The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The absence of light.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (1/112)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Stripe formation in juvenile Pomacanthus explained by a generalized turing mechanism with chemotaxis. (2/112)

Current interest in pattern formation can be traced to a seminal paper by Turing, who demonstrated that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals, called morphogens, can interact so as to produce stable nonuniform concentration patterns in space. Recently, a Turing model has been suggested to explain the development of pigmentation patterns on species of growing angelfish such as Pomacanthus semicirculatus, which exhibit readily observed changes in the number, size, and orientation of colored stripes during development of juvenile and adult stages, but the model fails to predict key features of the observations on stripe formation. Here we develop a generalized Turing model incorporating cell growth and movement, we analyze the effects of these processes on patterning, and we demonstrate that the model can explain important features of pattern formation in a growing system such as Pomacanthus. The applicability of classical Turing models to biological pattern formation is limited by virtue of the sensitivity of patterns to model parameters, but here we show that the incorporation of growth results in robustly generated patterns without strict parameter control. In the model, chemotaxis in response to gradients in a morphogen distribution leads to aggregation of one type of pigment cell into a striped spatial pattern.  (+info)

Hybrid Rhodospirillum rubrum F(0)F(1) ATP synthases containing spinach chloroplast F(1) beta or alpha and beta subunits reveal the essential role of the alpha subunit in ATP synthesis and tentoxin sensitivity. (3/112)

Trace amounts ( approximately 5%) of the chloroplast alpha subunit were found to be absolutely required for effective restoration of catalytic function to LiCl-treated chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum with the chloroplast beta subunit (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072). To clarify the role of the alpha subunit in the rebinding of beta, restoration of catalytic function, and conferral of sensitivity to the chloroplast-specific inhibitor tentoxin, LiCl-treated chromatophores were analyzed by immunoblotting before and after reconstitution with mixtures of R. rubrum and chloroplast alpha and beta subunits. The treated chromatophores were found to have lost, in addition to most of their beta subunits, approximately a third of the alpha subunits, and restoration of catalytic activity required rebinding of both subunits. The hybrid reconstituted with the R. rubrum alpha and chloroplast beta subunits was active in ATP synthesis as well as hydrolysis, and both activities were completely resistant to tentoxin. In contrast, a hybrid reconstituted with both chloroplast alpha and beta subunits restored only a MgATPase activity, which was fully inhibited by tentoxin. These results indicate that all three copies of the R. rubrum alpha subunit are required for proton-coupled ATP synthesis, whereas for conferral of tentoxin sensitivity at least one copy of the chloroplast alpha subunit is required together with the chloroplast beta subunit. The hybrid system was further used to examine the effects of amino acid substitution at position 83 of the beta subunit on sensitivity to tentoxin.  (+info)

The calcium dependence of pigment translocation in freshwater shrimp red ovarian chromatophores. (4/112)

The roles of calcium in cell signaling consequent to chromatophorotropin action and as an activator of mechanochemical transport proteins responsible for pigment granule translocation were investigated in the red ovarian chromatosomes of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. Chromatosomes were perfused with known concentrations of free Ca++ (10(-3) to 10(-9) M) prepared in Mg(++)-EGTA-buffered physiological saline after selectively permeabilizing with 25 microM calcium ionophore A23187 or with 10(-8) M red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). The degree of pigment aggregation and the translocation velocity of the leading edges of the pigment mass were recorded in individual chromatosomes during aggregation induced by RPCH or A23187 and dispersion induced by low Ca++. Aggregation is Ca++ dependent, showing a dual extracellular and intracellular requirement. After perfusion with reduced Ca++ (10(-4) to 10(-9) M), RPCH triggers partial aggregation (approximately 65%), although the maximum translocation velocities (approximately 16.5 microns/min) and velocity profiles are unaffected. After aggregation induced at or below 10(-5) M Ca++, spontaneous pigment dispersion ensues, suggesting a Ca++ requirement for RPCH coupling to its receptor, or a concentration-dependent, Ca(++)-induced Ca(++)-release mechanism. The Ca(++)-channel blockers Mn++ (5 mM) and verapamil (50 microM) have no effect on RPCH-triggered aggregation. An intracellular Ca++ requirement for aggregation was demonstrated in chromatosomes in which the Ca++ gradient across the cell membrane was dissipated with A23187. At free [Ca++] above 10(-3) M, aggregation is complete; at 10(-4) M, aggregation is partial, followed by spontaneous dispersion; below 10(-5) M Ca++, pigments do not aggregate but disperse slightly. Aggregation velocities diminish from 11.6 +/- 1.2 microns/min at 5.5 mM Ca++ to 7.4 +/- 1.3 microns/min at 10(-4) M Ca++. Half-maximum aggregation occurs at 3.2 x 10(-5) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 4.8 x 10(-5) M Ca++. Pigment redispersion after 5.5 mM Ca(++)-A23187-induced aggregation is initiated by reducing extracellular Ca++: slight dispersion begins at 10(-7) M, complete dispersion being attained at 10(-9) M Ca++. Dispersion velocities increase from 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.5 microns/min. Half-maximum dispersion occurs at 7.6 x 10(-9) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 2.9 x 10(-9) M Ca++. These data reveal an extracellular and an intracellular Ca++ requirement for RPCH action, and demonstrate that the centripetal or centrifugal direction of pigment movement, the translocation velocity, and the degree of pigment aggregation or dispersion attained are calcium-dependent properties of the granule translocation apparatus.  (+info)

Reflective properties of iridophores and fluorescent 'eyespots' in the loliginid squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris. (5/112)

Observations were made of the reflective properties of the iridophore stripes of the squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris, and the likely functions of these stripes are considered in terms of concealment and signalling. In both species, the mantle muscle is almost transparent. Stripes of iridophores run along the length of each side of the mantle, some of which, when viewed at normal incidence in white light, reflect red, others green or blue. When viewed obliquely, the wavebands best reflected move towards the blue/ultraviolet end of the spectrum and their reflections are almost 100% polarised. These are properties of quarter-wavelength stacks of chitin and cytoplasm, predicted in theoretical analyses made by Sir A. F. Huxley and Professor M. F. Land. The reflecting surfaces of the individual iridophores are almost flat and, in a given stripe, these surfaces are within a few degrees of being parallel. Both species of squid have conspicuous, brightly coloured reflectors above their eyes. These 'eyespots' have iridescent layers similar to those found on the mantle but are overlaid by a green fluorescent layer that does not change colour or become polarised as it is viewed more obliquely. In the sea, all reflections from the iridophore stripes will be largely confined to the blue-green parts of the spectrum and all reflections in other wavebands, such as those in the red and near ultraviolet, will be weak. The functions of the iridophores reflecting red at normal incidence must be sought in their reflections of blue-green at oblique angles of incidence. These squid rely for their camouflage mainly on their transparency, and the ventral iridophores and the red, green and blue reflective stripes must be used mainly for signalling. The reflectivities of some of these stripes are relatively low, allowing a large fraction of the incident light to be transmitted into the mantle cavity. Despite their low reflectivities, the stripes are very conspicuous when viewed from some limited directions because they reflect light from directions for which the radiances are much higher than those of the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The reflective patterns seen, for example, by neighbouring squid when schooling depend on the orientation of the squid in the external light field and the position of the squid relative to these neighbours.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of crystals from the dermal iridophores of a chameleon Anolis carolinensis. (6/112)

The biochemical characteristics of dermal iridophore crystals from Anolis carolinensis have been investigated. Iridophores isolated by collangenase-hyaluronidase treatment were sonicated and their contents fractionated through sucrose. Pure iridophore crystals so obtained were examined by chromatography and electron diffraction. They were found to be pure hydrated crystalline form. The suggestion is made that the subcrystalline structure of this guanine does not play a role in color production by the iridophore.  (+info)

Behavioral visual responses of wild-type and hypopigmented zebrafish. (7/112)

Zebrafish possess three classes of chromatophores that include iridophores, melanophores, and xanthophores. Mutations that lack one or two classes of chromatophores have been isolated or genetically constructed. Using a behavioral assay based on visually mediated escape responses, we measured the visual response of fully and partially pigmented zebrafish. In zebrafish that lack iridophores (roy mutants), the behavioral visual responses were similar to those of wild-type animals except at low contrast stimulation. In the absence of melanophores (albino mutants) or both melanophores and iridophores (ruby mutants), the behavioral visual responses were normal under moderate illumination but reduced when tested under dim or bright conditions or under low contrast stimulation. Together, the data suggest that screening pigments in the retina play a role in the regulation of behavioral visual responses and are necessary for avoiding "scatter" under bright light conditions.  (+info)

Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development. (8/112)

Ectothermic vertebrates exhibit a diverse array of adult pigment patterns. A common element of these patterns is alternating dark and light stripes each comprising different classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, alternating horizontal stripes of black melanophores and yellow xanthophores are a prominent feature of the adult pigment pattern. In fms mutant zebrafish, however, xanthophores fail to develop and melanophore stripes are severely disrupted. fms encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by xanthophores and their precursors and is the closest known homologue of kit, which has long been studied for roles in pigment pattern development in amniotes. In this study we assess the cellular and temporal requirements for Fms activity in promoting adult pigment pattern development. By transplanting cells between fms mutants and either wild-type or nacre mutant zebrafish, we show that fms acts autonomously to the xanthophore lineage in promoting the striped arrangement of adult melanophores. To identify critical periods for fms activity, we isolated temperature sensitive alleles of fms and performed reciprocal temperature shift experiments at a range of stages from embryo to adult. These analyses demonstrate that Fms is essential for maintaining cells of the xanthophore lineage as well as maintaining the organization of melanophore stripes throughout development. Finally, we show that restoring Fms activity even at late larval stages allows essentially complete recovery of xanthophores and the development of a normal melanophore stripe pattern. Our findings suggest that fms is not required for establishing a population of precursor cells during embryogenesis but is required for recruiting pigment cell precursors to xanthophore fates, with concomitant effects on melanophore organization.  (+info)

Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
The chromatophores are extremely abundant, and can be differentiated into three types, small disc shaped bodies in the upper part of the stratum spongiosum 1-5 μm across, a middle layer of irregular spheroid to ovoid cells, with a granular interior made up of two types of granules (smaller irregular sub-spherical granules and larger rounded granules), and a lower layer comprising larger smooth surfaced ovoid cells with prominant lateral processes. These are interpretted as being different types of chromatophores based upon comparison with living Snakes, with an upper layer of iridophores (reflective, irridescent cells), a middle layer of xanthophores (cells contianing yellow carotenoid pigments) and erythrophores (cells contianing orange pteridine pigments), and a base layer comprising melanophores (cells with black or dark brown melanin pigments ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.. https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes (see link below), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. AU - Odenthal, J. AU - Rossnagel, K. AU - Haffter, P. AU - Kelsh, R N. AU - Vogelsang, E. AU - Brand, M. AU - vanEeden, F J M. AU - Furutani-Seiki, Makoto. AU - Granato, M. AU - Hammerschmidt, M. AU - Heisenberg, C P. AU - Jiang, Y J. AU - Kane, D A. AU - Mullins, M C. AU - NussleinVolhard, C. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - In a large-scale screen for mutants with defects in embryonic development we identified 17 genes (65 mutants) specifically required for the development of xanthophores, We provide evidence that these genes are required for three different aspects of xanthophore development, (1) Pigment cell formation and migration (pfeffer and salt); (2) pigment synthesis (edison, yobo, yocca and brie) and (3) pigment translocation (esrom, tilsit and tofu). The number of xanthophore cells that appear in the body is reduced in embryos with mutations in the two genes, salt and pfeffer. In heterozygous and ...
