The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
'Oxidative phosphorylation coupling factors' are the proteins and coenzymes, primarily located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that facilitate the transfer of electrons through the electron transport chain, pump protons to create an electrochemical gradient, and catalyze the synthesis of ATP via ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation.
The absence of light.
The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Indophenol is a deep blue compound formed when certain phenols are treated with an oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium hydroxide, used as a reagent in some chemical tests for the detection and estimation of reducing substances like ascorbic acid.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (1/112)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Stripe formation in juvenile Pomacanthus explained by a generalized turing mechanism with chemotaxis. (2/112)

Current interest in pattern formation can be traced to a seminal paper by Turing, who demonstrated that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals, called morphogens, can interact so as to produce stable nonuniform concentration patterns in space. Recently, a Turing model has been suggested to explain the development of pigmentation patterns on species of growing angelfish such as Pomacanthus semicirculatus, which exhibit readily observed changes in the number, size, and orientation of colored stripes during development of juvenile and adult stages, but the model fails to predict key features of the observations on stripe formation. Here we develop a generalized Turing model incorporating cell growth and movement, we analyze the effects of these processes on patterning, and we demonstrate that the model can explain important features of pattern formation in a growing system such as Pomacanthus. The applicability of classical Turing models to biological pattern formation is limited by virtue of the sensitivity of patterns to model parameters, but here we show that the incorporation of growth results in robustly generated patterns without strict parameter control. In the model, chemotaxis in response to gradients in a morphogen distribution leads to aggregation of one type of pigment cell into a striped spatial pattern.  (+info)

Hybrid Rhodospirillum rubrum F(0)F(1) ATP synthases containing spinach chloroplast F(1) beta or alpha and beta subunits reveal the essential role of the alpha subunit in ATP synthesis and tentoxin sensitivity. (3/112)

Trace amounts ( approximately 5%) of the chloroplast alpha subunit were found to be absolutely required for effective restoration of catalytic function to LiCl-treated chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum with the chloroplast beta subunit (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072). To clarify the role of the alpha subunit in the rebinding of beta, restoration of catalytic function, and conferral of sensitivity to the chloroplast-specific inhibitor tentoxin, LiCl-treated chromatophores were analyzed by immunoblotting before and after reconstitution with mixtures of R. rubrum and chloroplast alpha and beta subunits. The treated chromatophores were found to have lost, in addition to most of their beta subunits, approximately a third of the alpha subunits, and restoration of catalytic activity required rebinding of both subunits. The hybrid reconstituted with the R. rubrum alpha and chloroplast beta subunits was active in ATP synthesis as well as hydrolysis, and both activities were completely resistant to tentoxin. In contrast, a hybrid reconstituted with both chloroplast alpha and beta subunits restored only a MgATPase activity, which was fully inhibited by tentoxin. These results indicate that all three copies of the R. rubrum alpha subunit are required for proton-coupled ATP synthesis, whereas for conferral of tentoxin sensitivity at least one copy of the chloroplast alpha subunit is required together with the chloroplast beta subunit. The hybrid system was further used to examine the effects of amino acid substitution at position 83 of the beta subunit on sensitivity to tentoxin.  (+info)

The calcium dependence of pigment translocation in freshwater shrimp red ovarian chromatophores. (4/112)

The roles of calcium in cell signaling consequent to chromatophorotropin action and as an activator of mechanochemical transport proteins responsible for pigment granule translocation were investigated in the red ovarian chromatosomes of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. Chromatosomes were perfused with known concentrations of free Ca++ (10(-3) to 10(-9) M) prepared in Mg(++)-EGTA-buffered physiological saline after selectively permeabilizing with 25 microM calcium ionophore A23187 or with 10(-8) M red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). The degree of pigment aggregation and the translocation velocity of the leading edges of the pigment mass were recorded in individual chromatosomes during aggregation induced by RPCH or A23187 and dispersion induced by low Ca++. Aggregation is Ca++ dependent, showing a dual extracellular and intracellular requirement. After perfusion with reduced Ca++ (10(-4) to 10(-9) M), RPCH triggers partial aggregation (approximately 65%), although the maximum translocation velocities (approximately 16.5 microns/min) and velocity profiles are unaffected. After aggregation induced at or below 10(-5) M Ca++, spontaneous pigment dispersion ensues, suggesting a Ca++ requirement for RPCH coupling to its receptor, or a concentration-dependent, Ca(++)-induced Ca(++)-release mechanism. The Ca(++)-channel blockers Mn++ (5 mM) and verapamil (50 microM) have no effect on RPCH-triggered aggregation. An intracellular Ca++ requirement for aggregation was demonstrated in chromatosomes in which the Ca++ gradient across the cell membrane was dissipated with A23187. At free [Ca++] above 10(-3) M, aggregation is complete; at 10(-4) M, aggregation is partial, followed by spontaneous dispersion; below 10(-5) M Ca++, pigments do not aggregate but disperse slightly. Aggregation velocities diminish from 11.6 +/- 1.2 microns/min at 5.5 mM Ca++ to 7.4 +/- 1.3 microns/min at 10(-4) M Ca++. Half-maximum aggregation occurs at 3.2 x 10(-5) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 4.8 x 10(-5) M Ca++. Pigment redispersion after 5.5 mM Ca(++)-A23187-induced aggregation is initiated by reducing extracellular Ca++: slight dispersion begins at 10(-7) M, complete dispersion being attained at 10(-9) M Ca++. Dispersion velocities increase from 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.5 microns/min. Half-maximum dispersion occurs at 7.6 x 10(-9) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 2.9 x 10(-9) M Ca++. These data reveal an extracellular and an intracellular Ca++ requirement for RPCH action, and demonstrate that the centripetal or centrifugal direction of pigment movement, the translocation velocity, and the degree of pigment aggregation or dispersion attained are calcium-dependent properties of the granule translocation apparatus.  (+info)

Reflective properties of iridophores and fluorescent 'eyespots' in the loliginid squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris. (5/112)

