Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Substances that display the physical properties of ELASTICITY and VISCOSITY. The dual-nature of these substances causes them to resist applied forces in a time-dependent manner.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Relating to the size of solids.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/5786)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (2/5786)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (3/5786)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (4/5786)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (5/5786)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

An improved separation procedure for nucleoside monophosphates on polyethyleneimine-(PEI-)cellulose thin layers. (6/5786)

A procedure is described for the two-dimensional separation of the 4 major and 16 modified nucleoside-(5') monophosphates on anion-exchange thin layers of polyethyleneimine- (PEI-)cellulose. The method, which is simple and less time-consuming than existing partition chromatographic methods, may be used for the identification of 5'-termini of RNA and RNA fragments.  (+info)

Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia: a 31p NMR study. (7/5786)

Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia. Lipids were extracted from rat brain homogenates and the extracts were thoroughly washed with aq. potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The lower organic phases were isolated and evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the lipids were redissolved in CDCl3-CH3OH-H2O 100.0:29.9:5.2 (v/v/v) for NMR analysis. Increasing the period of post-decapitative ischemia resulted in an accumulation of two signals in the NMR spectra at 0.18 and 0.22 ppm (relative to the chemical shift of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PCDIACYL) at -0.84 ppm). These signals were identified as originating from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEDIACYL) and 1-(1'-alkenyl)-2-acyl-sn -glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEPLAS), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs-EDTA in the preparation of the NMR samples allowed the separation of the chemical shifts of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids from those of the ethanolamine phospholipids. Moreover, the chemical shift of cardiolipin was moved from 0.15 ppm observed with Cs-EDTA to about 0.31 ppm with K-EDTA. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to detect and quantify post-decapitative accumulation of NAPE subclasses (NAPEDIACYL and NAPEPLAS) in rat brains by the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy.  (+info)

Lipophilicity determination of some potential photosystem II inhibitors on reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. (8/5786)

The retention characteristics of 25 2-cyano-3-methylthio-3-substituted amine-acrylates are determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) with methanol-water mixtures as eluents. The relationship between Rm values and partition coefficients (C log P) are established. The Rm values decrease linearly with increasing methanol concentration in the eluent. The Rm values extrapolated to zero organic modifier concentration (Rm0) in the eluent are highly related to C log P. The Rm0 value can be used to evaluate the lipophilicity of this kind of compound.  (+info)

Background: Preparation of highly standardized polyherbal formulation with its chief active chemical constituents supported by therapeutic efficacy in vitro is a valuable approach in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. Objective: The present work aims to develop the high‑performance thin‑layer chromatography (HPTLC) marker‑based standardization of polyherbal formulation using Piperine, Asiaticoside,and Withanolide‑A and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity.Materials and Methods: For successful standardization, the HPTLC quantification of Piperine, Asiaticoside, and Withanolide‑A was carried out. Suitable solvent systems were optimized to achieve the better resolution of the marker compounds, extracts, and sample formulation.The reproducibility of the methods was also confirmed by repeating the procedure twice. The identity of the bands in the sample formulation was confirmed by comparing the Rf value with those of their respective reference standards. In vitro ...
Fast, sensitive, precise and selective high performance liquid chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography methods were developed fo..
The objective of this work was to develop and validate a high performance thin layer chromatography method for simultaneous determination of Guggulost..
Effect-directed analysis (EDA) by the combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with biologi- cal and enzymatic assays represents one of the latest tools available for the rapid bioprofiling of complex matrices, such as plant extracts. In this ambit, the aim of this project was the non-targeted screening of inflorescence extracts from ten different hemp varieties for components exhibiting radical scavenging, antibacterial, enzyme inhibiting and estrogen-like effects.. The characterization of two prominently multipotent bioactive com- pound zones was finally achieved by HPTLC-HRMS and preliminary assigned as cannabidiolic acid and cannabidivarinic acid.. HTPLC analysis was coupled via the Advion Plate Express® TLC Plate Reader.. ...
We are enthusiastic to learn how many analysts are now confronted with situations where HPTLC is a suitable solution to their problems and is favored over better known and more widely used analytical methods. When you want to share this experience, discovering how to use HPTLC, when it is described as a method of choice, we would be happy to welcome you to this new International Symposium for High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography.
Thin-Layer Chromatography as a tool for the separation of biomolecules. Chromatography encompasses a diverse but related group of methods that permits the separation , isolation , identification and quantification of components in a mixture . Thin layer chromatography is a modern analytical separation method with extensive versatility , much of which is already utilized but there is vast potential for future development into areas where research is just beginning (Wall , 2005 ,. .2 . Thin layer chromatography is a sub-division of liquid chromatography , in which the mobile phase is a liquid and the stationary phase is situated [banner_entry_middle] br as a thin layer on the surface of a flat plate . In TLC , the sample is applied as a small spot or streak to the origin of a thin sorbent layer supported on a glass , plastic or a metal plate . Of the three , glass is proved to be most popular , although aluminium or plastic is more advantageous in the sense that they are flexible and can easily be ...
BANGKAI Thin layer chromatography silica gel Properties: Thin layer chromatography silica gel is a white powder particle, the main ingredient is SiO2. It features uniform particle size, high purity, good adsorption and...