In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from ...
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chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fishing for iridophores, catching an oncogene. AU - Kelsh, R. N.. AU - Lopes, S. S.. AU - Muller, Jeanette. AU - Carney, T. J.. AU - McAdow, R. A.. AU - Rauch, J.. AU - Jacoby, A. S.. AU - Hurst, L. D.. AU - Haffter, P.. AU - Geisler, R.. AU - Johnson, S. J. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. U2 - 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2004.00187_2.x. M3 - Article. VL - 17. SP - 563. JO - Pigment Cell Research. JF - Pigment Cell Research. SN - 0893-5785. IS - 5. T2 - 12th Meeting of the European Society for Pigment Cell Research, 2004. Y2 - 22 September 2004 through 25 September 2004. ER - ...
The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebras outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid
Frustules in short or long filaments, sometimes free, oblong, separated by foramina and united by setae crossing each other near their insertion. Valves convex, concave or plane, usually elliptical, sometimes nearly circular. From each valve extend two setae, one on each side, which cross the setae of the opposing valve. Setae robust or slender, variable in length, with or without spines, punctate or transversely striated, often hollow. Chromatophores of various kinds, either laminate, single, on the wall of the zone, double, one on each valve, or granular and more or less numerous, either on the wall of the cell or scattered through the cell and the setae. Pyrenoids occasionally found. Spores occur in some species with more or less equal and convex valves, sometimes furnished with spines or with the setae of the parent cell attached. All species are marine or occur in saline water. Gran classifies the genus according to the chromatophores. The variation in number and form of the chromatophores ...
Radios blandos dorsales (total): 9; Radios blandos anales: 9; Vértebra: 34 - 35. Semicircular indentation present on the ventromedian flange of the dentary. Branched anal rays 5. Weberian apparatus with the 4th centrum extending well below the fused 2nd + 3rd centra. Sexual dichromatism conspicuous; melanophores in males are a little stronger, and the erythrophores and iridophores are much more developed. When disturbed, repeated croaking sounds are produced. No lateral line pores nor barbels (Ref. 38434). ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Short-eared owls are less commonly seen at Critter Creek. They are usually found on the open chaparral and flatlands on the western side of the Central Valley. They are medium-sized owls at about 15 inches tall. The basic body coloration is streaked tawny brown with light facial disks. Their markings are quite striking. They have bright yellow eyes with no ear tufts. The vocalization is a high, raspy barking sound. They are silent in flight. Because their eyes are positioned in the front of their head, they have excellent binocular vision even at close range. Their vision at night is 100 times more sensitive than humans and their hearing is equally sensitive. The feathery facial disks help channel sound to their large eardrums. They are capable of turning their head 270 degrees.. ...
KECLEON alters its body coloration to blend in with its surroundings, allowing it to sneak up on its prey unnoticed. Then it lashes out with its long, stretchy tongue to instantly ensnare the unsuspecting target ...
An assaying device and a method of manufacturing same are provided. The assaying device includes a unitary, absorbent membrane having multiple reagent stripes incorporated therein. The reagent stripes display an observable reaction if a sample component is present in a fluid sample being tested. The reagent stripes are deposited simultaneously on a continuous membrane ribbon and individual membranes are die cut therefrom. Each individual membrane includes commonly connected channels having die cut slots therebetween. The channels are preferably disposed perpendicularly with respect to the reagent stripes and provide means for causing contact between the fluid and reagent stripes. The present invention preferably includes a cassette for containing the membrane and for facilitating analysis of test results. During assembly of an assaying device, the unitary membrane is easily inserted into the cassette by engaging the slots with ridges in the cassette, thus minimizing a chance of error of alignment of the
this is a study of all woman workers, not nurse specific, but is still pretty thought provoking - and nothing really new as it is similar to numerous other studies over the years. heres the brief
Synonyms for Anolis carolinensis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anolis carolinensis. 2 synonyms for Anolis carolinensis: American chameleon, anole. What are synonyms for Anolis carolinensis?
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
Squids from the family Loliginidae (Suborder: Myopsida) are represented by 47 species grouped in ten genera and nine subgenera (Jereb et al., 2010). They are widely distributed in neritic zones of tropical, subtropical, and temperate seas around the world, excepting Polar Regions (Young, 1972; Okutani, 1980; (Roper et al, 1984; Hanlon et al., 1992). In Mexico, loliginids are commonly fished artisanally, and also caught as by-catch in trawl fisheries for shrimp (e.g., Litopenaeus stylirostris, L. vannamei, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, and F. brevirostris), off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California Roper et al., 1984, 1995; Cardozo & Valdivieso, 1988; Barrientos & Garcia-Cubas, 1997; Alejo-Plata et al, 2001, 2002).. Five species have been reported off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California: Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) panamensis Berry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis) diomedeae (Hoyle, 1904), ...
Cephalopoda have extreme nervous development, predacious and a closed circulatory system.. Order Teuthida. All organisms in the order Teuthida are marine squid.. Family Loligidae. Consists of mostly of squid that occupy waters that cover the continental shelves. They all have a cornea that covers the lens of each eye. Genus Sepioteuthis. Broad, posterior rounded mantle and fins that extend the full length of the mantle. Compared to other Loliginids, Sepioteuthis lay much larger eggs. Species Sepioteuthis lessoniana. One of three Sepioteuthis species. For more information please visit zipcodezoo.com for a look into a favorite species of your own!. ...
tags: Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, reptiles, North Carolina, Image of the Day I am the Anole King, I can do anything. Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, Carolina Beach, NC. Image: Don Wirth [larger].. ...
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A recent news release from Harvard University gave an insight on cuttlefishs camouflaging techniques. It will help military members during war times.. The cuttlefish, also called the chameleon of the sea, can swiftly alter both the color and pattern of its skin, letting it to unify in its surroundings and conceal from predators.. In a paper published January 29 in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the Harvard-Marine Biological Laboratory team reports new details on the sophisticated bimolecular nanophotonic system underlying the cuttlefishs color-changing ways.. The cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is a cephalopod, like squid and octopuses. Neurally controlled, pigmented organs called chromatophores allow it to change its appearance as a reaction to the visual clues, but scientists have had an insufficient understanding of the chemical, biological and optical functions that make this adaptive coloration likely.. Nature solved the riddle of adaptive camouflage a long time ago, said ...
Skin pigment patterns of vertebrates are a classic system for understanding fundamental mechanisms of morphogenesis, differentiation, and pattern formation, and recent studies of zebrafish have started to elucidate the cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. In thi …
foxd3 encodes a winged helix/forkhead class transcription factor expressed in the premigratory neural crest cells of many vertebrates. We have investigated the function of this gene in zebrafish neural crest by a loss of function approach using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and immunostaining for Foxd3 protein. Knockdown of Foxd3 expression produces deficits in several differentiated neural crest derivatives, including jaw cartilage, peripheral neurons, and glia, and iridophore pigment cells. Other derivatives, such as melanophore and xanthophore pigment cells are not affected. Reduction in the expression of several lineage-specific markers becomes evident soon after the onset of neural crest migration, suggesting that Foxd3 knockdown affects these lineages at early stages in their development. In contrast, analysis of the expression of early neural crest markers indicates little effect on neural crest induction or initial emigration. Finally, cell transplantation suggests that with ...