Observations were made of the reflective properties of the iridophore stripes of the squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris, and the likely functions of these stripes are considered in terms of concealment and signalling. In both species, the mantle muscle is almost transparent. Stripes of iridophores run along the length of each side of the mantle, some of which, when viewed at normal incidence in white light, reflect red, others green or blue. When viewed obliquely, the wavebands best reflected move towards the blue/ultraviolet end of the spectrum and their reflections are almost 100% polarised. These are properties of quarter-wavelength stacks of chitin and cytoplasm, predicted in theoretical analyses made by Sir A. F. Huxley and Professor M. F. Land. The reflecting surfaces of the individual iridophores are almost flat and, in a given stripe, these surfaces are within a few degrees of being parallel. Both species of squid have conspicuous, brightly coloured reflectors above their eyes. These 'eyespots' have iridescent layers similar to those found on the mantle but are overlaid by a green fluorescent layer that does not change colour or become polarised as it is viewed more obliquely. In the sea, all reflections from the iridophore stripes will be largely confined to the blue-green parts of the spectrum and all reflections in other wavebands, such as those in the red and near ultraviolet, will be weak. The functions of the iridophores reflecting red at normal incidence must be sought in their reflections of blue-green at oblique angles of incidence. These squid rely for their camouflage mainly on their transparency, and the ventral iridophores and the red, green and blue reflective stripes must be used mainly for signalling. The reflectivities of some of these stripes are relatively low, allowing a large fraction of the incident light to be transmitted into the mantle cavity. Despite their low reflectivities, the stripes are very conspicuous when viewed from some limited directions because they reflect light from directions for which the radiances are much higher than those of the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The reflective patterns seen, for example, by neighbouring squid when schooling depend on the orientation of the squid in the external light field and the position of the squid relative to these neighbours.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of crystals from the dermal iridophores of a chameleon Anolis carolinensis. (6/112)

The biochemical characteristics of dermal iridophore crystals from Anolis carolinensis have been investigated. Iridophores isolated by collangenase-hyaluronidase treatment were sonicated and their contents fractionated through sucrose. Pure iridophore crystals so obtained were examined by chromatography and electron diffraction. They were found to be pure hydrated crystalline form. The suggestion is made that the subcrystalline structure of this guanine does not play a role in color production by the iridophore.  (+info)

Behavioral visual responses of wild-type and hypopigmented zebrafish. (7/112)

Zebrafish possess three classes of chromatophores that include iridophores, melanophores, and xanthophores. Mutations that lack one or two classes of chromatophores have been isolated or genetically constructed. Using a behavioral assay based on visually mediated escape responses, we measured the visual response of fully and partially pigmented zebrafish. In zebrafish that lack iridophores (roy mutants), the behavioral visual responses were similar to those of wild-type animals except at low contrast stimulation. In the absence of melanophores (albino mutants) or both melanophores and iridophores (ruby mutants), the behavioral visual responses were normal under moderate illumination but reduced when tested under dim or bright conditions or under low contrast stimulation. Together, the data suggest that screening pigments in the retina play a role in the regulation of behavioral visual responses and are necessary for avoiding "scatter" under bright light conditions.  (+info)

Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development. (8/112)

Ectothermic vertebrates exhibit a diverse array of adult pigment patterns. A common element of these patterns is alternating dark and light stripes each comprising different classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, alternating horizontal stripes of black melanophores and yellow xanthophores are a prominent feature of the adult pigment pattern. In fms mutant zebrafish, however, xanthophores fail to develop and melanophore stripes are severely disrupted. fms encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by xanthophores and their precursors and is the closest known homologue of kit, which has long been studied for roles in pigment pattern development in amniotes. In this study we assess the cellular and temporal requirements for Fms activity in promoting adult pigment pattern development. By transplanting cells between fms mutants and either wild-type or nacre mutant zebrafish, we show that fms acts autonomously to the xanthophore lineage in promoting the striped arrangement of adult melanophores. To identify critical periods for fms activity, we isolated temperature sensitive alleles of fms and performed reciprocal temperature shift experiments at a range of stages from embryo to adult. These analyses demonstrate that Fms is essential for maintaining cells of the xanthophore lineage as well as maintaining the organization of melanophore stripes throughout development. Finally, we show that restoring Fms activity even at late larval stages allows essentially complete recovery of xanthophores and the development of a normal melanophore stripe pattern. Our findings suggest that fms is not required for establishing a population of precursor cells during embryogenesis but is required for recruiting pigment cell precursors to xanthophore fates, with concomitant effects on melanophore organization.  (+info)

Chromatophores are pigment-containing cells found in various organisms, including animals and plants. In animals, chromatophores are primarily found in the skin, eyes, and hair or feathers, and they play a crucial role in color changes exhibited by many species. These cells contain pigments that can be concentrated or dispersed to change the color of the cell, allowing the animal to camouflage itself, communicate with other individuals, or regulate its body temperature.

There are several types of chromatophores, including:

1. Melanophores: These cells contain the pigment melanin and are responsible for producing dark colors such as black, brown, and gray. They are found in many animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
2. Xanthophores: These cells contain yellow or orange pigments called pteridines and carotenoids. They are found in many animals, including fish, amphibians, and reptiles.
3. Iridophores: These cells do not contain pigments but instead reflect light to produce iridescent colors. They are found in many animals, including fish, reptiles, and amphibians.
4. Erythrophores: These cells contain red or pink pigments called porphyrins and are found in some species of fish and crustaceans.
5. Leucophores: These cells reflect white light and are found in some species of fish, cephalopods (such as squid and octopuses), and crustaceans.

The distribution and concentration of pigments within chromatophores can be controlled by hormones, neurotransmitters, or other signaling molecules, allowing the animal to change its color rapidly in response to environmental stimuli or social cues.

Bacterial chromatophores are membranous structures within certain bacteria that contain pigments and are involved in light absorption. They are primarily found in photosynthetic bacteria, where they play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis by capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy.

The term "chromatophore" is derived from the Greek words "chroma," meaning color, and "phoros," meaning bearer. In bacteria, chromatophores are typically composed of one or more membrane-bound vesicles called thylakoids, which contain various pigments such as bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids.

Bacterial chromatophores can be found in several groups of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The specific arrangement and composition of the pigments within the chromatophores determine the type of light that is absorbed and the wavelengths that are utilized for photosynthesis.

Overall, bacterial chromatophores are essential organelles for the survival and growth of many photosynthetic bacteria, allowing them to harness the energy from sunlight to fuel their metabolic processes.

"Rhodospirillum rubrum" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, photosynthetic bacteria species. It is commonly found in freshwater and soil environments, and it has the ability to carry out both photosynthesis and respiration, depending on the availability of light and oxygen. The bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, which give them a pinkish-red color, hence the name "rubrum." They are known to be important organisms in the study of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and other metabolic processes.

Rhodospirillum is a genus of purple nonsulfur bacteria that are capable of photosynthesis. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and spiral-shaped, with a single flagellum at each end. They are found in freshwater and soil environments, and are capable of using light as an energy source for growth. Rhodospirillum species can also fix nitrogen gas, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in their habitats.