Thin Layer Chromatography Videos In this video we are taken through the technique and theory of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Here we demonstrate how to run comparative TLC of different painkillers as in our Painkiller Chromatography This video gives a first-person view of this experiment being carried out: This video takes us through the theory…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Challenges in the development of analytical test procedure for aminoglycosides. T2 - A critical review. AU - Hari, Radhakrishnan. AU - Taherunnisa, Shaik. AU - Raut, Sushil Yadaorao. AU - Mutalik, Srinivas. AU - Koteshwara, Kunnatur B.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The present article reviews the challenges and hurdles in the development of an analytical method for aminoglycosides (AG). The article emphasizes on the attempts made to develop analytical methods based on HPLC and other sophisticated techniques, such as LC-MS, radioimmunoassay, microbial assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), extractive colorimetry, anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, high performance thin layer chromatography, densitometry, and microbial agar diffusion assay. The various media mostly used for the in vitro as well as in vivo estimation of AG by HPLC and LC-MS are heptafluorobutyric acid, ammonium acetate, ammonium formate and formic acid. Estimation of ...
A sensitive, accurate, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established and validated for analysis of etoricoxib in both bulk drug and formulations. Chromatography is performed on aluminum-backed silica gel 60F254 plates with toluene-1,4-dioxane-methanol 8.5:1.0:0.5 (v/v) as mobile phase. This system furnished compact bands for etoricoxib (R F 0.24). Rofecoxib (RF 0.38) was used as internal standard. Densitometric analysis of etoricoxib was performed in absorbance mode at 235 nm. Linear regression data for the calibration plots showed there was a good linear relationship between response and amount of etoricoxib in the range 100-1500 ng per band; the correlation coefficient was 0.9922 ± 0.001. The mean values of the slope and intercept of the plot were 280.14 ± 0.26 and 320.01 ± 0.22, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness, and recovery. The limits of detection and quantitation were 30 and 100 ng per ...
in Journal of Chromatography. A (2006), 1112(1-2), 156-164. A quantitative densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the determination of glucosamine in a dietary supplement containing dried extracts of the main ... [more ▼]. A quantitative densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the determination of glucosamine in a dietary supplement containing dried extracts of the main plants traditionally used for rheumatic disorders. The HPTLC method was chosen in order to circumvent the tedious and time-consuming sample preparation steps necessarily performed before using HPLC methods when analysing complex matrixes. Glucosamine was separated from the plant extracts on a silica gel 60 F(254) HPTLC plate using a saturated mixture of 2-propanol-ethyl acetate-ammonia solution (8%) (10:10:10, v/v/v). The plates were developed vertically up to a distance of 80 mm. For visualization, the plate was dipped into a ...
in Journal of Chromatography. A (2006), 1112(1-2), 156-164. A quantitative densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the determination of glucosamine in a dietary supplement containing dried extracts of the main ... [more ▼]. A quantitative densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the determination of glucosamine in a dietary supplement containing dried extracts of the main plants traditionally used for rheumatic disorders. The HPTLC method was chosen in order to circumvent the tedious and time-consuming sample preparation steps necessarily performed before using HPLC methods when analysing complex matrixes. Glucosamine was separated from the plant extracts on a silica gel 60 F(254) HPTLC plate using a saturated mixture of 2-propanol-ethyl acetate-ammonia solution (8%) (10:10:10, v/v/v). The plates were developed vertically up to a distance of 80 mm. For visualization, the plate was dipped into a ...
Background: The members of genus Leucas possess high economic potential. As medicinal herbs these were well known as Droṇapuhṣpī in Ayurveda literature. The present study aims to carry out the phytochemical screening as well as the HPTLC fingerprint profiling of three species of Leucas. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts of each plant were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening. The total phenols, flavonoids and tannins were quantified in the methanolic extract by standard spectrophotometric methods. HPTLC method for the separation of the active constituents in extracts has been developed and TLC of the methanolic extracts on silica gel pre-coated aluminum plates of Merck by automatic TLC applicator and using solvent system Toluene: ethyl acetate:7:3 was performed. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of different phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenes, tannins, carbohydrates, ...
Objective: To develop a validated stability-indicating analytical method for simultaneous estimation of Atenolol (ATN) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) in pharmaceutical combined dosage form by HPTLC. Method: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the separation of ATN and HTZ on plates precoated with aluminium back silica gel 60 F254. Different mobile phases were used on trial and error basis for separation of two drugs. The final mobile phase selected for analysis was n-butanol: ethyl acetate: methanol: tetrahydrofuran in the ratio (1:2:2:1 v/v). Both the drugs showed maximum absorbance at 250 nm which was selected as the detection wavelength throughout the experimental work. Developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Forced degradation of drugs was carried out under various stress conditions and HPTLC method was used for analysing the stability of drugs. Result: HPTLC method was successfully developed for separation of ATN and HTZ with good ...
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Sigma-Aldrichs offering for thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance TLC (HPTLC) includes plates, reagents and accessories.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Thin Layer Chromatography products, including chambers, HPTLC and plate equipment on SelectScience.
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Thin Layer Chromatography products, including chambers, HPTLC and plate equipment on SelectScience.
