The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The absence of light.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (1/112)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Stripe formation in juvenile Pomacanthus explained by a generalized turing mechanism with chemotaxis. (2/112)

Current interest in pattern formation can be traced to a seminal paper by Turing, who demonstrated that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals, called morphogens, can interact so as to produce stable nonuniform concentration patterns in space. Recently, a Turing model has been suggested to explain the development of pigmentation patterns on species of growing angelfish such as Pomacanthus semicirculatus, which exhibit readily observed changes in the number, size, and orientation of colored stripes during development of juvenile and adult stages, but the model fails to predict key features of the observations on stripe formation. Here we develop a generalized Turing model incorporating cell growth and movement, we analyze the effects of these processes on patterning, and we demonstrate that the model can explain important features of pattern formation in a growing system such as Pomacanthus. The applicability of classical Turing models to biological pattern formation is limited by virtue of the sensitivity of patterns to model parameters, but here we show that the incorporation of growth results in robustly generated patterns without strict parameter control. In the model, chemotaxis in response to gradients in a morphogen distribution leads to aggregation of one type of pigment cell into a striped spatial pattern.  (+info)

Hybrid Rhodospirillum rubrum F(0)F(1) ATP synthases containing spinach chloroplast F(1) beta or alpha and beta subunits reveal the essential role of the alpha subunit in ATP synthesis and tentoxin sensitivity. (3/112)

Trace amounts ( approximately 5%) of the chloroplast alpha subunit were found to be absolutely required for effective restoration of catalytic function to LiCl-treated chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum with the chloroplast beta subunit (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072). To clarify the role of the alpha subunit in the rebinding of beta, restoration of catalytic function, and conferral of sensitivity to the chloroplast-specific inhibitor tentoxin, LiCl-treated chromatophores were analyzed by immunoblotting before and after reconstitution with mixtures of R. rubrum and chloroplast alpha and beta subunits. The treated chromatophores were found to have lost, in addition to most of their beta subunits, approximately a third of the alpha subunits, and restoration of catalytic activity required rebinding of both subunits. The hybrid reconstituted with the R. rubrum alpha and chloroplast beta subunits was active in ATP synthesis as well as hydrolysis, and both activities were completely resistant to tentoxin. In contrast, a hybrid reconstituted with both chloroplast alpha and beta subunits restored only a MgATPase activity, which was fully inhibited by tentoxin. These results indicate that all three copies of the R. rubrum alpha subunit are required for proton-coupled ATP synthesis, whereas for conferral of tentoxin sensitivity at least one copy of the chloroplast alpha subunit is required together with the chloroplast beta subunit. The hybrid system was further used to examine the effects of amino acid substitution at position 83 of the beta subunit on sensitivity to tentoxin.  (+info)

The calcium dependence of pigment translocation in freshwater shrimp red ovarian chromatophores. (4/112)

The roles of calcium in cell signaling consequent to chromatophorotropin action and as an activator of mechanochemical transport proteins responsible for pigment granule translocation were investigated in the red ovarian chromatosomes of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. Chromatosomes were perfused with known concentrations of free Ca++ (10(-3) to 10(-9) M) prepared in Mg(++)-EGTA-buffered physiological saline after selectively permeabilizing with 25 microM calcium ionophore A23187 or with 10(-8) M red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). The degree of pigment aggregation and the translocation velocity of the leading edges of the pigment mass were recorded in individual chromatosomes during aggregation induced by RPCH or A23187 and dispersion induced by low Ca++. Aggregation is Ca++ dependent, showing a dual extracellular and intracellular requirement. After perfusion with reduced Ca++ (10(-4) to 10(-9) M), RPCH triggers partial aggregation (approximately 65%), although the maximum translocation velocities (approximately 16.5 microns/min) and velocity profiles are unaffected. After aggregation induced at or below 10(-5) M Ca++, spontaneous pigment dispersion ensues, suggesting a Ca++ requirement for RPCH coupling to its receptor, or a concentration-dependent, Ca(++)-induced Ca(++)-release mechanism. The Ca(++)-channel blockers Mn++ (5 mM) and verapamil (50 microM) have no effect on RPCH-triggered aggregation. An intracellular Ca++ requirement for aggregation was demonstrated in chromatosomes in which the Ca++ gradient across the cell membrane was dissipated with A23187. At free [Ca++] above 10(-3) M, aggregation is complete; at 10(-4) M, aggregation is partial, followed by spontaneous dispersion; below 10(-5) M Ca++, pigments do not aggregate but disperse slightly. Aggregation velocities diminish from 11.6 +/- 1.2 microns/min at 5.5 mM Ca++ to 7.4 +/- 1.3 microns/min at 10(-4) M Ca++. Half-maximum aggregation occurs at 3.2 x 10(-5) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 4.8 x 10(-5) M Ca++. Pigment redispersion after 5.5 mM Ca(++)-A23187-induced aggregation is initiated by reducing extracellular Ca++: slight dispersion begins at 10(-7) M, complete dispersion being attained at 10(-9) M Ca++. Dispersion velocities increase from 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.5 microns/min. Half-maximum dispersion occurs at 7.6 x 10(-9) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 2.9 x 10(-9) M Ca++. These data reveal an extracellular and an intracellular Ca++ requirement for RPCH action, and demonstrate that the centripetal or centrifugal direction of pigment movement, the translocation velocity, and the degree of pigment aggregation or dispersion attained are calcium-dependent properties of the granule translocation apparatus.  (+info)