The name "Rhodospirillum" comes from the Greek words "rhodo," meaning rose-colored, and "spira," meaning coil or spiral, referring to the pinkish-red color and spiral shape of these bacteria.

It's important to note that medical definitions typically refer to conditions, diseases, or processes related to human health, so a medical definition of Rhodospirillum may not be readily available as it is not directly related to human health. However, in rare cases, some species of Rhodospirillum have been associated with human infections, such as endocarditis and bacteremia, but these are not common.

Bacteriochlorophylls are a type of pigment that are found in certain bacteria and are used in photosynthesis. They are similar to chlorophylls, which are found in plants and algae, but have some differences in their structure and absorption spectrum. Bacteriochlorophylls absorb light at longer wavelengths than chlorophylls, with absorption peaks in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This allows bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls to carry out photosynthesis in environments with low levels of light or at great depths in the ocean where sunlight is scarce.

There are several different types of bacteriochlorophylls, including bacteriochlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll b, and bacteriochlorophyll c. These pigments play a role in the capture of light energy during photosynthesis and are involved in the electron transfer processes that occur during this process. Bacteriochlorophylls are also used as a taxonomic marker to help classify certain groups of bacteria.

Rhodopseudomonas is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of photosynthesis. These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll and can use light as an energy source in the absence of oxygen, which makes them facultative anaerobes. They typically inhabit freshwater and soil environments, and some species are able to fix nitrogen gas. Rhodopseudomonas species are known to cause various infections in humans, including bacteremia, endocarditis, and respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, such infections are relatively rare.

Photophosphorylation is the process by which ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced during photosynthesis, utilizing light energy to add a phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This process occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells and cyanobacteria, in a series of steps that are catalyzed by several complexes of proteins. There are two types of photophosphorylation: cyclic and non-cyclic. Cyclic photophosphorylation involves the use of only one photosystem and results in the production of ATP, while non-cyclic photophosphorylation involves the use of two photosystems and leads to the production of both ATP and NADPH, as well as the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Overall, photophosphorylation plays a crucial role in providing energy for various metabolic processes in plant cells and is essential for life on Earth.

Rhodobacter sphaeroides is not a medical term, but rather a scientific name for a type of bacteria. It belongs to the class of proteobacteria and is commonly found in soil, fresh water, and the ocean. This bacterium is capable of photosynthesis, and it can use light as an energy source, converting it into chemical energy. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is often studied in research settings due to its unique metabolic capabilities and potential applications in biotechnology.

In a medical context, Rhodobacter sphaeroides may be mentioned in relation to rare cases of infection, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, it is not considered a significant human pathogen, and there are no specific medical definitions associated with this bacterium.

"Sepia" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a color, often associated with the brownish-gray ink produced by cuttlefish, and it has been used historically in photography and dyes. In the context of human health or medicine, "sepia" does not have a specific meaning or definition.

"Chromatium" is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments, particularly in anaerobic or low-oxygen conditions. These bacteria are known for their ability to perform anaerobic respiration using sulfur as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. This process is often referred to as "sulfur reduction" or "sulfur respiration."

The name "Chromatium" comes from the Greek word "chroma," which means "color," and refers to the distinctive purple color of these bacteria, which is due to the presence of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. These pigments allow Chromatium species to perform photosynthesis, using light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds.

It's worth noting that "Chromatium" is a specific taxonomic name for a genus of bacteria, and should not be confused with the more general term "chromatin," which refers to the complex of DNA, histone proteins, and other molecules that make up the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

Melanophores are specialized pigment-containing cells found in various organisms, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. In humans and other mammals, melanophores are primarily located within the skin's dermal layer and are part of the larger group of chromatophores.

Melanophores contain melanosomes, which are organelles that store and transport the pigment melanin. These cells play a crucial role in determining the coloration of an individual's skin, hair, and eyes by producing, storing, and distributing melanin granules within their cytoplasm.

In response to hormonal signals or neural stimulation, melanophores can undergo changes in the distribution of melanosomes, leading to variations in color intensity. This process is known as melanin dispersion or aggregation and is responsible for various physiological responses, such as skin tanning upon exposure to sunlight or the color-changing abilities observed in some animals like chameleons and cuttlefish.

It's important to note that while humans do not have the ability to change their skin color rapidly like some other animals, melanophores still play a significant role in protecting our skin from harmful ultraviolet radiation by producing melanin, which helps absorb and dissipate this energy, reducing damage to skin cells.

I could not find a medical definition for "animal fins" as a single concept. However, in the field of comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology, fins are specialized limbs that some aquatic animals use for movement, stability, or sensory purposes. Fins can be found in various forms among different animal groups, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, and even mammals like whales and dolphins.

Fins consist of either bony or cartilaginous structures that support webs of skin or connective tissue. They may contain muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and sensory organs, which help animals navigate their underwater environment efficiently. The specific structure and function of fins can vary greatly depending on the animal's taxonomic group and lifestyle adaptations.

In a medical context, studying animal fins could provide insights into the evolution of limbs in vertebrates or contribute to the development of biomimetic technologies inspired by nature. However, there is no standalone medical definition for 'animal fins.'

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

Rhodobacter capsulatus is not a medical term, but a species name in the field of microbiology. It refers to a type of purple nonsulfur bacteria that is capable of photosynthesis and can be found in freshwater and soil environments. These bacteria are known for their ability to switch between using light and organic compounds as sources of energy, depending on the availability of each. They have been studied for their potential applications in biotechnology and renewable energy production.

While not directly related to medical definitions, some research has explored the potential use of Rhodobacter capsulatus in bioremediation and wastewater treatment due to its ability to break down various organic compounds. However, it is not a pathogenic organism and does not have any direct relevance to human health or disease.

Antimycin A is an antibiotic substance produced by various species of Streptomyces bacteria. It is known to inhibit the electron transport chain in mitochondria, which can lead to cellular dysfunction and death. Antimycin A has been used in research to study the mechanisms of cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.

In a medical context, antimycin A is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its toxicity to mammalian cells. However, it may be used in laboratory settings to investigate various biological processes or to develop new therapies for diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Palaemonidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in zoology, specifically a family of shrimp that includes many familiar species such as grass shrimps and pistol shrimps. If you have a question related to biology or another subject, I would be happy to try and help with that instead.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Electron Transport Complex III, also known as cytochrome bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, is a protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain (ETC), a series of complexes that generate energy in the form of ATP through a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

In ETC, Electron Transport Complex III accepts electrons from ubiquinol and transfers them to cytochrome c. This electron transfer is coupled with the translocation of protons (H+ ions) across the membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase.

