Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Bacterial Chromatophores: Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.Rhodospirillum rubrum: Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.Rhodospirillum: A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Photophosphorylation: The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Sepia: A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Palaemonidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the palaemonid shrimp. Genera include Macrobrachium, Palaemon, and Palaemonetes. Palaemonidae osmoregulate by means of gills.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Cytochromes c2: Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Oxidative Phosphorylation Coupling FactorsDarkness: The absence of light.Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.NADP Transhydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.IndophenolValinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (1/112)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Stripe formation in juvenile Pomacanthus explained by a generalized turing mechanism with chemotaxis. (2/112)

Current interest in pattern formation can be traced to a seminal paper by Turing, who demonstrated that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals, called morphogens, can interact so as to produce stable nonuniform concentration patterns in space. Recently, a Turing model has been suggested to explain the development of pigmentation patterns on species of growing angelfish such as Pomacanthus semicirculatus, which exhibit readily observed changes in the number, size, and orientation of colored stripes during development of juvenile and adult stages, but the model fails to predict key features of the observations on stripe formation. Here we develop a generalized Turing model incorporating cell growth and movement, we analyze the effects of these processes on patterning, and we demonstrate that the model can explain important features of pattern formation in a growing system such as Pomacanthus. The applicability of classical Turing models to biological pattern formation is limited by virtue of the sensitivity of patterns to model parameters, but here we show that the incorporation of growth results in robustly generated patterns without strict parameter control. In the model, chemotaxis in response to gradients in a morphogen distribution leads to aggregation of one type of pigment cell into a striped spatial pattern.  (+info)

Hybrid Rhodospirillum rubrum F(0)F(1) ATP synthases containing spinach chloroplast F(1) beta or alpha and beta subunits reveal the essential role of the alpha subunit in ATP synthesis and tentoxin sensitivity. (3/112)

Trace amounts ( approximately 5%) of the chloroplast alpha subunit were found to be absolutely required for effective restoration of catalytic function to LiCl-treated chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum with the chloroplast beta subunit (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072). To clarify the role of the alpha subunit in the rebinding of beta, restoration of catalytic function, and conferral of sensitivity to the chloroplast-specific inhibitor tentoxin, LiCl-treated chromatophores were analyzed by immunoblotting before and after reconstitution with mixtures of R. rubrum and chloroplast alpha and beta subunits. The treated chromatophores were found to have lost, in addition to most of their beta subunits, approximately a third of the alpha subunits, and restoration of catalytic activity required rebinding of both subunits. The hybrid reconstituted with the R. rubrum alpha and chloroplast beta subunits was active in ATP synthesis as well as hydrolysis, and both activities were completely resistant to tentoxin. In contrast, a hybrid reconstituted with both chloroplast alpha and beta subunits restored only a MgATPase activity, which was fully inhibited by tentoxin. These results indicate that all three copies of the R. rubrum alpha subunit are required for proton-coupled ATP synthesis, whereas for conferral of tentoxin sensitivity at least one copy of the chloroplast alpha subunit is required together with the chloroplast beta subunit. The hybrid system was further used to examine the effects of amino acid substitution at position 83 of the beta subunit on sensitivity to tentoxin.  (+info)

The calcium dependence of pigment translocation in freshwater shrimp red ovarian chromatophores. (4/112)

The roles of calcium in cell signaling consequent to chromatophorotropin action and as an activator of mechanochemical transport proteins responsible for pigment granule translocation were investigated in the red ovarian chromatosomes of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. Chromatosomes were perfused with known concentrations of free Ca++ (10(-3) to 10(-9) M) prepared in Mg(++)-EGTA-buffered physiological saline after selectively permeabilizing with 25 microM calcium ionophore A23187 or with 10(-8) M red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH). The degree of pigment aggregation and the translocation velocity of the leading edges of the pigment mass were recorded in individual chromatosomes during aggregation induced by RPCH or A23187 and dispersion induced by low Ca++. Aggregation is Ca++ dependent, showing a dual extracellular and intracellular requirement. After perfusion with reduced Ca++ (10(-4) to 10(-9) M), RPCH triggers partial aggregation (approximately 65%), although the maximum translocation velocities (approximately 16.5 microns/min) and velocity profiles are unaffected. After aggregation induced at or below 10(-5) M Ca++, spontaneous pigment dispersion ensues, suggesting a Ca++ requirement for RPCH coupling to its receptor, or a concentration-dependent, Ca(++)-induced Ca(++)-release mechanism. The Ca(++)-channel blockers Mn++ (5 mM) and verapamil (50 microM) have no effect on RPCH-triggered aggregation. An intracellular Ca++ requirement for aggregation was demonstrated in chromatosomes in which the Ca++ gradient across the cell membrane was dissipated with A23187. At free [Ca++] above 10(-3) M, aggregation is complete; at 10(-4) M, aggregation is partial, followed by spontaneous dispersion; below 10(-5) M Ca++, pigments do not aggregate but disperse slightly. Aggregation velocities diminish from 11.6 +/- 1.2 microns/min at 5.5 mM Ca++ to 7.4 +/- 1.3 microns/min at 10(-4) M Ca++. Half-maximum aggregation occurs at 3.2 x 10(-5) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 4.8 x 10(-5) M Ca++. Pigment redispersion after 5.5 mM Ca(++)-A23187-induced aggregation is initiated by reducing extracellular Ca++: slight dispersion begins at 10(-7) M, complete dispersion being attained at 10(-9) M Ca++. Dispersion velocities increase from 0.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.5 microns/min. Half-maximum dispersion occurs at 7.6 x 10(-9) M Ca++ and half-maximum translocation velocity at 2.9 x 10(-9) M Ca++. These data reveal an extracellular and an intracellular Ca++ requirement for RPCH action, and demonstrate that the centripetal or centrifugal direction of pigment movement, the translocation velocity, and the degree of pigment aggregation or dispersion attained are calcium-dependent properties of the granule translocation apparatus.  (+info)

Reflective properties of iridophores and fluorescent 'eyespots' in the loliginid squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris. (5/112)

Observations were made of the reflective properties of the iridophore stripes of the squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris, and the likely functions of these stripes are considered in terms of concealment and signalling. In both species, the mantle muscle is almost transparent. Stripes of iridophores run along the length of each side of the mantle, some of which, when viewed at normal incidence in white light, reflect red, others green or blue. When viewed obliquely, the wavebands best reflected move towards the blue/ultraviolet end of the spectrum and their reflections are almost 100% polarised. These are properties of quarter-wavelength stacks of chitin and cytoplasm, predicted in theoretical analyses made by Sir A. F. Huxley and Professor M. F. Land. The reflecting surfaces of the individual iridophores are almost flat and, in a given stripe, these surfaces are within a few degrees of being parallel. Both species of squid have conspicuous, brightly coloured reflectors above their eyes. These 'eyespots' have iridescent layers similar to those found on the mantle but are overlaid by a green fluorescent layer that does not change colour or become polarised as it is viewed more obliquely. In the sea, all reflections from the iridophore stripes will be largely confined to the blue-green parts of the spectrum and all reflections in other wavebands, such as those in the red and near ultraviolet, will be weak. The functions of the iridophores reflecting red at normal incidence must be sought in their reflections of blue-green at oblique angles of incidence. These squid rely for their camouflage mainly on their transparency, and the ventral iridophores and the red, green and blue reflective stripes must be used mainly for signalling. The reflectivities of some of these stripes are relatively low, allowing a large fraction of the incident light to be transmitted into the mantle cavity. Despite their low reflectivities, the stripes are very conspicuous when viewed from some limited directions because they reflect light from directions for which the radiances are much higher than those of the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The reflective patterns seen, for example, by neighbouring squid when schooling depend on the orientation of the squid in the external light field and the position of the squid relative to these neighbours.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of crystals from the dermal iridophores of a chameleon Anolis carolinensis. (6/112)

The biochemical characteristics of dermal iridophore crystals from Anolis carolinensis have been investigated. Iridophores isolated by collangenase-hyaluronidase treatment were sonicated and their contents fractionated through sucrose. Pure iridophore crystals so obtained were examined by chromatography and electron diffraction. They were found to be pure hydrated crystalline form. The suggestion is made that the subcrystalline structure of this guanine does not play a role in color production by the iridophore.  (+info)

Behavioral visual responses of wild-type and hypopigmented zebrafish. (7/112)

Zebrafish possess three classes of chromatophores that include iridophores, melanophores, and xanthophores. Mutations that lack one or two classes of chromatophores have been isolated or genetically constructed. Using a behavioral assay based on visually mediated escape responses, we measured the visual response of fully and partially pigmented zebrafish. In zebrafish that lack iridophores (roy mutants), the behavioral visual responses were similar to those of wild-type animals except at low contrast stimulation. In the absence of melanophores (albino mutants) or both melanophores and iridophores (ruby mutants), the behavioral visual responses were normal under moderate illumination but reduced when tested under dim or bright conditions or under low contrast stimulation. Together, the data suggest that screening pigments in the retina play a role in the regulation of behavioral visual responses and are necessary for avoiding "scatter" under bright light conditions.  (+info)

Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development. (8/112)

Ectothermic vertebrates exhibit a diverse array of adult pigment patterns. A common element of these patterns is alternating dark and light stripes each comprising different classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, alternating horizontal stripes of black melanophores and yellow xanthophores are a prominent feature of the adult pigment pattern. In fms mutant zebrafish, however, xanthophores fail to develop and melanophore stripes are severely disrupted. fms encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by xanthophores and their precursors and is the closest known homologue of kit, which has long been studied for roles in pigment pattern development in amniotes. In this study we assess the cellular and temporal requirements for Fms activity in promoting adult pigment pattern development. By transplanting cells between fms mutants and either wild-type or nacre mutant zebrafish, we show that fms acts autonomously to the xanthophore lineage in promoting the striped arrangement of adult melanophores. To identify critical periods for fms activity, we isolated temperature sensitive alleles of fms and performed reciprocal temperature shift experiments at a range of stages from embryo to adult. These analyses demonstrate that Fms is essential for maintaining cells of the xanthophore lineage as well as maintaining the organization of melanophore stripes throughout development. Finally, we show that restoring Fms activity even at late larval stages allows essentially complete recovery of xanthophores and the development of a normal melanophore stripe pattern. Our findings suggest that fms is not required for establishing a population of precursor cells during embryogenesis but is required for recruiting pigment cell precursors to xanthophore fates, with concomitant effects on melanophore organization.  (+info)

*Chromatophore

Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells. Inside ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... Therefore, the distinction between these chromatophore types is not always clear. Most chromatophores can generate pteridines ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ...