Reflective properties of iridophores and fluorescent 'eyespots' in the loliginid squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris. (5/112)

Observations were made of the reflective properties of the iridophore stripes of the squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris, and the likely functions of these stripes are considered in terms of concealment and signalling. In both species, the mantle muscle is almost transparent. Stripes of iridophores run along the length of each side of the mantle, some of which, when viewed at normal incidence in white light, reflect red, others green or blue. When viewed obliquely, the wavebands best reflected move towards the blue/ultraviolet end of the spectrum and their reflections are almost 100% polarised. These are properties of quarter-wavelength stacks of chitin and cytoplasm, predicted in theoretical analyses made by Sir A. F. Huxley and Professor M. F. Land. The reflecting surfaces of the individual iridophores are almost flat and, in a given stripe, these surfaces are within a few degrees of being parallel. Both species of squid have conspicuous, brightly coloured reflectors above their eyes. These 'eyespots' have iridescent layers similar to those found on the mantle but are overlaid by a green fluorescent layer that does not change colour or become polarised as it is viewed more obliquely. In the sea, all reflections from the iridophore stripes will be largely confined to the blue-green parts of the spectrum and all reflections in other wavebands, such as those in the red and near ultraviolet, will be weak. The functions of the iridophores reflecting red at normal incidence must be sought in their reflections of blue-green at oblique angles of incidence. These squid rely for their camouflage mainly on their transparency, and the ventral iridophores and the red, green and blue reflective stripes must be used mainly for signalling. The reflectivities of some of these stripes are relatively low, allowing a large fraction of the incident light to be transmitted into the mantle cavity. Despite their low reflectivities, the stripes are very conspicuous when viewed from some limited directions because they reflect light from directions for which the radiances are much higher than those of the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The reflective patterns seen, for example, by neighbouring squid when schooling depend on the orientation of the squid in the external light field and the position of the squid relative to these neighbours.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of crystals from the dermal iridophores of a chameleon Anolis carolinensis. (6/112)

The biochemical characteristics of dermal iridophore crystals from Anolis carolinensis have been investigated. Iridophores isolated by collangenase-hyaluronidase treatment were sonicated and their contents fractionated through sucrose. Pure iridophore crystals so obtained were examined by chromatography and electron diffraction. They were found to be pure hydrated crystalline form. The suggestion is made that the subcrystalline structure of this guanine does not play a role in color production by the iridophore.  (+info)

Behavioral visual responses of wild-type and hypopigmented zebrafish. (7/112)

Zebrafish possess three classes of chromatophores that include iridophores, melanophores, and xanthophores. Mutations that lack one or two classes of chromatophores have been isolated or genetically constructed. Using a behavioral assay based on visually mediated escape responses, we measured the visual response of fully and partially pigmented zebrafish. In zebrafish that lack iridophores (roy mutants), the behavioral visual responses were similar to those of wild-type animals except at low contrast stimulation. In the absence of melanophores (albino mutants) or both melanophores and iridophores (ruby mutants), the behavioral visual responses were normal under moderate illumination but reduced when tested under dim or bright conditions or under low contrast stimulation. Together, the data suggest that screening pigments in the retina play a role in the regulation of behavioral visual responses and are necessary for avoiding "scatter" under bright light conditions.  (+info)

Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development. (8/112)

Ectothermic vertebrates exhibit a diverse array of adult pigment patterns. A common element of these patterns is alternating dark and light stripes each comprising different classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, alternating horizontal stripes of black melanophores and yellow xanthophores are a prominent feature of the adult pigment pattern. In fms mutant zebrafish, however, xanthophores fail to develop and melanophore stripes are severely disrupted. fms encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by xanthophores and their precursors and is the closest known homologue of kit, which has long been studied for roles in pigment pattern development in amniotes. In this study we assess the cellular and temporal requirements for Fms activity in promoting adult pigment pattern development. By transplanting cells between fms mutants and either wild-type or nacre mutant zebrafish, we show that fms acts autonomously to the xanthophore lineage in promoting the striped arrangement of adult melanophores. To identify critical periods for fms activity, we isolated temperature sensitive alleles of fms and performed reciprocal temperature shift experiments at a range of stages from embryo to adult. These analyses demonstrate that Fms is essential for maintaining cells of the xanthophore lineage as well as maintaining the organization of melanophore stripes throughout development. Finally, we show that restoring Fms activity even at late larval stages allows essentially complete recovery of xanthophores and the development of a normal melanophore stripe pattern. Our findings suggest that fms is not required for establishing a population of precursor cells during embryogenesis but is required for recruiting pigment cell precursors to xanthophore fates, with concomitant effects on melanophore organization.  (+info)

Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
