5-MF), furfural and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, were characterized. A minor product, which appears to be thymine propenal, was also observed. The dsDNA produces more furfural than furanone. The formation of these two products resulted from hydrogen ion or hydride transfer from C1' and C5' positions of the ribose to the oxo-chromium(V) center. Since no enhancements of these products (except propenal) were observed in the presence of oxygen, mechanisms pertaining to the participation of activated oxygen species may be ruled out. The oxidation of the G base is most likely associated with an oxygen atom transfer from the oxo-metallates to the double bond between C8 and N7 of the purine ring. The formation of the propenal may be associated with an oxygen-activated species, since a marginal enhancement of this product was observed in the presence of oxygen. The formation of furfural in higher abundance over 5-MF for dsDNA was attributed to the ease of hydrogen ion (or hydride transfer) from the C5' compared to C1' position of the ribose within a Cr(V)-DNA intermediate in which the metal center is bound to the phosphate diester moiety.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs. (6/1060)

The present study addresses the hypothesis that CO produced from endogenous heme oxygenase (HO) can dilate newborn cerebral arterioles. HO-2 protein was highly expressed in large and small blood vessels, as well as parenchyma, of newborn pig cerebrum. Topically applied CO dose-dependently dilated piglet pial arterioles in vivo over the range 10(-11)-10(-9) M (maximal response). CO-induced cerebrovascular dilation was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium chloride and iberiotoxin. The HO substrate heme-L-lysinate also produced tetraethylammonium-inhibitable, dose-dependent dilation from 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-7) M (maximal). The HO inhibitor chromium mesoporphyrin blocked dilation of pial arterioles in response to heme-L-lysinate. In addition to inhibiting dilation to heme-L-lysinate, chromium mesoporphyrin also blocked pial arteriolar dilations in response to hypoxia but did not alter responses to hypercapnia or isoproterenol. We conclude that CO dilates pial arterioles via activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and that endogenous HO-2 potentially can produce sufficient CO to produce the dilation.  (+info)

Dietary protein and chromium tripicolinate in Suffolk wether lambs: effects on production characteristics, metabolic and hormonal responses, and immune status. (7/1060)

Thirty-two Suffolk wether lambs were fed for 84 d in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using two levels of dietary protein (9.0 to 12.1% CP, low protein, LP; or 12.8 to 14.4% CP, high protein, HP) and supplemental Cr (none, C; or 400 ppb Cr as chromium tripicolinate, Cr). At 14- to 21-d intervals, lambs were weighed, and jugular blood samples were collected. Mean ADG and carcass weight (P > .10) did not differ. In lambs fed HP, Cr reduced liver weight and increased kidney weight (P < .01). Lambs fed HP had elevated plasma urea N (PUN; P < .01) and albumin (P < .04). During an i.v. epinephrine challenge on d 43, plasma cortisol declined in lambs fed Cr (Cr x time, P < .03) and in lambs fed LP (CP x time, P < .001). An i.v. glucose tolerance test conducted 3 h later showed that supplemental Cr decreased glucose clearance rate in lambs fed HP (CP x Cr, P < .10) but not in lambs fed LP. On d 62, PUN was increased in lambs fed HP (P < .001) between 0 and 3 h postprandial, and there was a Cr x CP interaction (P < .04). Postprandial plasma NEFA declined with Cr vs C (Cr x time, P < .07) and with HP vs LP (CP x time, P < .10). By d 66, lambs fed Cr had an elevated (P < .03) blood platelet and fibrinogen content. Chromium increased erythrocyte count in lambs fed HP (Cr x CP, P < .08), and isolated peripheral lymphocytes had greater blastogenic response to 4 microg/mL of phytohemagglutinin (Cr x CP, P < .001). The lymphocyte response to pokeweed mitogen (.2 microg/mL) was reduced in lambs fed Cr (P < .10). In the present experiment, Cr supplementation had minimal and inconsistent effects on production and metabolic criteria of lambs.  (+info)

Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium. (8/1060)

Evidence for chromium(III) induced phosphorylation of a biomarker protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) is presented. Radiolabelled adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was reacted with BSA in the presence of various Cr(III) salts. While [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ brought about phosphorylation of BSA, several Cr(III) complexes, viz. [Cr(bpy)3]3+, [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(en)3]3+, [Cr(salen)(H2O)2]+ and [Cr(salprn)(H2O)2]+, did not phosphorylate BSA. The Cr(III) mediated the transfer of gamma- and alpha-phosphates but not the adenine and the sugar moieties of the ATP molecule to BSA. The observed stoichiometry was 0.75 mol Pi to mol BSA for the gamma-phosphate and 0.5 mol Pi to mol BSA for the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The presence of serine phosphate and threonine phosphate was detected in the hydrolysate of phosphorylated BSA by means of comparison of Rf values with authentic samples of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine after chromatographic separation and autoradiography. [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ at pH 7.4 is known to exist as the conjugate base [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ and is capable of ligand substitution involving metal-oxygen bond retention. Such anation reaction of [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ with ATP subsequently leads to the esterification of alcoholic hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine of BSA. Possible consequences of chromium(III) induced in vivo phosphorylation of proteins are discussed.  (+info)

*Chromium

... metal treated in this way readily dissolves in weak acids. Chromium, unlike such metals as iron and nickel, does not ... Chromium is the 22nd most abundant element in Earth's crust with an average concentration of 100 ppm. Chromium compounds are ... While chromium metal and Cr(III) ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is toxic and carcinogenic. ... Abandoned chromium production sites often require environmental cleanup. Chromium is remarkable for its magnetic properties: it ...

*Chromium hexacarbonyl

Chromium carbonyl, also known as chromium hexacarbonyl, is the chemical compound with the formula Cr(CO)6. At room temperature ... The arene can be liberated from the chromium with iodine or by photolysis in air. In general, substituted derivatives of Cr(CO) ... In common with many of the other homoleptic metal carbonyls (e.g. nickel carbonyl and iron carbonyl), chromium hexacarbonyl is ... ISBN 978-3-527-29390-2. Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). "Chromium hexacarbonyl". Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill ...

*Chromium pentafluoride

Chromium difluoride Chromium trifluoride Chromium tetrafluoride Perry, Dale L. (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, Second ... It is the highest known chromium fluoride, since the hypothetical chromium hexafluoride has not yet been synthesized. Chromium ... It is a red volatile solid that melts at 30 °C, which easily hydrolyses to chromium(III) and chromium(VI). It has the same ... 2004). Chromium(VI) Handbook. CRC Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780203487969. Amit Aora (2005). Text Book Of Inorganic Chemistry. ...

*Hexavalent chromium

... chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) without the aid ... Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) refers to chemical compounds that contain the element chromium in the +6 ... Hexavalent chromium can be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. In ... Hexavalent chromium can also be found in drinking water and public water systems. Inhaled hexavalent chromium is recognized as ...

*Chromium nitride

Chromium(III) nitride can be prepared by direct combination of chromium and nitrogen at 800 °C: 2 Cr + N 2 → 2 CrN It can also ... Chromium nitride is a chemical compound of chromium and nitrogen with the formula CrN. It is very hard, and is extremely ... Though rare, carlsbergite - the natural form of chromium nitride - occurs in some meteorites. Chromium(III) nitride at ... it is not strictly a chromium(III) compound nor does it contain nitride ions (N3−). Chromium forms a second interstitial ...

*Chromium trioxide

... is a powerful oxidiser and a suspected carcinogen. Chromium trioxide is generated by treating sodium chromate ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic. It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an environmental ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ... Crystallization of chromium trioxide from the reaction. Reaction between chromium trioxide and ethanol Lide, David R., ed. ( ...

*Chromium hydride

Titanium in chromium hydride make the β-chromium form of the chromium-hydrogen solution more stable.[citation needed] Bradley, ... Face centred cubic chromium hydride also forms temporarily when chromium metal is etched with hydrochloric acid. The hexagonal ... Electroplating chromium metal from a chromate solution involves the formation of chromium hydride. If the temperature is high ... Chromium hydrides are compounds of chromium and hydrogen, and possibly other elements. Intermetallic compounds with not-quite- ...

*Chromium nitrate

... can be prepared by dissolving chromium oxide in nitric acid. "Chromium(III) compounds [as Cr(III)]". ... Chromium(III) nitrate Cr(NO3)3 describes several inorganic compounds consisting of chromium, nitrate and varying amounts of ... The chromium centers are bound to six water ligands, and the remaining volume of the solid is occupied by three nitrate anions ... Chromium(III) nitrate compounds are of a limited importance commercially, finding some applications in the dyeing industry. It ...

*Chromium hexafluoride

... or chromium(VI) fluoride (CrF6) is a hypothetical chemical compound with the chemical formula CrF6. It ... CrF6 used to be thought to be produced by exhaustive fluorination of chromium metal at 400 °C and 20 million pascals of ... 1991). "Is chromium hexafluoride octahedral? Experiment still suggests "yes!"". Inorganic Chemistry. 30 (26): 4873. doi:10.1021 ... it has been shown that chromium pentafluoride (CrF5) is formed instead: 2 Cr + 5 F2 → 2 CrF5 and that CrF6 has yet to be ...

*Chromium trifluoride

Chromium(III) fluoride is produced from the reaction of chromium(III) oxide and hydrofluoric acid: Cr2O3 + 6 HF + 9 H2O → 2 [Cr ... Chromium(III) fluoride finds some applications as a mordant in textiles and as a corrosion inhibitor. Chromium(III) fluoride ... B.J. Phase Equilibria in the System Chromium(II)Fluoride-Chromium(III) Fluoride. Inorg. Chem., 1962, 1 (3), pp 665-672 ... Chromium(III) fluoride is the name for the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CrF3 as well as several related ...