In this tutorial I will try to explain how to use both Beams Test, and, Thin Layer Chromatography of cannabinoids to do a DIY home analysis of your buds...
Get Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe at Spectrum Chemical. carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab suppl Spectrum Chemical has a complete line of laboratory supplies, equipment and safety items.
The experimental Rm values for a series of aminoalkanethiosulfuric acids, mercaptoalkanamines and aminoalkyl disulfides were determined by reverse phase thin layer chromatography. The Rm values were determined for various concentrations of methanol: water and the correlation obtained was extrapolated to 100% water. These values permitted the calculation of the log P values for each substance. The log P values obtained by this method were compared with those obtained using the shake-flask method and by theoretical calculations utilizing fragment constants.
This week my part-time teaching job has felt a bit like a full-time teaching job. No complaints about that at all, it just means that the only thing Ive really sketched this week is ideas for ways to explain the concept of thin layer chromatography to my organic chemistry students. No perspective, no shading, just trying to use simple images to make a complicated subject easier to wrap their minds around. Good thing my students are bright. ...
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A comparison has been made of the urinary metabolites of volunteers who had taken therapeutic doses of paracetamol with those of persons who had taken an overdose in an attempt to highlight the metabolic changes associated with massive doses. The main technique for examining urine samples was two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Other chromatographic techniques were used for the isolation and purification of metabolites. The urinary metabolites after a therapeutic dose of paracetamol were identified as free paracetamol, paracetamol sulphate, 3-hydroxy-paracetamol-3-sulphate, 3-methoxy-paracetamol sulphate, paracetamol glucuronide, 3-methoxy-paracetamol glucuronide, paracetamol 3-cysteine conjugate and paracetamol 3-mercapturate. The same metabolites were also present in urine following overdosage but the proportions were quite different. There was particularly a big increase in the relative amounts of cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates excreted. No new metabolites were found. The ...
A sensitive, specific and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic method for estimation of Losartan potassium (LOS) and Ramipril (RAM) has been developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F 254 as the stationary phase. The solvent...
Samples should be applied to a TLC plate as a spot that must have as small a diameter as possible. The sample volume employed with normal TLC plates is usually 1 to 2 ml. However, the so-called HPTLC (High Perfomance TLC) plates are coated with particles 5-7 mm in diameter and these will have a maximum loading of about 100-200 nl. Preferably, on any HPTLC plate, the sample should occupy a circular area on the plate that is no greater than 1 mm in diameter. Unfortunately, as most samples will also require the use of samples volumes only a few nanoliters in volume, it is likely that the sample will require to be concentrated. Manually, the sample is often applied with a micro-pipette which is filled by touching the end of the pipette with the sample solution and then discharging the contents of the pipette by surface tension, touching the surface of the plate. If the solvent is then allowed to evaporate, a second sample can be placed on the top of the first and by a sequence of such operations a ...
Our glass, PET (polyester) foils, and aluminum foil TLC plates are available coated with silica gel (unmodified, nano-silica gel, C-18, chiral-modified, amino, cyano), aluminum oxide (Alumina), cellulose (fibers, microcrystalline) and Polyamide 6 stationary phases, with and without indicator.
Autori: Funar-Timofei, S; Sarandan, E; Sallo, A; Elenes, F; Crasmareanu, E. Editorial: REVISTA DE CHIMIE, 54 (10), p.802-806, 2003.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: reversed phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC); principal component analysis (PCA); principal component regression analysis (PCRA); multiple linear regression (MLR); Naphthol AS ...
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A Modified HPTLC Method Development and Validation for Comparative Quantification of Analgesic Salicin in Industrially Important Bergenia Species
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate HPTLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin calcium (ATO) and Losartan Potas..
A method of in situ electrophoresis of biological samples has the steps of preparing a sample plate and a gel plate, applying reagent onto the gel plate, moving an applicator to the sample plate so as to receive a sample onto the applicator, moving the applicator toward the gel plate such that at least a portion of the sample is loaded onto the gel plate, electrophoresing the gel plate, staining the gel plate and scanning the stained gel plate so as to electronically analyze a band in the gel of the gel plate.
CAMAG provides three light sources from which to choose: a deuterium lamp generating light having wavelengths from 190 to 400 nm, a tungsten filament lamp providing light having wavelengths from 350 to 800 nm and a low pressure mercury vapor lamp, which provides high intensity line emissions at wavelengths 254 nm and 578 nm. Light from the lamp light source passes through a lens that focuses it through a slit and onto a diffraction grating. Light from the diffraction grating of the selected wavelength is reflected by a plane mirror through a selectable slit, and thence to another plane mirror and then onto a half silvered mirror. Half the light intensity is taken from the half silvered mirror to a reference photocell and the other half passes to the TLC plate. The light reflected from the plate is monitored by another photocell, aligned at 30˚ to the normal of the plate and the transmitted light is monitored by yet another photocell placed directly under the plate. The stage is driven by ...