In goldfish xanthophores, the formation of pigment aggregate requires: 1) that a pigment organelle (carotenoid droplet) protein p57 be in the unphosphorylated state; 2) that self-association of pigment organelles occur in a microtubule-independent ma
Sometimes confused with S. beauforti when young. They can be easily told apart in adult due to the disparate size, and S. beauforti becomes a rather plain fish. S. beauforti only reaches around 4 inches. A good indicator in juveniles is the direction of the stripes anterior to the dorsal fin. In S. beauforti, the stripes are orientated so that they start at the dorsal surface with the bottom of the stripes finishing further towards the rear of the fish. Posterior to the dorsal, the stripes are only slightly more vertical. In S. berdmorei, the stripes posterior of the dorsal are vertical. S. berdmorei has a series of mixed size, dark oval spots and dashes, aligned horizontally in rows along the dorsal half of the body, and two prominent black stripes that run from the nose and over above the eyes, breaking up into two rows of dashes as they go towards the dorsal origin. Two finer black lines connect the dark rostral barbels and the eyes. S. beauforti shares a similar pattern, but the markings are ...
endomembrane system, integral component of membrane, plasma membrane, presynaptic active zone membrane, presynaptic membrane, SNARE complex, synaptic vesicle, SNAP receptor activity, SNARE binding, exocytosis
cytoplasm, actin binding, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, actin cytoskeleton organization, negative regulation of actin filament polymerization
A BioProject is a collection of biological data related to a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioProject record provides users a single place to find links to the diverse data types generated for that project
Zebrafish, Danio rerio, develop patterns of colorful stripes on their skin thanks to pigmented cells-dark melanophores, orange-gold xanthophores, and iridescent iridophores. 0 Comments. ...
Insane in the Chromatophores from Backyard Brains on Vimeo.. The folks at Backyard Brains, a DIY-neurobiology project, made these pigment-producing cells in a dead squid pulse to the base beats of Cypress Hills Insane in the Brain. Go watch that thing right now.. Done? Wowed? Prepare to be more wowed: They did it by exploiting the fact that electrical current is key to both the actions of cells and the playing of mp3s. These pigmented cells, called chromatophores, are surrounded by muscle cells, and its by flexing these muscles that the squid reveals its colorful spots. By hooked up the nerve that sends the flexing orders to the wire of a set of earbuds, they got these amazing results.. Heres their description of how music made the muscles pulse:. ...
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Polymorphisms involving melanistic versus banded colour phases in terrestrial snakes typically have been attributed to the effects of dorsal colour on rates of thermal exchange. That is, darker dorsal colour facilitates heat uptake, perhaps at the cost of increased conspicuousness and, thus, vulnerability to predation (Andren & Nilson 1981; Gibson & Falls 1988; Madsen & Stille 1988; Luiselli 1992; King 1993; Shine & Madsen 1994; King & Lawson 1995; Lindell & Forsman 1996; Zaidan 2001; Bittner et al. 2002). However, thermal-based explanations cannot be applied to the case in Emydocephalus, because (unlike on land) colour does not affect the body temperatures of a snake under water (Shine et al. 2003). Our data suggest another potential fitness consequence of colour in seasnakes (and potentially other aquatic animals): susceptibility to algal fouling.. Our results support two key predictions from the hypothesis that body coloration affects algal fouling. First, black snakes were more heavily ...
Distinguished from congeners in British Isles by the following characters: body coloration plain purplish-brown (silvery to goldish outside spawning season), belly creamy-pink to light orange in large individuals; eye large, about 3.7-4.0 times in HL; snout blunt; pectoral fin equal to or longer than head, sometimes almost reaching pelvic origin in large males; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins reddish; pelvic and anal fins with white anterior margin, very narrow in pectoral; maxilla reaching posterior margin of eye or beyond (Ref. 59043). ...
To the untrained eye, certain butterflies can look essentially identical to corresponding varieties of another species. This way they can evade predators, who wont eat them because the insects theyre copying taste terrible.. Biologists since Darwins time have wondered how these butterflies can so closely mimic the wing and body coloration patterns of an unrelated kind. Now, an international team of researchers has sorted out the genetics, and what it found was not at all what was expected.. Publishing online in the journal Nature, the team found that the varieties of color patterns in butterflies of the genus Heliconius corresponded perfectly with single DNA base differences found in a special set of genes called a supergene. This supergene, named P, consists of only a few gene sets that are shuffled in discrete patterns. Different generations can variously deploy differently ordered gene-blocks so that a single kind can express different color patterns using the same DNA. Analyses of 31 ...
The band was playing at the boxing contest the other night. Hicks in the band too. He also has a stripe, acting lance corporal. He does not get any extra pay for it, but it is a start if you intend to rise from the ranks. Stripes are not hard to get if you have no influence behind you, and if you have not got that one has to do things that is against my grain if I wanted to start, but as I have said before I did not come away for money, stripes or anything else, it was experience and I got it. A private will do me, a private is a man that can hold out his hand without it shaking when getting his money, he was the only man that did his job properly on the Peninsular, it was not his fault because they had to evacuate. ...
The ZFS filesystem provides RAID-Z, a data/parity distribution scheme similar to RAID 5, but using dynamic stripe width: every block is its own RAID stripe, regardless of blocksize, resulting in every RAID-Z write being a full-stripe write. This, when combined with the copy-on-write transactional semantics of ZFS, eliminates the write hole error. RAID-Z is also faster than traditional RAID 5 because it does not need to perform the usual read-modify-write sequence. RAID-Z does not require any special hardware, such as NVRAM for reliability, or write buffering for performance.[19] As all stripes are of different sizes, RAID-Z reconstruction has to traverse the filesystem metadata to determine the actual RAID-Z geometry. This would be impossible if the filesystem and the RAID array were separate products, whereas it becomes feasible when there is an integrated view of the logical and physical structure of the data. Going through the metadata means that ZFS can validate every block against its ...
The ZFS filesystem provides RAID-Z, a data/parity distribution scheme similar to RAID 5, but using dynamic stripe width: every block is its own RAID stripe, regardless of blocksize, resulting in every RAID-Z write being a full-stripe write. This, when combined with the copy-on-write transactional semantics of ZFS, eliminates the write hole error. RAID-Z is also faster than traditional RAID 5 because it does not need to perform the usual read-modify-write sequence. RAID-Z does not require any special hardware, such as NVRAM for reliability, or write buffering for performance.[19] As all stripes are of different sizes, RAID-Z reconstruction has to traverse the filesystem metadata to determine the actual RAID-Z geometry. This would be impossible if the filesystem and the RAID array were separate products, whereas it becomes feasible when there is an integrated view of the logical and physical structure of the data. Going through the metadata means that ZFS can validate every block against its ...
A diffusionless transformation in normal alkane: we observed an interesting pattern of twinned domains that occurs in the phase sequence of a particular n-alkane, tricosane (C23H48). Phase transitions between this twinned regime and one of its neighboring phases preserve atomic-scale features such as growth steps, indicating that the regime is entered via a diffusionless (martensitic-like) transition. This is an optical microscopy image, which shows a pattern of stripes with a spacing of 1 m organized into domains with sizes of tens of micrometers, as shown in figure at a temperature 42 C, stripes are separated into domains separated by two types of twin boundaries. ...
There may be several mascaras out there to enhance your eyelashes, but nothing works like a quality pair of cheap eyelashes. If you want longer and denser lashes to complete your look, you absolutely need to check out the eyelash collection by Madame Madeline. If you are new to makeup, youre in luck. Here, we will covers all the details about false eyelashes.. Purchasing False Eyelashes: When it comes to falsies, expensive isnt always better because there are some great brands out there available at a reasonable price. Here are a few things that you should know when you buy false lashes: ? Get the lashes made from human hair instead of the ones made from synthetic hair because they tend to blend well with your natural lash line.. ? Pay attention to the width of the eyelash. If you are new to makeup, you should go for a thin lash line as you will be able to achieve a natural look with it.. ? Thinner lash stripes are comfortable to wear since they are light in weight, so keep that in mind.. ? Keep ...
3. Maxi-mum Potential In contrast to its cousin, the mini, the 1970s-inspired maxi dress returned to haute couture two summers ago and is here to stay for now. As the style of the dress is floor-length or just above the ankles, it can easily overwhelm a smaller frame. If you plan on wearing one this year, be sure to find a maxi with a defined waistline so you dont resemble a floating bedsheet! Black halter and bohemian chic styles are common, while wilder patterns like zebra stripes are for a brave few ...
The packaging is adorable! The green stripes are super cute and the aluminum bottle does not take away from its chic look. I love that the cap sits on the bottle SECURELY, so I do not have to worry about it becoming detached while it is in my beach bag. Everyone wants to know what perfume I am wearing when I have it on (the scent is pretty powerful so there is no point in wearing a different perfume; I like to wear ones that are floral with it when I feel like I MUST wear a separate perfume. ...
This week we had 5 prs. Pr. 1. 22/30 RFP+ No melanophores in some but also found no melanophores in rfp-. pr. 2. 29/34 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 3 25/31 RFP+ no Phenotype observed. pr. 4 23/31 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 5. 36/30 RFP+ some with no melanophores.. There were no linked phenotypes observed this week. ...
Oleme tegelenud Öko kauba müügiga aastast 2010. Mahekauplus on e-kaubamaja kus proovime hoida kvaliteetset ja heade hindadega mahetooteid. Tutvu öko kaubaga sii
The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is one of the most economically important squid species in Japan; however, its population structure is poorly understood due to the lack of hypervariable markers. Such information is critical for managing sustainable fisheries, as well as for ensuring the existence of wild S. lessoniana stocks. Eleven candidate microsatellite loci were isolated from a small insert genomic DNA library. Polymorphisms in these 11 loci were screened in 24 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus was found to range from 5 to 19 alleles, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.292 to 0.958. No evidence for linkage disequilibrium was detected among all the loci. The genotypic proportions conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except at one locus. In conclusion, these polymorphic microsatellite loci may be used to develop a genetic framework to manage S. lessoniana in the future.