*Chromium deficiency

... is a proposed disorder that results from an insufficient dietary intake of chromium. Chromium was first ... Chromium. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, ... The EFSA does not consider chromium to be an essential nutrient, and so has not set PRIs, AIs or ULs. Chromium is the only ... Chromium toxicity SCHWARZ, K; MERTZ, W (November 1959). "Chromium(III) and the glucose tolerance factor". Archives of ...

*Chromium carbide

... and Cr23C6 forms of chromium carbide. Another method for the synthesis of chromium carbide utilizes chromium oxide, pure ... Chromium carbide is useful in the surface treatment of metal components. Chromium carbide is used to coat the surface of ... Synthesis of chromium carbide can be achieved through mechanical alloying. In this type of process metallic chromium and pure ... Yet another chromium-rich carbide mineral is yarlongite, Cr4Fe4NiC4. There are three different crystal structures for chromium ...

*Chromium OS

... www.chromium.org/chromium-os/licenses "Kernel Design". The Chromium Projects. "Software Architecture - The Chromium Projects". ... Chromium OS is the open-source development version of Chrome OS, one of Google's operating systems (OS). Chromium OS is based ... In July 2012, Chromium Build Kit was released. It automatically compiles a developer build and installs Chromium OS on a USB ... As a result, Chromium OS primarily supports web applications. Chromium's architecture is three-tiered, consisting of "three ...

*Chromium fluoride

... may refer to: Chromium(II) fluoride Chromium(III) fluoride Chromium(IV) fluoride Chromium(V) fluoride ...

*Chromium chloride

... may refer to: Chromium(II) chloride, also known as chromous chloride Chromium(III) chloride, also known as ... chromic chloride or chromium trichloride Chromium(IV) chloride. ...

*Chromium oxide

... may refer to: Chromium(II) oxide, CrO Chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3 Chromium dioxide (chromium(IV) oxide), CrO2, ... which includes the hypothetical compound chromium(III) chromate Chromium trioxide (chromium(VI) oxide), CrO3 Chromium(VI) oxide ...

*Chromium(III) hydroxide

"Chromium(III) hydrolysis constants and solubility of chromium(III) hydroxide" Inorganic Chemistry 1987, volume 26, pp. 345-9. ... Chromium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Cr(OH)3. It is polymer with an undefined structure ... It is manufactured by adding a solution of ammonium hydroxide to a solution of chromium salt. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical ... doi:10.1021/ic00250a002 Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985). "Chromium". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie ( ...

*Chromium(I) hydride

Chromium hydride can also be formed by reacting chromium with methane in an electric arc. This also produces a variety of ... Chromium(I) hydride, systematically named chromium hydride, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (CrH) n (also ... When produced in the reaction with chromium vapour in an electric discharge, the chromium hydride gas glows with a bright ... or chromium(II) hydride with dihydrogen gas, with optional inert gas. Chromium trihydride excimer is formed when CrH2(H2) is ...

*Chromium(II) acetate

... and the other chromium atom (opposite the water molecule), giving each chromium centre an octahedral geometry. The chromium ... Ocone, L.R.; Block, B.P. (1966). "Anhydrous Chromium(II) Acetate, Chromium(II) Acetate 1-Hydrate, and Bis(2,4-Pentanedionato) ... The anhydrous form of chromium(II) acetate, and also related chromium(II) carboxylates, can be prepared from chromocene: 4 ... Chromium(II) acetate hydrate, also known as chromous acetate, is the coordination compound with the formula Cr2(CH3CO2)4(H2O)2 ...

*Bis(benzene)chromium

The compound reacts with carboxylic acids to give chromium(II) carboxylates, such as chromium(II) acetate, which have ... Bis(benzene)chromium is the organometallic compound with the formula Cr(η6-C6H6)2. It is sometimes called dibenzenechromium. ... Seyferth, D. (2002). "Bis(benzene)chromium. 2. Its Discovery by E. O. Fischer and W. Hafner and Subsequent Work by the Research ... doi:10.1002/0470862106.ia137 Seyferth, D. (2002). "Bis(benzene)chromium. 1. Franz Hein at the University of Leipzig and Harold ...

*Chromium(II) chloride

... has no commercial uses but is used on a laboratory-scale for the synthesis of other chromium complexes. ... Chromium(II) chloride is used as precursor to other inorganic and organometallic chromium complexes. Alkyl halides and ... Chromium(II) chloride describes inorganic compounds with the formula CrCl2(H2O)n. The anhydrous solid is white when pure, ... CrCl2 is produced by reducing chromium(III) chloride either with hydrogen at 500 °C: 2 CrCl3 + H2 → 2 CrCl2 + 2 HCl or by ...

*Chromium (computer graphics)

Chromium can be used to make polygons an application renders transparent. Via stream manipulation, Chromium can make non- ... Chromium is an OpenGL implementation. Unlike other OpenGL implementations, Chromium does not render the OpenGL command stream ... Chromium supports a client/server architecture. The last SPU in a node can choose to either pass it to another local OpenGL ... Chromium can be used to provide OpenGL for Xdmx displays. Moving an OpenGL stream from one machine to another. For example, an ...

*Chromium(IV) oxide

Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2. It is a black synthetic magnetic solid. ... Acicular chromium dioxide was first synthesized in 1956 by Norman L. Cox, a chemist at E.I. DuPont, by decomposing chromium ... With the increasing popularity of CDs and DVDs, the use of chromium(IV) oxide has declined. However, it is still used in data ... BASF eventually became the largest producer of both the chromium dioxide pigment and chrome tapes, basing its VHS & S-VHS video ...

*Chromium-vanadium steel

Chromium and vanadium both make the steel more hardenable. Chromium also helps resist abrasion, oxidation, and corrosion. ... Chromium-vanadium steel (symbol Cr-V or CrV; 6000-series SAE steel grades) is a group of steel alloys incorporating carbon, ... Chromium and carbon can both improve elasticity. Efunda (Retrieved September 30, 2012): "AISI 6118 H". "AISI 6118". "AISI 6150 ... manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, chromium, and vanadium. Some forms can be used as high-speed steel. ...