The chromatophores are extremely abundant, and can be differentiated into three types, small disc shaped bodies in the upper part of the stratum spongiosum 1-5 μm across, a middle layer of irregular spheroid to ovoid cells, with a granular interior made up of two types of granules (smaller irregular sub-spherical granules and larger rounded granules), and a lower layer comprising larger smooth surfaced ovoid cells with prominant lateral processes. These are interpretted as being different types of chromatophores based upon comparison with living Snakes, with an upper layer of iridophores (reflective, irridescent cells), a middle layer of xanthophores (cells contianing yellow carotenoid pigments) and erythrophores (cells contianing orange pteridine pigments), and a base layer comprising melanophores (cells with black or dark brown melanin pigments ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.. https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes (see link below), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. AU - Odenthal, J. AU - Rossnagel, K. AU - Haffter, P. AU - Kelsh, R N. AU - Vogelsang, E. AU - Brand, M. AU - vanEeden, F J M. AU - Furutani-Seiki, Makoto. AU - Granato, M. AU - Hammerschmidt, M. AU - Heisenberg, C P. AU - Jiang, Y J. AU - Kane, D A. AU - Mullins, M C. AU - NussleinVolhard, C. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - In a large-scale screen for mutants with defects in embryonic development we identified 17 genes (65 mutants) specifically required for the development of xanthophores, We provide evidence that these genes are required for three different aspects of xanthophore development, (1) Pigment cell formation and migration (pfeffer and salt); (2) pigment synthesis (edison, yobo, yocca and brie) and (3) pigment translocation (esrom, tilsit and tofu). The number of xanthophore cells that appear in the body is reduced in embryos with mutations in the two genes, salt and pfeffer. In heterozygous and ...
This dissertation presents research on two different biological systems: (1) the light-harvesting proteins in the chromatophores of purple photosynthetic bacteria, and (2) the structure and function of the Hepatitis C viroporin p7. Purple photosynthetic bacteria form membranous pseudo-organelles called chromatophores which house the photosynthetic machinery. These chromatophore structures are formed out of the cytoplasmic membrane into various species-dependent shapes, such as spheres or flat lamellar folds. AFM images show that chromatophores are densely populated by the light harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2. LH1 is always found surrounding the reaction center, forming LH1-RC core complexes, which may be elliptically-shaped monomers or S-shaped dimers depending on the species of bacteria. LH2 is a small ring-shaped complex which is produced to expand the light-harvesting capacity of the chromatophore. In addition to their role in photosynthesis, the LH2 and LH1-RC proteins may also influence ...
In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from ...
We may be early in the year, but fashion is already in full swing. Its so amazing and exciting that stripes are back! Big and bold, slim and oblique, - Ayodeji Osinulu. September 21, 2021
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chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fishing for iridophores, catching an oncogene. AU - Kelsh, R. N.. AU - Lopes, S. S.. AU - Muller, Jeanette. AU - Carney, T. J.. AU - McAdow, R. A.. AU - Rauch, J.. AU - Jacoby, A. S.. AU - Hurst, L. D.. AU - Haffter, P.. AU - Geisler, R.. AU - Johnson, S. J. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. U2 - 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. M3 - Article. VL - 17. SP - 563. JO - Pigment Cell Research. JF - Pigment Cell Research. SN - 0893-5785. IS - 5. T2 - 12th Meeting of the European Society for Pigment Cell Research, 2004. Y2 - 22 September 2004 through 25 September 2004. ER - ...
The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebras outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid
Frustules in short or long filaments, sometimes free, oblong, separated by foramina and united by setae crossing each other near their insertion. Valves convex, concave or plane, usually elliptical, sometimes nearly circular. From each valve extend two setae, one on each side, which cross the setae of the opposing valve. Setae robust or slender, variable in length, with or without spines, punctate or transversely striated, often hollow. Chromatophores of various kinds, either laminate, single, on the wall of the zone, double, one on each valve, or granular and more or less numerous, either on the wall of the cell or scattered through the cell and the setae. Pyrenoids occasionally found. Spores occur in some species with more or less equal and convex valves, sometimes furnished with spines or with the setae of the parent cell attached. All species are marine or occur in saline water. Gran classifies the genus according to the chromatophores. The variation in number and form of the chromatophores ...
Radios blandos dorsales (total): 9; Radios blandos anales: 9; Vértebra: 34 - 35. Semicircular indentation present on the ventromedian flange of the dentary. Branched anal rays 5. Weberian apparatus with the 4th centrum extending well below the fused 2nd + 3rd centra. Sexual dichromatism conspicuous; melanophores in males are a little stronger, and the erythrophores and iridophores are much more developed. When disturbed, repeated croaking sounds are produced. No lateral line pores nor barbels (Ref. 38434). ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Short-eared owls are less commonly seen at Critter Creek. They are usually found on the open chaparral and flatlands on the western side of the Central Valley. They are medium-sized owls at about 15 inches tall. The basic body coloration is streaked tawny brown with light facial disks. Their markings are quite striking. They have bright yellow eyes with no ear tufts. The vocalization is a high, raspy barking sound. They are silent in flight. Because their eyes are positioned in the front of their head, they have excellent binocular vision even at close range. Their vision at night is 100 times more sensitive than humans and their hearing is equally sensitive. The feathery facial disks help channel sound to their large eardrums. They are capable of turning their head 270 degrees.. ...