The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish-although color blind-actively match various colors of their immedia
Information about population structure, ecological aspects and reproductive biology of Amazonian freshwater shrimps is scarce in the scientific literature and concentrated in studies conducted in rivers. In this study we present data about species composition, population structure, abundance, fecundity and effects of abiotic factors on the distribution of freshwater shrimps in small streams at an urban forest fragment in Manaus, Central Amazonia. We collected the shrimps using minnow-traps in 12 first- and second-order streams in dry and rainy seasons. We found four species: Macrobrachium ferreirai Kensley & Walker, 1982, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley & Walker, 1982, Macrobrachium nattereri (Heller, 1862) and Pseudopalaemon amazonensis Ramos-Porto, 1979. First order streams had a higher number of species. Adults and juveniles of all species and ovigerous females were found in the majority of the sampling events. Males were more abundant and larger than females in all species of Macrobrachium. All species
Imprinting on ecologically divergent traits of odour and body coloration produces sexual isolation in benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. As odour or body coloration diverged owing to species differences in ecology, imprinting could have rapidly driven divergence in mate preference and sexual isolation between species would have resulted. Therefore, imprinting has turned odour and nuptial coloration into magic traits. Previous work has identified other components of pre- and post-mating isolation in sticklebacks which are ecologically dependent [13,15,21]. These mechanisms combine with imprinting to produce strong isolation between these incipient species. Speciation in benthics and limnetics appears to be driven by ecological divergence in multiple dimensions [40]. Imprinting may also play a role in other stickleback species pairs and the adaptive radiation of sticklebacks worldwide [41].. Our results provide new insight into the role of imprinting in speciation, providing an explanation for the ...
To better understand how pigment granules themselves absorb or scatter light, a model chromatophore containing a 5 µm cube of densely packed pigment granules was constructed in silico (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(i,ii)). Reflectins have an index of refraction as high as 1.59 [28], which provide important guidance in defining the model parameters. The amount of reflected light from the pigment granules packed within the cube was calculated using FDTD simulations (Lumerical, FDTD Solutions) [14]. FDTD Solutions is a complete Maxwell solver providing numerical solutions for three-dimensional electromagnetic fields and was used to determine the role of pigment refractive index and granular structure on chromatophore absorbance over a wide frequency range. Pigment refractive index within the simulated chromatophores was varied from 1.33 to 1.65 (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(iii)). Our comparison between the simulation and experimentally measured reflectivity ...
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The even-skipped (eve) pair-rule gene plays a key role in the establishment of the anterior-posterior segmental pattern of the Drosophila embryo. The continuously changing pattern of eve expression can be resolved into two phases. Early expression consists of seven broad stripes in the blastoderm embryo, while late expression, which occurs after cellularization, consists of narrow stripes with sharp anterior borders that coincide with the odd-numbered parasegment boundaries. Previous studies have shown that these two phases are controlled by separate classes of cis elements in the eve promoter. Early stripes are expressed by multiple stripe-specific elements under the control of maternal-effect genes and gap genes, while late stripes are expressed by a single regulatory element, the late element, under the control of pair-rule genes including eve itself. We report here that paired (prd), a pair-rule gene which had been considered to be below eve in the regulatory hierarchy of pair-rule genes, ...
Studies on Caucasian twins, both fraternal and similar, have shown that eye shade over time can be subject to alter, and major demelanization of the iris may also be genetically decided. Most eye-colour changes have been noticed or reported within the Caucasian inhabitants with hazel and amber eyes.. The authors suggest that the mutation could have arisen in the northwestern part of the Black Sea area, and add that its tough to calculate the age of the mutation. The eyes of some pigeons include yellow fluorescing pigments often known as pteridines. The shiny yellow eyes of the great horned owl are thought to be because of the presence of the pteridine pigment xanthopterin within certain chromatophores situated in the iris stroma. In humans, yellowish specks or patches are regarded as as a result of pigment lipofuscin, also called lipochrome. Many animals corresponding to canines, domestic cats, owls, eagles, pigeons and fish have amber eyes as a standard colour, whereas in humans this color ...
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ion-exchange and adsorption of Fe(III) by Sepia melanin. AU - Liu, Yan. AU - Hong, Lian. AU - Kempf, Valerie R.. AU - Wakamatsu, Kazumasa. AU - Ito, Shosuke. AU - Simon, John D.. PY - 2004/6/1. Y1 - 2004/6/1. N2 - Sepia eumelanin is associated with many metal ions, yet little is known about its metal binding capacity and the chemical nature of the binding site(s). Herein, the natural concentrations of metal ions are presented and the ability to remove metals by exposure of the melanin granules to EDTA is quantified. The results reveal that the binding constants of melanin at pH 5.8 for Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Cu(II) are, respectively, 5, 4, 14 and 34 times greater than the corresponding binding constants of these ions with EDTA. By exposing Sepia eumelanin to aqueous solutions of FeCl3, the content of bound Fe(III) can be increased from a natural concentration of ∼180 ppm to a saturation limit of ∼80 000 ppm or 1.43 mmol/g of melanin. Similar saturation limits are found ...
Pigment patterns of Danio fishes are a tractable system for assessing the developmental genetic bases for the evolution of adult form in vertebrates. These pigment patterns include multiple horizontal melanophore stripes in the zebrafish D. rerio, a complete absence of stripes in D. albolineatus, a …
ABSTRACT: Coleoid cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, and octopus) have the largest and most complex brains of all invertebrates and show behavioral abilities similar to those of vertebrates. Among the coleoids, the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana forms well-structured schools that are indicative of sociality. These behaviors are reflected in aspects of the well-developed brain. In this study, we focused on the role of the cephalopod brain in complex behavior. In order to reveal the network of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in coleoids, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is the synthetic enzyme of GABA, in the brain of young S. lessoniana. We found that GABAergic neurons and their axons were distributed throughout the brain. GABA neurons were abundantly localized in the inferior frontal lobe, which is involved in controlling arm motions, and in the subesophageal masses, which are lower and intermediate centers of action. GABAergic fibers were ...
Zebras are characterized by black (or brown) and white stripes and bellies that have a large white blotch, apparently for camouflage purposes (Gould 1983). The hair is pigmented, not the skin (Wingert 1999). It is hypothesized that zebras are fundamentally dark animals with areas where the pigmentation is inhibited, based on the fact that (1) white equids would not survive well in the African plains or forests; (2) the quagga, an extinct plains zebra subspecies, had the zebra striping pattern in the front of the animal, but had a dark rump; and (3) secondary stripes emerge when the area between the pigmented bands is too wide, as if suppression was weakening (Wingert 1999). The fact that zebras have white bellies is not very strong evidence for a white background, since many animals of different colors have white or light colored bellies (Wingert 1999).. The stripes are typically vertical on the head, neck, forequarters, and main body, with horizontal stripes at the rear and on the legs of the ...
Everything is going to be OK, Mr. Roberts! the young man ran in to the hospital room where I was examining Mr. Roberts and just as quickly left.. My first thought was, Who was that guy? My second thought was that Mr. Roberts was most assuredly not going to be OK for the near future, maybe never. I was just an intern, years ago, and had to evaluate the unfortunate man who had a large stroke involving the dominant hemisphere, middle cerebral artery territory, affecting expressive and receptive speech and paralyzing his right side. At least Mr. Roberts didnt understand the optimistic words.. The intruder was a physicians assistant for a well-known local internist and was busy writing orders when I returned to the nursing station. Because he worked for a senior physician, he made himself important by association. Stripes are what nautical and airline officers wear on their sleeves or shoulders. Stripes should not be transferrable, but a lot of people think they are.. I stayed quiet that ...
Orthopaedic surgeons, particularly trauma surgeons, spend a considerable amount of time trying to get bone to heal. While it is certainly a natural process, we aim to guide and manipulate the process to ensure that it is achieved as fast as possible, with the lowest chance of complications and the best long-term functional outcome for the patient. Although we have made huge strides in our understanding of bone healing, much remains to be discovered. And, as is the case in nature, the answer to some of our questions are often somewhat obscure. A case in point is the fact that we only discovered the reason for zebras having stripes in 2014.1 White and black stripes are certainly not good camouflage in the African savannah. It turns out that tsetse flies and horse flies (the vector of various equid diseases) avoid black-and-white striped surfaces. While the answer seems obvious now, it eluded scientists for years. Similarly, there are aspects of bone healing which we have thought of as just the ...
Bright rainbow striped thigh highs by Leg Avenue. Yellow, orange, red, green, pink, and turquoise stripes are sure to bring utter joy and happiness to your legs and to those checking out your legs. Who knew rainbow striped thigh highs were such a people-
The nemertean Nemertopsis bivitatta is a suctorial barnacle feeder abundant in hard-bottom intertidal communities along the coasts of Europe, South America, and the Southeastern United States. Individuals of N. bivitatta are typically pale yellow to whitish in color with a pair of dorsally-situated dark greenish brown pigment bands that extend for nearly the entire length of the worm. In most individuals these stripes are separated anteriorly, but in some a transverse pigment bar connects them anteriorly. Variation in stripe configuration has been considered to reflect intraspecific variation. We sampled a population containing both morphs from Pawleys Island, SC, USA to assess the extent of variation at the morphological and molecular level. Our qualitative analysis of stylet basis morphology for 20 individuals of each morph revealed morph-specific variation; morphometric analyses are planned to quantify the differences. We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase one gene (cox1, 500-650 ...