Electron Transport Complex III consists of several subunits, including cytochrome b, cytochrome c1, and the Rieske iron-sulfur protein. These subunits work together to facilitate the electron transfer and proton translocation processes.

Ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a lipid-soluble benzoquinone that plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain as an essential component of Complexes I, II, and III. It functions as an electron carrier, assisting in the transfer of electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) to molecular oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

Additionally, ubiquinone acts as a potent antioxidant in both membranes and lipoproteins, protecting against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Its antioxidant properties stem from its ability to donate electrons and regenerate other antioxidants like vitamin E. Ubiquinone is synthesized endogenously in all human cells, with the highest concentrations found in tissues with high energy demands, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles.

Deficiency in ubiquinone can result from genetic disorders, aging, or certain medications (such as statins), leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Supplementation with ubiquinone has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

Light-harvesting protein complexes are specialized structures in photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers where the initial chemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. These complexes consist of proteins and pigments (primarily chlorophylls and carotenoids) arranged in a way that allows them to absorb light most efficiently. The absorbed light energy is then converted into electrical charges, which are transferred to the reaction centers for further chemical reactions leading to the production of organic compounds and oxygen. The light-harvesting protein complexes play a crucial role in initiating the process of photosynthesis and optimizing its efficiency by capturing and distributing light energy.

Photosynthetic Reaction Center (RC) Complex Proteins are specialized protein-pigment structures that play a crucial role in the primary process of light-driven electron transport during photosynthesis. They are present in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants.

The Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are composed of two major components: the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and the reaction center (RC). The LHC contains antenna pigments like chlorophylls and carotenoids that absorb sunlight and transfer the excitation energy to the RC. The RC is a multi-subunit protein complex containing cofactors such as bacteriochlorophyll, pheophytin, quinones, and iron-sulfur clusters.

When a photon of light is absorbed by the antenna pigments in the LHC, the energy is transferred to the RC, where it initiates a charge separation event. This results in the transfer of an electron from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, creating a flow of electrical charge and generating a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The energy stored in this gradient is then used to synthesize ATP and reduce NADP+, which are essential for carbon fixation and other metabolic processes in the cell.

In summary, Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins are specialized protein structures involved in capturing light energy and converting it into chemical energy during photosynthesis, ultimately driving the synthesis of ATP and NADPH for use in carbon fixation and other metabolic processes.

Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases are complex enzyme systems found in the membranes of bacteria that play a crucial role in energy generation for the cell. They are responsible for catalyzing the conversion of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy currency in cells.

These enzymes function through a process called chemiosmosis, where they use the energy generated by the flow of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane to drive the synthesis of ATP. The protons are pumped out of the cell by another enzyme complex, creating a concentration gradient or proton motive force. The Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases then use this gradient to drive the reverse flow of protons back into the cell, which in turn provides the energy needed to convert ADP and phosphate into ATP.

These enzymes are essential for many bacterial processes, including motility, nutrient uptake, and the maintenance of membrane potential. They are also a target for some antibiotics, as inhibiting their function can disrupt the energy metabolism of bacteria and potentially lead to their death.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

Polarography is a type of electrochemical analysis technique used to determine the concentration of an ion or electron-transferring species in a solution. It involves measuring the current that flows through an electrode as the voltage is varied, which can provide information about the redox potential and the number of electrons transferred during a reaction. The technique is particularly useful for analyzing complex mixtures and for detecting trace amounts of substances.

In polarography, a dropping mercury electrode (DME) is typically used as the working electrode. As the mercury droplets fall from the electrode, they create fresh surfaces for analysis, which helps to minimize interference from surface-adsorbed species. The DME is immersed in a solution containing the analyte along with a supporting electrolyte, and a potential is applied between the DME and a reference electrode.

As the potential is scanned, reduction or oxidation of the analyte occurs at the DME surface, leading to a current that can be measured. The resulting polarogram (a plot of current vs. voltage) shows peaks or waves corresponding to the redox potentials of the analyte, which can be used to identify and quantify the species present in the solution.

Polarography is a sensitive and selective technique that has been widely used in fields such as environmental analysis, pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry. However, it has largely been replaced by more modern electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, which offer higher sensitivity and better resolution of complex mixtures.

Cytochrome c2 is a type of cytochrome, which is a small water-soluble protein involved in electron transport chains and associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria. Cytochrome c2 specifically contains heme as a cofactor and plays a role in the respiratory chain of certain bacteria, contributing to their energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. It is not found in human or mammalian cells.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Decapodiformes is a taxonomic order of marine cephalopods, which includes squids, octopuses, and cuttlefish. The name "Decapodiformes" comes from the Greek words "deca," meaning ten, and "podos," meaning foot, referring to the fact that these animals have ten limbs.

However, it is worth noting that within Decapodiformes, octopuses are an exception as they only have eight arms. The other members of this order, such as squids and cuttlefish, have ten appendages, which are used for locomotion, feeding, and sensory perception.

Decapodiformes species are known for their complex behaviors, sophisticated communication systems, and remarkable adaptations that enable them to thrive in a variety of marine habitats. They play important ecological roles as both predators and prey in the ocean food chain.

Oxidative phosphorylation coupling factors are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which is a metabolic pathway that generates energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to oxygen, resulting in water.

The coupling factors are involved in the regulation and coordination of two key processes: electron transport and phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. These factors include:

1. Complex I (NADH-Q reductase): This complex transfers electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q10, and also contributes to the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2. Complex II (Succinate-Q reductase): This complex transfers electrons from FADH2 to coenzyme Q10 and also participates in the citric acid cycle.
3. Complex III (Q-cytochrome c reductase): This complex transfers electrons from coenzyme Q10 to cytochrome c, and also contributes to the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
4. Complex IV (Cytochrome c oxidase): This complex transfers electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen, generating water and contributing to the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
5. ATP synthase: Also known as Complex V, this enzyme uses the energy generated by the proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Together, these coupling factors work to efficiently convert the energy stored in nutrients into a form that can be used by cells for various functions, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and biosynthesis.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "darkness." In general, darkness refers to the absence of light. It is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field, and it does not have a specific clinical meaning. If you have a question about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help you understand it.