KECLEON alters its body coloration to blend in with its surroundings, allowing it to sneak up on its prey unnoticed. Then it lashes out with its long, stretchy tongue to instantly ensnare the unsuspecting target ...
An assaying device and a method of manufacturing same are provided. The assaying device includes a unitary, absorbent membrane having multiple reagent stripes incorporated therein. The reagent stripes display an observable reaction if a sample component is present in a fluid sample being tested. The reagent stripes are deposited simultaneously on a continuous membrane ribbon and individual membranes are die cut therefrom. Each individual membrane includes commonly connected channels having die cut slots therebetween. The channels are preferably disposed perpendicularly with respect to the reagent stripes and provide means for causing contact between the fluid and reagent stripes. The present invention preferably includes a cassette for containing the membrane and for facilitating analysis of test results. During assembly of an assaying device, the unitary membrane is easily inserted into the cassette by engaging the slots with ridges in the cassette, thus minimizing a chance of error of alignment of the
The green vanquisher is an orphan from a DKK batch from a fb DKK page a couple of years ago. It was clearly the best piece there and one of the few which didnt need major re-working. Now I would always do the triple stripe with equal width stripes over the first panel. But as you can see in the photo below, the stripes are consistent both sides of the tank ...
this is a study of all woman workers, not nurse specific, but is still pretty thought provoking - and nothing really new as it is similar to numerous other studies over the years. heres the brief
Synonyms for Anolis carolinensis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anolis carolinensis. 2 synonyms for Anolis carolinensis: American chameleon, anole. What are synonyms for Anolis carolinensis?
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
Squids from the family Loliginidae (Suborder: Myopsida) are represented by 47 species grouped in ten genera and nine subgenera (Jereb et al., 2010). They are widely distributed in neritic zones of tropical, subtropical, and temperate seas around the world, excepting Polar Regions (Young, 1972; Okutani, 1980; (Roper et al, 1984; Hanlon et al., 1992). In Mexico, loliginids are commonly fished artisanally, and also caught as by-catch in trawl fisheries for shrimp (e.g., Litopenaeus stylirostris, L. vannamei, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, and F. brevirostris), off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California Roper et al., 1984, 1995; Cardozo & Valdivieso, 1988; Barrientos & Garcia-Cubas, 1997; Alejo-Plata et al, 2001, 2002).. Five species have been reported off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California: Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) panamensis Berry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis) diomedeae (Hoyle, 1904), ...
Cephalopoda have extreme nervous development, predacious and a closed circulatory system.. Order Teuthida. All organisms in the order Teuthida are marine squid.. Family Loligidae. Consists of mostly of squid that occupy waters that cover the continental shelves. They all have a cornea that covers the lens of each eye. Genus Sepioteuthis. Broad, posterior rounded mantle and fins that extend the full length of the mantle. Compared to other Loliginids, Sepioteuthis lay much larger eggs. Species Sepioteuthis lessoniana. One of three Sepioteuthis species. For more information please visit zipcodezoo.com for a look into a favorite species of your own!. ...
tags: Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, reptiles, North Carolina, Image of the Day I am the Anole King, I can do anything. Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, Carolina Beach, NC. Image: Don Wirth [larger].. ...
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A recent news release from Harvard University gave an insight on cuttlefishs camouflaging techniques. It will help military members during war times.. The cuttlefish, also called the chameleon of the sea, can swiftly alter both the color and pattern of its skin, letting it to unify in its surroundings and conceal from predators.. In a paper published January 29 in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the Harvard-Marine Biological Laboratory team reports new details on the sophisticated bimolecular nanophotonic system underlying the cuttlefishs color-changing ways.. The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is a cephalopod, like squid and octopuses. Neurally controlled, pigmented organs called chromatophores allow it to change its appearance as a reaction to the visual clues, but scientists have had an insufficient understanding of the chemical, biological and optical functions that make this adaptive coloration likely.. Nature solved the riddle of adaptive camouflage a long time ago, said ...
Skin pigment patterns of vertebrates are a classic system for understanding fundamental mechanisms of morphogenesis, differentiation, and pattern formation, and recent studies of zebrafish have started to elucidate the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. In thi …
foxd3 encodes a winged helix/forkhead class transcription factor expressed in the premigratory neural crest cells of many vertebrates. We have investigated the function of this gene in zebrafish neural crest by a loss of function approach using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and immunostaining for Foxd3 protein. Knockdown of Foxd3 expression produces deficits in several differentiated neural crest derivatives, including jaw cartilage, peripheral neurons, and glia, and iridophore pigment cells. Other derivatives, such as melanophore and xanthophore pigment cells are not affected. Reduction in the expression of several lineage-specific markers becomes evident soon after the onset of neural crest migration, suggesting that Foxd3 knockdown affects these lineages at early stages in their development. In contrast, analysis of the expression of early neural crest markers indicates little effect on neural crest induction or initial emigration. Finally, cell transplantation suggests that with ...