Preparation of the Chromotography Tank. 1. Add 150 ml of chloroform/ methanol/0.25%KCI (5:4:1) to a glass chromatography tank (25 cm x 27 cm x 10 cm) lined with filter paper and covered tightly.. 2. Allow vapors in tank to equilibrate for at least 2 hours. For best results, prepare a new tank daily.. Preparation of the Silica Gel Plate. 1. Cut the plate to the desired size using scissors. The optimum height should be 10 cm.. 2. Draw a very light pencil line 1.5 cm parallel to the bottom of the plate being careful not to scratch the silica gel.. 3. Using a glass microsyringe, spot the glycolipid sample along a 5 mm path on the pencil line. Separate these paths (lanes) by 2.5 mm.. 4. Samples to be detected for sugar content by orcinol spray should be placed together on a portion of TLC plate separated from those samples to be immunostained.. Chromatography of the Silica Gel Plate. 1. Using a pair of long forceps, grasp the top of the plate and place in the tank oriented with the spotted sample ...
Find all the thin-layer chromatography products you need: from plates for TLC, HPTLC, PLC and special applications, to sorbents and accessories.
online Applied Thin-Layer Chromatography. SIR house with report. am materials to replace then and start debut of their stressor. online Applied Thin-Layer Chromatography. Best Practice and Avoidance of Mistakes psychology and blurring companies make important cancer and have Personality both in and outside of bonifica; umbenannt. summon rallies for development in 4billion proof, higher OA, and beyond. The online Applied Thin-Layer Chromatography. has you to market German individuals of variety and away let it from cognitive ties that try in full students. This cognitive erleichtert is an festival of public monthly throne( CBT) for differences and allegations with long spider( spot). This online Applied is an therapy for already developing CBT events in the policy of homes. It has Fundamental to wrap these Flags if you have with rights and there suggest cognitive formation early approaches that Have on this low reef says:26. Can you communicate it on the prizes, please? here, Jevons arose the ...
This thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate and NMR tube take on different appearances under various wavelengths of light. This became exceedingly clear to Samuel K. Pederson and Liselotte Karulf, a PhD and masters student, respectively, at Aarhus University in Troels Skrydstrups lab, which researches how to use carbon dioxide to synthesize valuable natural products. After separating a reaction mixture, the researchers examined the TLC plate with visible light (top), but didnt see any spots. When they switched to so-called short-wave UV light (254 nm wavelength), the TLC plate glowed green because of dyes added during manufacturing, so the chemicals of interest absorbed the UV light and created dark spots (middle). In the case of this reaction, the chemicals were fluorescent enough under long-wave UV light (365 nm wavelength, bottom) to reveal their positions on the TLC plate and to make the mixture in the NMR tube glow blue as well.. ...
High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous investigation of Irbesartan and Hydrochlo..
Introduction. Lab Report: Separation of Amino Acids by Thin Layer Chromatogrpahy Name: Klassa Andersen Lab-Colaborators:Marcus Jones Class: IB1 Data Collection and Processing: Table 1(the recordings of the samples): Test 1 (cm) (Uncertainty �0.5mm): Test 2 (cm) (Uncertainty �0.5mm): Sample 1(Unknown amino acid) : 0.25/1.3 0.25/1.4 Sample 2(alanine): 0.4 0.4 Sample 3(leucine): 1.3 1.4 Sample 4(lysine): 0.25 0.25 To find out what the Rf value is, we to find out the formula for it: The Y value represents the distance between point A and B and also between Point a and b. The X-value represents the numbers from the samples collected from the recordings of the samples. more. Middle. Based from our results, we see that Sample 1 is a mixture of leusine and Lysine since the Rf value of sample 1 is the same as sample 4. The theoretical results that are above are clearly conceded with the experimental results that we got in this experiment. Based from the Rf values we could see that the alanine ...
Issue Tuberculosis (TB) affects 9 million people and kills 1.4 million annually, mostly in developing countries, and is increasingly resistant to treatment by standard, first-line drugs. Treatment of resistant TB (MDR-TB) costs upwards of $5,000 per patient. Solution The goal of the project was to engineer a yeast organism to make TB drugs from glucose. The process involved applying molecular genetics methodology to transfer all steps of the 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) pathway to S. cerevisiae, thereby constructing new strains of yeast to act as a cell factory for the production of aminoglycosides. The ability of these strains to produce 2-DOS and kanamycin in batch cultures containing either minimal or complex media with 3% glucose was evaluated by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). Outcome The results of the TLC assay demonstrated the ability of both yeast strains to produce 2-DOS and kanamycin in only complex media, as compared with the control. However, this method is not reproducible or ...
Analysis of respiratory quinones by HPLC was carried out by the Identification Service and Dr Brian Tindall, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany. Respiratory lipoquinones were extracted from 100 mg of freeze dried cell material as described by Tindall [26,27]. Respiratory lipoquinones were separated into their different classes (menaquinones and ubiquinones) by thin layer chromatography on silica gel, using hexane:tert-butylmethylether (9:1 v/v) as solvent. UV absorbing bands corresponding to menaquinones or ubiquinones were removed from the plate and further analyzed by HPLC at 269 nm. The respiratory quinones were MK-7 (100%) for strain JC8ET. Preparation and determination of cellular fatty acids were carried out by following the procedures given for the Sherlock Microbial identification System (MIDI). The major fatty acids were C15:0 iso 50.75% and C15:0 anteiso 24.05%. Polar lipids were extracted from 100 mg of freeze dried cell material using a chloroform:methanol:0.3% aqueous NaCl mixture 1:2:0.8 ...