*Chromium(III) picolinate

Chromium has been identified to regulate insulin by increasing the sensitivity of the insulin receptor. As such, chromium(III) ... Review of Chromium Archived February 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals Review of Chromium ... Chromium(III) picolinate has been described as a "poor [...] nutritional supplement". A study in 1989 suggested that chromium( ... Furthermore, both chromium histidine and chromium nanoparticles are proven to demonstrate a decrease in blood glucose levels in ...
Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Objective: The paper describes the results of a polycentric study for the assessment of reference values of urinary chromium (U-Cr) in the Italian population. Method: A total of 890 subjects (58.3% males and 41.7% females) were selected on the basis of standardized criteria in eight different areas of Italy. Urinary chromium was determined on morning spot samples collected using standardized procedures. The U-Cr was determined independently by three laboratories using an Electrothermic atomization-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETA-AAS) method with a detection limit of 0.05 mu g/l, adopting - for the statistical analysis - the median value of the results of the three laboratories. The between-laboratories within-subjects standard deviation was 0.049 mu g/l. Due to the high proportion (approx. 28%) of undetectable chromium levels, the geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were estimated using a procedure of linear interpolation. The analysis of the effects of some variables ...
Chromium toxicity refers to the fact that chromium is toxic. Water-insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was the basis of the true story of Erin Brockovich, dramatised as Erin Brockovich (film). Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and its use in dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for ...
Background: Chromium is a micronutrient, considered to be essential for birnak carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect if chromium on the glycemic status and lipid profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To study the effect of chromium supplementation on glycemic status and serum lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Sixty type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to two groups. A double blind technique was used and the patients received either 250æg of chromium picolinate or placebo for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured at baseline and 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum insulin concentration was also measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: The fasting blood glucose, glycated ...
SUAREZ, O.J; OLAYA, J. J; SUAREZ, M.F y RODIL, S.E. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DECORATIVE CHROMIUM FILMS OBTAINED FROM TRIVALENT CHROMIUM SOLUTIONS. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.977-982. ISSN 0717-9707. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000100005.. In this work, the resistance to corrosion of chromium films obtained from trivalent chromium solutions of different compositions and the influence of solution compounds on the coatings electrochemical behavior and the microstructure were studied. The chromium coatings were obtained from trivalent solutions in a chloride-based bath with different complexing agents adding also sodium hypophosphite and aluminum chloride. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out on all solutions before and after plating to observe changes in the chromium complexes chemical state due to the plating process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were performed to examine the coatings surface morphology and composition; ...
Abdollahi M, Farshchi A, Nikfar S, Seyedifar M. Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(1):99-114.. Anderson R. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(9):266-270.. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46(11):1786-1791.. Anderson RA, Roussell AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto magnetic natural zeolite-polymer composite. AU - Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.. AU - Onyango, Maurice S.. AU - Ochieng, Aoyi. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent was analyzed with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of magnetic zeolite loading within the composite, initial pH, sorbent dosage, temperature and Cr(VI) concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Up to 99.99% removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was 2 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 300 mg/L. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the ...
WHAT DOES CHROMIUM DO FOR US?. What scientist have established is that chromium is involved in glucose metabolism. They are not sure how but they know it does. Insulin appears to be more effective when chromium levels are optimal. Because of its affect on insulin chromium also has an indirect role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism all of which insulin influences.. When chromium is ingested at the same time as vitamin C more chromium enters our blood stream.. Contrary to what the diet and exercise gurus might tell you chromium lll does not promote weight loss nor does it increase lean body mass or decrease body fat. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DONT GET ENOUGH CHROMIUM?. Chromium deficiency is the disorder that too little chromium in the diet produces. This deficiency was first observed in some extreme cases. These cases were hospitalized patients who were being fed intravenously. They developed problems with the way glucose was being managed in their bodies and they started to produce ...
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of chromium(III) as a nutrient added to foods for particular nutritional uses (PARNUTS) and foods intended for the general population (including food supplements). The Panel concluded that following oral administration, trivalent chromium is poorly absorbed. The results of in vitro bacterial mutagenicity assays have been consistently negative. The results of other genotoxicity studies are conflicting. The Panel also evaluated new in vitro and in vivo studies on the genotoxicity of chromium(III) compounds which were not covered by previous evaluations. The Panel concluded that in very large amounts, certain trivalent chromium compounds are cytotoxic and have been shown to cause chromosomal damage. The Panel also evaluated the data on long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity for chromium(III). Based on the facts i) that maximum intake levels of up to 250 µg/day for supplemental ...
Natural News) Antioxidants such as vitamin C are often taken to boost immunity and prevent diseases, but these substances can also be used against a water contaminant called hexavalent chromium. This chemical contaminates the water supply in about 200 million American homes.. Researchers from Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois discovered that vitamin C and other antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary antioxidant in green tea, can reduce the harmful effects of hexavalent chromium. This chemical is often produced by industrial processes, so it usually enters the water supply through industrial waste. Additionally, it is known to cause cancer. (Related: Hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) was just found in 75% of drinking water… the mass chemical suicide of America is under way.). In this study, the researchers aimed to determine whether antioxidants can help avoid cell toxicity. To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different ...
Many of the metallic implants used in orthopaedics are made of stainless steel or cobalt-chromium alloys which contain 18-30% chromium. Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) has been shown to be the predominant form of chromium released following in vivo and in vitro corrosion of these metal implants (Merritt and Brown, 1995 K. Merritt and S.A. Brown, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995), pp. 627-633. Full Text via CrossRef , View Record in Scopus , Cited By in Scopus (67)Merritt and Brown, 1995). Blood chromium levels may be elevated between 50 and 250 times in patients with metal hip implants (Lhotka et al., 2003). At physiological pH, Cr (VI) exists predominantly as the chromate anion and as such can enter cells via non-specific anion channels. The anionic Cr (VI) diffuses readily through the red blood cell (RBC) membrane and is bound by the haemoglobin probably after its rapid reduction to the cationic trivalent state within the RBC (Gray and Sterling, 1950). The aims of this study were to investigate the ...
Chromium exists in the environment in two most stable oxidation states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), which are likely to be interconvertible in natural waters and in soils (Schroeder & Lee 1975; Handerson 1994). However, these two forms of chromium are mainly different in their physicochemical and toxicological properties. Cr3+ is soluble in acidic solutions and it precipitates as the hydroxide in alkaline solutions (Rai et al. 1987). Chromium (III) is less toxic, but in higher concentrations it is likely to produce genotoxic DNA effects in the cell nucleus (ATSDR 2012). Cr (VI) mainly exists in water as chromic acid (H2CrO4), hydrogen chromate (HCrO4−), chromate (CrO42−) and dichromate (Cr2O72−) depending on the pH and total chromium concentration (Palmer & Puls 1994). The distribution of Cr (VI) species as the function of the pH, are H2CrO4 below a pH of about 1, CrO42− above a pH of about 6, and HCrO4− at pHs between 1 and 6, when the concentrations of Cr (VI) are relatively low. The ...
Genotoxicity in vitro Bacterial mutation The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) bacterial reverse mutation assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. In addition, an NTP Ames test (non-standard protocol) performed with sodium dichromate dihydrate was positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant Ames tests are available, further testing is not required based on the weight of evidence from the large number of existing studies. Chromosomal aberration The results of a large number of (mainly non-standard) cytogenicity / clastogenicity / chromosomal aberration assays performed with water-soluble hexavalent chromium compounds have been reviewed by the UK HSE (1989), UK IOH (1997) and in the EU RAR. Findings in these studies are largely positive. Although no guideline and GLP-compliant studies are available, further testing is not required ...
Significant exposure to hexavalent chromium, a metal with broad toxicity potential in humans, has been reported. In order to understand the mechanisms of dermal toxicity induced by hexavalent chromium, global gene expression profiling of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to potassium dichromate was performed. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the fibroblasts treated with potassi
Chromium toxicity is very low. According to some studies, a 150-lb. person could take approximately 175,000 doses of 200-mcg chromium tablets and show no signs of toxicity. ** However, since chromium might be deposited in the liver and kidneys and because extra high doses are generally unnecessary, there is no reason for the average person to take above the regular dosages found in chromium supplements. **. Caution: If you are diabetic, take chromium supplements only with a doctors supervision. Chromium may alter insulin requirements.. ** Source: Some of the above information was taken from the book "Stop Aging Now!" written by Jean Carper. Several authorities and articles on the benefits of chromium and health, provided additional information.. ...
Increased serotonin levels are known to improve mood and decrease carbohydrate cravings.. Additional research on chromium was presented by scientists from the U.S.D.A. and from the Medical College of Georgia. The U.S.D.A. study in animals found that chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate reduced the expression of the gene in the brain that produces TAU proteins. The TAU protein is involved in the development of Alzheimers disease. Research by MCG demonstrated that high doses of chromium picolinate are safe and does not cause kidney dysfunction in animal models of obesity and of diabetes.. "These results provide a mechanism by which chromium histidinate and chromium picolinate improves mood and reduces carbohydrate cravings," stated James Komorowski, Nutrition 21 VP technical services and scientific affairs. "The research by the U.S.D.A. provides evidence to support additional research in new chromium applications that address significant quality of life issues in our society. The research ...
Chromium can exist in air, water, soil, and food, and common exposure pathways include ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Chromium is commonly found in two forms: trivalent chromium (chromium III) and hexavalent chromium (chromium VI). Chromium III is the most stable form of the element, and occurs naturally in animals, plants, rocks, and soils. Chromium VI rarely occurs in nature, and is usually the product of anthropogenic activities.. The health effects of chromium depend on the route of exposure and the form of the chromium. For example, inhaling chromium can cause damage to the respiratory system, whereas dermal or oral exposures generally do not. Gastrointestinal effects are generally associated with oral exposure, but not with dermal exposure. In addition, chromium VI typically causes greater health risks than chromium III. The reasons for the increased danger of chromium VI versus chromium III are complex, and relate in part to the varied paths of cellular uptake between the two ...
A high intake of chromium in your diet doesnt cause serious side effects. But you should check with a healthcare provider before taking it. This is vital if youre pregnant or breastfeeding. If you have diabetes, chromium supplements could change how much medicine you need. They may also lower your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels closely if you start taking them. Chromium supplements may interact with other medicines. Zinc may decrease how well you absorb chromium. Chromium may cause you to need less of your diabetes medicines. These may reduce chromium levels:. ...
Chromium Other name(s): trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate General description Chromium is an essential trace metal. It helps to control your blood sugar. It also helps insulin work well. You also need it to metabolize and store carbohydrates, fat, and protein. You need normal amounts of chromium in your diet to break down carbohydrates. Medically valid uses Chromium deficiency is rare in humans. Studies of chromium supplements to treat blood sugar and type 2 diabetes in humans arent conclusive. R...
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
1. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 2. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633. 3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitis with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med. 1999;16:164-167. 4. Seaborn CD, Stoecker BJ. Effects of antacid or ascorbic acid on tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of 51-chromium. Nutr Res. 1990;10:1401-1407. 5. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791. 6. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1999;12:91-97. 7. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899. 8. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et ...
Chromium is a commonly used (or at least recommended) supplement in PCOS. What is it, why is it recommended, and should you be taking it?. Chromium is a metal, just like iron and copper. Its not really needed in large amounts to do its job, which in the body, is to help metabolize sugar and fats.. Some researchers have suggested that chromium supplementation in PCOS can help insulin function. There are two articles in the National Library of Medicine database looking specifically at the use of chromium supplementation in PCOS. One study, using a dose of 200 mcg per day, resulted in improved glucose tolerance but not fertility. The second study bumped the dose up to 1000 micrograms per day, resulting in a 38% better ability to remove glucose from the blood.. BEFORE YOU RUSH OUT AND BUY A YEARS SUPPLY…. There are more than a few articles in the very same database connecting chromium picolinate to DNA damage. The earliest one, for someone writing so much about infertility, really caught my eye, ...
The objective of this research was to validate the use of sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate in reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from electroplating, and industrial wastewaters. Jars tests, and dynamic tests, were conducted using distilled water, electroplating rinse waters, and industrial wastewaters from Tinker AFB Industrial Waste Treatment Plant. Optimum process parameters were evaluated as well as analysis of the effects of typical contaminants and complexing agents, along with the effects of the process on downstream treatment. The information obtained verified that the sulfide treatment process will meet discharge permit requirements while reducing chemical and disposal costs. The results were the basis for continuing to Phase II, Pilot-Scale Study On Actual Industrial Wastewaters. Keywords: Metals treatment, Chromium reduction, Sulfide treatment, Heavy metals removal, Ferrous sulfide, Industrial wastewater, Treatment, Sludge reduction, Electroplating. (jes)*WASTE TREATMENT
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Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
SUN COVERAGE: CHROMIUM Harbor Point project stirs environmental concerns Dundalk port cleanup plan set ARCHIVES: Chromium, cancer link established Developing the Harbor Point site between Fells Point and Harbor East will require temporary openings in a cap holding in toxic hexavalent chromium compounds...
The effects of chromium methionine supplementation on performance and serummetaboliteswere evaluated in broiler chickens.Two experiments were conducted at22 oC, thermoneutral, (TN) and33±2 oC, heat stressed (HS) conditions. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments with 0 (control), 200, 400 or 800 ppb of chromium methionine for 42-d experimental period carried out. Serum metabolitesand performance were determined. Supplementing the diet of TN and HS conditions broilerswith chromium methionine improved feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) (P|0.05), but Feed conversion ration (FCR) of broilers was not affected by different levels of supplemental chromium.Chromium methionine increased serum HDL contents, but decreased glucose, (GLU), cholesterol (CHL),triacylglycerol (TG) and LDL concentrations (P|0.05) in both TN and HS temperature. The results of these experiments indicated that supplementation of
The occurrence of pseudotumours following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) has been associated with high serum metal ion levels and consequently higher than normal bearing wear. Measuring ground reaction force is a simple method of collecting information on joint loading during a sit-to-stand (STS). We investigated vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) asymmetry during sit-to-stand for 12 MoMHRA patients with known serum metal ion levels. Asymmetry was assessed using two methods: a ratio of VGRF for implanted/unimplanted side and an absolute symmetry index (ASI). It was found that subjects with high serum metal ion levels preferentially loaded their implanted sides. The difference between the two groups was most apparent during the first 22% of STS. VGRF ratio showed significant and strong correlation with serum metal ion levels (Spearmans rho = 0.8, p = 0.003). These results suggest that individual activity patterns play a role in the wear of MoMHRA and preferential loading of an
Chromium (picolinate) Supports lipid and glucose metabolism Chromium is important for fat metabolism, enzyme activation, and glucose support. It promotes healthy lipid and carbohydrate utilization. Chromium picolinate is a highly utilizable form of chromium, promoting healthy glucose and lipid metabolism. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: chromium (picolinate) 500 mcg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 1-2 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
Since neither of the above-mentioned extraction methods was conducted in ultra-basic aqueous environments, it could be expected that not all Cr(VI) containing salts would quantitatively be extracted. Therefore, Cr(VI) values reported in this paper should not be considered to represent the total Cr(VI) quantitatively. However, absolute total Cr(VI) concentrations were not considered as a pre-requisite for this work, since the main aim was to determine Cr(VI) generation trends.. Cr(VI) determination. The Cr(VI) content of the extracted solutions was determined with a Pharmacia Biotech Ultrospec 3 000 uv/visible spectrophotometer. Analysis was conducted in a 100 mm optical cell at a wavelength of 540 nm. Prior to analysis, s-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) in a phosphate medium was added, as recommended by Bartlett (1991). The uv/visible DPC method has some weaknesses. This includes the fact that it is usually utilised in conjunction with acidic extraction of Cr(VI) that does not extract partially ...
Significant industrial waste is haphazardly dumped into the Meycauayan River, a source of domestic and agricultural water for 250,000 people living in and around Manila. Substantial contamination comes from small scale lead recycling facilities along the river at Marilao, and from the many tanneries that dump untreated hexavalent chromium into the river. This river also feeds directly into the Manila Bay, and its effluents contaminate shellfish in commercial fishing areas.
Introduction: Over 1 million metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements were performed between 2003 and 2010. These prostheses were intended to be more durable than previous models, but have been associated with a higher failure rate. There have also been isolated cases of fulminant cardiomyopathy in patients with very high serum cobalt levels. We screened a cohort of asymptomatic patients with these prostheses for subclinical cardiac abnormalities. Methods: All patients with MOM hip replacements at our centre undergo regular follow-up in the orthopaedic clinic with serum cobalt and chromium levels, and periodic magnetic resonance scanning of the affected joint. We recruited consecutive asymptomatic patients to receive echocardiography and recorded demographic data including age, height, weight, serum cobalt and chromium levels, and date of prosthesis implantation. Echocardiographers were blinded to medical history and laboratory results. The cohort was split into quartiles of serum cobalt. ANOVA, ...
Three months of supplementation with 400 micrograms of elemental chromium in the form of chromium dinicocysteinate produced 30% improvements in reduced fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance, compared with no significant improvements in the placebo or chromium picolinate.. "Results of this study indicate that the presence of the cysteinate molecule in chromium dinicocysteinate helps provide better protection against the oxidative stress and the activation of signal transduction pathways associated with the insulin resistance and vascular inflammation of type 2 diabetes,"​ wrote researchers in the peer-review journal Molecular Nutrition & Food Research​.​. "Whether or not chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can similarly prevent insulin resistance and vascular inflammation and thereby, delay or prevent the onset of diabetes in the prediabetic population is not known and will be interesting to investigate. ​. "If it works as well as this research hints that it may, then ...
Almost anyone is capable of increasing the level of physical activity. While walking is one of the best forms of activity for improving insulin resistance, any activity that creates muscular activity is beneficial. Losing weight, however is not so simple.. Since Insulins primary function is to convert sugar to fat, high levels of insulin promote weight gain. As body weight rises, insulin resistance increases. In response the body produces more insulin, which converts more sugar to fat, and the vicious cycle continues.. Chromium Plus was for formulated to address the causes of insulin resistance in a comprehensive manner. Chromium Polynicotinate is the key ingredient. Chromium is an insulin co-factor, and chromium deficiencies, which are widespread in our society, are indistinguishable from what is called type 2 diabetes. The polynicotinate form is the most bioavailable, meaning that it is the form that is best absorbed and utilized by the body.. Chromium alone will reverse some, but not all ...
Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. The most common forms are chromium(0), trivalent (or chromium(III)), and hexavalent (or chromium(VI)).
A series of investigations was undertaken to determine the acceptability of certain industrial wastes containing hexavalent chromium by a biodisc system providing both secondary treatment and biological nitrification. The initial objectives of the study were: to determine the extent to which a biodisc system can tolerate chromium (VI) without losing efficiency in either BOD removal or in nitrification; to establish mechanisms of chromium removal and the benefits of staging, and to understand differences in short and long-term effects and steady state or shock load conditions. These objectives were established to serve a number of purposes. The data gathered will assist municipalities in determining the quantity and characteristics of chromium containing waste that may be accepted without causing interference in operation. The data gathered will also assist design engineers in understanding and better defining the process reliability between an activated sludge and a biodisc system and finally the
The need for a sheep breed suitable for the production of slaughter lambs under the adverse conditions of South Africa resulted in the establishment of the Dorper breed in the early 1940s
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 1 microgram per cubic meter (1 g/m3) in its proposed rule for hexavalent chromium, which is significantly lower than the agencys current general industry and construction standards (see sidebar). OSHA acted to comply with a ruling of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third
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The present in vivo pot culture study showed hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) induced phytotoxic impacts and its translocation potential i. 21 days old sesban ( Sesbania sesban L. Merrill.) seedlings. Cr+6...
The responses of dairy cattle to chromium (Cr) supplementation reported in the literature suggest that it has the potential to reduce the incidence of both mastitis and ketosis. The effect of Cr supplementation of pasture fed dairy cows in early lactation was studied. Ten lactating Jersey cows fitted with rumen fistula were infused with either Cr-yeast (n=4), casein (n=3) or buffer only (controls; n=3) directly into the abomasum. All cows were subjected to a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Preliminary results show that there was no effect of Cr supplementation on milk yield, cortisol and b-hydroxy butyrate concentrations and somatic cell counts ...
Ingredients: Chromium (as Chromium Picolinate), Cellulose, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, Chromium (as Chromium Picolinate), Cellulose, stearic acid and magnesium stearate Directions: As a dietary supplement, take 1 Tablite daily with a meal or a glass of water.
Kinetics of Cr(III) ions transport through a bulk liquid membrane containing dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (DNNSA) as a carrier, flowing over aqueous phases, has been examined. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the membranes velocity flow on the chromium concentration decrease in a feed phase. For the description of relationships of chromium(III) concentration in particular phases with the time, a model based on the assumption of consecutive first-order reactions was proposed. Satisfactory compatibility of experiments and model results have been obtained both for the membrane flow velocities below 0.0034 m·s-1 when the interfaces begin to fluctuate slightly and for low initial Cr(III) concentration in the feed phase.
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Synonyms for chromium poisoning in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for chromium poisoning. 2 synonyms for poisoning: intoxication, toxic condition. What are synonyms for chromium poisoning?
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Chromium appears to be the most useful mineral in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Chromium and niacin are components of glucose tolerance factor, a molecule that improves insulins ability to lower blood sugar levels. Animal studies have shown that chromium deficient diets result in high blood sugar levels. Chromium deficient diets are extremely common: One survey estimated that over 90% of Americans consume less than the so-called "minimum daily intake." Although the best food sources of chromium are mushrooms, brewers yeast, and eggs, chromium supplementation is advisable when a glucose-insulin tolerance test is abnormal. In my experience, the common commercially available 200 microgram quantity is inadequate for either prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes.. Researchers have shown that 200 micrograms of chromium daily is ineffective in lowering blood sugar in actual type 2 diabetes. But when levels are raised to 1,000 micrograms daily, blood sugar, serum insulin, and cholesterol ...
Background: Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats an average of 17.0 months before serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations increased above the reference interval. Objectives: To report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in dogs for detection of CKD before diagnosis by measurement of serum Cr. Animals: CKD dogs (n = 19) included those persistently azotemic for ?3 months (n = 5), dogs that were azotemic at the time of death (n = 4), and nonazotemic dogs (n = 10). CKD dogs were compared with healthy control dogs (n = 20). Methods: Retrospective study, whereby serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry and serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in dogs with necropsy confirmed CKD. Results: Serum SDMA increased before serum Cr in 17 of 19 dogs (mean, 9.8 months; range, 2.2-27.0 months). Duration of elevations in serum SDMA concentrations before the dog ...