Dr. Novicks research interests include eukaryotic and bacterial genomics, bioinformatics, transposable elements and molecular evolution. While doing his Ph.D. through the CUNY Graduate Center, Dr. Novick did research in the Boissinot lab on the evolution and diversity of transposable elements in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. He has since continued his research on molecular genetics, analyzing transposable element load and diversity of newly sequenced genomes, working in consortium with the Department of Energys Joint Genome Institute annotating bacterial genomes, and collaborating with other departemental memebers analyzing the evolution of gene families in Streptomycetes.. ...
Bailly, N. (2014). Cyclichthys Kaup, 1855. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2017). FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205512 on 2017-12- ...
Egg, larval and osteological development of the northern searobin, Prionotus carolinus, is described, principally from laboratory reared specimens. Egg diameter ranges from 0.87 to 0.97 mm, and the eggs contain 11 to 37 oil globules, which migrate to various locations within the egg during development. Gastrulation occurs at 27 hr, embryo is halfway around the yolk at 52 hr, and hatching occurs between 120 and 155 hr at 15°C. Prominent pigmentation of the embryo consists of a dark cluster of chromatophores just posterior to the developing eye and the beginning of a transverse band halfway between the vent and notochord tip just prior to hatching. Newly-hatched larvae range from 2.8 to 3.1 mm. The transverse band of pigment is fully developed and is an important characteristic in identifying early P. carolinus larvae. The pectoral fins are present at hatching and remain a characteristic feature.. Adult meristics are complete by 7.0 mm. Larval head length increases during development becoming ...
Oliveira C, Dinis MT, Soares F, Cabrita E, Pousão-Ferreira P, Sánchez-Vázquez FJ. Lunar and daily spawning rhythms of Senegal sole Solea senegalensis. Journal of Fish Biology. 2009;75(1):61 - 74. doi:10.1111/jfb.2009.75.issue-110.1111/j.1095-8649.2009.02263.x ...
Tervisetoodete pood , kust leiate k ik vajalikud apteegikaubad kodust v ljumata. Kogu kaup on laos olemas ja ei vaja ettetellimist. Kiire kohaletoimetamine 1-2 p eva jooksul.
Tervisetoodete pood , kust leiate k ik vajalikud apteegikaubad kodust v ljumata. Kogu kaup on laos olemas ja ei vaja ettetellimist. Kiire kohaletoimetamine 1-2 p eva jooksul.
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Results Accessibility to hazardous chemicals and medicines due to unsafe storage (adj mOR=5.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 16.7), childs behaviour reported as usually aggressive (adj mOR=8.2, 95% CI 4.6 to 16.1), storage of kerosene oil and petrol in soft drink bottles (adj mOR=3.8, 95% CI 2.0 to 7.3), low socioeconomic status (adj mOR=9.2, 95% CI 2.8 to 30.1), low level of mothers education (adj mOR=4.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 9.6), and history of previous poisoning (adj mOR=8.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 43.5) were independently related to unintentional poisoning. ...
"Dermal Chromatophores". American Zoologist. 12 (1): 43-62. doi:10.1093/icb/12.1.43. JSTOR 3881731. Berns, Narayan, Michael W., ... K. Shankar (October 1970). "An histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the dermal chromatophores of the variant ranid ...
It possesses dark chromatophores scattered on the lateral portion of its head, which are more concentrated on its snout and the ... Scales on the midlateral surface of its body are bordered with dark brown chromatophores which form a reticulate pattern. Its ... Fins have scattered dark chromatophores. A. microschemos is only known from the river source of the Itapemirim River, in ...
Its fins show scattered dark chromatophores. A. pelecus is known from the upper Rio Pardo, at Cândido Sales in the state of ... The scales on its midlateral surface are bordered with dark brown chromatophores that form an overall reticulate pattern. Its ...
In cuttlefish, activation of a chromatophore can expand its surface area by 500%. Up to 200 chromatophores per mm2 of skin may ... The chromatophores are sacs containing hundreds of thousands of pigment granules and a large membrane that is folded when ... In Loligo plei, an expanded chromatophore may be up to 1.5 mm in diameter, but when retracted, it can measure as little as 0.1 ... Because chromatophores are under direct neural control from the brain, this effect can be immediate. Cephalopod iridophores ...
Juvenile and para-larvae octopuses also have chromatophores called founder chromatophores, which are also sac-like organs that ... The founder chromatophores are found along the ventral mantle and funnel of the para-larvae and it makes it easy to identify ... As these chromatophores interact with their environment, it enables the octopus to select, at any time, a particular body ... The founder chromatophores produce unique patterns in hatchlings and make them easy to identify. The wunderpus has small, ...
In lower vertebrates, they are found in melanophores or chromatophores. Melanosomes are relatively large organelles, measuring ... Messenger, JB (November 2001). "Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history". Biological Reviews of the ... the chromatophore organ. Recent (2008) discoveries by Xu Xing, a Chinese paleontologist, include fossilized feathers in rock ...
Chromatophores in the dermis yield coloration when light shines through the corneal layer of the epidermis. There are many ... kinds of chromatophores. Melanophores yield brown pigmentation, and when paired with guanophores, yield grey. When paired with ...
These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ...
Inside the chromatophore cell of cephalopods, pigment granules are enclosed in an elastic sac. To change colour, the animal ... Colour change is made possible by chromatophores; pigment-containing and light-reflecting organelles in cells found in ...
Venter is grey with scattered yellow chromatophores. The vocal sac is grey to black. The male call is a two-note call, the ...
Males have small chromatophores on their mantle. The European squid is a neritic, semidemersal species, which undertakes ... The colour of the European squid is greyish-transparent or reddish, depending on the expansion of chromatophores in the dermis ...
Bagnara, Joseph (1 July 1968). "The Dermal Chromatophore Unit". Journal of Cell Biology. 38 (1): 67-79. doi:10.1083/jcb.38.1.67 ...
Some colors are the mixtures of the chromatophores; xanthophores (yellow/orange), erythrophores (red/orange), iridophores (blue ...
The pleura of the first five abdominal somites also show red chromatophores. The eyestalks are reddish, and some chromatophores ... Its body is transparent and sprinkled with chromatophores. The carapace shows a short and broad transverse white median band in ... the middle consisting of irregular bright white chromatophores. A white line or spot is also visible on the eye stalk. The legs ...
All Cephalopods have chromatophores, special pigmented and light reflecting cells on their skin which allows them to change ... As hatchlings, their chromatophores can also appear yellow. Though research is limited, some studies suggest that O. joubini ... O. joubini is red-orange in color which is caused by pigmented cells called chromatophores that are common in many animals. ...
ISBN 1-85317-226-X. Fujii, R (October 2000). "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Res. 13 ( ... An extremely uncommon type of chromatophore, the cyanophore, produces a very vivid blue pigment. Amelanism in fishes, ... Non-melanin pigments in other vertebrates are produced by cells called chromatophores. Within this categorization, xanthophores ...
Retrieved 2009-09-08.[permanent dead link] Goda, M.; R. Fujii (2009). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish ... was proposed for the blue chromatophores, or pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells. In all other known cases, the ...
All the fins are hyaline, without dark chromatophores. The maximum known length is 25 cm (10 in), with males tending to be ...
The name "cyanophore" was proposed for the blue chromatophores, or pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells. In all other ... Goda, M.; R. Fujii (2009). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811-813. doi: ...
"Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811-813. doi:10.2108/zsj.12.811. ...
Squid are capable of rapid changes in skin color and pattern through nervous control of chromatophores. In addition to ... Cloney, RA; Florey, E (1968). "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und ...
Some cephalopods are capable of rapid changes in skin colour and pattern through nervous control of chromatophores. This ... Cloney, R.A.; Florey, E. (1968). "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Z. Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 89 (2): 250- ...
"Anthony Pateras: Chromatophore - Anthony Pateras , Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 June 2020. Couture, ... Pateras spends most of his time inside the piano, hitting, scraping, and rubbing its strings." Chromatophore (September 2008), ...
Squid are capable of rapid changes in skin color and pattern through nervous control of chromatophores. In addition to ... "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 (2): 250-280 ...
Some cephalopods, such as the octopus and the cuttlefish, have specialized skin cells (chromatophores) that can change the ... ISBN 978-1-4438-3810-8. Cloney, R.A.; Florey, E. (1968). "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Z. Zellforsch ...
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that may change their size, but more often retain their original size but ... Albinism in biology Chromatophore Dog coat colours and patterns Cat coat genetics Deception in animals Equine coat colour ... Chromatophores may respond to hormonal and/or neurobal control mechanisms, but direst responses to stimulation by visible light ... Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer ...
Chromatophores are color pigment changing cells that are directly stimulated by central motor neurons. They are primarily used ... Chromatophores contract and contain vesicles that stores three different liquid pigments. Each color is indicated by the three ... The process of changing the color pigment of their skin relies on a single highly developed chromatophore cell and many muscles ... The various colors are made by the combination of the different layers of the chromatophores. These cells are usually located ...
Large chromatophores densely cover the upper surfaces of the head, mantle and arms. They are distributed more sparsely on the ... The fins do not possess chromatophores on the underside. Living specimens range in colour from translucent creamy white through ... rapidly changing body colouration and patterns through voluntary control of chromatophores. They also possess iridophores ( ...
"Improvement of photosynthesis in zooxanthellate corals by autofluorescent chromatophores". Oecologia. 99 (1-2): 124-131. doi: ...
It is almost colourless except for small chromatophores scarcely distributed. It has a long, thin, cylindrical mantle which ...
Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells. Inside ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... Therefore, the distinction between these chromatophore types is not always clear. Most chromatophores can generate pteridines ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ...
Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
A chromatophore organ is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial and sheath cells. Pigment ... Primary infoldings and pouches of the chromatophore appear in its upper and lower surfaces during chromatophore retraction and ... Cephalopod Chromatophore. Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003) Cephalopoda Glossary ... Page: Tree of Life Cephalopod Chromatophore Authored by Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold (1922- ...
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and ... Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial and sheath cells.[32] ... The nerves that operate the chromatophores are thought to be positioned in the brain, in a similar order to the chromatophores ... Therefore erythrocytes are not classified as chromatophores. Xanthophores and erythrophores Chromatophores that contain large ...
... Date: Thu Feb 1 17:39:25 2007. Posted By: Jeff Buzby, ... Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they ... The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles ... Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding ...
chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction ... "chromatophore" or pigment bearing cells, called erythrophores, from Siamese fighting fish, whose response to specific toxic ... Besides the pigment-cells just described, Heincke discovered another kind of chromatophore, which was filled with iridescent ... He blinks, barely noticing her black bob of hair, chromatophore-tinted shadows artfully tuned around her eyes. ...
Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). The membrane bound PPase ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... We have studied some similarities and differences between chromatophore, chloroplast and mitochondrial membrane bound PPases. ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ...
Tagged: chromatophore Recent Paper. Posted by Brigite Nunes Simoes Rodrigues on January 15, 2015. ... agouti, asip1, chromatophore, dct, iridophore, ltk, melanocyte, melanophore, mitfa, pigment pattern formation, transgenic, ...
Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 and Isolation of a B875 Protein Kinase. ... Ghosh R., Tschopp P., Eicher S., Bachofen R. (1990) Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 ... Holmes, N.G. and Allen, J.F. (1988). Protein phosphorylation in chromatophores from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Biochim. Biophys. ... have shown that electron transfer within the chromatophore membrane may be regulated by the degree of phosphorylation of the ...
Thus, the chromatophores of P. chromatophora are the only known cyanobacterial descendants besides plastids with a ... Our data characterize the chromatophore as a photosynthetic entity that is absolutely dependent on its host for growth and ... Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of photosynthesis by eukaryotes Curr Biol. 2008 Mar 25; ... Although the chromatophore genome contains a complete set of photosynthesis genes, it lacks not only genes thought to be ...
Several chromatophore types possess motile organelles, which enable rapid changes in coloration. Recently, we described red ... Here, we describe the discovery of a chromatophore in fishes that regulates the distribution of fluorescent pigments in parts ... Poikilotherms, and especially fishes possess several cell types, so-called chromatophores, which employ either of these ...
Translations, &c: On Chromatophores in the Frog Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell Science ...
This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to ... Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their ...
We call this chromatophore response light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE). LACE behavior in isolated octopus skin ... When the white light was switched off and the chromatophores were illuminated with only red light, the chromatophores in fresh ... and averaged the chromatophore area pixel count within each of the 10 samples to get the mean chromatophore size before and ... Chromatophores remain in their contracted state after 3 s of exposure to bright white light. (B) Chromatophores have reached ...
A) Mean chromatophore response (±s.e.m.) in a fresh skin preparation from D. gigas evoked by electrical stimulation 5 V above ... Individual chromatophores can be seen in the insets. The squid pictured in panel A was photographed in the lab in Santa Rosalia ... Chromatophore activity observed in fresh skin preparations from D. gigas. (A) Electrical stimulation elicits a rapid, twitch- ... Effects of serotonin (5-HT) on chromatophore activity. Stimulated responses are greatly reduced by 2.5 µmol l−1 5-HT in D. ...
Oxidation kinetic of quinol by bc$\sb1$ complex in chromatophores was simulated. A set of kinetic parameters were obtained from ... Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Welcome to ... The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been ... Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Wang, ...
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that can change their size, thus varying the colour and pattern of the ... When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatophores to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and ... The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis.[35] For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change ... they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, ...
Mc Niven, Mark A ; Porter, K. R. / Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. In: Journal ... Mc Niven, M. A., & Porter, K. R. (1986). Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. Journal ... Mc Niven, MA & Porter, KR 1986, Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores, Journal of ... Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. / Mc Niven, Mark A; Porter, K. R. ...
"Bacterial Chromatophores" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in this website by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bacterial Chromatophores". ...
CHROMATOPHORES. The top layer consists of three rows of colored cells (yellow, red, and brown). These tiny cells are widely ... CHROMATOPHORES. The top layer consists of three rows of colored cells (yellow, red, and brown). These tiny cells are widely ... In hues of yellow, red, and brown, the chromatophores act as small packets of color that the cuttlefish can shrink or expand at ... The white of zebra patterns, for example, is produced here (but the brown stripes are produced by chromatophores). ...
There are several types of chromatophores, each of which is responsible for a colour. The colour may be produced as a result of ... Chromatophores are pigmented cells in the dermis. There are several types of chromatophores, each of which is responsible for a ... Chromatophores also allow organisms to use a visual method of communication or to camouflage themselves in their environment by ... It is the chameleons chromatophores which give it its amazing capacity for camouflage. © Today is a good day CC by-nc-nd 2.0 ...
The dermal chromatophore unit is an association of three chromatophores residing in the dermis just beneath the basal lamina. ... Where the three chromatophores are stacked, as in the dermal chromatophore unit, green color is achieved through the absorption ... located in a unique blue chromatophore. Studies by Goda and Fujii (1995) on the chromatophores of two callionymid species, the ... Bagnara, T.T., Taylor, J.D., and Hadley, M.E. (1968). The dermal chromatophore unit. J. Cell Biol. 38, 67-69. *CrossRef , ...
With Special Reference to Chromatophores. Parker, G. H. Published: April 2015 $24.99 (R). Paperback. Add to cart ...
The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. Following HGT and ... The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the ... In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred ... The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that ...
... en_US. dc.type. Preprint. en_US ... Rhodopsin, retinochrome, and Gqα transcripts were also found in RNA extracts from dissociated chromatophores isolated from D. ... Visual phototransduction components in cephalopod chromatophores suggest dermal photoreception. dc.contributor.author. Kingston ... This is the first evidence that cephalopod dermal tissues, and specifically chromatophores, may possess the requisite ...
Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells.[40] ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ... and mitf are important in controlling chromatophore differentiation.[32] If these proteins are defective, chromatophores may be ...
Chromatophore - Chromatophores de Poisson zèbre à l obscurité (au dessus) et à la lumière (en dessous). Les chromatophores sont ... Смотреть что такое "chromatophore cell" в других словарях:. *. Chromatophore - Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background ... chromatophore - [krō mat′ə fôr΄, krō′mə tə fôr΄] n. [ CHROMATO + PHORE] 1. a special animal cell, usually dermal, that contains ... Chromatophore - Chro ma*to*phore , n. [Gr. ?, ?, color + fe rein to bear.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) A contractile cell or vesicle ...
25 Intracellular recordings from the chromatophore lobes of Octopus J. A. Miyan, and J. B. Messenger. ... 22 Neurotransmitters of squid chromatophores C. J. CORNWELL and J. B. MESSENGER ... 21 Organization of cephalopod chromatophore systems: a neuromuscular image-generator Andrew Packard. ...
... important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores ( ... important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores ( ... Responses of Other Chromatophores to Light. In addition to melanophores, there is evidence that other types of chromatophore ... Figure 1. The structure and function of chromatophores. (A) Illustration of a section of skin showing the dermal chromatophore ...
Epidermal chromatophoresEdit. Pigment cells that exhibit fluorescence are called fluorescent chromatophores, and function ... Fujii, R (2000). "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Research. 13 (5): 300-19. doi:10.1034 ... Short term fluorescent patterning and signaling is controlled by the nervous system.[24] Fluorescent chromatophores can be ... and dispersion within the fluorescent chromatophore that cause directed fluorescence patterning.[24][25] Fluorescent cells are ...