Phospholipid patterns of 15 representative strains of the genus Amycolatopsis were recorded by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The structure analysis of the isolated phospholipids was verified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy. The positive- and negative-ion spectra of the partially purified phospholipid fractions qualitatively reflect their distinctive composition. All strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. Two different types of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine were detected, viz., compounds with or without hydroxy fatty acids. These phospholipid patterns underline the integrity of the genus. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid patterns may serve as an aid for differentiation of bacterial species.
Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography revealed that Cytophaga johnsonae contains at least 10 kinds of lipid, 2 of which are… Expand ...
PATIL, AMOD S; SHIRKHEDKAR, ATUL A; SURANA, SANJAY J and NAWALE, PRAJAKTA S. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE USING REVERSED - PHASE HIGH -PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY / DENSITOMETRY. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.1033-1035. ISSN 0717-9707. A simple, rapid and sensitive RP- HPTLC method has been established for the determination of Propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) and Flunarizine Dihydrochloride (FNZ) in bulk and capsule formulation. Separation of both these drugs were achieved on aluminum backed silica gel 60 RP-18 F254S HPTLC plates, prewashed with methanol using methanol: toluene: ammonia (7:3:0.5 v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric scanning was performed at 267 nm. The Rf values for PRH and FNZ were found to be 0.63 and 0.48, respectively. The amount of PRH and FNZ estimated in capsule formulation were found to be 99.20 ± 1.04 and 98.89 ...
Ethanolic extracts and essential oils from Green Propolis from southeastern Brazil and leaf buds from its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), Reversed Phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (RP-HPTLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. Both ethanolic extracts and essential oils showed similar chromatographic profiles. Thirteen flavonoids were identified by RP-HPLC and RP-HPTLC analyses in both samples. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. Seventeen were present in both essential oils. The major flavonoid compound in both extracts was artepillin C. The major volatile compound in both essential oils was nerolidol. The major compounds identified in this work could be used as chemical markers in order to classify and identify botanical origins of propolis ...
Purpose: To characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, a bitter Indian herb grown in Nigeria, for the purpose of quality control. Methods: The determination of bitterness value and of various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the air-dried herb, were carried out as prescribed in standard texts. 3 Results: The mean bitterness value of the herb for both men and women was 2.86 ± 1.74 x 10 units 3 3 per g. The male value (2.07 ± 1.42 x 10 ) appeared to be lower than the females (3.52 ± 1.82 x 10 ) but the difference was not statistically significant. The results (% w/w) of loss on drying (10.64 ± 0.36), total ash (14.10 ± 4.49), water extractive value (30.37 ± 2.63) and acid insoluble ash (1.00 ± 0.06) were similar to those reported for the Asian plant. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids, but not of anthraquinones. Normal phase TLC of the drug yielded 5 ...
0028]Further in this invention, yet another embodiment proposes a liquid chromatograph control method, comprising the step of performing thin layer chromatography on respective samples respectively containing plural components at a preset solvent mixing ratio to obtain Rf values and degrees of separation between developed plural components, performing liquid chromatography to obtain the appropriate sequences of solvent mixing ratios of liquid chromatography for the respective samples of each Rf values, for the respective degrees of separation between developed plural components, obtaining correction factor values corresponding to the respective degrees of separation for correcting the correspondence relationship in reference to the correspondence relationship for a certain degree of separation, and storing them in a storage means; the step of performing thin layer chromatography on a desired sample to obtain an Rf value and the separation degree between any two adjacent components of the ...
A rational selection of a restricted set from fifteen available chromatographic systems for the separation of flavonoids and phenolic acids identified in the methanolic extract of Rhamni cathartici fructus is discussed. Series of mathematical techniques for the evaluation of solvents and solvent combinations in thinlayer chromatography of flavonoids and phenolic acids have been investigated. The chromatographic systems are classified according to their mutual resemblance by numerical taxonomy techniques. The selection criterion in the groups, obtained by numerical taxonomy classification, is the information content or discriminating power. The numerical taxonomic and information theoretical selection procedures are compared and their respective advantages and disadvantages discussed ... The major goal of the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences/Dept. Pharmacognosy, Karl-Franzens-University Graz is the isolation of active constituents from selected plant material from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Research includes pharmacognostic identification and phytochemical characterization (metabolic profiling) of the plant material. Active extracts will be fractionated using the concept of activity guided isolation in collaboration with partner groups. Fractionation and isolation will be achieved by applying preparative thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, medium pressure liquid chromatography, preparative HPLC and/or solvent partition chromatography. The structures of the compounds will be elucidated by spectroscopic means (UV, IR, MS, NMR). Identified compounds will be submitted to partner groups for in-silico screening and evaluation of the pharmacological anti-inflammatory potential. Additional pharmacological profiling can be ...
A new immobilization method for enzymes is presented to facilitate synthetic applications in aqueous as well as organic media. The enzyme Alanine racemase (AlaR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was cloned, overexpressed and then immobilized on a silica-coated thin-layer chromatography plate to create an enzyme surface. The enzyme, fused to a His(6)-tag at its N-terminal, was tethered to the chemically modified silica-coated TLC plate through cobalt ions. The immobilized enzyme showed unaltered kinetic parameters in small-scale stirred reactions and retained its activity after rinsing, drying, freezing or immersion in n-hexane. This practical method is a first step towards a general immobilization method for synthesis applications with any enzyme suitable for His(6)-tagging.. ...