Storage conditions-In total blood, Cr is stable up to 24-36 hours at room temperature and up to 4 days at 4°C. In plasma and serum, Cr is stable at 20°C for 3 days. In frozen plasma or serum, the stability is excellent: after 8 months at -20°C, the decrease in Cr concentration is only 6.5 µmol/L (5).. 3. Choose the enzymatic assay methods in preference. Two assay methods are currently used. Jaffés method is the less expensive but not specific and many interfering substances leading have been reported to cause overestimation of Cr concentration. Cephalosporins may increase Pl-Cr up to 50% with Jaffés method. The enzymatic method is more specific, although an interference by bilirubin can decrease the Pl-Cr value obtained (this occurs also with Jaffés method). Hemolysis seems not to interfere with Cr assay. Another important point is between-day assay variation, which may induce misinterpretation of Pl-Cr value. Good quality control is therefore mandatory to detect such variations. When ...
Chromium has been established to be an essential trace element in mammals in regard to maintenance of normal carbohydrate metabolism. Studies that provided chromium to human subjects in documented def
Many chromates are used to impart corrosion resistance in what are called coating "stack-ups." As an example, most aircraft fuselages are manufactured from aluminum alloys, which are susceptible to corrosion. The coating stack-up might consist of a thin chromate conversion coating that imparts some corrosion resistance and enhances the adhesion of the subsequent coatings, followed by a primer that contains a chromate compound and a polyurethane topcoat.. Most potential exposures and releases associated with chromates occur during coatings removal processes, like bead blasting, sanding/grinding, and stripping of metal finishes and/or coatings. Additional exposures can occur during the application of surface treatments and coatings where vapors are emitted that contain Cr(VI).. In other applications, weapons systems components are placed in tanks containing chromic acid solutions, in which the chromium is in the hexavalent state, for either anodization or for hard chrome plating. These ...
Chromium: breathing high levels of chromium (VI) can cause irritation to the nose, such as runny nose, nosebleeds and ulcers and holes in the nasal septum. Ingesting large amounts of chromium(VI) can cause stomach upsets and ulcers, convulsion, kidney and liver damage even death. Skin contact with certain chromium(IV) can cause skin ulcers. Some people are extremely sensitive to chromium(VI) or chromium(III). Allergic reactions consisting of severe redness and swelling of the skin have been noted. Several studies have shown that chromium(VI) compounds increase the risk of lung cancer. The World Health Organization has determined that chromium(VI) is a human carcinogen. The EPA has determined that chromium(VI) in air is a human carcinogen ...
Using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) under different alkaline conditions, we studied the mechanisms and extents of Cr(VI) reduction and sorption and compared them to reactions with Portland cement (PC). We also investigated the effects of mixing PC/GGBS ratios on Cr(VI) dissolution after carbonating the substrates. We observed a complete sorption and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a GGBS-in-Ca(OH)2 solution (pH > ~12.5) after 10 h, whereas in distilled water (pH = ~11.5) GGBS exhibited only marginal sorption and reduction (20%). Cr reactions with dissolved ions in supernatants derived from GGBS indicated that the anions dissolved from GGBS act as a reducing agent for Cr(VI) in a Ca(OH)2 solution. Soft X-ray absorption microscopy identified a partial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) on the GGBS surface. The carbonation of pure PC paste substantially increased the amount of dissolved Cr(VI) in a solution phase whereas a 5 wt % replacement of PC with GGBS significantly reduced the amount
From 1963-1995, a factory in Willits, Mendocino County, CA used toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) without adequate measures to protect the population. We use longitudinal hospital data to compare reproductive outcomes for two generations in Willits and two generations in the Rest of County (ROC). This is the first study to quantify the reproductive impact of Cr(VI) in a non-occupational population. We searched California hospital discharge data (1983-2014) to find Mendocino County residents born 1950 or later. ZIP-code 95490 identifies Willits residents, with all others living in ROC. We used the Multi-Level Clinical Classification Software (CCS) to classify health outcomes. While the Plant was open, respiratory conditions, perinatal jaundice, and birth defect rates were higher for Willits infants compared to ROC, but improved post-closure. Risk for abnormal birth weight and term was high and remained high over the study period. Willits women had significantly higher risk of pregnancy loss ...
These catalyst systems are especially useful for the oligomerization of olefins, such as, for example, ethylene to 1-hexene. As used in this disclosure, the term "oligomerization" broadly encompasses the combination of two olefins (dimerization) to form an olefinic product, combination of three olefins (trimerization) to form an olefinic product and combination of more than three olefins to form an olefinic product, but does not include polymerization of olefins. An ohgomer can be defined as a compound made up of repeating units, whose properties can change with the addition or removal of one or a few repeating units. The properties of a polymer do not change markedly with such a modification The chromium source can be one or more organic or inorganic chromium compounds, wherein the chromium oxidation state is from 0 to 6. If the chromium oxidation state is 0, metallic chromium can be the chromium source. Generally, the chromium source can have a formula of CrXn, wherein X can be the same or ...
Serum metal ion levels increase after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) regardless of bearing surface. We conducted a study to determine the effect of a second joint arthroplasty on existing serum metal ion levels at long-term followup. Twelve patients underwent primary THA and then either another THA (8 patients) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (4 patients). The secondary procedures were performed a mean of 102.7 months (range, 36-144 months) after the index surgeries. The secondary THA group had significantly elevated levels of cobalt ion at 36 and 48 months, chromium ion at 12 and 24 months, and titanium ion at 48 and 72 months. The TKA group had no significant differences in cobalt, chromium, or titanium ion levels up to 72 months after surgery. Overall, when metal-polyethylene THA was performed after primary THA, there was a trend toward elevated serum metal ion levels at all follow-up intervals. This trend should be investigated with larger clinical trials ...
No single CAS number applies to this NPRI listing.. (1) CAS Registry Number denotes the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number, as appropriate.. (2) "and its salts" - the CAS number corresponds to the weak acid or base. However, the substance includes the salts of these weak acids and bases. When calculating the weight of these substances and their salts, use the molecular weight of the acid or base, not the total weight of the salt.. (3) "fume or dust". (4) "fibrous forms". (5) "Ammonia (total)" means the total of both of ammonia (NH3 - CAS No. 7664-41-7) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) in solution.. (6) "an d its compounds" (7) "friable form" (8) "and its compounds" except hexavalent chromium compounds (9) "all isomers" including the individual isomers of cresol: m-cresol (CAS No. 108-39-4), o-cresol (CAS No. 95-48-7) and p-cresol (CAS No. 106-44-5). (10) "ionic". (11) "mixed isomers". (12) "all isomers" including, but not limited to, HCFC-122 (CAS No. 354-21-2).. (13) "all isomers" including, ...
Buy Chromium online now. An imbalance in blood sugar levels leads to sugar and carbohydrate cravings, low blood sugar and resistance to insulin. Chromium is a trace element and is needed in the human body to maintain a normal production level of insulin. By taking Chromium one can maintain a normal level of blood sugar in the body and in turn keep it healthy.
As a nutritional substance, it is an essential co-factor for insulin function. It helps to ensure that the blood sugar levels stay within the normal ranges by improving the way our bodies use insulin. Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone in our human body that allows glucose (sugar) to enter into our cells where it is used to produce energy. Chromium is needed to help insulin perform this enormous task.. Insulin is the "master metabolic hormone". It is essential to utilize nutrients from food, helping to transport these nutrients into every cell in the body. Chromium helps insulin transport nutrients out of the blood to feed every cell in the body. It helps get sugar and fat where it is needed instead of building up to dangerous levels in blood vessels.. When our body is deficient in chromium, it takes twice as long for insulin to remove glucose from the blood. This slows down the whole sugar glucose process causing the body to become more reactive to every process that is occurring within ...
Solgar Chromium Minerals Products at VitaminPharmacy.com -Chromium enhances insulin performance and glucose utilization and helps carry proteins. Find some useful chromium minerals products along with Solgar vitamins, solgar prenatal and many more on our online vitamin store.
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|FONT face=Arial size=2| Designs for Healths Chromium Synergy™ offers the best chelated minerals sourced from the worlds leader in chelated mineral science, Albion Advanced Nutrition. The chromium in Chromium Synergy™ is fully chelated to glycine and ni
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
If you suspect that you suffer from high levels of chromium due to a malfunction of an implant device talk to your doctor immediately about how that situation can best be corrected from a medical standpoint and insist upon testing to determine whether or not the you have suffered collateral damage as a result of the introduction of the chromium into your blood stream and other parts of your body. Financial help may be available to those who have been injured by a defective implant. Contact us if you would like to discuss your legal rights with an attorney who has the experience to deal with injuries caused by chromium poisoning. The consultation and representation will cost you nothing unless a recovery is made on your behalf.. ...
Chromium dinicotinate glycinate, or CDG, is a form of the mineral chromium that is used for its potential health benefits. CDG binds chromium with niacin...
Chromium Nicotinate Complex, a chromium supplement by Progressive Laboratories, treats chromium deficiency and possibly lowers blood sugar--Ships Free
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Chromium (sometimes also called Glucose Tolerance Factor or GTF) is needed for energy. Through the proper utilisation of insulin, it maintains stable blood sugar levels, reducing sugar cravings and can be helpful for people with hyperglycaemia and diabete
When an international team of scientists supplemented male Wistar rats (n = 60; weighing 200-220 g) on a high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet with either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) for 12 weeks, chromium supplementation ameliorated the detrimental effects of HFD on GLUTs, and Memory (32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP ...
The present investigation deals with hot powder preform forging technique for the development of high density iron-phosphorus based alloys. These alloys are known for hot-shortness and are therefore not considered suitable for high temperature working. To remove this problem proper soaking at high temperature to eliminate iron- phosphide eutectic and bring entire phosphorus into solution in iron was aimed. Attempting hot forging thereafter completely eliminates hot as well as cold shortness and thereby helps to form these alloys into very thin sheets. It has also been possible to eliminate the use of costly hydrogen atmosphere during sintering by use of addition of carbon as a reducing agent to form CO gas within the compact by reacting with oxygen of iron powder particles. The glassy ceramic coating applied over the compact serves as a protective coating to avoid atmospheric oxygen attack over the compact held at high temperature. Combined application of carbon and glassy ceramic coating has
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
GHAZIABAD: First it was chromium, now it is arsenic and fluoride that are in excess in groundwater in Ghaziabad, going by an NGOs report.. After hexavalent chromium levels were found to be far in excess of the maximum limit of 0.5mg per litre in various parts of the city in a study commissioned last year by the UP Pollution Control Board, a Ghaziabad-based NGO has claimed tests on hand pump water samples from many areas have revealed higher than safe limits of arsenic and fluoride.. Vijaypal Baghel, convener of the Ghaziabad-based Paryavaran Sachetak Samiti (PSS), said the tests have been carried out with testing kits obtained from the Switzerland-based World Water Monitoring Organization. The exact figures of the tests were being collated and would soon be released.. Meanwhile, the chief of the Federation of Ghaziabad Resident Welfare Associations, retired colonel Tejendra Pal Tyagi, said, "We have approached the local authorities, including the local unit of the Uttar Pradesh Pollution ...
Was the patient in question a drinker of cobalt laced beer? No - but she did have cobalt in her body. She had bilateral DuPuy ASR metal-on-metal hip prostheses that had been placed 5 years and 4 years prior to the heart transplant. She had learned about one year prior to transplantation that the prostheses were being recalled due to a higher than expected failure rate and a protocol for follow up was sent to her. She was advised to get repeat hip imaging and serum cobalt levels done. Pelvic MRI showed reactive areas with fluid collection and the cobalt level was elevated at 287.6 mcg/liter with a reference value of less than 1.0 mcg/liter. The prostheses were removed 11 and 13 months post heart transplantation. She had a complicated course but apparently recovered. Serial cobalt levels were done and 16 months after transplantation remained at 11.8 mcg/liter a significant drop. She also had a chromium level determined at 248.9 mcg/liter about 8 months after transplantation ...