*Chromatophore (bacteria)

Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...

*Chromatophore (disambiguation)

The word chromatophore may refer to: Chromatophore, a kind of pigmented cell or organ found in some animals. Chromatophore ( ... In some organisms, chloroplasts may also be called chromatophores.. ...

*Mummichog

Chromatophores and color change. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Able, K.W.; Felley, J.D. (1986). "Geographical variation in ...

*Astyanax microschemos

It possesses dark chromatophores scattered on the lateral portion of its head, which are more concentrated on its snout and the ... Scales on the midlateral surface of its body are bordered with dark brown chromatophores which form a reticulate pattern. Its ... Fins have scattered dark chromatophores. A. microschemos is only known from the river source of the Itapemirim River, in ...

*Animal coloration

Chromatophores are cells containing pigment. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under ... Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that may change their size, but more often retain theiroriginal size but ... Chromatophores may respond to hormonal and/or neurobal control mechanisms, but direst responses to stimulation by visible light ... Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer ...

*Astyanax pelecus

Its fins show scattered dark chromatophores. A. pelecus is known from the upper Rio Pardo, at Cândido Sales in the state of ... The scales on its midlateral surface are bordered with dark brown chromatophores that form an overall reticulate pattern. Its ...

*Cuttlefish

In cuttlefish, activation of a chromatophore can expand its surface area by 500%. There may be up to 200 chromatophores per mm2 ... The chromatophores are a sac containing hundreds of thousands of pigment granules and a large membrane that is folded when ... In Loligo plei, an expanded chromatophore may be up to 1.5 mm in diameter, but when retracted, it can measure as little as 0.1 ... Because chromatophores are under direct neural control from the brain, this effect can be immediate. Cephalopod iridophores ...

*Melanosome

Messenger, JB (November 2001). "Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history". Biological reviews of the ... the chromatophore organ. Recent (2008) discoveries by Xu Xing, a Chinese paleontologist, include fossilized feathers in rock ... they are found in melanophores or chromatophores. Melanosomes are relatively large organelles, measuring up to 500 nm in ...

*Snakeskin

Chromatophores in the dermis yield coloration when light shines through the corneal layer of the epidermis. There are many ... kinds of chromatophores. Melanophores yield brown pigmentation, and when paired with guanophores, yield grey. When paired with ...

*Pharaoh cuttlefish

Cephalopod size Common Cuttlefish Chromatophore Reid, A., P. Jereb, & C.F.E. Roper 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E ... This colour-changing function is produced by groups of red, yellow, brown, and black pigmented chromatophores above a layer of ... Messenger, J. B. (2001-11-01). "Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history". Biological Reviews. 76 (4): 473- ...

*Chloroplast

Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. Chromatophore DNA is about a million base pairs long, containing around 850 ... Chromatophores have transferred much less of their DNA to the nucleus of their host. About 0.3-0.8% of the nuclear DNA in ... Paulinella cells contain one or two sausage shaped blue-green photosynthesizing structures called chromatophores, descended ... About the nature and origin of chromatophores in the vegetable kingdom]. Biol Centralbl (in German). 25: 593-604. Alberts, ...

*Rhodobacter sphaeroides

These invaginations are also known as chromatophores. The genome of R. sphaeroides is also somewhat intriguing. It has two ...

*Deception in animals

Inside the chromatophore cell of cephalopods, pigment granules are enclosed in an elastic sac. To change colour, the animal ... Colour change is made possible by chromatophores; pigment-containing and light-reflecting organelles in cells found in ...

*Khaki bromeliad frog

Venter is grey with scattered yellow chromatophores. The vocal sac is grey to black. The male call is a two-note call, the ...

*European squid

Males have small chromatophores on their mantle. The European squid is a neritic, semidemersal species, which undertakes ... The colour of the European squid is greyish-transparent or reddish, depending on the expansion of chromatophores in the dermis ...

*Podarcis muralis

Bagnara, Joseph (1 July 1968). "The Dermal Chromatophore Unit". Journal of Cell Biology. 38: 67-79. doi:10.1083/jcb.38.1.67. ...

*Palaemonella burnsi

The pleura of the first five abdominal somites also show red chromatophores. The eyestalks are reddish, and some chromatophores ... Its body is transparent and sprinkled with chromatophores. The carapace shows a short and broad transverse white median band in ... the middle consisting of irregular bright white chromatophores. A white line or spot is also visible on the eye stalk. The legs ...

*Amelanism

ISBN 1-85317-226-X. Fujii, R (October 2000). "The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores". Pigment Cell Res. 13 ( ... An extremely uncommon type of chromatophore, the cyanophore, produces a very vivid blue pigment. Amelanism in fishes, ... Non-melanin pigments in other vertebrates are produced by cells called chromatophores. Within this categorization, xanthophores ...

*Sternarchogiton nattereri

All the fins are hyaline, without dark chromatophores. The maximum known length is 25 cm (10 in), with males tending to be ...

*Coral reef fish

"Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymid Fish". Zoological Science. 12 (6): 811-813. doi:10.2108/zsj.12.811. ...

*Bacterial cell structure

Chromatophores are intracellular membranes found in phototrophic bacteria. Used primarily for photosynthesis, they contain ...

*Animal language

Squid are capable of rapid changes in skin color and pattern through nervous control of chromatophores. In addition to ... Cloney, RA; Florey, E (1968). "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und ...

*Animal communication

Some cephalopods, such as the octopus and the cuttlefish, have specialized skin cells (chromatophores) that can change the ... Cloney, R.A.; Florey, E. (1968). "Ultrastructure of cephalopod chromatophore organs". Z. Zellforsch Mikrosk. Anat. 89: 250-280 ...