In goldfish xanthophores, the formation of pigment aggregate requires: 1) that a pigment organelle (carotenoid droplet) protein p57 be in the unphosphorylated state; 2) that self-association of pigment organelles occur in a microtubule-independent ma
Sometimes confused with S. beauforti when young. They can be easily told apart in adult due to the disparate size, and S. beauforti becomes a rather plain fish. S. beauforti only reaches around 4 inches. A good indicator in juveniles is the direction of the stripes anterior to the dorsal fin. In S. beauforti, the stripes are orientated so that they start at the dorsal surface with the bottom of the stripes finishing further towards the rear of the fish. Posterior to the dorsal, the stripes are only slightly more vertical. In S. berdmorei, the stripes posterior of the dorsal are vertical. S. berdmorei has a series of mixed size, dark oval spots and dashes, aligned horizontally in rows along the dorsal half of the body, and two prominent black stripes that run from the nose and over above the eyes, breaking up into two rows of dashes as they go towards the dorsal origin. Two finer black lines connect the dark rostral barbels and the eyes. S. beauforti shares a similar pattern, but the markings are ...
According to Wave-Particle Duality, in a normal double-slit experiment, the quantum object behaves as wave and many stripes are displayed on the screen. But if we measure which way the quantum object passes (the measurer being the observer), the object becomes a particle upon being observed and just 2 stripes are displayed.. Since double-slit experiment succeeded with electron objects, other objects such as neutrons and buckyballs were also succeeded with. Theoretically, any object must be applicable, even cats.. But if we really did the experiment with cats, wouldnt the theory be inconsistent? By our perspective, there is no such thing as observers (just like with electrons, or just like in Schrödingers Cat) and many stripes must be displayed. But what about in the perspective of the cat itself? Isnt the cat itself an observer (ex. it might feel collision into the plate), and must just 2 stripes be displayed? The perspectives being inconsistent?. At first, what exactly is an observer? ...
endomembrane system, integral component of membrane, plasma membrane, presynaptic active zone membrane, presynaptic membrane, SNARE complex, synaptic vesicle, SNAP receptor activity, SNARE binding, exocytosis
cytoplasm, actin binding, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, actin cytoskeleton organization, negative regulation of actin filament polymerization
A BioProject is a collection of biological data related to a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioProject record provides users a single place to find links to the diverse data types generated for that project
Zebrafish, Danio rerio, develop patterns of colorful stripes on their skin thanks to pigmented cells-dark melanophores, orange-gold xanthophores, and iridescent iridophores. 0 Comments. ...
Insane in the Chromatophores from Backyard Brains on Vimeo.. The folks at Backyard Brains, a DIY-neurobiology project, made these pigment-producing cells in a dead squid pulse to the base beats of Cypress Hills Insane in the Brain. Go watch that thing right now.. Done? Wowed? Prepare to be more wowed: They did it by exploiting the fact that electrical current is key to both the actions of cells and the playing of mp3s. These pigmented cells, called chromatophores, are surrounded by muscle cells, and its by flexing these muscles that the squid reveals its colorful spots. By hooked up the nerve that sends the flexing orders to the wire of a set of earbuds, they got these amazing results.. Heres their description of how music made the muscles pulse:. ...
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Polymorphisms involving melanistic versus banded colour phases in terrestrial snakes typically have been attributed to the effects of dorsal colour on rates of thermal exchange. That is, darker dorsal colour facilitates heat uptake, perhaps at the cost of increased conspicuousness and, thus, vulnerability to predation (Andren & Nilson 1981; Gibson & Falls 1988; Madsen & Stille 1988; Luiselli 1992; King 1993; Shine & Madsen 1994; King & Lawson 1995; Lindell & Forsman 1996; Zaidan 2001; Bittner et al. 2002). However, thermal-based explanations cannot be applied to the case in Emydocephalus, because (unlike on land) colour does not affect the body temperatures of a snake under water (Shine et al. 2003). Our data suggest another potential fitness consequence of colour in seasnakes (and potentially other aquatic animals): susceptibility to algal fouling.. Our results support two key predictions from the hypothesis that body coloration affects algal fouling. First, black snakes were more heavily ...
Distinguished from congeners in British Isles by the following characters: body coloration plain purplish-brown (silvery to goldish outside spawning season), belly creamy-pink to light orange in large individuals; eye large, about 3.7-4.0 times in HL; snout blunt; pectoral fin equal to or longer than head, sometimes almost reaching pelvic origin in large males; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins reddish; pelvic and anal fins with white anterior margin, very narrow in pectoral; maxilla reaching posterior margin of eye or beyond (Ref. 59043). ...