EFSA has received requests from the European Commission or Member States to provide risk assessments on several metals as contaminants, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and uranium. This work is carried out by the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). EFSA also works closely with Member States and other data providers to collect data on occurrence of metals in food and feed.. Chromium. There are different forms of chromium. Chromium III occurs naturally and is an essential nutrient and the main form of chromium present in food. It aids normal glucose, protein, and fat metabolism. Another form, chromium VI is most commonly produced by industrial processes and is sometimes present in drinking water.. In March 2014, the CONTAM Panel published a scientific opinion on the risk to human health from chromium in food, particularly in vegetables and in bottled drinking water. EFSAs experts established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.3 milligrams per ...
Despite resistance from state officials, four state lawmakers said Tuesday they would press for an action level on total chromium that would require public notice when the chemical exceeds 2.5
① Lung Cancer.. Large-scale cohort studies and many other studies have reported excess risk of lung cancer in workers exposed to chromium (VI). In conclusion, IARC reported that there is sufficient evidence in humans that chromium (VI) causes lung cancer [2]. OSHA reviewed literature about carcinogenic effects in different work types as follows. In chromate production, an increase of lung cancer mortality was identified and a significant increase was found particularly in response to the cumulative exposure dose and the exposure period. In the chromium pigment production, an increase of lung cancer incidents in comparison with standard population was reported, and the risk of lung cancer was higher either in water-soluble chromium or water-insoluble chromium. In chromium plating process where workers are exposed to chromic trioxide (CrO3), an increase of lung cancer mortality was verified, although the number of studies analyzed was less than the studies about chromate or chrome pigment ...
For other contaminants, there are no specific federal standards, the EWG says. In the case of chromium-6, which is a form of the element chromium, for example, the government looks only at overall chromium levels, and not all types are harmful. Chromium-6 has been linked to tumors in animal studies, and may also be linked to increased risk of stomach cancer in workers exposed to the compound, the EWG says. Chromium - 3, on the other hand, is "mostly harmless.". This is why in some areas we see chlorine and other disinfectants added into the water supply, which raises even more health concerns and doesnt really provide an ample solution to the problem.. Below is a great statement from the Waterkeeper Alliance:. "Every day around the world, polluters are poisoning our waterways, and people everywhere are suffering the consequences. When a coal company discharges millions of gallons of toxic coal ash into a river, families who depend on that waterway as a drinking-water source are the innocent ...
Chromium found in: Swisse Teenage Mens Ultivite Multivitamin 60 Tablets, Natures Own Chromium Picolinate 200 Tablets, Blackmores Super Magnesium Plus..
For chromium (VI), a PNECwater of 3.4 µg/L has been derived (statistical approach). For chromium (III) a worst-case PNEC of 4.7 µg/L was derived. According to the Technical Guidance Document, the PNECsediment can be estimated from: PNECsediment = Ksusp-water/RHOsuso x PNECwater x 1000 where RHOsusp = density of suspended matter = 1,150 kg/m3 The following values for Ksusp-water were derived: Chromium (VI) Ksusp-water = 500 m3/m3 (acid conditions); Ksusp-water = 50 m3/m3 (neutral/alkaline conditions) Chromium (III) Ksusp-water = 7,500 m3/m3 (acid conditions); Ksusp-water = 75,000 m3/m3 (neutral/alkaline conditions) Using these values, the PNECsediment can be estimated as follows: For chromium (VI), PNECsediment = 1.5 mg/kg wet weight for acid conditions, and 0.15 mg/kg wet weight for other conditions. Similarly, for chromium (III), PNECsediment = 31 mg/kg wet weight for acid conditions and 307 mg/kg wet weight for other conditions. A recent report (Environment Canada, 1997) has derived draft ...
Background/aim: A novel complex of a nutritional supplement (CDB) contains chromium picolinate (CrPic), phosphatidylserine (PS), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and boron (B). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CDB on the metabolic profile and memory acquisition in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and received either a regular diet or HFD supplemented with or without different levels of CDB (0, 11, or 22 mg/kg BW). Results: Rats fed the HFD had greater glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and serum malondialdehyde concentrations, but lower serotonin and tryptophan in the serum and brain and lower Cr concentrations in serum, kidney, brain, and liver (P , 0 ...
The chemical formula for chromium (III) acetate is notated as Cr(C2H3O2)3. The formula contains the symbol Cr for chromium. The chemical formula for acetate, C2H3O2, uses the symbols C for carbon, H...
[110 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Chromium Chelate Supplements Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Chromium Chelate Supplements in Global market, especially...
Chromium (III) potassium sulfate solution. A test tube containing 0.15 M solution of chromium (III) potassium sulfate (KCr(SO4)2) in water. - Stock Image C028/0965
Chromium is part of a molecule that helps activate cellular insulin receptors, and thus plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. All carbohydrates are broken down by the digestive system into the simple sugar glucose, and insulin is the hormone that allows glucose in the bloodstream to enter individual cells to be oxidized for energy. Insulin also helps to regulate the bodys storage of fat and excess carbs, and assists in the formation of protein tissue. Insofar as chromium helps enhance the effectiveness of insulin, it provides nutritional support for weight management programs ...
ELECTROPLATING GENERAL PERMIT APPLICATION PAGE 1 Instructions Revised March 1, 2012 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS: CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING AND ANODIZING MINOR FACILITY AIR QUALITY GENERAL PERMIT ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE DEQ Customer Assistance: (405) 702-9100 (800) 869-1400 Air Quality Division: (405) 702-4100 INTRODUCTION This package contains the State of Oklahoma Air Quality General Permit Application to Construct and/or Operate a Chromium Electroplating or Anodizing minor facility. Please read all the directions carefully before you fill it out. Answer all questions by checking the appropriate box or filling in a response (e.g., NA--not applicable). An original signature from a responsible official is required for certifications. Please note that delays in processing your application may occur if an incomplete application is submitted. It is the applicants responsibility to submit a complete application well in advance of anticipated commencement of construction, start up dates, or the effective ...
I have been doing some research on elements our bodies seem to be missing as diabetics and Chromium came up many times. I had stared using Chelated Chromium ...
Natures Way GTF Chromium polynicotinate is the patented ChromeMate polynicotinate form. Chromium polynicotinate meets all the requirements for GTF. It contains no artificial ingredients or preservatives.
Learn more about Chromium uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Chromium
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Understanding of the processes affecting solute transport in flowing water is important for the possibility to predict the evolution with time of polluted stream systems. This thesis presents tracer experiment methodology and model developments for solute transport in streams, with special focus on retention processes and their effect on solute stream transport. Results are presented from a tracer experiment in the Säva Stream, Uppland County, Sweden, where both a conservative (3H as tritiated water) and a reactive (51Cr as trivalent chromium ion) tracer were injected simultaneously. The time and length scales of the experiment were prolonged compared to previous studies, which allowed for new critical tests of different model concepts. It was found that the hyporheic exchange greatly affected the solute transport of both tracers. However, the retention of chromium was significantly more pronounced. About 76% of the injected chromium was lost from the stream water phase directly after the ...
NEW Practitioner-only formulation. Source of chromium. Helps prevent dietary chromium and nicotinamide deficiency.. Chromium assists glucose metabolism and helps maintain healthy blood sugar and cholesterol in healthy individuals.. Nicotinamide and chromium aid protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism.. Vitamins and minerals can only be of assistance if dietary intake is inadequate.. Each capsule contains: ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The fact that some forms of GTF are derived from yeast or anywhere else is irrelevant. Most vitamins are derived from yeast, yet you wouldnt claim that vitamins dont exist in humans !. Chromiums only function in humans is in the action of insulin, as part of what is commonly called GTF. Time and time again Chromium has been shown to reduce insulin resistance e.g. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2005;47(3-4):59-62 "Effect of chromium on the insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus." It can not do this by any other means than besides facilitating insulin action.. --JohnMurphy 17:47, 19 July 2006 (UTC). We are discussing here the inclusion of the word "action" into the opening paragraph. Irrespective of the GTF issue, this word is superfluous. I have no clue what a putative binding of insulin to the cell surface and interference of this by GTF has to do with the causes of diabetes. Is there evidence that diabetes is caused by lack of GTF? If so, where are the sources/references? And if ...
which is known per se, by impregnation of the support powder with an aqueous or organic solution of a chromium compound, followed by drying in an oxidizing atmosphere. For this purpose, a chromium compound chosen from soluble salts such as the oxides, acetate, chloride, sulphate, chromate and bichromate in aqueous solution, or such as the acetylacetonate in organic solution, may be used. After impregnation of the support with the chromium compound, the impregnated support is usually activated by heating it to a temperature of from 400 to 1000°C in order to convert at least part of the chromium into hexavalent chromium. The catalytic solid according to the invention may also be obtained by means of mechanical mixing of the support powder with a solid chromium compound, for example chromium acetylacetonate. Next, this mixture may be pre-activated at a temperature below the melting point of the chromium compound, before activating it conventionally as described above. In the catalytic solid used ...
Looking for online definition of Chromium compounds in the Medical Dictionary? Chromium compounds explanation free. What is Chromium compounds? Meaning of Chromium compounds medical term. What does Chromium compounds mean?
Extraction of chromium(III) from a model solution and from a tannery waste solution was studied by ion exchange using Indion 790 resin which is a macro-porous strongly acidic cation exchange resin of sulfonated polystyrene group. The resin was found to be selective for the sorption of chromium(III) in the pH range 0.5-3.5 from a model solution containing 500 ppm Cr(III). Beyond pH 3.5 extraction of chromium(III) drastically decreased from 92% to 76%. Sorption of chromium(III) on Indion 790 followed the Freundlich isotherm with a high Freundlich constant value (Kf = 8.57) confirming strong chemical interaction of the metal ion with the resin. Desorption of chromium(III) from the loaded resin increased with the increase in concentration of eluant (5-20% H2SO4). With 20% sulfuric acid solution 89% Cr(III) was eluted in two stages. The bench scale results were also validated in continuous mode in a fixed bed column and for the recovery of chromium(III) from a tannery solution ...
Combination products: Avesil® (Super Citrimax, chromium, and green tea extract), Awe Slim® (aloe vera juice, hydrolyzed collagen, apple cider vinegar, conjugated linoleic acid, Garcinia cambogia extract, L-carnitine, L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine), Citri Chrome® (Garcinia cambogia and chromium picolinate), Citrin® (maltodextrin, Garcinia cambogia extract, microcrystalline cellulose, starch, magnesium stearate, chromium picolinate), Garcinia 1000® (chromium, picolinate, Garcinia berry extract, HCA), HCA with calcium/potassium salt (HCA-SX), Herbalife®s "Snack Defense" tablets (Gymnema sylvestre, chromium polynicotinate, Garcinia cambogia), Hydroxycut® (Garcinia cambogia, chromium polynicotinate, and Gymnema sylvestre), Lite BitesT (sugar, chromium picolinate, Garcinia cambogia), Metabolife® Ephedra-Free (green tea extract, Super Citrimax®, Garcinia cambogia extract, guarana extract, yerba mate extract ...
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The Nordic registry reports patients under 50 years old with total hip replacements realize only 83% 10-year implant survivorship. These results do not meet the 95% 10-year survivorship guideline posed by the UKs National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2014. The purpose of this study is threefold: First, we evaluate if metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty meets these high standards in younger patients. Next, we compare outcomes between age groups to determine if younger patients are at higher risk for revision or complication. Lastly, we assess how outcomes between sexes changed over time. From January 2001 to August 2013, a single surgeon performed 1285 metal-on-metal hip resurfacings in patients younger than 50 years old. We compared these to an older cohort matched by sex and BMI. Kaplan-Meier implant survivorship was 96.5% at 10 years and 96.3% at 12 years; this did not differ from implant survivorship for older patients. Implant survivorship at 12 years was 98 and 93%
E1835 - 14 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Nickel Alloys by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry , aluminum content, analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cobalt content, copper content, chromium content, FAAS, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, iron content, manganese content, nickel, nickel alloys, silicon content, vanadium content ,,
Conclusions: Multivariate analysis of nine factors found that edge-loading was the most important predictor of wear rate and occurred in two-thirds of failed metal-on-metal hip replacements. The majority did not have excessive cup inclination angles: 68% had an inclination angle of ≤55°. This finding, together with the relatively low median wear rate of the components in our study, suggests that cup position and/or wear rate may not be the only outcome related to failure of metal-on-metal hip replacements ...

Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govEffects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake. Official Title ICMJE Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake, Satiety, and ... Drug: Chromium Picolinate Test whether Chromium Picolinate supplementation affects food intake at both a test lunch meal and at ... If chromium picolinate is found to have a beneficial impact on satiety and food intake, then this supplement may be an ... The purpose of this study is to test the effects of chromium picolinate on food intake, food cravings, eating attitudes, and ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00477854

Patent US6723177 - Life extension of chromium coating and chromium alloys - Google PatentsPatent US6723177 - Life extension of chromium coating and chromium alloys - Google Patents

... chromium alloys and/or chromium coatings with surfaces having increased hardness and/or decreased coefficient of friction; and ... components comprising chromium alloys and/or chromium coatings with surfaces having increased hardness and/or decreased ... A process for treating a chromium coating and/or the surface of a chromium alloy to increase hardness, and/or to decrease ... chromium carbide, and a combination thereof, wherein said chromium consists essentially of said substrate chromium atoms. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6723177

Chromium | NIOSH | CDCChromium | NIOSH | CDC

Chromium is also found in chromic acid (CrO3), chromium compounds, and chromates. It is harmful to the skin, eyes, blood, and ... Chromium metal (Cr) is a bluish to steel-gray brittle solid, often seen in gray powder form that burns if flame heated. ... EPA Air Toxics: Chromium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. *EPA Chemistry Dashboard: Chromiumexternal icon (Chromium Compounds ... IPCS INCHEM: Chromium and Chromium (III) Compoundsexternal icon. *IPCS ICHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromiumexternal ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/chromium/default.html

Chromium trioxide - WikipediaChromium trioxide - Wikipedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chromium trioxide.. *ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Chromium Toxicity U.S ... Chromium trioxide is highly toxic, corrosive, and carcinogenic.[11] It is the main example of hexavalent chromium, an ... The related chromium(III) derivatives are not particularly dangerous; thus, reductants are used to destroy chromium(VI) samples ... The solid consists of chains of tetrahedrally coordinated chromium atoms that share vertices. Each chromium center, therefore, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium_trioxide

Hexavalent chromium - WikipediaHexavalent chromium - Wikipedia

... hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI)) is reduced first to pentavalent chromium (chromium(V)) then to trivalent chromium (chromium( ... Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 ... Hexavalent chromium can be formed when performing "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel or melting chromium metal. In ... In the Asopos River, total chromium values were up to 13 μg/L, hexavalent chromium was less than 5 μg/L and other toxic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexavalent_chromium

chromiumchromium

... in the form of hexavalent chromium, or chromium-6) can be significant. At the top of the list for higher-risk chromium exposure ... Strong chromium nutrition is one of many reasons this would be true. Note that some of our chromium-rich Worlds Healthiest ... Toxicity from dietary chromium has not been reported, and not very likely to occur. Studies where researchers use chromium like ... The NAS did not set a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for chromium. The Daily Value (DV) for chromium is 120 micrograms (mcg ...
more infohttp://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=51

ChromiumChromium

The concerns over the second most common form of chromium, GTF chromium, are not so serious and in fact would be laughable if ... Chromium nicotinate and chromium polynicotinate are the same thing; however, this material is poorly defined as well. Some ... "I personally would not use chromium picolinate," he wrote me in a separate email message. "The problem with the GTF chromium ... If you are still determined to use a chromium supplement, you have another choice-chromium chloride. However, for some reason ...
more infohttp://www.mendosa.com/chromium.htm

Chromium Toxicokinetics | SpringerLinkChromium Toxicokinetics | SpringerLink

Chromium (Cr) toxicokinetics is the toxicokinetics of two different oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), linked by reduction ... Total Chromium Chromium Compound Chromium Picolinate Lead Chromate Sodium Chromate These keywords were added by machine and not ... Langård S, Gundersen N, Tsalev DL, Gylseth B (1978) Whole blood chromium level and chromium excretion in the rat after zinc ... Witmer CM, Harris R (1991) Chromium content of bone after oral and intraperitoneal (ip) administration of chromium (VI) to rats ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-79162-8_10

Hexavalent Chromium | NIOSH | CDCHexavalent Chromium | NIOSH | CDC

Hexavalent chromium is harmful to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. NIOSH considers all Cr(VI) compounds to be ... Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are a large group of chemicals with varying properties, uses, and workplace exposures. ... NLM Hazardous Substance Data Bank: Chromiumexternal icon. *NTP Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth Edition): Hexavalent Chromium ... International Chemical Safety Card: Chromium (VI) Oxideexternal icon. *IPCS INCHEM Environmental Health Criteria 61: Chromium ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/hexchrom/default.html

chromium - PubMed - NCBIchromium - PubMed - NCBI

Interaction of chromium(III) or chromium(VI) with catalase and its effect on the structure and function of catalase: An in ... Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated ... Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review. Shahid M et al. ... Selenium alleviated chromium stress in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) by regulating root morphology ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=chromium

Chromium and Diabetes | SpringerLinkChromium and Diabetes | SpringerLink

Chromium; Diabetes; Glucose tolerance factor; Trivalent chromium Trivalent chromium plays an important role in potentiating the ... The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from ... A deficiency in chromium could lead to an impaired response and thereby diabetes. Supplementing chromium in patients with ... Kleefstra N. (2013) Chromium and Diabetes. In: Kretsinger R.H., Uversky V.N., Permyakov E.A. (eds) Encyclopedia of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_20

ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: ChromiumATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Chromium

Chromium(VI) at high levels can damage the nose and can cause cancer. Chromium has been found at 1,036 of the 1,591 National ... Exposure to chromium occurs from ingesting contaminated food or drinking water or breathing contaminated workplace air. ... The metal chromium, which is the chromium(0) form, is used for making steel. Chromium(VI) and chromium(III) are used for chrome ... The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=61&tid=17

Chromium News, ResearchChromium News, Research

Chromium News and Research. RSS Chromium is among the minerals - zinc and magnesium are others - which the body requires to ... Humans need trace amounts of chromium. Those who are very active definitely require chromium and other minerals in their diets ... Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work ... that uses a cobalt-chromium strut platform. ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Chromium