*Pacific tree frog

Skin color is produced via pigment cells called chromatophores. Three types of chromatophores are commonly found in amphibians ...
Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding their diet & lifespan. However, there are also several very different types of chromatophores that exist within a variety of different organisms, which could certainly lead to confusion over their exact function(s), as well.. The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods, some of which can amazingly change their color by expansion or contraction. An excellent illustration of a Cephalopod Chromatophore (i.e. from octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) is found in the Tree of Life Web Project.. Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they cannot alter their pigmentation through expansion or contraction.. Within plant cells, small pigment-bearing organelles known as plastids (e.g. ...
The chromatophores are extremely abundant, and can be differentiated into three types, small disc shaped bodies in the upper part of the stratum spongiosum 1-5 μm across, a middle layer of irregular spheroid to ovoid cells, with a granular interior made up of two types of granules (smaller irregular sub-spherical granules and larger rounded granules), and a lower layer comprising larger smooth surfaced ovoid cells with prominant lateral processes. These are interpretted as being different types of chromatophores based upon comparison with living Snakes, with an upper layer of iridophores (reflective, irridescent cells), a middle layer of xanthophores (cells contianing yellow carotenoid pigments) and erythrophores (cells contianing orange pteridine pigments), and a base layer comprising melanophores (cells with black or dark brown melanin pigments ...
Hi, Ella.. Thank you for your excellent question. I had not thought very hard about this question before, so Im glad to have this opportunity to learn about this with you.. As with all fish, Red Drum receive their coloration from chromatophores, which are cells in the skin of the fish. The Encyclopedia Brittanica article that I included for you below explains that "Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments they contain determine the colour patterns of an organism.". https://www.britannica.com/science/chromatophore. The color of the pigment within these cells varies greatly across fish types.. The diet of a fish also contributes to its color. Carotenoids, for instance, are found in algae and the creatures that eat that algae. According to the article called "Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes" (see link below), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. AU - Odenthal, J. AU - Rossnagel, K. AU - Haffter, P. AU - Kelsh, R N. AU - Vogelsang, E. AU - Brand, M. AU - vanEeden, F J M. AU - Furutani-Seiki, Makoto. AU - Granato, M. AU - Hammerschmidt, M. AU - Heisenberg, C P. AU - Jiang, Y J. AU - Kane, D A. AU - Mullins, M C. AU - NussleinVolhard, C. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - In a large-scale screen for mutants with defects in embryonic development we identified 17 genes (65 mutants) specifically required for the development of xanthophores, We provide evidence that these genes are required for three different aspects of xanthophore development, (1) Pigment cell formation and migration (pfeffer and salt); (2) pigment synthesis (edison, yobo, yocca and brie) and (3) pigment translocation (esrom, tilsit and tofu). The number of xanthophore cells that appear in the body is reduced in embryos with mutations in the two genes, salt and pfeffer. In heterozygous and ...
In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from ...
chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction can change the color of the skin. Also called pigment cell.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been reexamined. It was found that RC, cyt c$\sb2$ and c$\sb1$ after a flash reached a state not far from the expected ideal equilibrium under the conditions of our experiments ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
So, when an octopus wants to change color, a signal travels from the brain and down the neural axon to the chromatophore, telling the muscles to contract. The muscle contraction pulls on the pigment-filled sac, stretching it to change its translucence and thereby changing the amount of color showing through. The chromatophores can produce yellow, orange, red, brown, and occasionally black pigments. The intensity of the color depends on how many muscle fibers are contracted, and therefore how much the sac expands and the pigment is spread out. Once a chromatophore develops, it will stay put for the rest of the animals life. As the animal grows, new, smaller chromatophores develop in the spaces between the old ones. These new organs are only able to produce yellow pigment at first, but darken as they get older ...
The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebras outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid
Radios blandos dorsales (total): 9; Radios blandos anales: 9; Vértebra: 34 - 35. Semicircular indentation present on the ventromedian flange of the dentary. Branched anal rays 5. Weberian apparatus with the 4th centrum extending well below the fused 2nd + 3rd centra. Sexual dichromatism conspicuous; melanophores in males are a little stronger, and the erythrophores and iridophores are much more developed. When disturbed, repeated croaking sounds are produced. No lateral line pores nor barbels (Ref. 38434). ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Paralarvae of G. fabricii are most easily separated from the partially sympatric species, G. steenstrupi, by the presence two large chromatophores on the ventral surface of the head in G. fabricii vs none in G. steenstrupi. This difference distinguishes the adults as well. The full chromatophore pattern of the paralarva is not known. The number of suckers on arms I-IV is useful at sizes greater than 13 mm ML as is the form of the funnel organ in all but smallest paralarvae. The paralarval stage appears to end at about 20 mm ML which corresponds with hook development and movement into deeper water (Falcon, et al., 2000).. ...
Short-eared owls are less commonly seen at Critter Creek. They are usually found on the open chaparral and flatlands on the western side of the Central Valley. They are medium-sized owls at about 15 inches tall. The basic body coloration is streaked tawny brown with light facial disks. Their markings are quite striking. They have bright yellow eyes with no ear tufts. The vocalization is a high, raspy barking sound. They are silent in flight. Because their eyes are positioned in the front of their head, they have excellent binocular vision even at close range. Their vision at night is 100 times more sensitive than humans and their hearing is equally sensitive. The feathery facial disks help channel sound to their large eardrums. They are capable of turning their head 270 degrees.. ...
An assaying device and a method of manufacturing same are provided. The assaying device includes a unitary, absorbent membrane having multiple reagent stripes incorporated therein. The reagent stripes display an observable reaction if a sample component is present in a fluid sample being tested. The reagent stripes are deposited simultaneously on a continuous membrane ribbon and individual membranes are die cut therefrom. Each individual membrane includes commonly connected channels having die cut slots therebetween. The channels are preferably disposed perpendicularly with respect to the reagent stripes and provide means for causing contact between the fluid and reagent stripes. The present invention preferably includes a cassette for containing the membrane and for facilitating analysis of test results. During assembly of an assaying device, the unitary membrane is easily inserted into the cassette by engaging the slots with ridges in the cassette, thus minimizing a chance of error of alignment of the
this is a study of all woman workers, not nurse specific, but is still pretty thought provoking - and nothing really new as it is similar to numerous other studies over the years. heres the brief
Synonyms for Anolis carolinensis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Anolis carolinensis. 2 synonyms for Anolis carolinensis: American chameleon, anole. What are synonyms for Anolis carolinensis?
THE colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are often important for visual communication in the wild and are determined primarily by pigment cells (chromatophores) in vertebrates. The chromatophores are distributed in the skin, and their types, sizes, densities, and physiological activities affect these colors and patterns. Although mouse mutants have contributed greatly to our knowledge of skin- and coat-color formation (see Coat Color Genes, http://www.espcr.org/micemut/), mammals possess only one type of chromatophore, the melanocyte. In fish, up to six chromatophore types (melano-, leuco-, erythro-, xantho-, irido-, and cyanophores) have been identified, and there are two distinctive model species to which molecular genetics can be feasibly applied, the zebrafish and the medaka. Chromatophore studies in these species have successfully provided novel clues to the development, regulation, and interaction of these chromatophores (e.g., Parichy et al. 2000; Fukamachi et al. 2004a; Watanabe ...
Cephalopoda have extreme nervous development, predacious and a closed circulatory system.. Order Teuthida. All organisms in the order Teuthida are marine squid.. Family Loligidae. Consists of mostly of squid that occupy waters that cover the continental shelves. They all have a cornea that covers the lens of each eye. Genus Sepioteuthis. Broad, posterior rounded mantle and fins that extend the full length of the mantle. Compared to other Loliginids, Sepioteuthis lay much larger eggs. Species Sepioteuthis lessoniana. One of three Sepioteuthis species. For more information please visit zipcodezoo.com for a look into a favorite species of your own!. ...
tags: Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, reptiles, North Carolina, Image of the Day "I am the Anole King, I can do anything." Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis, Carolina Beach, NC. Image: Don Wirth [larger].. ...
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In goldfish xanthophores, the formation of pigment aggregate requires: 1) that a pigment organelle (carotenoid droplet) protein p57 be in the unphosphorylated state; 2) that self-association of pigment organelles occur in a microtubule-independent ma
Sometimes confused with S. beauforti when young. They can be easily told apart in adult due to the disparate size, and S. beauforti becomes a rather plain fish. S. beauforti only reaches around 4 inches. A good indicator in juveniles is the direction of the stripes anterior to the dorsal fin. In S. beauforti, the stripes are orientated so that they start at the dorsal surface with the bottom of the stripes finishing further towards the rear of the fish. Posterior to the dorsal, the stripes are only slightly more vertical. In S. berdmorei, the stripes posterior of the dorsal are vertical. S. berdmorei has a series of mixed size, dark oval spots and dashes, aligned horizontally in rows along the dorsal half of the body, and two prominent black stripes that run from the nose and over above the eyes, breaking up into two rows of dashes as they go towards the dorsal origin. Two finer black lines connect the dark rostral barbels and the eyes. S. beauforti shares a similar pattern, but the markings are ...
A BioProject is a collection of biological data related to a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioProject record provides users a single place to find links to the diverse data types generated for that project
Zebrafish, Danio rerio, develop patterns of colorful stripes on their skin thanks to pigmented cells-dark melanophores, orange-gold xanthophores, and iridescent iridophores. 0 Comments. ...
Insane in the Chromatophores from Backyard Brains on Vimeo.. The folks at Backyard Brains, a DIY-neurobiology project, made these pigment-producing cells in a dead squid pulse to the base beats of Cypress Hills "Insane in the Brain." Go watch that thing right now.. Done? Wowed? Prepare to be more wowed: They did it by exploiting the fact that electrical current is key to both the actions of cells and the playing of mp3s. These pigmented cells, called chromatophores, are surrounded by muscle cells, and its by flexing these muscles that the squid reveals its colorful spots. By hooked up the nerve that sends the flexing orders to the wire of a set of earbuds, they got these amazing results.. Heres their description of how music made the muscles pulse:. ...
Polymorphisms involving melanistic versus banded colour phases in terrestrial snakes typically have been attributed to the effects of dorsal colour on rates of thermal exchange. That is, darker dorsal colour facilitates heat uptake, perhaps at the cost of increased conspicuousness and, thus, vulnerability to predation (Andren & Nilson 1981; Gibson & Falls 1988; Madsen & Stille 1988; Luiselli 1992; King 1993; Shine & Madsen 1994; King & Lawson 1995; Lindell & Forsman 1996; Zaidan 2001; Bittner et al. 2002). However, thermal-based explanations cannot be applied to the case in Emydocephalus, because (unlike on land) colour does not affect the body temperatures of a snake under water (Shine et al. 2003). Our data suggest another potential fitness consequence of colour in seasnakes (and potentially other aquatic animals): susceptibility to algal fouling.. Our results support two key predictions from the hypothesis that body coloration affects algal fouling. First, black snakes were more heavily ...
To the untrained eye, certain butterflies can look essentially identical to corresponding varieties of another species. This way they can evade predators, who wont eat them because the insects theyre copying taste terrible.. Biologists since Darwins time have wondered how these butterflies can so closely mimic the wing and body coloration patterns of an unrelated kind. Now, an international team of researchers has sorted out the genetics, and what it found was not at all what was expected.. Publishing online in the journal Nature, the team found that the varieties of color patterns in butterflies of the genus Heliconius corresponded perfectly with single DNA base differences found in a special set of genes called a supergene. This supergene, named P, consists of only a few gene sets that are shuffled in discrete patterns. Different generations can variously deploy differently ordered gene-blocks so that a single kind can express different color patterns using the same DNA. "Analyses of 31 ...