Cytochrome c1 is a protein that is a part of the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is a component of Complex III, also known as the cytochrome bc1 complex. Cytochrome c1 contains a heme group and plays a role in the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c during oxidative phosphorylation, which is the process by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP. Defects in cytochrome c1 can lead to mitochondrial disorders and have been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) is a chemical compound with the formula (C6H11)2NCO. It is a white to off-white solid that is used as a dehydrating agent in organic synthesis, particularly in the formation of peptide bonds. DCC works by activating carboxylic acids to form an active ester intermediate, which can then react with amines to form amides.

It's important to note that Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is a hazardous chemical and should be handled with appropriate safety precautions, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, lab coats, and eye protection. It can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to respiratory problems. Additionally, it can react violently with water and strong oxidizing agents.

It's also important to note that Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is not a medical term or a substance used in medical treatment, but rather a chemical reagent used in laboratory settings for research purposes.

Succinates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to the salts or esters of succinic acid. Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is involved in the Krebs cycle, which is a key metabolic pathway in cells that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Succinates can also be used as a buffer in medical solutions and as a pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of various drugs. In some cases, succinate may be used as a nutritional supplement or as a component of parenteral nutrition formulations to provide energy and help maintain acid-base balance in patients who are unable to eat normally.

It's worth noting that there is also a condition called "succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency" which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This condition can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and other metabolic byproducts, which can cause neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures.

NADP Transhydrogenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), using either protons or electrons as the reducing equivalents. These enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining the redox balance within cells by facilitating the transfer of reducing equivalents between different metabolic pathways.

There are two types of NADP Transhydrogenases: soluble and membrane-bound. The soluble type, also known as NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase or THI (transhydrogenase inner), is found in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the reaction:


This enzyme uses the proton motive force generated by the electron transport chain to drive the reduction of NADP+ with NADH.

The membrane-bound type, also known as NAD(P) transhydrogenase or THI (transhydrogenase integral), is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the reverse reaction:


This enzyme uses the energy from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to reduce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), thus generating NADPH. This reaction is driven by the proton motive force generated by the electron transport chain, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the redox balance within cells.

In summary, NADP Transhydrogenases are enzymes that facilitate the interconversion of NADPH and NADH, using either protons or electrons as reducing equivalents. They play an essential role in maintaining the redox balance within cells by facilitating the transfer of reducing equivalents between different metabolic pathways.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material present within an organism. In eukaryotic cells, which include plants, animals, and other complex life forms, the genome is divided into several compartments, including the nucleus (where most of the genetic material is housed) and the plastids (which include chloroplasts in plant cells).

A plastid genome, also known as a plastome, is the genetic material found within a plastid. Plastids are organelles found in the cells of plants, algae, and some protists that are involved in various metabolic processes, including photosynthesis. The plastid genome is typically a circular molecule of DNA that contains genes encoding for proteins, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA) that are necessary for the function and maintenance of the plastid.

The plastid genome is relatively small compared to the nuclear genome, typically ranging from 120-160 kilobases in length. The gene content and organization of plastid genomes are highly conserved across different plant species, making them useful tools for studying evolutionary relationships among plants. Additionally, because plastids are maternally inherited in many plant species, the plastid genome has been used to study patterns of maternal inheritance and hybridization in plants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indophenol" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry to describe a deep blue compound that is formed when certain phenolic compounds are treated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) under acidic conditions and then reduced with oxalic acid or ferrous sulfate.

This reaction is sometimes used as a qualitative test for the presence of phenolic compounds in chemical analysis. If you have any questions related to the field of medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Valinomycin is not a medical condition or treatment, but rather it is a naturally occurring antibiotic compound that is produced by certain strains of bacteria. Valinomycin is a cyclic depsipeptide, which means it is made up of a ring of amino acids and alcohols.

Valinomycin is known for its ability to selectively bind to potassium ions (K+) with high affinity and transport them across biological membranes. This property makes valinomycin useful in laboratory research as a tool for studying ion transport and membrane permeability. However, it has no direct medical application in humans or animals.

In the context of medicine, particularly in relation to cancer treatment, protons refer to positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom. Proton therapy, a type of radiation therapy, uses a beam of protons to target and destroy cancer cells with high precision, minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The concentrated dose of radiation is delivered directly to the tumor site, reducing side effects and improving quality of life during treatment.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Proton-translocating ATPases are complex, multi-subunit enzymes found in the membranes of many organisms, from bacteria to humans. They play a crucial role in energy transduction processes within cells.

In simpler terms, these enzymes help convert chemical energy into a form that can be used to perform mechanical work, such as moving molecules across membranes against their concentration gradients. This is achieved through a process called chemiosmosis, where the movement of ions (in this case, protons or hydrogen ions) down their electrochemical gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, an essential energy currency for cellular functions.

Proton-translocating ATPases consist of two main domains: a catalytic domain responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, and a membrane domain that contains the ion transport channel. The enzyme operates in either direction depending on the energy status of the cell: it can use ATP to pump protons out of the cell when there's an excess of chemical energy or utilize the proton gradient to generate ATP during times of energy deficit.

These enzymes are essential for various biological processes, including nutrient uptake, pH regulation, and maintaining ion homeostasis across membranes. In humans, they are primarily located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (forming the F0F1-ATP synthase) and plasma membranes of certain cells (as V-type ATPases). Dysfunction of these enzymes has been linked to several diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Collodion is a clear, colorless, viscous solution that is used in medicine and photography. Medically, collodion is often used as a temporary protective dressing for wounds, burns, or skin abrasions. When applied to the skin, it dries to form a flexible, waterproof film that helps to prevent infection and promote healing. Collodion is typically made from a mixture of nitrocellulose, alcohol, and ether.

In photography, collodion was historically used as a medium for wet plate photography, which was popular in the mid-19th century. The photographer would coat a glass plate with a thin layer of collodion, then sensitize it with silver salts before exposing and developing the image while the collodion was still wet. This process required the photographer to carry a portable darkroom and develop the plates immediately after exposure. Despite its challenges, the wet plate collodion process was able to produce highly detailed images, making it a popular technique for portrait photography during its time.

A spheroplast is a type of cell structure that is used in some scientific research and studies. It is created through the process of removing the cell wall from certain types of cells, such as bacteria or yeast, while leaving the cell membrane intact. This results in a round, spherical shape, hence the name "spheroplast."

Spheroplasts are often used in research because they allow scientists to study the properties and functions of the cell membrane more easily, without the interference of the rigid cell wall. They can also be used to introduce foreign DNA or other molecules into the cell, as the absence of a cell wall makes it easier for these substances to enter.