Chromium - ArchWikiChromium - ArchWiki

config/chromium. as following: # chown -R yourusername:yourusergroup ~/.config/chromium WebGL. Sometimes, Chromium will disable ... links with Chromium: ~/.config/mimeo.conf. /usr/bin/chromium ^http:// If all of that still does not get it working, you can try ... The easiest way to install libpdf for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-libpdf-stableAUR ... The easiest way to install pepper-flash for Chromium is using one of the packages provided in the AUR: * chromium-pepper-flash- ...
more infohttps://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php?title=Chromium&oldid=279036

Chromium, amminepentacarbonylChromium, amminepentacarbonyl

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C15228270

Chromium hexacarbonylChromium hexacarbonyl

Other names: Chromium carbonyl; Chromcarbonyl; Chromium carbonyl (cr(co)6), (oc-6-11)-; Chromium carbonyl (Cr(CO)6); ... Winters, R.E.; Kiser, R.W., Mass spectrometric studies of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten hexacarbonyls, Inorg. Chem., 1965 ... chromium(0) related complexes, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1979, 32, 113. [all data] ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1985DAS%2FNIS2808&Units=SI&Mask=20

ChromiumChromium

Steroids , BodyBuilding , Chromium Chromium: Excellent Option for maintaining Adequate Glucose Homeostasis. Chromium, which is ... Benefits of Chromium. The role played by Chromium in the treatment of diabetes is unmatched. It is believed to enhance the rate ... Recommended Dosage of Chromium. The recommended dosage of Chromium is 200-400 mcg/day for a normal adult and 600 mcg per day ... Side-Effects of Chromium. Some of the possible side-effects of Chromium include diarrhea, epigastric discomfort, flatulence, ...
more infohttp://www.isteroids.com/bodybuilding/Chromium.html

Chromium Picolinate - Drugs.comChromium Picolinate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Chromium Picolinate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chromium Picolinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... In the US, Chromium Picolinate (chromium picolinate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is ... Chromium Picolinate. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/chromium-picolinate.html

chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237)chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237)

... has part chromium atom (CHEBI:28073) chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237) is a ... chromium coordination entity (CHEBI:35403) is a chromium molecular entity (CHEBI:23237). chromium ion (CHEBI:61310) is a ... CHEBI:23237 - chromium molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/fr/searchId.do?chebiId=23237

Hexavalent ChromiumHexavalent Chromium

Exposure to hexavalent chromium resulted in significantly higher tissue chromium burden compared with trivalent chromium ... The element chromium occurs naturally in various states, including trivalent chromium which is an essential nutrient. However, ... Chromium Hexavalent Compounds. View the Chromium Hexavalent Compounds listing in the Report on Carcinogens. ... Hexavalent Chromium. Research Overview. Status: Completed Substances: Sodium dichromate dihydrate (VI) Nominated: October 2000 ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/topics/hexchrom/index.html?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=hexchrom

CDC Chromium | Emergency Preparedness & ResponseCDC Chromium | Emergency Preparedness & Response

Learn About Chromium * Toxicology FAQs Frequently asked questions from the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry ( ... Chromium Toxicity Case Study in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) from the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) ...
more infohttps://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/chromium/

Slashdot Items Tagged With chromiumSlashdot Items Tagged With 'chromium'

Slashdot Items Tagged "chromium" Date / Time. Story. Monday November 13, 2017 @07:38PM. All Major Browsers Now Support ... Chromium To Get Support For MP3. Thursday March 30, 2017 @12:44PM. Google Plans To Alter JavaScript Popups After Abuse From ... Chromium Being Ported To VC++, Scrubbed of Compiler Bugs. Wednesday February 03, 2016 @10:16AM. Chromodo Browser Disables Key ...
more infohttps://yro.slashdot.org/tag/chromium

Chromium - New World EncyclopediaChromium - New World Encyclopedia

Chromium metal and chromium(III) compounds are not usually considered health hazards, but hexavalent chromium (chromium VI) ... Chromium(III) oxide. Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of ... The human body needs trace amounts of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) for sugar metabolism, but hexavalent chromium ( ... Chromium salts color glass an emerald green.. *The presence of chromium makes a ruby red. It is therefore is used in producing ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Chromium

Chromium Metal Prints | Society6Chromium Metal Prints | Society6

Shop chromium metal prints from thousands of artists from around the world. Our metal wall art produces vibrant colors and ...
more infohttps://society6.com/metal-prints/chromium

Chromium in diet: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaChromium in diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body. It must be obtained from the diet. ... Lack of chromium may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It occurs in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with ... Chromium is important in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates. It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. They are ... Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body. It must be obtained from the diet. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002418.htm
  • Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary J (1987) Supplemental chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. (springer.com)
  • Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Chi J, Feng J (1997) Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at the University of California, Davis. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromium also aids in insulin action and glucose breakdown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromium is a mineral that affects insulin, carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Based on laboratory experiments, scientists think that chromium is involved in maintaining adequate levels of glucose, fats, and insulin activity in the body. (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium may interact with insulin receptors and enhance the effects of insulin on cells, including improved glucose uptake. (mskcc.org)
  • In a 29-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who took chromium supplements in addition to insulin. (mskcc.org)
  • Chromium is a trace element that is necessary for glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism in humans (1) (9) . (mskcc.org)
  • In other applications, weapons systems components are placed in tanks containing chromic acid solutions, in which the chromium is in the hexavalent state, for either anodization or for hard chrome plating. (serdp-estcp.org)
  • Recent studies have linked type 2 diabetes and chromium. (mendosa.com)
  • Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Geohas J, Juturu V, Finch MR, Komorowski JR (2007) Combination of chromium and biotin improves coronary risk factors in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. (springer.com)
  • Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Bakker SJ, Verhoeven S, Gans RO, Meyboom-de Jong B, Bilo HJ (2007) Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Since this was a short study, Drs. Singer and Geohas found it impractical to use A1C tests to judge how well the chromium and biotin worked. (mendosa.com)
  • Prior to discovery of LMWCr, a much less clearly defined molecule called glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, had been the subject of much interest in nutrition and was typically thought to involve a combination of chromium, vitamin B3, and select amino acids. (whfoods.com)
  • Each chromium center, therefore, shares two oxygen centers with neighbors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these situations the chromium is not originally hexavalent, but the high temperatures involved in the process result in oxidation that converts the chromium to a hexavalent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. (cdc.gov)
  • Although chromium(III) is an essential nutrient, you should avoid excessive use of dietary supplements containing chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Chromium (chemical symbol Cr , atomic number 24) is a hard, shiny, steel-gray metal that takes a high polish and does not tarnish. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromium carbonyl, also known as chromium hexacarbonyl, is the chemical compound with the formula Cr(CO)6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using chromium supplements for 6 to 16 weeks in various studies has had no effect on people with diabetes. (mendosa.com)
  • There have been some case reports of liver and kidney toxicities with chromium supplements. (mskcc.org)
  • In two patients who took chromium supplements to enhance weight loss. (mskcc.org)
  • You might think by looking at the chart above that chromium is a mineral mostly missing in the food supply. (whfoods.com)
  • Chromium is provided by every food group-including vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, nuts/seeds, seafood, meats and dairy-so it is definitely not a missing mineral in our foods. (whfoods.com)
  • While we don't know the exact chromium content of many of the World's Healthiest Foods, it appears that our strategy of eating-based around minimally processed and plant-rich meals with liberal use of spices-would be expected to ensure a consistent supply of this mineral. (whfoods.com)
  • Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromium is a mineral found in certain foods. (cigna.com)
  • There is a signal molecule called low-molecular weight chromium binding substance (LMWCr) involved in blood sugar control. (whfoods.com)
  • Research studies of this kind underscore the importance of LMWCr and chromium for blood sugar balance. (whfoods.com)
  • Decreased chromium level only occurs in people who receive all of their nutrition by vein (total parenteral nutrition or TPN) and do not get enough chromium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For a full list of studies, see the NTP testing status page for sodium dichromate dihydrate, a hexavalent chromium compound. (nih.gov)
  • This first randomized clinical study of a polymer-coated zotarolimus-eluting stent (Resolute Onyx) that utilizes a novel thin-strutted metallic platform allowing for better x-ray visibility was shown to be non-inferior to an ultrathin-strutted bioresorbable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent (Orsiro) that uses a cobalt-chromium strut platform. (news-medical.net)
  • A major development was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are still determined to use a chromium supplement, you have another choice-chromium chloride. (mendosa.com)
  • Chromium usage must not exceed the recommended dietary allowance for pregnant, pregnancy-suspecting or nursing mothers. (isteroids.com)
  • In fact, there is surprisingly little evidence that chromium is essential to humans. (mendosa.com)
  • An increase in stomach tumors was observed in humans and animals exposed to chromium(VI) in drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of chromium(VI) through drinking water has been found to cause cancer in the oral cavity and small intestine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS (1985) Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. (springer.com)
  • Even worse, these symptoms that chromium reversed in four patients did not correlate with serum chromium levels. (mendosa.com)
  • Serum chromium level normally is less than or equal to 1.4 micrograms/liter (µg/L) or 26.92 nanomoles/L (nmol/L). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Assessment of strut coverage of everolimus-eluting platinum chromium stent 2 weeks after implantation by optical coherence tomography. (nih.gov)
  • In workers, inhalation of chromium(VI) has been shown to cause lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Once again, these factors shift the focus onto an overall healthy diet when evaluating intake of chromium. (whfoods.com)
  • And according to a CNN report , "case reports have linked chronic use of 600 micrograms or more per day [of chromium] to kidney and muscle damage. (mendosa.com)
  • Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking a chromium supplement may help, but it is not an alternative for other treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kleefstra N. (2013) Chromium and Diabetes. (springer.com)
  • The role played by Chromium in the treatment of diabetes is unmatched. (isteroids.com)