The band was playing at the boxing contest the other night. Hicks in the band too. He also has a stripe, acting lance corporal. He does not get any extra pay for it, but it is a start if you intend to rise from the ranks. Stripes are not hard to get if you have no influence behind you, and if you have not got that one has to do things that is against my grain if I wanted to start, but as I have said before I did not come away for money, stripes or anything else, it was experience and I got it. A private will do me, a private is a man that can hold out his hand without it shaking when getting his money, he was the only man that did his job properly on the Peninsular, it was not his fault because they had to evacuate. ...
A diffusionless transformation in normal alkane: we observed an interesting pattern of twinned domains that occurs in the phase sequence of a particular n-alkane, tricosane (C23H48). Phase transitions between this twinned regime and one of its neighboring phases preserve atomic-scale features such as growth steps, indicating that the regime is entered via a diffusionless (martensitic-like) transition. This is an optical microscopy image, which shows a pattern of stripes with a spacing of 1 m organized into domains with sizes of tens of micrometers, as shown in figure at a temperature 42 C, stripes are separated into domains separated by two types of twin boundaries. ...
There may be several mascaras out there to enhance your eyelashes, but nothing works like a quality pair of cheap eyelashes. If you want longer and denser lashes to complete your look, you absolutely need to check out the eyelash collection by Madame Madeline. If you are new to makeup, youre in luck. Here, we will covers all the details about false eyelashes.. Purchasing False Eyelashes: When it comes to falsies, expensive isnt always better because there are some great brands out there available at a reasonable price. Here are a few things that you should know when you buy false lashes: ? Get the lashes made from human hair instead of the ones made from synthetic hair because they tend to blend well with your natural lash line.. ? Pay attention to the width of the eyelash. If you are new to makeup, you should go for a thin lash line as you will be able to achieve a natural look with it.. ? Thinner lash stripes are comfortable to wear since they are light in weight, so keep that in mind.. ? Keep ...
3. Maxi-mum Potential In contrast to its cousin, the mini, the 1970s-inspired maxi dress returned to haute couture two summers ago and is here to stay for now. As the style of the dress is floor-length or just above the ankles, it can easily overwhelm a smaller frame. If you plan on wearing one this year, be sure to find a maxi with a defined waistline so you dont resemble a floating bedsheet! Black halter and bohemian chic styles are common, while wilder patterns like zebra stripes are for a brave few ...
The packaging is adorable! The green stripes are super cute and the aluminum bottle does not take away from its chic look. I love that the cap sits on the bottle SECURELY, so I do not have to worry about it becoming detached while it is in my beach bag. Everyone wants to know what perfume I am wearing when I have it on (the scent is pretty powerful so there is no point in wearing a different perfume; I like to wear ones that are floral with it when I feel like I MUST wear a separate perfume. ...
This week we had 5 prs. Pr. 1. 22/30 RFP+ No melanophores in some but also found no melanophores in rfp-. pr. 2. 29/34 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 3 25/31 RFP+ no Phenotype observed. pr. 4 23/31 RFP+ no phenotype observed.. pr. 5. 36/30 RFP+ some with no melanophores.. There were no linked phenotypes observed this week. ...
The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is one of the most economically important squid species in Japan; however, its population structure is poorly understood due to the lack of hypervariable markers. Such information is critical for managing sustainable fisheries, as well as for ensuring the existence of wild S. lessoniana stocks. Eleven candidate microsatellite loci were isolated from a small insert genomic DNA library. Polymorphisms in these 11 loci were screened in 24 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus was found to range from 5 to 19 alleles, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.292 to 0.958. No evidence for linkage disequilibrium was detected among all the loci. The genotypic proportions conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except at one locus. In conclusion, these polymorphic microsatellite loci may be used to develop a genetic framework to manage S. lessoniana in the future.
The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish-although color blind-actively match various colors of their immedia
Information about population structure, ecological aspects and reproductive biology of Amazonian freshwater shrimps is scarce in the scientific literature and concentrated in studies conducted in rivers. In this study we present data about species composition, population structure, abundance, fecundity and effects of abiotic factors on the distribution of freshwater shrimps in small streams at an urban forest fragment in Manaus, Central Amazonia. We collected the shrimps using minnow-traps in 12 first- and second-order streams in dry and rainy seasons. We found four species: Macrobrachium ferreirai Kensley & Walker, 1982, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley & Walker, 1982, Macrobrachium nattereri (Heller, 1862) and Pseudopalaemon amazonensis Ramos-Porto, 1979. First order streams had a higher number of species. Adults and juveniles of all species and ovigerous females were found in the majority of the sampling events. Males were more abundant and larger than females in all species of Macrobrachium. All species
Imprinting on ecologically divergent traits of odour and body coloration produces sexual isolation in benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. As odour or body coloration diverged owing to species differences in ecology, imprinting could have rapidly driven divergence in mate preference and sexual isolation between species would have resulted. Therefore, imprinting has turned odour and nuptial coloration into magic traits. Previous work has identified other components of pre- and post-mating isolation in sticklebacks which are ecologically dependent [13,15,21]. These mechanisms combine with imprinting to produce strong isolation between these incipient species. Speciation in benthics and limnetics appears to be driven by ecological divergence in multiple dimensions [40]. Imprinting may also play a role in other stickleback species pairs and the adaptive radiation of sticklebacks worldwide [41].. Our results provide new insight into the role of imprinting in speciation, providing an explanation for the ...
To better understand how pigment granules themselves absorb or scatter light, a model chromatophore containing a 5 µm cube of densely packed pigment granules was constructed in silico (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(i,ii)). Reflectins have an index of refraction as high as 1.59 [28], which provide important guidance in defining the model parameters. The amount of reflected light from the pigment granules packed within the cube was calculated using FDTD simulations (Lumerical, FDTD Solutions) [14]. FDTD Solutions is a complete Maxwell solver providing numerical solutions for three-dimensional electromagnetic fields and was used to determine the role of pigment refractive index and granular structure on chromatophore absorbance over a wide frequency range. Pigment refractive index within the simulated chromatophores was varied from 1.33 to 1.65 (see electronic supplementary material, figure S6(iii)). Our comparison between the simulation and experimentally measured reflectivity ...
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The even-skipped (eve) pair-rule gene plays a key role in the establishment of the anterior-posterior segmental pattern of the Drosophila embryo. The continuously changing pattern of eve expression can be resolved into two phases. Early expression consists of seven broad stripes in the blastoderm embryo, while late expression, which occurs after cellularization, consists of narrow stripes with sharp anterior borders that coincide with the odd-numbered parasegment boundaries. Previous studies have shown that these two phases are controlled by separate classes of cis elements in the eve promoter. Early stripes are expressed by multiple stripe-specific elements under the control of maternal-effect genes and gap genes, while late stripes are expressed by a single regulatory element, the late element, under the control of pair-rule genes including eve itself. We report here that paired (prd), a pair-rule gene which had been considered to be below eve in the regulatory hierarchy of pair-rule genes, ...
cytosolic large ribosomal subunit, structural constituent of ribosome, cytoplasmic translation, ribosomal large subunit biogenesis
ABSTRACT: Coleoid cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, and octopus) have the largest and most complex brains of all invertebrates and show behavioral abilities similar to those of vertebrates. Among the coleoids, the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana forms well-structured schools that are indicative of sociality. These behaviors are reflected in aspects of the well-developed brain. In this study, we focused on the role of the cephalopod brain in complex behavior. In order to reveal the network of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in coleoids, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is the synthetic enzyme of GABA, in the brain of young S. lessoniana. We found that GABAergic neurons and their axons were distributed throughout the brain. GABA neurons were abundantly localized in the inferior frontal lobe, which is involved in controlling arm motions, and in the subesophageal masses, which are lower and intermediate centers of action. GABAergic fibers were ...
Zebras are characterized by black (or brown) and white stripes and bellies that have a large white blotch, apparently for camouflage purposes (Gould 1983). The hair is pigmented, not the skin (Wingert 1999). It is hypothesized that zebras are fundamentally dark animals with areas where the pigmentation is inhibited, based on the fact that (1) white equids would not survive well in the African plains or forests; (2) the quagga, an extinct plains zebra subspecies, had the zebra striping pattern in the front of the animal, but had a dark rump; and (3) secondary stripes emerge when the area between the pigmented bands is too wide, as if suppression was weakening (Wingert 1999). The fact that zebras have white bellies is not very strong evidence for a white background, since many animals of different colors have white or light colored bellies (Wingert 1999).. The stripes are typically vertical on the head, neck, forequarters, and main body, with horizontal stripes at the rear and on the legs of the ...
Everything is going to be OK, Mr. Roberts!" the young man ran in to the hospital room where I was examining Mr. Roberts and just as quickly left.. My first thought was, "Who was that guy?" My second thought was that Mr. Roberts was most assuredly not going to be "OK" for the near future, maybe never. I was just an intern, years ago, and had to evaluate the unfortunate man who had a large stroke involving the dominant hemisphere, middle cerebral artery territory, affecting expressive and receptive speech and paralyzing his right side. At least Mr. Roberts didnt understand the optimistic words.. The "intruder" was a physicians assistant for a well-known local internist and was busy writing orders when I returned to the nursing station. Because he worked for a senior physician, he made himself important by association. Stripes are what nautical and airline officers wear on their sleeves or shoulders. Stripes should not be transferrable, but a lot of people think they are.. I stayed quiet that ...
Orthopaedic surgeons, particularly trauma surgeons, spend a considerable amount of time trying to get bone to heal. While it is certainly a natural process, we aim to guide and manipulate the process to ensure that it is achieved as fast as possible, with the lowest chance of complications and the best long-term functional outcome for the patient. Although we have made huge strides in our understanding of bone healing, much remains to be discovered. And, as is the case in nature, the answer to some of our questions are often somewhat obscure. A case in point is the fact that we only discovered the reason for zebras having stripes in 2014.1 White and black stripes are certainly not good camouflage in the African savannah. It turns out that tsetse flies and horse flies (the vector of various equid diseases) avoid black-and-white striped surfaces. While the answer seems obvious now, it eluded scientists for years. Similarly, there are aspects of bone healing which we have thought of as just the ...
Bright rainbow striped thigh highs by Leg Avenue. Yellow, orange, red, green, pink, and turquoise stripes are sure to bring utter joy and happiness to your legs and to those checking out your legs. Who knew rainbow striped thigh highs were such a people-
The nemertean Nemertopsis bivitatta is a suctorial barnacle feeder abundant in hard-bottom intertidal communities along the coasts of Europe, South America, and the Southeastern United States. Individuals of N. bivitatta are typically pale yellow to whitish in color with a pair of dorsally-situated dark greenish brown pigment bands that extend for nearly the entire length of the worm. In most individuals these stripes are separated anteriorly, but in some a transverse pigment bar connects them anteriorly. Variation in stripe configuration has been considered to reflect intraspecific variation. We sampled a population containing both morphs from Pawleys Island, SC, USA to assess the extent of variation at the morphological and molecular level. Our qualitative analysis of stylet basis morphology for 20 individuals of each morph revealed morph-specific variation; morphometric analyses are planned to quantify the differences. We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase one gene (cox1, 500-650 ...
Dr. Novicks research interests include eukaryotic and bacterial genomics, bioinformatics, transposable elements and molecular evolution. While doing his Ph.D. through the CUNY Graduate Center, Dr. Novick did research in the Boissinot lab on the evolution and diversity of transposable elements in the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. He has since continued his research on molecular genetics, analyzing transposable element load and diversity of newly sequenced genomes, working in consortium with the Department of Energys Joint Genome Institute annotating bacterial genomes, and collaborating with other departemental memebers analyzing the evolution of gene families in Streptomycetes.. ...