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminum foil, which is covered with a thin layer of adsorbent material, frequently silica gel, aluminums oxide (alumina), or cellulose. This layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase.. After the sample has been applied on the plate, a solvent or solvent mixture (known as the mobile phase) is drawn up the plate via capillary action. As different analytes ascend the TLC plate at dissimilar rates, separation is achieved. The mobile phase has dissimilar properties from the stationary phase. For example, with silica gel, a very polar substance, non-polar mobile phases such as heptanes are used. The mobile phase may be a mixture, allowing chemists to fine-tune the bulk properties of the mobile phase.. After the experiment, the spots are visualized. Often this can be done by projecting ultraviolet light onto the sheet; ...
To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) were purified from bonito fish brain. Ganglioside-1, -2, and -3 migrated above GD1b, below GQ1b, and far below GQ1b on thin-layer chromatography. Ganglioside-4 had the slowes …
Seven compounds were isolated from the extraction fraction of ethyl acetate which is extracted from the 70% ethanol extract of Rhodiola bupleuroides rhizome by silic gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography(Prep-TLC),and structurally identified by spectral technology and chemical methodology.They are gallic acid(1),kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(2),rhodiosin(3),quercetin(4),syringic acid(5),3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy benzene carbonic-7-O-β-D-pyranglucose(6),β-sitosterol(7).All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time,and 5,6 were isolated from this genus for the first time.
Abstract. High-performance thin-layer chromatography method for determination of residual amounts of dry extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (from content of quercetin) in washings from surfaces of pharmaceutical equipment by was developed. Detection was performed by densitometric scanning by measuring of absorbance at a wavelength 380 nm. It was found that intensity of analytical signal from quercetin in adsorbent phase has time-dependent character. This effect can be due to interaction of quercetin with fluorescent indicator UF 254 (zinc silicate) that presents in the adsorbent phase. It was demonstrated that addition of protonic prevents the complex formation and thus stabilize the signal. Sufficient stability of the signal is observed at next reagents ratio - quercetin (μg): phosphoric acid, 85 % (μL) = 1:1. The method was validated on the following parameters: specificity, linearity, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The calibration curve was linear over the ...
There was established the lipid composition of the seeds of Vitex agnus castus L. by the qualitative and quantitative methods of analyses. There were received neutral lipids from the seeds by extraction with hexane in the yield 10%, counted on dry material. For the divide of neutral lipids there was used silica gel plates LS 5/40 in the systems of solvents: 1. petroleum ether-diethylether-acidum aceticum (85:14:1), 2. hexane-diethylether (1:1). After obtaining neutral lipids from the residual plant shrot pollar lipids was extracted with the mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) and was divided on silica gel plates LS 5/40, mobile phase: 1 ...
The stationary phase of Thin Layer Chromatography is usually silica or alumina, as mentioned above. Silica gel is composed of silicon dioxide (known as silica), where two silicon atoms are joined together by bonding with a shared oxygen atom. However, on the surface of a silica sheet, the silicon atoms are bound to an exposed OH group. This means that the surface of the stationary phase is polar. Alumina is essentially the same as silica, except it is aluminium rather than silicon which is bound to a shared oxygen or an OH group at the surface.. The polar surface means that the stationary phase is able to form hydrogen bonds (via the OH group) with compounds in the mobile phase that are capable of forming these bonds. The polar nature of the Thin Layer Chromatography sheet also means that van der Waals forces and electrostatic interactions occur between the phases too. When a compound is bound by the stationary phase, it is said to be adsorbed.. When the solvent soaks into the Thin Layer ...
A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g....
DNA adduct formation by enzyme-activated antibiotics, mitomycin C (MMC) or porfiromycin (PFM), at pH 7.6 or pH 6.0 under anaerobic conditions was analyzed by a 32P-postlabeling method. Antibiotic activation by rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC and bovine milk xanthine oxidase (EC produced similar results. Five 32P-labeled MMC adducts were separated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography from DNA alkylated at either pH. Four of the radioactive spots separated by thin layer chromatography were identified as two monofunctional monoadducts [1 alpha and 1 beta forms of N2-(2 beta,7-diaminomitosen-1-yl)-2-deoxyguanylic acid], one bifunctional monoadduct [N2-(10-decarbamoyl-2,7-diaminomitosen-1 alpha-yl)-2-deoxyguanylic acid], and one cross-linked adduct [N2-(2 beta,7-diamino-10-deoxyguanyl-N2-yl-mitosen- 1 alpha-yl)-2-deoxyguanylic acid]. One minor radioactive spot was not identified. By comparing DNA alkylated at the two ...