To the untrained eye, certain butterflies can look essentially identical to corresponding varieties of another species. This way they can evade predators, who wont eat them because the insects theyre copying taste terrible.. Biologists since Darwins time have wondered how these butterflies can so closely mimic the wing and body coloration patterns of an unrelated kind. Now, an international team of researchers has sorted out the genetics, and what it found was not at all what was expected.. Publishing online in the journal Nature, the team found that the varieties of color patterns in butterflies of the genus Heliconius corresponded perfectly with single DNA base differences found in a special set of genes called a supergene. This supergene, named P, consists of only a few gene sets that are shuffled in discrete patterns. Different generations can variously deploy differently ordered gene-blocks so that a single kind can express different color patterns using the same DNA. Analyses of 31 ...
A stripe is defined by a line of constant eta, bounded on the north and south by the edges of the two strips that make up the stripe, and bounded on the east and west by lines of constant lambda. Because both strips and stripes are defined in observed space, they are rectangular areas which overlap as one approaches the poles. NOTE: You may see the term stripe used to mean an area bounded by eta lines, which would be a unique part of the sky. That is a common use of the term, as some of the target selection documentation uses it that way. The proper (and relatively new) term for the unique, eta-bound portion of a stripe is a stave ...
The band was playing at the boxing contest the other night. Hicks in the band too. He also has a stripe, acting lance corporal. He does not get any extra pay for it, but it is a start if you intend to rise from the ranks. Stripes are not hard to get if you have no influence behind you, and if you have not got that one has to do things that is against my grain if I wanted to start, but as I have said before I did not come away for money, stripes or anything else, it was experience and I got it. A private will do me, a private is a man that can hold out his hand without it shaking when getting his money, he was the only man that did his job properly on the Peninsular, it was not his fault because they had to evacuate. ...
The ZFS filesystem provides RAID-Z, a data/parity distribution scheme similar to RAID 5, but using dynamic stripe width: every block is its own RAID stripe, regardless of blocksize, resulting in every RAID-Z write being a full-stripe write. This, when combined with the copy-on-write transactional semantics of ZFS, eliminates the write hole error. RAID-Z is also faster than traditional RAID 5 because it does not need to perform the usual read-modify-write sequence. RAID-Z does not require any special hardware, such as NVRAM for reliability, or write buffering for performance.[19] As all stripes are of different sizes, RAID-Z reconstruction has to traverse the filesystem metadata to determine the actual RAID-Z geometry. This would be impossible if the filesystem and the RAID array were separate products, whereas it becomes feasible when there is an integrated view of the logical and physical structure of the data. Going through the metadata means that ZFS can validate every block against its ...
The ZFS filesystem provides RAID-Z, a data/parity distribution scheme similar to RAID 5, but using dynamic stripe width: every block is its own RAID stripe, regardless of blocksize, resulting in every RAID-Z write being a full-stripe write. This, when combined with the copy-on-write transactional semantics of ZFS, eliminates the write hole error. RAID-Z is also faster than traditional RAID 5 because it does not need to perform the usual read-modify-write sequence. RAID-Z does not require any special hardware, such as NVRAM for reliability, or write buffering for performance.[19] As all stripes are of different sizes, RAID-Z reconstruction has to traverse the filesystem metadata to determine the actual RAID-Z geometry. This would be impossible if the filesystem and the RAID array were separate products, whereas it becomes feasible when there is an integrated view of the logical and physical structure of the data. Going through the metadata means that ZFS can validate every block against its ...
A diffusionless transformation in normal alkane: we observed an interesting pattern of twinned domains that occurs in the phase sequence of a particular n-alkane, tricosane (C23H48). Phase transitions between this twinned regime and one of its neighboring phases preserve atomic-scale features such as growth steps, indicating that the regime is entered via a diffusionless (martensitic-like) transition. This is an optical microscopy image, which shows a pattern of stripes with a spacing of 1 m organized into domains with sizes of tens of micrometers, as shown in figure at a temperature 42 C, stripes are separated into domains separated by two types of twin boundaries. ...
There may be several mascaras out there to enhance your eyelashes, but nothing works like a quality pair of cheap eyelashes. If you want longer and denser lashes to complete your look, you absolutely need to check out the eyelash collection by Madame Madeline. If you are new to makeup, youre in luck. Here, we will covers all the details about false eyelashes.. Purchasing False Eyelashes: When it comes to falsies, expensive isnt always better because there are some great brands out there available at a reasonable price. Here are a few things that you should know when you buy false lashes: ? Get the lashes made from human hair instead of the ones made from synthetic hair because they tend to blend well with your natural lash line.. ? Pay attention to the width of the eyelash. If you are new to makeup, you should go for a thin lash line as you will be able to achieve a natural look with it.. ? Thinner lash stripes are comfortable to wear since they are light in weight, so keep that in mind.. ? Keep ...
3. Maxi-mum Potential In contrast to its cousin, the mini, the 1970s-inspired maxi dress returned to haute couture two summers ago and is here to stay for now. As the style of the dress is floor-length or just above the ankles, it can easily overwhelm a smaller frame. If you plan on wearing one this year, be sure to find a maxi with a defined waistline so you dont resemble a floating bedsheet! Black halter and bohemian chic styles are common, while wilder patterns like zebra stripes are for a brave few ...