Bailly, N. (2014). Cyclichthys Kaup, 1855. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2017). FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205512 on 2017-12- ...
Results Accessibility to hazardous chemicals and medicines due to unsafe storage (adj mOR=5.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 16.7), childs behaviour reported as usually aggressive (adj mOR=8.2, 95% CI 4.6 to 16.1), storage of kerosene oil and petrol in soft drink bottles (adj mOR=3.8, 95% CI 2.0 to 7.3), low socioeconomic status (adj mOR=9.2, 95% CI 2.8 to 30.1), low level of mothers education (adj mOR=4.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 9.6), and history of previous poisoning (adj mOR=8.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 43.5) were independently related to unintentional poisoning. ...
Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, Frank (2009): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological parameters of Sepia officinalis during experiments, 2009. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.758066, Supplement to: Gutowska, MA; Melzner, F (2009): Abiotic conditions in cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) eggs: embryonic development at low pH and high pCO2. Marine Biology, 156(3), 515-519, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-1096-7
Gutowska, Magdalena A; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Melzner, Frank (2008): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, 2008. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.737473, Supplement to: Gutowska, MA et al. (2008): Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 373, 303-309, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07782
Heat output from the south polar region of Saturns moon Enceladus is far greater than was previously thought possible, according to analysis of data collected by NASAs Cassini spacecraft, published in the Journal of Geophysical Research. Data from Cassinis composite...
Melatonin is a hormone that takes part in the regulation of biological rhythms. It is produced in the pineal gland and is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by exposure to light. The increased amouot of melatonin during the hours of darkness sends a chronobiological message throughout the body, and translates it into a chemical message that can be read by target cells. This process requires that a receiving protein, a receptor, is present on the cell surface, and that it can recognize melatonin and transfer the signal from outside of the cell to the inside, where it can be transformed into a cellular response. The present investigation was focused on receptor recognition, receptor activation and receptor-mediated signaling.. The scales of the cuckoo wrasse (Labrus ossifagus L.), a teleost fish, bear melanophores that contain pigment granules that can be transported to the center of the cell (pigment aggregation) or distributed throughout the melanophore (pigment dispersion). Pigment ...
Taste : bitter ; saltish ; putrid or offensive ; sour in morning on waking ; disagreeably bitter in morning ; bitterish sour ; unpleasant in morning, mouth dry and slimy ; foul, as from an old catarrh ; slimy, putrid ; food tastes too salt ; like manure ; metallic ; sour after eating ...
Dorsal spines (total): 16 - 18; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-11; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 19 - 21. Dorsal fin: III, XIII-XV (modally XIV), 9-11 (typically10). Anal fin: I, 19-21 (rarely 19). Lateral line with 17-20 (typically 18) pored scales and 16-20 (typically 18) notched scales. Pattern of mandibular pore 4+1+4. Lobate supraorbital cirrus. Nasal cirrus bearing forked tips. First dorsal fin higher or same height as second dorsal fin. Female body coloration white with 4-5 brownish-red H-bars; males black with 2 white bars below junction of 2nd and 3rd dorsal fin with caudal peduncle. Caudal-fin rays bearing alternating white and reddish-brown marks. Supraoccipital sensory canal forming a flattened curve anterior to 1st dorsal fin. ...
Widely, if inaccurately, known as the American chameleon, Anolis carolinensis is renowned for its ability to change color from a sparkling emerald to a deep brown. Surprisingly, we dont really know what factors determine whether a particular lizard chooses to be green or brown at a particular time.. Heres what I had to say about it in Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree (pp. 279-281; Ive omitted most references here):. "In theory, we might expect green anoles to match their background, turning green when in vegetation and brown when against a woody surface. Although widely believed, this idea is not strongly supported (reviewed in Jenssen et al., Herp. Monographs, 1995). In one study, male A. carolinensis mismatched the surface upon which they sat (green on brown substrate or vice versa) more often than would be expected by chance (Jenssen et al., 1995; but see Medvin [Animal Behaviour, 1990] for an opposite result). Indeed, males of green species often adopt a bright green coloration when in the ...
The endosymbiotic theory states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as symbioses between separate single-celled organisms. According to this theory, mitochondria and plastids (e.g.chloroplasts), and possibly other organelles, represent formerly free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as an endosymbiont. Molecular and biochemical evidence suggest that the mitochondrion developed from proteobacteria and the chloroplast from cyanobacteria.. The usual way to distinguish organelles from endosymbionts is by their reduced genome sizes. As an endosymbiont evolves into an organelle, most of their genes are transferred to the host cell genome. The host cell and organelle need to develop a transport mechanism that enables transfer back of the protein products needed by the organelle but now manufactured by the cell. However, using the example of the freshwater amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora, which contains chromatophores found to be evolved from cyanobacteria, it is ...
Background. two as well as three unrelated rbcL genes (find for instance Nitrobacter, Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrospira in Shape ?Shape3;3; [23,24]). On the other hand, cyanobacteria possess only 1 rbcL gene generally. In todays study, we motivated the series of the entire carboxysomal operon of Paulinella chromatophora (7.6 kb), and compared the gene agreement among members from the RubisCO form 1A clade (Shape ?(Figure55). Shape 5 advancement and Structures of operons containing type Rabbit Polyclonal to ARMX1 1A RubisCO from proteobacteria and -cyanobacteria like the Paulinella chromatophore. Gene agreements from chosen taxa (find arrowheads in Shape 3) are plotted against a simplified … We discovered four major agreement types. To analyse the advancement of the types, we plotted operon buildings against a simplified rbcL tree as proven in Shape ?Shape55 (for additional information, see Additional Document 2). Basal branches from the RubisCO type 1A rays (electronic.g. Thiomicrospira, ...
As to the outer plies, tamo ash is indeed a common name for several wood types, most famous for their swirly-grain that sometimes has "peanut" figures. This is not the case for AW. Yet, I found some pictures of some tamo-ish ash (Fraxinus sieboldiana) that do look a bit like the outer plies of AW, though the stripes are generally much darker. Stiga claims to have selected a rare tree that grows north of the Arctic Circle. Fraxinus sieboldiana has a USDA hardiness zone of 6, meaning that it is able to withstand a minimum temperature of about -23C (-10F). This means that it is able to grow at certain warm locations in the Arctic. Not many locations, though, which could be why it is "rare ...
Dear Sepia Mutiny,. Youve been a pal. No, seriously, youre the best yaar a Pakistani-American girl could conjure. Thats why I dedicate Kishore Kumars soundtrack, "Chalte, Chalte" to you. The lyrics, "Kabhi alvida na kahna" translate to, "Never say goodbye." SM, you challenged me. You educated me. You delighted me. You enraged me. And so, I thank you. All of you.. Thank you, Amardeep, my fellow Philadelphian. When I first stumbled across Sepia Mutiny years ago, yours were the first posts I followed closely. I still go back and reference your eloquent, lyrical writings on music, authors and more. And as I go forward, I hope to keep your last post in mind. Especially this line: "[T]here really is value in spelling out an idea or a perspective at some length, and then giving readers as much space as they want or need to discuss it with you." Longform writing, ftw!. Thank you A N N A, for welcoming me into the bunker. Your sharp editing eye has saved many a post of mine. Your uncompromising ...
In this section we will describe advances made in our work for the Ocular Hazards Program at the Letterman Army Institute of Research (LAIR). Our research has seen the first application of femtosecond lasers to the visual system. This research is giving new insights into how these ultimate laser sources interact with biological tissue in general and with the visual system in particular. We have discovered that simple anions can activate visual photoreceptors in the dark. Among these anionic activators is the dental agent fluoride. We have continued our research into identifying selectively and spatially the image of various elements in photoreceptors and adjacent tissue. We were able to extend our preparation procedures to view the elemental composition of such components as melanin granules. The sensitive and selective spatial images we are getting should play important roles in extending our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage. The staining procedures we have developed can be
Dichondra carolinensis, Carolina Ponyfoot. NameThatPlant.net currently features 3729 plants and 22,993 images. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented.
A curriculum that enables young people to discover their own homes as described here is not an add-on to the conventional curriculum. It is rather the core of a transformed education that enables young minds to perceive the extraordinary in what we mostly mistake for the ordinary. There has never been a time when we needed the kind of transformation described here more than at the end of a century of unprecedented violence and at the dawn of the new millennium. We need it, first, to help open young minds to the awareness of forgotten connections between people, places and nature. But we need a transformed curriculum and schools as the start of a larger process of change that might eventually transform our communities and the culture beyond. If this occurs, and I believe that it will, it will begin with small everyday things: freshwater shrimp, the trees along the banks of streams, the lives of ordinary people, the stories we tell and the excitement of children ...
To provide for essentially uniform illumination throughout the area, for mple the film window of a film or slide projector, the reflector has at least two contours which form a reflector system, each contour being rotation-symmetrical with respect to the optical axis of the total system. The generatrices of the contours follow conical sections. The reflector is divided into zonal regions, with successive zonal regions lying on different contours. For example, two conical contours can be used, the contour of one conical section being such that spot illumination results, and the contour of the other conical section being such that a saddle-tight illumination is obtained so that the overall light output throughout the window is essentially uniform (see the additive of FIGS. 3a and 3b, as shown in FIG. 3c).
Reflector for Photography and Video. Collapsible reflectors, studio reflectors. Variety of sizes, types and colours. Visit the store or order online.
Cruise plan for RV MBA Sepia MS070911 - produced from a first level inventory of measurements and samples collected at sea that provides information on who has collected what, where and when. Assembled initially from cruise plans and then updated from other sources including the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Cruise Summary Report (ROSCOP) forms submitted to BODC for each UK research cruise. Provides a useful resource of cruise activities to scientists, programme managers and data managers.
A solar reflector having a flexible triangular reflective sheet or membrane for receiving and reflecting solar energy therefrom. The reflector is characterized by the triangular reflective sheet which is placed under tension thereby defining a smooth planar surface eliminating surface deflection which heretofore has reduced the efficiency of reflectors or heliostats used in combination for receiving and transmitting solar energy to an absorber tower. ...
Pigment cells isolated from the epithelium of the sea urchin Centrostephanus longispinus display light-sensitivity in the same manner as in normal tissue. In complete darkness they have a round to ovo
Marques C, Roberto VP, Granadeiro L, et al. The xenobiotic sensor PXR in a marine flatfish species ( Solea senegalensis ): Gene expression patterns and its regulation under different physiological conditions. Marine Environmental Research. 2017;130:187-199. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2017.07.021 ...
Diagnostic characters: 1-4 mlanophores, usually 3, along dorsal midline of tail, between myomeres 16-21; 4-13 melanophores along ventral midline of tail in flexion and postflexion larvae; 3 internal melanophores above hindgut in preflexion larvae. Sequence of fin formation: caudal (2.3-6.2 mm); second dorsal (2.5-4.1mm); anal (2.5-4.1 mm); pectoral (3.0-6.3 mm); pelvic (3.9-6.2 mm); first dorsal (4.8-8.0 mm). Larvae settle on the bottom between 11.1 and 13.5 mm BL ...
A complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (DnaB or MCM complex) precedes the DNA synthetic machinery and unwinds the duplex parental DNA in cooperation with the SSB or RPA. On the leading strand, replication occurs continuously in a 5 to 3 direction, whereas on the lagging strand, DNA replication occurs discontinuously by synthesis and joining of short Okazaki fragments. In prokaryotes, the leading strand replication apparatus consists of a DNA polymerase (pol III core), a sliding clamp (beta), and a clamp loader (gamma delta complex). The DNA primase (DnaG) is needed to form RNA primers. Normally, during replication of the lagging-strand DNA template, an RNA primer is removed either by an RNase H or by the 5 to 3 exonuclease activity of DNA pol I, and the DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments. In eukaryotes, three DNA polymerases (alpha, ...