It is important to note that spheroplasts are not naturally occurring structures and must be created in a laboratory setting through specialized techniques.

Cytochromes are a type of hemeprotein found in the mitochondria and other cellular membranes of organisms. They contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom surrounded by a porphyrin ring. This structure allows cytochromes to participate in redox reactions, acting as electron carriers in various biological processes.

There are several types of cytochromes, classified based on the type of heme they contain and their absorption spectra. Some of the most well-known cytochromes include:

* Cytochrome c: a small, mobile protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration.
* Cytochrome P450: a large family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, lungs, and skin.
* Cytochrome b: a component of several electron transport chains, including those found in mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts.

Cytochromes play essential roles in energy production, detoxification, and other metabolic processes, making them vital for the survival and function of living organisms.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells. Inside ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... Therefore, the distinction between these chromatophore types is not always clear. Most chromatophores can generate pteridines ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ...
Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a pigmented(coloured), membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
The word chromatophore may refer to: Chromatophore, a kind of pigmented cell or organ found in some animals. Chromatophore ( ... Chloroplast, also called a chromatophore in some organisms "Chromatophore", a song by BT from _ (album) This disambiguation ... page lists articles associated with the title Chromatophore. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link ...
"Dermal Chromatophores". American Zoologist. 12 (1): 43-62. doi:10.1093/icb/12.1.43. JSTOR 3881731.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: ... "An histochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the dermal chromatophores of the variant ranid blue frog". Journal of ...
Chromatophores and color change. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Able, K.W.; Felley, J.D. (1986). "Geographical variation in ...
It possesses dark chromatophores scattered on the lateral portion of its head, which are more concentrated on its snout and the ... Scales on the midlateral surface of its body are bordered with dark brown chromatophores which form a reticulate pattern. Its ... Fins have scattered dark chromatophores. A. microschemos is only known from the river source of the Itapemirim River, in ...
In cuttlefish, activation of a chromatophore can expand its surface area by 500%. Up to 200 chromatophores per mm2 of skin may ... The chromatophores are sacs containing hundreds of thousands of pigment granules and a large membrane that is folded when ... In Loligo plei, an expanded chromatophore may be up to 1.5 mm in diameter, but when retracted, it can measure as little as 0.1 ... Because chromatophores are under direct neural control from the brain, this effect can be immediate. Cephalopod iridophores ...
Juvenile and para-larvae octopuses also have chromatophores called founder chromatophores, which are also sac-like organs that ... The founder chromatophores are found along the ventral mantle and funnel of the para-larvae and it makes it easy to identify ... As these chromatophores interact with their environment, it enables the octopus to select, at any time, a particular body ... The founder chromatophores produce unique patterns in hatchlings and make them easy to identify. The wunderpus has small eyes ...
In lower vertebrates, they are found in melanophores or chromatophores. Melanosomes are relatively large organelles, measuring ... Messenger, JB (November 2001). "Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history". Biological Reviews of the ... the chromatophore organ. Recent (2008) discoveries by Xu Xing, a Chinese paleontologist, include fossilized feathers in rock ...
Its fins show scattered dark chromatophores. D. pelecus is known from the upper Rio Pardo, at Cândido Sales in the state of ... The scales on its midlateral surface are bordered with dark brown chromatophores that form an overall reticulate pattern. Its ...
Chromatophores in the dermis yield coloration when light shines through the corneal layer of the epidermis. There are many ... The colors and iridescence in these scales are largely determined by the types and amount of chromatophores located in the ... kinds of chromatophores. Melanophores yield brown pigmentation, and when paired with guanophores, yield grey. When paired with ...
This colour-changing function is produced by groups of red, yellow, brown, and black pigmented chromatophores above a layer of ... Similarly to other cuttlefish, pharaoh cuttlefish use these chromatophores for camouflage and other cryptic behaviors. They ... Today, artificial dyes have mostly replaced natural sepia.[citation needed] Cephalopod size Common cuttlefish Chromatophore ... "Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history". Biological Reviews. 76 (4): 473-528. doi:10.1017/ ...
Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around 850 ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... Paulinella cells contain one or two sausage-shaped blue-green photosynthesizing structures called chromatophores, descended ... About the nature and origin of chromatophores in the vegetable kingdom]. Biol Centralbl (in German). 25: 593-604. Alberts B ( ...
These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ...
Pringsheim, E. G.; Hovasse, R. (1948-06-01). "The Loss of Chromatophores in Euglena Gracilis". New Phytologist. 47 (1): 52-87. ... "peculiar arrangement of the flagellate this appearance at low magnification." Twenty-two years later, ...
Inside the chromatophore cell of cephalopods, pigment granules are enclosed in an elastic sac. To change colour, the animal ... Colour change is made possible by chromatophores; pigment-containing and light-reflecting organelles in cells found in ...
Venter is grey with scattered yellow chromatophores. The vocal sac is grey to black. The male call is a two-note call, the ...
Males have small chromatophores on their mantle. The European squid is a neritic, semidemersal species, which undertakes ... The colour of the European squid is greyish-transparent or reddish, depending on the expansion of chromatophores in the dermis ...
Bagnara, Joseph (1 July 1968). "The Dermal Chromatophore Unit". Journal of Cell Biology. 38 (1): 67-79. doi:10.1083/jcb.38.1.67 ...
This ability to rapidly color-adapt is mainly caused by levels of the hormone, intermedin, and its effects on chromatophore ... The dermal chromatophore unit includes xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores, which function together to display or ... Bagnara, Joseph T.; Taylor, John D.; Hadley, Mac E. (1968-07-01). "The Dermal Chromatophore Unit". Journal of Cell Biology. 38 ...
... -pigmented organelles, known as "cyanosomes", exist in the chromatophores of at least two fish species, the mandarin fish ... Goda, Makoto; Fujii, Ryozo (1995). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811- ...
The pleura of the first five abdominal somites also show red chromatophores. The eyestalks are reddish, and some chromatophores ... Its body is transparent and sprinkled with chromatophores. The carapace shows a short and broad transverse white median band in ... the middle consisting of irregular bright white chromatophores. A white line or spot is also visible on the eye stalk. The legs ...
All Cephalopods have chromatophores, special pigmented and light reflecting cells on their skin which allows them to change ... As hatchlings, their chromatophores can also appear yellow. Though research is limited, some studies suggest that O. joubini ... O. joubini is red-orange in color which is caused by pigmented cells called chromatophores that are common in many animals. ...