The packaging is adorable! The green stripes are super cute and the aluminum bottle does not take away from its chic look. I love that the cap sits on the bottle SECURELY, so I do not have to worry about it becoming detached while it is in my beach bag. Everyone wants to know what perfume I am wearing when I have it on (the scent is pretty powerful so there is no point in wearing a different perfume; I like to wear ones that are floral with it when I feel like I MUST wear a separate perfume. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for G1KI51 (G1KI51_ANOCA), Uncharacterized protein. Anolis carolinensis (Green anole) (American chameleon)
This week we had 5 prs. Pr. 1. 22/30 RFP+ No melanophores in some but also found no melanophores in rfp-. pr. 2. 29/34 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 3 25/31 RFP+ no Phenotype observed. pr. 4 23/31 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 5. 36/30 RFP+ some with no melanophores.. There were no linked phenotypes observed this week. ...
Oleme tegelenud Öko kauba müügiga aastast 2010. Mahekauplus on e-kaubamaja kus proovime hoida kvaliteetset ja heade hindadega mahetooteid. Tutvu öko kaubaga sii
Sinu parimate pakkumiste e-pood. Parima hinnaga sülearvutid, serverid, tarkvara ja muud kodu ja kaubad. Tasumine internetipangas või järelmaksuga. Kaup kätte 2 kuni 5 tööpäevaga.
Suur valik erinevaid toidulisandeid, vitamiine ning supertoite, mis aitavad toetada immunsussüsteemi ning vähendada väsimust. Kvaliteetne kaup soodsa hinnaga
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
Chromatophores. Chromatophores. Select Category. blip! (31). creations (410). ads (46). audio (1). collages (214). comic (23). ...
They can do this because they ave "chromatophores" in their skin. These chromatophores are connected to the fishs nervous ...
Chromatophore based cytosensor: Responses to various biologically active agents. 0. 0. 2. 0. 3. 0. 0. ...
Malleable skin coloration in cephalopods: selective reflectance, transmission and absorbance of light by chromatophores and ... Malleable skin coloration in cephalopods: selective reflectance, transmission and absorbance of light by chromatophores and ...
Questo uno di quei dischi che genera sensazioni contrastanti. Da una parte l`ottima fattura di un ciclo sonoro a base di cimbali e altri oggetti risonanti. D`altronde le qualit di Alfredo Costa Monteiro, fisarmonicista di base e animatore di ensemble quali Cremaster, i treni inerti e Reumatica, sono ben note. Il movimento, gli incastri, le sovrapposizioni timbriche vanno a creare un unico flusso armonico che lievita come una specie di `bolero` elettroacustico. Alcune fratture, come su pietra, servono a creare una specie di ritmo (seppur molto dilatato... quasi una specie di `dub` dell`infinito alla maniera di certi Godflesh) ed a passare al livello successivo. Quindi non ci sarebbe nulla da eccepire, almeno all`apparenza, se non che ormai esistono un po` troppi di questi dischi che suonano simili. Quindi hanno fatto bene il buon Monteiro e la Another Timbre ad optare per il formato CD-R, seppure il prezzo di 6 Pound non sia proprio dei pi appetibili. Per finire diciamo che l`acquisto consigliato ...
A seguire un eccellente disco desordio, il chitarrista francese (ex Cheval De Frise) evolve verso scenari ancor pi introversi con questo secondo CD prodotto su un proprio marchio creato alla bisogna (la cui denominazione tutto un programma). E sia laspetto spartano della confezione sia levoluzione autistica mostrata nei concerti pi recenti riflettono sicuramente una sua scelta di vita estremamente `waldeniana`. Se nel disco precedente era individuabile soprattutto un`attenzione rivolta alle armonizzazioni, qui Bonvalet sembra concentrarsi pi nei singoli suoni e nelle rispettive risonanze, in una ricerca che sembra essere essenzialmente di tipo timbrico. Ne esce fuori un lavoro forse pi frammentato del precedente (ma anche pi vario) dove la divisione in sette piste appare pi che altro un espediente tecnico mentre nella realt il tutto si suddivide in ben pi numerosi microframmenti. Cogli l`attimo, questo sembra essere al momento il suo credo principale. Unaltra differenza rispetto al CD ...
Tomasz Gadomski and Tomek Mirt l`incontrai per diversi lidi tra ascolti, passaggi, avventure sonore. Sappiamo gi del Brasile che c` nella loro Polonia, cos come conosciamo la loro predilizione per l`illustrazione vignettistica, a tratti naif, sempre poco declamata, gridata. E questo un altro episodio della loro discografia... non so se il pi bello, forse non certamente il pi ispirato, ma un disco comunque importante per il fatto di essere meno immediato degli altri loro lavori. Che c` dentro questo suono cosa assai complicata a dire: c` analogismo campionario cos come spruzzi ostinatamente celestiali (la meravigliosa s s , che d il titolo all`intero disco), c` materia memoriale che ripercorre movimenti canonici che vanno dal grande al piccolo ed al pi piccolo, e cos tocchi solitari di synth si sciolgono su ammortizzazioni ritmiche oppure si spargono attorno a certi elementi poetici piuttosto abbandonati, mai declamati e solipsistici. Come nel disco dei Brasil & Gallowbrothers Band, le migrazioni ...