Juveniles of Solea senegalensis were fed with commercial pellets under controlled conditions at two environmental Mediterranean temperatures (15 and 20 °C) for two months. After this period, the accumulation of essential and non-essential metals and metallothionein (MT) levels was measured in liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pulse polarography, respectively. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for selected metals in both tissues was calculated in relation to levels present in the feed. Tissue partitioning (liver/kidney) and molar ratios, considering the metal protective mechanisms: MT and Selenium (Se), were included for evaluating the detoxification capacity of each tissue. Ag, Cd, Cu and Mn were preferentially accumulated in the liver whereas Co, Fe, Hg, Se and Zn were found in larger concentrations in the kidney, and higher temperature enhanced the accumulation of some of them, but not all. MT content in liver, but not in kidney, was also influenced ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
The zebra caterpillar is the larva of an American noctuid moth (Melanchra picta) that feeds on cabbages, beets and other cultivated plants. The head, thorax, and forewings of adults are chestnut- or reddish-brown, usually with purplish brown mottling on the wings. The whitish hind wings have pale brown margins. The abdomen is light gray. The wingspan is 35 to 40 mm (1.4 to 1.6 in). The newly hatched larvae are whitish, marked by dark heads and several dark spots scattered over the body. The more mature caterpillars vary in color, often displaying bright and conspicuous hues, usually with prominent black and light yellow longitudinal stripes. The top stripe is black, the top-lateral stripe and the stripe below the spiracles are cream to bright yellow, and the spiracle stripe and bottom stripe are black and marked with numerous white lines and spots. The mid-dorsal line is pale and may be well developed or absent. The underside and legs are light red-brown or yellow. The head is reddish or ...
INTRODUCTION. Squirrels belong to Family scuiridae which is one of the largest and widespread mammalian taxa (Herror et al., 2003) i.e. the flying squirrels (Pteromyinae) and the non-flying squirrels (Sciurinae). They are well studied with reference to their morphological systematics, behavior and ecology (Steppan et al., 2003). Northern palm squirrel (Funambulus pennanti), is naturally found throughout south-east Iran, Pakistan, Nepal, India and perhaps adjacent Afghanistan (Nowak, 1999; Wilson & Reeder, 2005; Thorington et al., 2005). In Pakistan it commonly occurs throughout Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa except in high mountainous regions and ranges from Kurram Valley through Kohat, Tank and Bannu and also in extensive sandhill desert areas in Thal, Tharparkar and Cholistan (Roberts, 1997). Key features for identification include five cream colored stripes on the back. Five longitudinal pale stripes are present on the darker dorsal side. The mid-dorsal stripe extends to the tail, and the lateral ones ...
Sandra Paulsen Inobe, PhD · 02/14/03 at 12:48 ET PTSD of all stripes are treatable with EMDR; people are urged to be evaluated for a dissociative disorder first tho if the trauma was very early and very sustained, and especially if the perpetrators were the very people to which the child was most attached. If you review this site, youll find many discussions of such cases. Physical violence in particular tends to produce a different set of defenses than emotional abuse or sexual abuse, to a degree. Survivors of physical violence hold alot of guardedness in the body, and its often challenging to get past the walls in the minds eye to the vulnerable feelings of pain and sadness. Trust is often an issue. All this can be surmounted with most clients, based on clinical experience (no research on this exact point re EMDR). ...
These are some Christmas ornaments I made for various people as small Christmas gifts. They are made with hard maple, American walnut, and the stripes are Brazilian rosewood scraps I wanted to use up. They were turned then finished with minera...
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2018). FishBase. Hippocampus marginalis Kaup, 1856. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=306804 on 2018-02-26 ...
Looking for Albinism, ocular? Find out information about Albinism, ocular. The state of having colorless chromatophores, which results in the absence of pigmentation in animals that are normally pigmented. A hereditary, metabolic... Explanation of Albinism, ocular
Snails found in: Dried Snails 125g, Vitalis Freshwater Shrimp Pellets XS 1mm 60g, Esha Gastropex Snail Treatment, JBL Limcollect II Aquarium Snail Trap, Beware Of The Land Snail Sign, JBL Nano Catappa Aquarium Food Supplement,..
Effect of warming in the early ontogeny squid, Loligo vulgaris, namely: Development time (A), survival rates (B) and growth rates (% - C; mm day−1 - D) of emb
A nice example of a sepia tone photograph of famous TV and movie singing cowboy Gene Autry (1907-1988). Autry appeared in over 93 films and 91 episodes of his TV series "The Gene Autry Show". The photo is labeled on the front "Gene Autry, Doubleday photo," matted with a Porter Studio, Indianapolis matte, and signed by Autry in pen on verso. Very good overall condition, with some minor imperfections, and some impressions visible on the front of the photo if held at the right angle. Dimensions: 5 ¾" h x 3 ⅞" w, sight; 9 ⅜" h x 6 ¾" w, matted. A great addition to your cowboy or Gene Autry collection! ...
Maynard Dixon (1875-1946) - Going Down (Sepia) | Printed by Maynard Dixon during the 1940s. Edition number unknown. From personal collection Dixon family.
Protists, Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and feeding behaviors. These slow movers are easy to follow and observe.
Today is world bird Wed.,last week I was too tired to write.I`m showing the pair of catbirds building in our trees.I call them Frick & Frack,where you see the one,the other one is close behind.Usually we have more than one couple here.One year a gang of them were real upset with a big black snake & they actually ran it out of the tree & through the yard to the woods.I wouldn`t have believed it if I hadn`t seen it myself ...
Making your own parablolic reflector dish is a good way to harness the power of the sun to start fires. This is an extremely eco friendly device as well as one of the only fire starters that doesnt use a chemical to produce the initial flame.
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Readily available with mixed results, The Danger Zone investigates oral cutters and bulkers in the first of a two-part series Bobby Danger Jones Sports
Complete your Forever New inspired look with our Floral Stripe Olivia printed front tank. FREE delivery within Australia for orders over AU$50
Introduction. Sperm production of captive Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, remains a major hindrance to commercial production of this highly valued species. New biotechnological approaches involving efficient hormonal therapies that increase sperm production are thus needed to establish manageable in vitro fertilization protocols. Homologous recombinant gonadotropins, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones (rFsh and rLh, respectively), produced in mammalian host cells, have recently arisen as promising candidates. Previous trials on juvenile fish using these hormones indicated that treatment with rFsh stimulates spermatogenesis, whereas rLh potentiates spermatozoa differentiation. The aim of the present work was to set up a protocol using rFsh and rLh to enhance sperm production in adult sole males. Material and methods. Senegalese sole males (~1 kg) were injected with rFsh (9 or 18 μg/kg) each week for 5 weeks, and on the 6th week treated with a single injection of rLh (9 or 18 ...
Effect of dietary non-protein energy levels on condition and oxidative status of Senegalese sole (**Solea senegalensis**) juveniles ...
Male blue-black grassquit feather barbules present a single keratin layer over a layer comprising melanin granules. This simple arrangement is sufficient to produce iridescent coloration, as confirmed by thin-film optical modelling. Shifts in hue and shape of the reflected spectrum derived from changing angles of light incidence were well explained by the modelled differences in the optical path that light encounters at each angle. This result reinforces the conclusion that these barbules are photonic structures that interact with light as predicted by the thin-film models of refraction.. Thin-film optical modelling also revealed that light can only penetrate the melanin layer and interact with the keratin core when the melanin layer is sufficiently thin (fewer than two melanin granules, on average). Although this configuration can be found in some male grassquit feathers, most individuals have melanin layers of two to three granules, with little variation across average values. This suggests ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural crest cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. T2 - Capability of goldfish erythrophoroma cells for multiple differentiation and clonal polymorphism in their melanogenic variants. AU - Matsumoto, Jiro. AU - Wada, Kumiko. AU - Akiyama, Toyoko. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Multiple differentiation shown by a single cell line (GEM 81) of goldfish erythrophoroma (tumors of integumental erythrophores) cells after administration of chemical induction in vitro includes 1) melanogenesis, 2) formation of reflecting platelets, 3) synthesis of pteridines heterogeneous to this species, 4) formation of dermal skeletons such as teeth and fin rays, 5) production of neuronal characters, and 6) genesis of lentoid bodies. Melanogenic cells, highest in inducibility, also show remarkable phenotypic diversification in their cell morphology, pigmentation, and physiologic response. In this paper, the following findings are presented; a) multiple differentiation shown by erythrophoroma cells ...
Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were determined in the sheath cells and axoplasm of the nerve fiber of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. The sheaths were obtained by slitting the nerve fiber, the extracellular electrolytes were washed out in isotonic sucrose solution, and the concentrations in the cells were determined after different soaking times in the sucrose solution. Values for the Schwann cell were calculated by extrapolation to zero time from the plots of the logarithms of the concentrations in the cells as a function of soaking time in sucrose solution. The Schwann cells made up 84 per cent of the sheaths total cellular volume. The Schwann cell concentrations in millimols per liter, are: 312 (404-241) for sodium, 220 (308-157) for potassium, and 167 (208-138) for chloride. The concentrations in the axoplasm (mean ± SE), in millimols per liter are: 52 ± 10 for sodium, 335 ± 25 for potassium, and 135 ± 14 for chloride. The possibility that some fraction of the Schwann ...
The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Assam, West Bengal and Bihar in the Sunderbans region and especially in the former State of Rewa. Such a tiger has the black stripes typical of the Bengal tiger, but carries a white or near-white coat. The white Bengal tigers are distinctive due to the color of their fur. The white fur caused by a lack of the pigment pheomelanin, which is found in Bengal tigers with orange color fur. When compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tiger. They also tend to be somewhat bigger at birth, and as fully grown adults. White Bengal tigers are fully grown when they are 2-3 years of age. White male tigers reach weights of 200 to 230 kilograms and can grow up to 3 meters in length. As with all tigers, the white Bengal tigers stripes are like fingerprints, with no two tigers having the same ...
Alder Buckthorn Identification: The bark is grey-black, quite smooth with very characteristic vertical white dots and stripes. These white dots and stripes are known as lenticels and are breathing pores. When the bark is scraped, it shows a crimson layer above the yellow- brown bark. The youn branches and twigs are greenish at first, then turning grey brown and are red-brown to dark violet at the tips. The older bark turns into a dark brownish roughened bark and has an orange inner surface.. The leaves have stalks and appear alternately left and right on the branches. They are 3-7 cm long, oval shaped with a pointed end. The leaves are feather veined with 6-10 pairs of side-veins, which curve upwards and inwards to form an arched loop with the vein above near the edge. These pairs of side-veins are alternate, rather than opposite, but the space between a pair of veins is markedly smaller than the space between the different pairs. The leaves do not have teeth and have a shiny green surface ...
Discover a complete listing of Pigment Dispersion Compounds Distributors and Manufacturers. Obtain a quote, accurate contact info or size up Compounds suppliers
Definition: One of the 5 distinct and partially overlapping functional domains of the premigratory neural crest. Together with the sacral neural crest cells, they develop into the ganglia of the enteric nervous system, also known as the parasympathetic ganglia. These cells, between the head and trunk, contribute post-cranially to the heart and gut, the chromatophores (pigment cells) of the epidermis, and the majority of the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system. Both vagal and sacral neural crest cells contribute to the enteric nervous system in the hindgut ...
Controlled Exposure Experiments revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea (Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris, Illex coindetii and Octopus vulgaris), when exposed to relatively ...
Adamo, S.A. & Hanlon, R.T. (1996). Do cuttlefish (Cephalopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters? Animal Behaviour 52, 73-81.. Barata, E.N., Serrano, R.M., Miranda, A., Nogueira, R., Hubbard, P. C. & Canário, A.V.M. (2008). Putative pheromones from the anal glands of male blennies attract females and enhance male reproductive success. Animal Behaviour 75, 379-389.. Boal, J.G. (1997) Female choice of males in cuttlefish (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Behaviour 134, 975-988.. Boal, J.G. (2006) Social recognition: A top down view of cephalopod behaviour. Vie et Milieu-Life and Environment 56, 69-79.. Boal, J.G. & Golden, D.K. (1999) Distance chemoreception in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235, 307-317.. Chybicki, I.J. & Burczyk, J. (2009). Simultaneous estimation of null alleles and inbreeding coefficients. Journal of Heredity 100 (1), 106-113.. Conte, F.S. (2004). Stress and the ...