ISBN 1-85317-226-X. Fujii, R (October 2000). "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Res. 13 ( ... An extremely uncommon type of chromatophore, the cyanophore, produces a very vivid blue pigment. Amelanism in fishes, ... Non-melanin pigments in other vertebrates are produced by cells called chromatophores. Within this categorization, xanthophores ...
Retrieved 2009-09-08.[permanent dead link] Goda, M.; R. Fujii (2009). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish ... was proposed for the blue chromatophores, or pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells. In all other known cases, the ...
All the fins are hyaline, without dark chromatophores. The maximum known length is 25 cm (10 in), with males tending to be ...
4-5. Nelson 2006, p. 3. Goda, M.; R. Fujii (2009). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science ...
Fluorescent chromatophores can be found in the skin (e.g. in fish) just below the epidermis, amongst other chromatophores. ... Wucherer, M. F.; Michiels, N. K. (2012). "A Fluorescent Chromatophore Changes the Level of Fluorescence in a Reef Fish". PLOS ... Fujii, R (2000). "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Research. 13 (5): 300-19. doi:10.1034 ... Fluorescent cells are innervated the same as other chromatophores, like melanophores, pigment cells that contain melanin. Short ...
The name "cyanophore" was proposed for the blue chromatophores, or pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells. In all other ... Goda, M.; R. Fujii (2009). "Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811-813. doi: ...
"Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811-813. doi:10.2108/zsj.12.811. S2CID ...
Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells. Inside ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... Therefore, the distinction between these chromatophore types is not always clear. Most chromatophores can generate pteridines ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ...
rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of ... rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of ... rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of ... rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of ...
The cytoplasm is filled with spherules of varying size and long, tapering chromatophores (?), which radiate forward and outward ... Diagnosis A small species, with subcylindrical body, its length 1.72 transdiameters; girdle anterior ; chromatophores (?). ...
... called chromatophores. Each chromatophore is surrounded by a set of muscles, which contract and relax under direct control of ... Together, the chromatophores act like cellular pixels to generate the overall skin pattern. ... or whether they have a sense of how contracted the muscles around each chromatophore are - we dont yet know." ... the cameras captured the real-time expansion and contraction of tens to hundreds of thousands of chromatophores. ...
Chromatophores concentrated on snout, jaws, and dorsal portion of neurocranium. Chromatophores more densely concentrated along ... Adipose fin with scattered dark chromatophores throughout the fin. Caudal fin with scattered dark chromatophores on posterior ... Dorsal, pelvic and anal fins with scattered dark chromatophores, more concentrated along first rays and interradial membranes. ... Upper half of scales slightly dark and generally delineated by black chromatophores, producing slightly crosslinked aspect. Two ...
Their camouflage abilities are due to special color-changing organs in their skin called chromatophores. Chromatophores act as ...
If theyre feeling fussy, say angry or afraid or combative, theyll change colors using their chromatophores. Theyll also ...
BRENDA - The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System
Wucherer, M. F., and Michiels, N. K. (2012). A fluorescent chromatophore changes the level of fluorescence in a reef fish. PLoS ... fluorescent chromatophores (Wucherer and Michiels, 2012), and (iii) fluorescent scales and fin rays (Michiels et al., 2008). ...
In the zebrafish embryo, chromatophores derive from the neural crest cells. Using pax7a and pax7b zebrafish mutants, we ... In summary, we propose a novel role for Pax7 in the early specification of chromatophore precursor cells. ... The zebrafish has three different types of chromatophores: black melanophores, yellow xanthophores, and shimmering iridophores ... pigment pattern of many animal species is a result of the arrangement of different types of pigment-producing chromatophores. ...
muscles may be transparent, for example, muscles in aquatic chromatophores. It. is interesting and significant to make ...
A supercomputer simulation of its chromatophore harvesting light reveals a marvel of quantum-inclusive engineering.21 During ... Chandler, D., Strümpfer, J., Sener, M., Scheuring, S. and Schulten, K., Light Harvesting by Lamellar Chromatophores in ...
In this case chromatophores are absent.. Mutation of finnage is also another trait that breeders try to manipulate. Breeding ... The coloration of a fish species is determined by the presence or absence of pigment containing cells called chromatophores. ... Consequently, color mutations can occur through the presence, absence or blending of these chromatophores. An example of a ...
Symptoms include a pink/reddish/brown coloration due to the expansion of cuticular chromatophores, along with occasional white ...
This guy hung out at the front of the tank, shimmering... You could see the chromatophores narrowing and widening, if you ...
The presence of chromatophores, or pigment cells, in their skin allows chameleons to change color to pink, red, orange, green, ...
Fish skin contains different types of pigment cells or chromatophores, which are under the control of the hormonal and nervous ...
Electrical and mechanical responses of chromatophore muscle fibres of the squid, Loligo opalescens, to nerve stimulation and ...
... is more like it and I think conceptually works more like biological camouflage using chromatophores - such as flatfish and ...
Right now they use their chromatophores to look like tiny pebbles in the bottom of the holding tank theyll call home for the ...
Chromatophores are fascinating and complex cells that allow the cuttlefish to change their colors in seconds. ...
... showing fragile antennas and soft cuticle as well as chromatophore expansion along the whole surface of the body, particularly ...
Proteins And Chromatophores 43 Comments Read More » SKIN MICROBIOME, OUR CO-INHABITANTS 14 Comments ...
... the bigfin reef squid uses pigmented skin cells called chromatophores to change the color, pattern and texture of their skin. ...
The Science of Chromatophores. At the heart of a chameleons color-changing magic lie chromatophores, specialized cells that ... Chromatophores and Color Change. Diving into the world of chameleons, its fascinating to see how their chromatophores play a ... When you see a chameleon shift from a vibrant green to a deep brown, its all thanks to the complex dance of chromatophores ... Chromatophores contain pigment sacs that expand or contract under neural control, altering the chameleons color. ...
Chromatophore! Call for ADD AND PASS AND 3-D work!. May 17, 2009 at 6pm to August 1, 2009 at 7pm - Saint Petersburg, FL Hello ... everyone! Thank you for your submissions to Chromatophore! We are coming down to the last push of a great show! The show will ...
SDS-PAGE analysis of chromatophore proteins of strain ΔPUHA confirmed the absence of the RC H protein band. When ΔPUHA was ... SDS-PAGE analysis of chromatophore proteins of strain ΔPUHA confirmed the absence of the RC H protein band. When ΔPUHA was ...
As trout continue to develop, pigmented cells in the skin called chromatophores help form spotted patterns and marks which ...