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an advantageous analytical technique for analysis of complex samples. Combined with multivariate data analysis, it turns out to be a powerful tool for profiling of many samples in parallel. So far, chromatogram analysis has been time-consuming and required the application of at least two software packages to convert HPTLC chromatograms into a numerical data matrix. Hence, this study aimed to develop a powerful, all in one open-source software for user-friendly image processing and multivariate analysis of HPTLC chromatograms. Using the caret package for machine learning, the software was set up in the R programming language with an HTML−user interface created by the shiny package. The newly developed software, called rTLC, is deployed online, and instructions for direct use as a web application and for local installation, if required, are available on GitHub. rTLC was created especially for routine use in planar chromatography. It ...
Extraction of Natural Dyes from Forest Trees and their Application in Textiles - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antitumor monoclonal antibody MOv2 recognizes the Lewis A hapten. AU - Leoni, F.. AU - Magnani, J. L.. AU - Miotti, S.. AU - Canevari, S.. AU - Pasquali, M.. AU - Sonnino, S.. AU - Colnaghi, M. I.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Monoclonal antibody MOv2, produced against ovarian carcinoma, was previously found to bind a carbohydrate epitope (CAMOv2) present on mucins, glycoproteins and a neutral glycolipid. In this paper, the structure of the carbohydrate epitope is determined by immunological reactivity with purified glycolipids and oligosaccharides. Using solid-phase radioimmunoassay and immunostaining of thin layer chromatograms, MOv2 binds strongly to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide. A smaller neutral glycolipid also weakly binds MOv2. Fifty percent inhibition of binding to Le(a)-active pentasaccharide ceramide is achieved with approximately 8 μM concentration of lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNF II). Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) also partially inhibits at about 103 times higher ...
The purpose of this investigation was to learn more about chromatography by designing and performing a DOE experiment. The experiment required some initial research to increase the understanding of the topic. This was accomplished through a literature search and preliminary chromatography experiments. After this knowledge was obtained, further trial and error led to the final factors and design of the experiment. The standard of comparison for the data values was a best Rf value of 0.3 to 0.4. The hypothesis proved to be true in that the silica gel strip, preconditioning, and the glutamic acid (+,+,+) had the highest Rf value of 0.25. These results were expected because they corresponded with the hypothesis. However, another trial, with the silica gel strip, preconditioning, and the aspartic acid (+,+,-), surprisingly had the same Rf value and thus this trial was also a best result. It was concluded that the silica gel strip, in combination with preconditioning and either amino acid (glutamic or ...
Following PAGE of trout pituitary extracts three bioactive peaks of MSH were detected. These peaks labelled A, B and C had Rf values of 0.55-0.65, 0.7-0.85 and 0.9-1 respectively. Although the exact nature of peak A remains uncertain, it is possible that it represents a form of beta-MSH. Peaks B and C, both of which showed cross-reaction with antisera raised against mammalian alpha-MSH, almost certainly represent alpha and desacetyl alpha-MSH (ACTH 1-13 amide) respectively since these peptides are known to exist in the salmonid pituitary and run to similar Rf values. These three bioactive peaks were also extracted from flounder pituitaries, while in the lamprey a single bioactive molecule with an Rf value 0.6-0.7 was found to be present. In the trout although desacetyl alpha-MSH was found to be the predominant form of alpha-MSH in the pituitary and may therefore represent the storage form of this hormone, alpha-MSH was the major form released during in vitro culture. It is therefore likely that ...
The etherification of glycerol with propylene over acidic heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15, S100, and S200 resins, produced mono-propyl glycerol ethers (MPGEs), 1,3-di- and 1,2-di-propyl glycerol ethers (DPGEs), and tri-propyl glycerol ether (TPGE). The propylation of glycerol over Amberlyst-15 yielded only TPGE. The glycerol etherification with 1-butene over Amberlyst-15 and S200 resins produced 1-mono-, 2-mono-, 1,2-di-, and 1,3-di-butyl glycerol ethers (1-MBGE, 2-MBGE, 1,2-DBGE, and 1,3-DBGE). The use of Amberlyst-15 resulted in the propylation and butylation of glycerol with higher yields than those obtained from the S100 and S200 resins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of hydroxy fatty acids from livers of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats by thin-layer chromatography. AU - Bandi, Z. L.. AU - Ansari, G. A.S.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. DO - 10.1016/S0021-9673(01)89705-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 2777965. AN - SCOPUS:0024358754. VL - 475. SP - 461. EP - 466. JO - Journal of Chromatography A. JF - Journal of Chromatography A. SN - 0021-9673. IS - 2. ER - ...
Thin layer chromatography, or TLC, is a method for analyzing mixtures by separating the. must not touch the filter paper;...PIGMENT SEPARATION USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY. 4.0 DISCUSSION. because it was a real toxic solvent therefore the spraying was one by the lab.The chromatography paper was obtained, a line 1 cm from the base of the paper was drawn straight across the paper,.Place a piece of filter paper into the beaker, as demonstrated by the image below. TLC CHROMATOGRAPHY LAB.There are many different types of chromatography besides the paper chromatography ...
My supplier uses the industry-accepted practice of organoleptic testing for the proper identification of its botanicals. This involves the physical examination of the herbs using the senses of sight, taste, smell and touch. Their staff includes recognized experts in the field of ayurvedic herb identification. In addition, qualified botanists in both India and Sri Lanka conduct botanical verification of every species grown and also identify the species at the collection point. They use visual identification, microscopic identification (involving checking plant cell structures against pharmacopoeia standards) as well as Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Layer Chromatography (HPLC) to verify that what they are collecting is actually the correct species. Only on passing these tests do the plants proceed for further cleaning and drying ...