Re: what a Chromatophores diet is and how long they usaly live?Re: what a Chromatophores diet is and how long they usaly live?

... Date: Thu Feb 1 17:39:25 2007. Posted By: Jeff Buzby, ... Chromatophores generally known as melanocytes are also present as pigment cells in warm-blooded mammals and birds, but they ... The most widely known type of chromatophore is the pigment cells of cold-blooded animals, including amphibians, fish, reptiles ... Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why its been difficult to find info. regarding ...
more infohttp://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2007-02/1170451428.Cb.r.html

chromatophorechromatophore

Tagged: chromatophore Recent Paper. Posted by Brigite Nunes Simoes Rodrigues on January 15, 2015. ... agouti, asip1, chromatophore, dct, iridophore, ltk, melanocyte, melanophore, mitfa, pigment pattern formation, transgenic, ...
more infohttp://blogs.bath.ac.uk/kelsh-lab/tag/chromatophore/

chromatophore - definition and meaningchromatophore - definition and meaning

chromatophore: A pigment-containing or pigment-producing cell, especially in certain lizards, that by expansion or contraction ... "chromatophore" or pigment bearing cells, called erythrophores, from Siamese fighting fish, whose response to specific toxic ... Besides the pigment-cells just described, Heincke discovered another kind of chromatophore, which was filled with iridescent ... He blinks, barely noticing her black bob of hair, chromatophore-tinted shadows artfully tuned around her eyes. ...
more infohttps://www.wordnik.com/words/chromatophore

Chromatophore - WikipediaChromatophore - Wikipedia

Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells. Inside ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... Therefore, the distinction between these chromatophore types is not always clear. Most chromatophores can generate pteridines ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatophore

Chromatophore (bacteria) - WikipediaChromatophore (bacteria) - Wikipedia

Chromatophores contain bacteriochlorophyll pigments and carotenoids. In purple bacteria, such as Rhodospirillum rubrum, the ... In some forms of photosynthetic bacteria, a chromatophore is a coloured, membrane-associated vesicle used to perform ... light-harvesting proteins are intrinsic to the chromatophore membranes. However, in green sulfur bacteria, they are arranged in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatophore_(bacteria)

Translations, &c: On Chromatophores in the Frog | Journal of Cell ScienceTranslations, &c: On Chromatophores in the Frog | Journal of Cell Science

Translations, &c: On Chromatophores in the Frog Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell Science ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/s1-2/8/254

Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic...Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic...

Membrane bound PPases have been found in chromatophores (2), mitochondria (3) and chloroplasts (4). The membrane bound PPase ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ... We have studied some similarities and differences between chromatophore, chloroplast and mitochondrial membrane bound PPases. ... Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0511-5_483

Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 and Isolation of a B875 Protein Kinase | SpringerLinkPhosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 and Isolation of a B875 Protein Kinase | SpringerLink

Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 and Isolation of a B875 Protein Kinase. ... Ghosh R., Tschopp P., Eicher S., Bachofen R. (1990) Phosphorylation of the Chromatophore Membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum G9 ... Holmes, N.G. and Allen, J.F. (1988). Protein phosphorylation in chromatophores from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Biochim. Biophys. ... have shown that electron transfer within the chromatophore membrane may be regulated by the degree of phosphorylation of the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-0511-5_239

A comparative study of fish coloration and toxicant responses in a chromatophore cell-based biosensorA comparative study of fish coloration and toxicant responses in a chromatophore cell-based biosensor

This study provides compelling evidence that the chromatophore response is not dependent on fish color and that chromatophore ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were assessed for their longevity in tissue culture and their responses to previously ... Blue B. splendens chromatophore cells were exposed to select chemicals and pathogenic bacteria to assess their ability to ... Red B. splendens chromatophore cells were subjected to the select chemical and bacterial toxicants, and observed for their ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/pc289n139

IDEALS @ Illinois: Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter...IDEALS @ Illinois: Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter...