In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).) Preferred term. ... In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).). Annotation:. do not ... Chromatophores - Preferred Concept UI. M0004384. Scope note. The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many ... confuse with chromophores (chemical groups imparting color to a cpd); BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES is available. ...
  • Chromatophores are cells that produce color, of which many types are pigment-containing cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods. (
  • Some species can rapidly change colour through mechanisms that translocate pigment and reorient reflective plates within chromatophores. (
  • The term chromatophore was adopted (following Sangiovanni's chromoforo) as the name for pigment-bearing cells derived from the neural crest of cold-blooded vertebrates and cephalopods. (
  • citation needed] Whereas all chromatophores contain pigments or reflecting structures (except when there has been a mutation, as in albinism), not all pigment-containing cells are chromatophores. (
  • Cuttlefish create their dazzling skin patterns by precisely controlling millions of tiny skin pigment cells, called chromatophores. (
  • The coloration of a fish species is determined by the presence or absence of pigment containing cells called chromatophores. (
  • Chromatophores contain pigment sacs that expand or contract under neural control, altering the chameleon's color. (
  • In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES). (
  • The nervous system intricately controls the movement of chromatophores, enabling chameleons to change color dynamically. (
  • En las bacterias fototrópicas los cromatóforos se refieren a orgánulos membranosos (CROMATÓFOROS BACTERIANOS). (
  • While most chromatophores contain pigments that absorb specific wavelengths of light, the color of leucophores and iridophores is produced by their respective scattering and optical interference properties. (
  • Chameleons change color through the expansion and contraction of chromatophores containing pigments like melanin, blue, yellow, and red. (
  • In particular, intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum provide a fully functional and robust photosynthetic apparatus, ideal for biophysical investigations of energy transduction and incorporation into biohybrid photoelectrochemical devices. (
  • Symptoms include a pink/reddish/brown coloration due to the expansion of cuticular chromatophores, along with occasional white spots. (
  • Cephalopods, such as the octopus, have complex chromatophore organs controlled by muscles to achieve this, whereas vertebrates such as chameleons generate a similar effect by cell signalling. (
  • Their camouflage abilities are due to special color-changing organs in their skin called chromatophores. (
  • As the cuttlefish transitioned between camouflage patterns, the cameras captured the real-time expansion and contraction of tens to hundreds of thousands of chromatophores. (
  • So, when you're watching a chameleon transform from one mesmerizing color to another, remember, you're witnessing a sophisticated biological process driven by the remarkable abilities of chromatophores. (
  • Mature chromatophores are grouped into subclasses based on their colour (more properly "hue") under white light: xanthophores (yellow), erythrophores (red), iridophores (reflective / iridescent), leucophores (white), melanophores (black/brown), and cyanophores (blue). (
  • It's all about how their skin interacts with light through reflection and refraction, using chromatophores , structural color mechanisms , and nanocrystal reflective layers . (
  • Chromatophores are fascinating and complex cells that allow the cuttlefish to change their colors in seconds. (
  • At the heart of a chameleon's color-changing magic lie chromatophores , specialized cells that expand or contract to reveal a spectrum of colors . (
  • Together, the chromatophores act like cellular pixels to generate the overall skin pattern. (
  • Chromatophores act as pixels across the cuttlefish's body, changing their size to alter the pattern and color on the animal's skin. (
  • Each chromatophore is surrounded by a set of muscles, which contract and relax under direct control of neurons in the brain. (
  • Exactly how they receive that feedback - whether they use their eyes, or whether they have a sense of how contracted the muscles around each chromatophore are - we don't yet know. (
  • Chromatophores are largely responsible for generating skin and eye colour in ectothermic animals and are generated in the neural crest during embryonic development. (
  • The varying activity of these chromatophores across different layers of skin results in the intricate and dynamic color patterns you marvel at. (
  • As is common in many cephalopod species , the bigfin reef squid uses pigmented skin cells called chromatophores to change the color, pattern and texture of their skin. (
  • Consequently, color mutations can occur through the presence, absence or blending of these chromatophores. (
  • The movement of melanin within chromatophores plays a significant role in these color shifts. (
  • Diving into the world of chameleons, it's fascinating to see how their chromatophores play a pivotal role in their remarkable ability to change color through light reflection and refraction. (
  • When you see a chameleon shift from a vibrant green to a deep brown, it's all thanks to the complex dance of chromatophores beneath its skin. (
  • This remarkable ability stems from the sophisticated interplay of specialized skin cells known as chromatophores , alongside layers of nanocrystals called iridophores that reflect and refract light. (
  • Their nervous system sends signals to specific chromatophores, instructing them to expand or contract. (
  • Right now they use their chromatophores to look like tiny pebbles in the bottom of the holding tank they'll call home for the next few months. (
  • Two photosynthesis‐related genes ( psaI and csos4A ) are encoded by both the nuclear and chromatophore genomes, suggesting that EGT in Paulinella chromatophora is ongoing. (
  • In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS . (
  • These compounds are stored in chloroplasts and chromatophores. (
  • It's thought that having leucophores underlying the chromatophores increases the intensity of the colours that we observe. (
  • A chemistry professor teamed up with the U.S. … Sacs of yellow, red, brown and black pigment called chromatophores cover their bodies and allow them to change colors and patterns by contracting their muscles. (
  • Chromatophore sacs are individually controlled so the cephalopod can control which colours are displayed and where, hence the patterns seen in cuttlefish. (
  • Cephalopods change their appearance through color-changes cells called chromatophores that are neurologically stimulated via electrical signals in the squid. (
  • Deep water cephalopods have very few chromatophores as colour isn't much use in an environment with little light. (
  • Some EGT‐derived proteins could be imported into chromatophores for function. (
  • These proteins interact directly with the chromatophores, shortening transformation times. (
  • Lizards exploit the changing optics of developing chromatophore cells to switch defensive colors during ontogeny. (
  • The photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella chromatophora represents a unique model for the study of plastid evolution because it contains cyanobacterium‐derived photosynthetic organelles termed 'chromatophores' that originated relatively recently (0.09-0.14 BYA). (
  • Squids that have photophores and chromatophores can control the color and intensity of the light. (
  • We examined the impact of light on Paulinella chromatophora and found that this organism is light sensitive and lacks light‐induced transcriptional regulation of chromatophore genes and most EGT‐derived nuclear genes. (
  • We postulate that expansion of the nc HLI gene family and its regulation may reflect the light/oxidative stress experienced by Paulinella chromatophora as a consequence of the as yet incomplete integration of host and chromatophore metabolisms. (