  • These structures, often referred to as "chromatophores" come in various shapes, such as tubules, long lamellar folds, or small vesicles. (uiuc.edu)
  • There are also additional proteins found in chromatophore vesicles whose structure and function are not as well understood. (uiuc.edu)
  • The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria is located in the internal (i.e. cytoplasmic) membrane and in chromatophores-intracellular vesicles that split off that membrane. (slideshare.net)
  • citation needed] Whereas all chromatophores contain pigments or reflecting structures (except when there has been a mutation, as in albinism), not all pigment-containing cells are chromatophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatophores that contain large amounts of yellow pteridine pigments are named xanthophores and those with an excess of red/orange carotenoids termed erythrophores. (bionity.com)
  • This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells) of the skin. (frontiersin.org)
  • A chromatophore is an organ that contains pigments. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By constricting all the chromatophores with a certain pigment and relaxing all the ones with other pigments, the animal can change the overall color of its body. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term chromatophore was adopted (following Sangiovanni's chromoforo) as the name for pigment-bearing cells derived from the neural crest of cold-blooded vertebrates and cephalopods. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chromatophore organ is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial and sheath cells. (tolweb.org)
  • The rather structureless sheath cells (not shown in drawing) presumably enable the slippage of the chromatophore organs within the dermis of the skin. (tolweb.org)
  • Chromatophores are pigment -containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods. (bionity.com)
  • The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. (madsci.org)
  • Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction. (madsci.org)
  • Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. chromoplasts & chloroplasts ) can also be referred to as chromatophores . (madsci.org)
  • Besides the pigment-cells just described, Heincke discovered another kind of chromatophore , which was filled with iridescent crystals. (wordnik.com)
  • chromatophore " or pigment bearing cells, called erythrophores, from Siamese fighting fish, whose response to specific toxic chemicals have been studied in detail by Trempy's collaborator, OSU biochemist Phil McFadden. (wordnik.com)
  • Chromatophore cells, responsible for the pigmentation of poikilothermic animal, have shown immense potential as cell-based biosensors in the detection of a broad range of environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Chromatophore cells possess the motile pigment granules that intracellularly aggregate or disperse in response to external stimuli. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Previous studies have assessed chromatophore cells isolated from red Betta splendens and grey Oncorhynchus tschawytscha fish for use as a biosensor. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The objective of this study was to describe blue B. splendens chromatophore cells in tissue culture. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously established control agents. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to respond to environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their responses. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Chromatophore cells isolated from both blue and red B. splendens were responsive to methyl mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Grey O. tschawytscha chromatophore cells have shown responsiveness to mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blue and red B. splendens chromatophore cells were both responsive to B. cereus and both Salmonella serovars. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In conclusion, this study reports the chromatophore cells isolated from blue B. splendens in tissue culture and showed similar responsiveness to the selected chemical and bacterial environmental toxicants as chromatophore cells isolated from red and grey colored fish. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore cells used for a cell-based detection system may be isolated from different colored fish. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that can change their size, thus varying the colour and pattern of the animal. (mesjeuxdeguerre.net)
  • 38] Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. (mesjeuxdeguerre.net)
  • Chromatophores are color-changing cells that allow some animals, such as cephalopods, a class of molluscs that includes octopuses, squids and cuttlefish, t. (reference.com)
  • Much of the red pigment is not in chromatophore organs but dispersed in other integumental cells, although chromatophores are present. (tolweb.org)
  • A majority of chromatophores are single cells that are highly branched and contain pigment granules that can disperse or aggregate within the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three types of pigment cells (chromatophores) are required to create this pattern. (elifesciences.org)
  • Camouflage: use special skin cells called, chromatophores. (prezi.com)
  • Obtaining a comprehensive list of proteins imported into chromatophores, including their functions and origins, as well as understanding the pathway by which these proteins are imported, could provide insight into the mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to 'enslave' bacteria and turn them into organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • These deeper-level cells are called chromatophores . (howstuffworks.com)
  • The rapid color change is powered by chromatophores , special cells on the fishes' bodies. (livescience.com)
  • This process is made possible by chromatophores, cells that contain a sac filled with pigment. (treehugger.com)
  • The artificial muscles are based on color-changing cells known as chromatophores, which are found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, and cephalopods such as squids. (csmonitor.com)
  • Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The leucophores and iridophores (both structural elements of coloration) provide an adaptive base layer in the dermal tissue, whereas the chromatophores, located above them, impart an active colour change through areal expansion [ 11 , 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we present molecular evidence suggesting that cephalopod chromatophores, small dermal pigmentary organs that reflect various colors of light, are photosensitive. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Rhodopsin, retinochrome, and Gqα transcripts were also found in RNA extracts from dissociated chromatophores isolated from D. pealeii dermal tissues. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • This is the first evidence that cephalopod dermal tissues, and specifically chromatophores, may possess the requisite combination of molecules required to respond to light. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Chromatophore - Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). (academic.ru)
  • Zebrafish, on the other hand, also have chromatophores, but theirs contain liquid pigment that when activated comes to the surface and spreads out like spilled ink. (treehugger.com)
  • The team mimicked the zebrafish chromatophores using two glass microscope slides sandwiching a silicone layer. (csmonitor.com)
  • In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • AFM imaging of chromatophore membranes has provided some insight into the arrangement of the photosynthetic proteins within the chromatophore. (uiuc.edu)
  • We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins-reflectin and crystallin-in granules. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The Carnegie team honed in on three of the P. chromatophora transferred genes, which encode proteins involved in photosynthesis, a process localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • They set out to determine whether these proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the amoeba and whether the mature proteins became localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Using an advanced array of research techniques, they were able to determine that these three proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported into chromatophores, where they assemble together with other, internally encoded proteins into working protein complexes that are part of the photosynthetic process. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Interestingly, the process by which these proteins are transported into chromatophores may also be novel and involve transit through an organelle called the Golgi apparatus, prior to becoming localized to the chromatophore. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • A structural model of a chromatophore vesicle featuring the three main light-harvesting proteins (see below). (uiuc.edu)
  • This variation exists despite the main constituent proteins of the chromatophore being very similar across species. (uiuc.edu)
  • Modifiable chromatophore proteins in photosynthetic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In general, body-patterning behaviors in cephalopods depend on three major components: the eyes, the central nervous system (CNS) and pigmented organs called chromatophores embedded in the skin ( Messenger, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Pigmented organs called chromatophores create patterns with yellow, red, and brown colors. (mbl.edu)
  • Yet, we do not fully understand how cephalopods control the pigmented chromatophore organs in their skin and change their body pattern. (biologists.org)
  • In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). (springer.com)
  • The membrane bound PPase from Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores can synthesize PPi (inorganic pyrophosphate) at the expense of light energy (1) and has been described in some detail (2). (springer.com)
  • We have studied some similarities and differences between chromatophore, chloroplast and mitochondrial membrane bound PPases. (springer.com)
  • In particular, Allen and Holmes [4] have shown that electron transfer within the chromatophore membrane may be regulated by the degree of phosphorylation of the light harvesting complex [B875]. (springer.com)
  • Model of a photosynthetic membrane patch from a lamellar (flat) chromatophore. (uiuc.edu)
  • The chromatophore membrane was equilibrated using the molecular dynamics software NAMD on petascale supercomputing resources including Titan (ORNL, via DOE INCITE), Blue Waters (NCSA), and Tsubame (Tokyo). (uiuc.edu)
  • This chromatophore membrane simulation was used to study physical properties of the system, as well as to examine energy migration among the pigment molecules in the light harvesting complexes, eventually reaching the reaction center, where that energy is used to create a transmembrane charge separation, the first step in converting light energy eventually into chemical energy in the form of ATP for the cell. (uiuc.edu)
  • The bacterial PSU is organized in the form of a pseudo-spherical membrane domain of approximately 60 nm diameter called a chromatophore vesicle. (uiuc.edu)
  • Using this approach, we have imaged the membrane organization of intact vesicular bacterial photosynthetic "organelles", chromatophores. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Despite the highly curved nature of the chromatophore membrane and lack of direct support, the resolution was sufficient to identify the photosystem complexes and quantify their arrangement in the native state. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Aggregation or dispersion of the pigment by expansion or contraction of a circular muscle surrounding an individual chromatophore effects color changes. (academic.ru)
  • An individual chromatophore is surrounded by a circular muscle that can constrict and expand. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Pigment granules lie within the chromatophore cell in an intracellular sac, the cytoelastic sacculus, that has elastic walls. (tolweb.org)
  • chromatophore - A cell (simple or branched), usually in shell (cuticular or subcuticular), containing pigment granules, usually capable of being dispersed or concentrated [Butler, T.H.]. Cell containing pigment [Holdich and Jones, 1983]. (academic.ru)
  • Chromatophores contain pigment granules that move within them, giving them an appearance that ranges from spotted to fibrous on the five-stage scale that is widely used to measure the degree of chromatophore expansion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each cephalopod chromatophore organ comprises an elastic sac containing pigment granules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Mature chromatophores are grouped into subclasses based on their colour (more properly "hue") under white light: xanthophores (yellow), erythrophores (red), iridophores (reflective / iridescent), leucophores (white), melanophores (black/brown), and cyanophores (blue). (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also combine these iridescent hues with those of the chromatophores to make shimmering purples and oranges, for example. (asknature.org)
  • The complex nerve network distributed throughout the squid's skin instantly coordinates tens of thousands of chromatophores with iridescent reflectors for rapidly changing behaviors ranging from camouflage to signaling. (mbl.edu)
  • However, only recently has an analogous phenomenon been implicated for the chromatophore membranes of purple non-sulfur bacteria [2,3,4]. (springer.com)
  • Ghosh R., Tschopp P., Eicher S., Bachofen R. (1990) Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 and Isolation of a B875 Protein Kinase. (springer.com)
  • And since that single chromatophore is joined by an army of other chromatophores, you get all kinds of color changes-from a solid patch of red, to a mottling of brown and white, to a strange yellow shape on a dark background. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Recently, we presented evidence that photosynthetic inclusions, termed "chromatophores," present in the filose thecamoeba Paulinella chromatophora originated from an independent, more recent primary endosymbiotic event. (nih.gov)
  • Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater filose amoeba with photosynthetic endosymbionts (chromatophores) of cyanobacterial origin that are closely related to free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species (PS-clade). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred before or after the split of the chromatophore ancestor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the almost complete rDNA operon with an improved taxon sampling containing most known cyanobacterial lineages recovered the Paulinella chromatophore as sister to the complete PS-clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the RubisCO phylogeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that the Paulinella chromatophore has already undergone typical steps in the reductive evolution of an endosymbiont. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paulinella chromatophora is a thecate filose amoeba of the Rhizaria that contains a photosynthetic entity of cyanobacterial origin termed chromatophore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has previously been shown that neither the Paulinella host cell nor the chromatophores are related to the eukaryotic lineage containing primary plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, the Paulinella chromatophore is affiliated with free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is currently debated whether the Paulinella chromatophore represents an organelle comparable to a primary plastid, or merely a stable intracellular symbiont [ 3 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, the closest relatives of the Paulinella chromatophore (the PS-clade) possess a proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), in contrast to the remaining cyanobacteria and plastids (except rhodoplasts) with the 'typical' form 1B RubisCO [ 7 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All thanks to rapidly reacting neurally controlled chromatophores in their skin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chromatophores are located just below the junction of the dermis with the epidermis. (britannica.com)
  • It is suggested that the mechanistic H+/H- ratio is indeed unity, but that a low ratio is obtained in wild-type chromatophores because of inhomogeneity in the vesicle population. (ist.ac.at)
  • An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project . (madsci.org)
  • Aristotle When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely-spaced dots, appearing light. (mesjeuxdeguerre.net)
  • The skin of cuttlefish changes color rapidly using elastic pigment sacs called chromatophores, in order to evade predators. (asknature.org)
  • Some animals, such as various cuttlefish species , can manipulate their chromatophores to change their overall skin color. (howstuffworks.com)
  • When the cuttlefish constricts the muscle, all the pigment is squeezed to the top of the chromatophore. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Chromatophores are largely responsible for generating skin and eye colour in ectothermic animals and are generated in the neural crest during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Some species can rapidly change colour through mechanisms that translocate pigment and reorient reflective plates within chromatophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • the iridophore, a Bragg stack reflector and the chromatophore, previously considered to be a pigmentary organ acting as a selective colour filter [ 4 - 10 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • when the nerves are inactive, energy stored in the elastic sac causes the chromatophore to retract as the muscles relax. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The center of each chromatophore contains an elastic sac full of pigment, which may be colored black, brown, orange, red or yellow. (prezi.com)
  • Thus, the chromatophores of P. chromatophora are the only known cyanobacterial descendants besides plastids with a significantly reduced genome that confer photosynthesis to their eukaryotic host. (nih.gov)
  • Protein phosphorylation in chromatophores from Rhodospirillum rubrum. (springer.com)
  • Two strains of Rhodospirillum rubrum were constructed in which, by a gene dosage effect, the transhydrogenase activity of isolated chromatophores was increased 7-10-fold and 15-20-fold, respectively. (ist.ac.at)
  • Baltscheffsky M., Pramanik A., Lundin M., Nyrén P., Baltscheffsky H. (1990) Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic Pyrophosphatases. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial Chromatophores" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Chromatophores" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • Our data characterize the chromatophore as a photosynthetic entity that is absolutely dependent on its host for growth and survival. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the Duke researchers are conducting behavioral experiments to investigate counter-illumination (a form of bioluminescent camouflage) and chromatophore use in cephalopods by placing them in tanks with walls of variable backgrounds and then photographing the body pattern responses. (wordnik.com)
  • Chromatophores also allow organisms to use a visual method of communication or to camouflage themselves in their environment by mimicking their surroundings. (futura-sciences.us)
  • Cephalopods have such remarkable camouflage primarily because of their chromatophores - sacs of red, yellow or brown pigment in the skin made visible (or invisible) by muscles around their circumference. (asknature.org)
  • The final part of the cuttlefish's camouflage portfolio comes from leucophores and iridophores, essentially reflecting plates that sit underneath the chromatophores. (asknature.org)
  • The camouflage appears because chromatophores - sacs of pigment in the skin - are stretched by the surrounding muscle, expanding the sacs to create large brown patches. (newscientist.com)
  • The camouflage disappears when the muscles relax, allowing the chromatophores to shrink to their usual size. (newscientist.com)
  • Theoretically, pigment cell patterning might result from long-range patterning mechanisms, from local environmental cues, or from interactions between neighbouring chromatophores. (nih.gov)
  • Cephalopods such as the octopus have complex chromatophore organs controlled by muscles to achieve this, whereas vertebrates such as chameleons generate a similar effect by cell signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these changes primarily rely on eyesight, we found that light causes chromatophores to expand in excised pieces of Octopus bimaculoides skin. (biologists.org)
  • Both Florey (1966) and Packard and Brancato (1993) noted that squid and octopus chromatophores in dissociated or denervated skin seem to expand in response to light, but surprisingly, neither study investigated these observations further. (biologists.org)
  • The researchers took a tissue sample from the octopus and exposed it to different lights, watching as the chromatophores, or color spots that allow the octopus to change color, expanded and contracted when exposed to light. (popsci.com)
  • Between the colorful chromatophores and the light-scattering leucophores is a reflective lay-er of skin made up of iridophores. (asknature.org)
  • Nerves in red can be easily traced among the distinctive chromatophores and iridophores that they innervate. (mbl.edu)
  • Doryteuthis pealeii have conspicuous pigmentary chromatophores and underlying structurally colored iridophores. (mbl.edu)
  • Each chromatophore is like a microscopic balloon filled with pigment. (sciencefriday.com)
  • chromatophore - chromatophoric /kreuh mat euh fawr ik, for ik, kroh meuh teuh /, chromatophorous /kroh meuh tof euhr euhs/, adj. (academic.ru)
  • The color patterns of cephalopods are largely controlled by chromatophore organs. (tolweb.org)
  • In fish, however, pigment patterns predominantly result from positioning of differently coloured chromatophores. (nih.gov)
  • When chromatophore muscles contract, the pigment sac at the center is stretched out, showing the chromatophores' color. (biologists.org)
  • If the pigment color is yellow or cream, the animal tends to look paler if all the chromatophores are at that stage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They use their chromatophores to change their color. (prezi.com)
  • Each color chromatophore is controlled by a different nerve, and when the attached muscle contracts, it flattens and stretches the pigment sack outward, expanding the color on the skin. (asknature.org)
  • The findings suggest that the specific color of each iridophore, as well as speed of change, is controlled by the nervous system, as is spatial chromatophore patterning that occurs in the skin layer just above. (mbl.edu)
  • By perceiving the color of a backdrop and constricting the right combination of chromatophores, the animal can blend in with all sorts of surroundings. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Chromatophore activity observed in fresh skin preparations from D. gigas . (biologists.org)
  • The left-most panel shows the skin at the time of stimulation (0 ms). Responsive chromatophores within a defined field (solid border) reach peak expansion by 200 ms and remain expanded for more than 400 ms (fourth panel). (biologists.org)
  • A) Mean chromatophore response (±s.e.m.) in a fresh skin preparation from D. gigas evoked by electrical stimulation 5 V above threshold ( n =20). (biologists.org)
  • A) Variance of spontaneous chromatophore activity over 30 s sampling periods in skin samples from D. gigas in 200 nmol l −1 TTX ( n =6), 2.5 µmol l −1 5-HT ( n =5) or 200 µmol l −1 L-Glu ( n =5) compared with the seawater control ( n =16). (biologists.org)
  • When nerve signals stimulate the chromatophore, the radial muscles pull this balloon from all sides, stretching it out, and covering more area of the skin with the pigment. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Suddenly, the chromatophore is a visible spot on the skin! (sciencefriday.com)
  • The chromatophores may be uniformly distributed in the skin (chameleons), or they may occur in patches (flounders) or lines (around the abdomen in shrimps). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromatophores of various colors may be distributed unevenly across the body, and occur at different depths in the skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the skin surface, chromatophores (tiny sacs filled with red, yellow, or brown pigment) ab-sorb light of various wavelengths. (asknature.org)
  • Chromatophores in the skin of the cephalopod squid Loligo (Doryteuthis) plei. (accessscience.com)
  • Large brownish chromatophores are encircled by medium-sized red chromatophores, and small yellow chromatophores are interspersed throughout the skin. (accessscience.com)
  • Skin of the common prawn Palaemon (Leander) serratus, with red and white chromatophores showing a twofold effect upon injecting the prawn with a sinus-gland extract. (accessscience.com)
  • Skin of a squirrelfish (Holocentrus adscensionis) with chromatophores as seen by transmitted light. (accessscience.com)
  • Project lead Jonathan Rossiter said "Our artificial chromatophores are both scalable and adaptable and can be made into an artificial compliant skin which can stretch and deform, yet still operate effectively. (treehugger.com)
  • The data collected in this and previous studies were compiled to compare chromatophore cell responses to a broad range of environmental toxicants. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Light stimulates the responses of chromatophores, generally indirectly via the eyes and central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. (illinois.edu)
  • 1968. Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs. (tolweb.org)
  • We call this behavior light-activated chromatophore expansion (or LACE). (biologists.org)
  • Chromatophore, behavior and embryology research potential. (mbl.edu)
  • To clarify metabolic capabilities of the chromatophore and its state of integration into the host, we present here the complete genome sequence of the chromatophore. (nih.gov)
  • Our data reveal a fundamental reduction of the chromatophore genome. (nih.gov)
  • Although the chromatophore genome contains a complete set of photosynthesis genes, it lacks not only genes thought to be dispensable for an intracellular lifestyle but also genes of essential pathways for amino acid and cofactor synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Our observations of the temperature dependence of cyt b reduction suggested that quinone diffusion was more rapid than turnover of the bc$\sb1$ complex, and that the chemical step of quinol oxidation was the rate-limiting step in the photosynthetic electron transport of chromatophore system. (illinois.edu)
  • Chromatophores are an evolutionary novelty because their morphology in coleoid cephalopods is distinct from those found in any other animal taxa, including other mollusks. (biologists.org)
  • However, in coleoid cephalopod mollusks (all mollusks except Nautilus ), the chromatophores function as miniature organs, and changes in the dispersion of pigment are brought about by muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is significant variation in chromatophore shape among species. (uiuc.edu)
  • The chromatophores receive only nerve impulses, and there is no evidence that they are influenced by hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was only in the 1960s that chromatophores were well enough understood to enable them to be classified based on their appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until the 1960s that the structure and colouration of chromatophores were understood well enough to allow the development of a system of sub-classification based on their appearance. (bionity.com)
  • What are chromatophores, and how do squids use them? (reference.com)
  • Going from the outside in, we find a chromatophore layer, an iridophore layer, and a leucophore layer. (sciencefriday.com)
  • When the radial muscles are relaxed, then the chromatophore is like a shriveled, deflated balloon. (sciencefriday.com)