Oxidation kinetic of quinol by bc$\sb1$ complex in chromatophores was simulated. A set of kinetic parameters were obtained from ... Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Welcome to ... The kinetics and thermodynamics of the high potential chain in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides have been ... Quinol oxidation by the ubiquinol:cytochrome c(2) oxidoreductase in the chromatophores from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Wang, ...
more infohttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/19323

Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of...Eye-independent, light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE) and expression of phototransduction genes in the skin of...

We call this chromatophore response light-activated chromatophore expansion (LACE). LACE behavior in isolated octopus skin ... When the white light was switched off and the chromatophores were illuminated with only red light, the chromatophores in fresh ... and averaged the chromatophore area pixel count within each of the 10 samples to get the mean chromatophore size before and ... Chromatophores remain in their contracted state after 3 s of exposure to bright white light. (B) Chromatophores have reached ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/218/10/1513

By chromatophoresBy chromatophores

Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that can change their size, thus varying the colour and pattern of the ... When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatophores to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and ... The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis.[35] For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change ... they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, ...
more infohttp://mesjeuxdeguerre.net/By%20chromatophores.html

Bacterial Chromatophores | Profiles RNSBacterial Chromatophores | Profiles RNS

"Bacterial Chromatophores" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in this website by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Chromatophores" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bacterial Chromatophores". ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/3217

The ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore obtained a carboxysomal operon by horizontal gene transfer from a Nitrococcus-like...The ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore obtained a carboxysomal operon by horizontal gene transfer from a Nitrococcus-like...

The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. Following HGT and ... The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the ... In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred ... The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that ...
more infohttps://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-7-85

Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores<...Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores<...

Mc Niven, Mark A ; Porter, K. R. / Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. In: Journal ... Mc Niven, M. A., & Porter, K. R. (1986). Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. Journal ... Mc Niven, MA & Porter, KR 1986, Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores, Journal of ... Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores. / Mc Niven, Mark A; Porter, K. R. ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/microtubule-polarity-confers-direction-to-pigment-transport-in-ch

Chromatophore - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge coreChromatophore - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core

Each chromatophore unit is composed of a single chromatophore cell and numerous muscle, nerve, glial, and sheath cells.[40] ... Chromatophores are sometimes used in applied research. For example, zebrafish larvae are used to study how chromatophores ... As the other biochromatic chromatophores are also capable of pigment translocation, animals with multiple chromatophore types ... and mitf are important in controlling chromatophore differentiation.[32] If these proteins are defective, chromatophores may be ...
more infohttps://infogalactic.com/info/Chromatophore

IST Publication Database - Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide...IST Publication Database - Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide...

Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in chromatophores from ... Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in chromatophores from ... Chromatophore; Hydride ion transfer; Liposome; Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase; Overexpression; Proton/hydride ratio ... but that a low ratio is obtained in wild-type chromatophores because of inhomogeneity in the vesicle population. ...
more infohttps://publist.ist.ac.at/ist/works/5132

NAVER Academic | The development of the chromatophore response to light in the larvae of the crab,Uca pugilatorNAVER Academic | The development of the chromatophore response to light in the larvae of the crab,Uca pugilator

The primary and secondary chromatophore response developed at megalops. ... The development of the chromatophore response to light in the larvae of the crab,Uca pugilator. Author. David F. Johnson. ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=34715444

The ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore obtained a carboxysomal operon by horizontal gene transfer from a Nitrococcus-like...The ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore obtained a carboxysomal operon by horizontal gene transfer from a Nitrococcus-like...

The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. Following HGT and ... The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the ... In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred ... The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that ...
more infohttps://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-7-85

Masters of Disguise
	    
	    
	    
	     | Answers in Genesis
	Masters of Disguise | Answers in Genesis

CHROMATOPHORES. The top layer consists of three rows of colored cells (yellow, red, and brown). These tiny cells are widely ... CHROMATOPHORES. The top layer consists of three rows of colored cells (yellow, red, and brown). These tiny cells are widely ... In hues of yellow, red, and brown, the chromatophores act as small packets of color that the cuttlefish can shrink or expand at ... The white of zebra patterns, for example, is produced here (but the brown stripes are produced by chromatophores). ...
more infohttps://answersingenesis.org/aquatic-animals/masters-disguise/

Simulation of a Photosynthetic MembraneSimulation of a Photosynthetic Membrane

Chromatophore and photosynthesis: Structure of spherical chromatophore. Structure and function of the photosynthetic core ... Chromatophores. Fig. 1. An AFM image from the photosynthetic bacterium Rsp. photometricum was used to construct the ... This chromatophore membrane simulation was used to study physical properties of the system, as well as to examine energy ... AFM imaging of chromatophore membranes has provided some insight into the arrangement of the photosynthetic proteins within the ...
more infohttp://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/chromatophore-patch/

On the blue coloration of vertebrates - Bagnara - 2007 - Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research - Wiley Online LibraryOn the blue coloration of vertebrates - Bagnara - 2007 - Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research - Wiley Online Library

The dermal chromatophore unit is an association of three chromatophores residing in the dermis just beneath the basal lamina. ... Where the three chromatophores are stacked, as in the dermal chromatophore unit, green color is achieved through the absorption ... located in a unique blue chromatophore. Studies by Goda and Fujii (1995) on the chromatophores of two callionymid species, the ... Bagnara, T.T., Taylor, J.D., and Hadley, M.E. (1968). The dermal chromatophore unit. J. Cell Biol. 38, 67-69. *CrossRef , ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0749.2006.00360.x/full

Biophysics and physiology | Cambridge University PressBiophysics and physiology | Cambridge University Press

With Special Reference to Chromatophores. Parker, G. H. Published: April 2015 $24.99 (R). Paperback. Add to cart ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/life-sciences/biophysics-and-physiology
  • They differ, however, in that membrane fragments ("chromatophores") from the mutant show severely impaired ability to use reduced nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide (NADH) as a source of electrons for respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, or "redox buffering" of the photophosphorylation system. (mysciencework.com)
  • Baltscheffsky M., Pramanik A., Lundin M., Nyrén P., Baltscheffsky H. (1990) Some Similarities and Differences between Bacterial Chromatophore, Spinach Chloroplast and Yeast Mitochondrial Inorganic Pyrophosphatases. (springer.com)
  • It is suggested that the mechanistic H+/H- ratio is indeed unity, but that a low ratio is obtained in wild-type chromatophores because of inhomogeneity in the vesicle population. (ist.ac.at)
  • These structures, often referred to as "chromatophores" come in various shapes, such as tubules, long lamellar folds, or small vesicles. (uiuc.edu)
  • In particular, Allen and Holmes have shown that electron transfer within the chromatophore membrane may be regulated by the degree of phosphorylation of the light harvesting complex [B (springer.com)
  • The chromatophores are ultimately controlled by the optic lobe of the brain under the influence of the eyes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aristotle When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatophores, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely-spaced dots, appearing light. (mesjeuxdeguerre.net)
  • Mature chromatophores are grouped into subclasses based on their colour (more properly "hue") under white light: xanthophores (yellow), erythrophores (red), iridophores (reflective / iridescent), leucophores (white), melanophores (black/brown), and cyanophores (blue). (wikipedia.org)
  • The isolated position of the Paulinella chromatophore in molecular phylogenies as well as its elevated AT content suggests that the Paulinella chromatophore has already undergone typical steps in the reductive evolution of an endosymbiont. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chromatophore membrane was equilibrated using the molecular dynamics software NAMD on petascale supercomputing resources including Titan (ORNL, via DOE INCITE), Blue Waters (NCSA), and Tsubame (Tokyo). (uiuc.edu)
  • Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. (frontiersin.org)
  • CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a scenario that reflected the distribution of its mRNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The H+/H- ratio (the ratio of protons translocated per hydride ion equivalent transferred from NADPH to an NAD+ analogue, acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide), determined by a spectroscopic technique, was approximately 1.0 for chromatophores from the over-expressing strains, but was only approximately 0.6 for wild-type chromatophores. (ist.ac.at)
  • If the pigment color is yellow or cream, the animal tends to look paler if all the chromatophores are at that stage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has previously been shown that neither the Paulinella host cell nor the chromatophores are related to the eukaryotic lineage containing primary plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mc Niven, MA & Porter, KR 1986, ' Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores ', Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 1547-1555. (elsevier.com)
  • Oxidation kinetic of quinol by bc$\sb1$ complex in chromatophores was simulated. (illinois.edu)
  • He blinks, barely noticing her black bob of hair, chromatophore -tinted shadows artfully tuned around her eyes. (wordnik.com)
  • When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatophores to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark. (mesjeuxdeguerre.net)
  • The chromatophores receive only nerve impulses, and there is no evidence that they are influenced by hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Sanger sequence data also showed that both A and G alleles were present at this position, as revealed by double chromatophore peaks (8× coverage from four independent DNA extracts). (wordnik.com)
  • Chromatophores are not independent, free-living organisms, which might explain why it's been difficult to find info. (madsci.org)
  • It was only in the 1960s that chromatophores were well enough understood to enable them to be classified based on their appearance. (wikipedia.org)