Volendo, c` anche qualcosa di pi moderno, ma pur sempre adatto a veicolare quella sensazione di inettitudine alla vita , come la chiamava Pirandello, che spesso ci si sente addosso. Rispondono bene a questo appello da cuori morbidi anche gruppi pi o meno biecamente mainstream come Interpol, Editors e Franz Ferdinand, ma una coscienza musicalmente adulta spesso preferisce tenervisi a distanza e cercare qualcosa che continua almeno in parte ad annidarsi in un sottobosco che definire ormai underground fa quasi ridere. Ecco allora da New York questi Fat les, perfetti per momenti come questi, con la voce di Wayne Switzer, pulitissima, dai toni patetici e strappalacrime, i tocchi di tastiera che rimandano ai mai dimenticati Breathless, ed un violoncello a dare l`ultimo tocco di straripante malinconia. La sessione ritmica, spesso fissa sui tamburi, in pieno stile wave (alla Bauhaus diciamo) riesce comunque a mantenere viva anche una certa vivacit , che unita ai delay delle chitarre ha fatto la fortuna ...
Questi due quartetti d`archi di Peter Garland non possiedono certo la forza eversiva dei lavori di Radu Malfatti o Elliott Sharp e neppure ostentano la prepotente modernit di tanti altri compositori contemporanei. Hanno, viceversa, un sapore antico. Eppure impossibile non restare basiti di fronte alla profondit , all`ardire e alla fantasia degli intrecci armonici creati da Garland. Composti rispettivamente nel 1986 e ad iniziare dal 1994, i due lavori utilizzano la forma per eccellenza del classicismo da camera per ripercorrere i temi ed i territori notoriamente cari all`autore: dalle mese del Messico e degli stati a sud dell`Unione ai templi dell`estremo oriente. I titoli dei vari movimenti, e le dediche ad essi associate, narrano di tutto ci ed impossibile non riconoscervi l`autore sensibile che in passato ci aveva gi dato opere amate quali Border Music , Matachin Dances , Nana + Victorio oltre alle scritture per pianoforte affidate alle delicate mani di Aki Takahashi. Ma i riferimenti si ...
In discesa negli inferi nella disgregazione metropolitana dell`avant-rock per il tris Farina / Pupillo / Zerang tramite la triangolazione molto harsh chitarra elettrica, basso, batteria. Effetto sorpresa assicurato con Still Life With Commercials , che seppur appaia nella forma di diamante grezzo florido di raggi, un famelico assertore dell`essenzialit (il tutto supera di poco i 37 minuti), assegnandosi cos il primo punto a proprio favore. Il dopo dipende esclusivamente dall`esperienza del trio nell`escogitare dentro questo ristretto perimetro una catena di dinamiche cos vicine e cos lontane a qualsiasi catalogazione di stile. L`opening track, Raids On The Unspeakable, cupo sgomento in veste di cortina isolazionista, bruciacchiata all`esterno da corde sminuzzate come cipolle di vetro, pietra e acciaio, vilipese e scorticate; il risucchio nel vuoto dei Main con l`improvvisata acustica dei Klaxon Gueule prima gettata. Neti, Neti fioco pallore ethno (la lead melody della chitarra... orientale? ...
Chromatophores of Zoeae and megalopa are vermillion or crimson in C. japonicus and brown or reddish in C. opilio. (2) C. ...
Music is a passion, an art, a science, but maybe most importantly… music is fun! Variations of "electronic instruments" can be traced back as early as the late 1700s, but it is no exaggeration to say that the biggest breakthrough was the invention of Synthesizers in the 1950s. This marriage of music and electrical engineering undoubtedly has inspired and continues to inspire people to learn more about both the science of electricity and music.. Our newest trilogy of experiments is designed to get any student or hobbyist experimenting and developing with a new kind of musical interface…. a Brain-Music Interface! Electrical signals from your brain and your muscles will become the music you hear. Check out the experiments below!. ...
For the past nine years, Tim has had a subscription to Wired Magazine, and he always read the articles on the internet revolution, learning about the drama, personalities, and technology involved with the rapidly changing world of computers. Longingly, he has despaired, wishing neuroscience and biology R&D could be similarly fast with low barriers to entry. We at Backyard Brains are trying to change that, and so it was a special treat this month to be included in the print version of Wired. If you strain your eyes on page 153, youll see a postage stamp sized picture of the SpikerBox in the 100 geek gifts for the holidays. Perhaps the soldering iron will replace the wiimote for some folks this year [Disclosure: we love the wii too and take no political/intellectual stance regarding video games].. ...
  • This is because they have unique cells called chromatophores, which are cells with pigments inside that reflect light, giving them the ability to glow and change their colors. (cabomarlini.com)

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