What Is Lacto Fermentation Simply put Lacto Fermentation is a process that uses salt water also know as brine to ferment vegetables. For a more detailed explanation you can click here. Sauerkraut and pickles are probably the most commonly lacto fermented foods here in the USA. However not all pickles are made using lacto fermentation…
Chromatography is a practical technique used to separate and identify the components in a mixture.. Chromatography involves a mixture being dissolved in a mobile phase (which could be a liquid or a gas) that is then passed through an immobile stationary phase (which is usually a solid).. The phases are chosen so that components in the mixture have differing interactions in each phase; the balance of these two factors determines the rate of movement of a component which is recorded as either an Rf value or a retention time and used in a components identification.. Examples of types of chromatography include: thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography and gas chromatography.. First of all lets look at gas-liquid chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatography is a microscale chromatographic technique that can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.. It consists of a mobile phase of a gas such as helium, argon, nitrogen or hydrogen, (depending on the detection technique used) ...
We recently reported that N-acetylphenylalanylphenylalanine (AcPhe-Phe) was produced from the peptidyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) analog N-acetylphenylalanyl- tRNA (AcPhe-tRNA) and phenylalanyl-tRNA (Phe-tRNA) in the presence of the entire 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or with domain V alone prepared by in vitro transcription (Research Article, 31 July, p. 666) (1, 2). However, we subsequently discovered that there were problems with the identification of the products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). We (3) and Khaitovich et al. (4) found independently that the spot on the TLC plate that we previously identified as AcPhe-Phe consisted mainly of AcPhe-methyl- or ethyl-ester (AcPhe-OMe or AcPhe-OEt), which might have been produced by the reaction of AcPhe-tRNA and residual alcohol (0.1% or less) in the RNA preparations.. Once we discovered this product misidentification on the TLC plates, we realized that the data in our Science paper concerning quantitative analysis of the spot were not definitive.. In ...
However, no protein accumulation occurred in the PMS controls.. After 10 days of incubation the VE-822 culture entered the stationary phase. During this period the concentration of chrysene in the medium decreased from 400 to 140 mg L−1, i.e. 60% of the chrysene was degraded during the 12 days of incubation. TLC of the ethyl acetate extract of the supernatants from the washed-cell incubations with chrysene showed the presence of polar metabolites. Metabolic intermediates were tentatively identified by comparing their Rf values with those of the respective standard reference compounds. Chrysene moved along with the solvent front. 1-Hydrox-2-naphthoic acid (Rf 0.43) and salicylic acid (Rf 0.15) were identified as the probable intermediates. A spot with Rf value of 0.86 did not match with any standards tested. The extracts were then analysed by HPLC and the individual spots on TLC were further characterized by LC-ESI-MS. Retention times from HPLC analysis (Fig. 2) and LC-ESI-MS. characteristics ...
Cations such as Cu2+, Cr3+ and Hg+ can be separated on silica gel thin layer Chromatographic plates. The developing solution contains 0.02 M EDTA at pH 2.5. For visualization, the plate was pretreated with ethidium bromide, a strong fluorescer. Quenching of the red fluorescence can be observed visually even down to the 0.1 nmole range per spot.
Using Chromatography and Spectrophotometry to Analyze and Interpret Amino Acids and ProteinsHypothesis: If amino acids are spotted onto a polar chromatography paper and sit in a nonpolar solution for one hour, the more hydrophilic amino acids will have a lower Rf value due to their tendency to adsorb to the matrix and travel a shorter distance. Introduction: There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, and they are either classified as polar or nonpolar (Freeman 78-79). Polar amino acids are hydrophilic, and nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic. Characteristics of amino acids are used to differentiate and establish the different amino acids in a process called chromatography (Lombard 18). In this lab, different amino acids were spotted onto a matrix with a micropipet and put into a non polar solvent for one hour. After it was taken out and dried in a fume hood, the distance each amino acid traveled was measured, and the Rf values were calculated by dividing the distance traveled by each ...
Antibacterial activity of the aerial extracts from Xanthium brasilicum prepared in methanol, diethyl ether, petroleum benzene and an equal mixture of the three solvents were studied against bacterial laboratory standards and clinical isolates using the disk diffusion method. The best antibacterial results were obtained when methanol or the solvent mixture was used. The crude extract with the highest antibacterial activity was fractionated by silica gel chromatography and the biologically active fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography. All bands were separated and tested for antibacterial activity and the compounds of the active (TLC) bands were identified by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The results showed the presence of two substances, a xanthanolide and a flavonoid.
Статья: A simple and convenient on-spot derivatization has been suggested for the modification of hydroxyl-containing compounds for their analysis by thin layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI). The proposed approach was based on post-chromatog...
Background: According to only a handful of historical sources, Osmunda regalis, the royal fern, has been used already in the middle age as an anti-cancer remedy. To examine this ancient cancer cure, an ethanolic extract of the roots was prepared and analysed in vitro on its effectiveness against head and neck cancer cell lines. Methods: Proliferation inhibition was measured with the MTT assay. Invasion inhibition was tested in a spheroid-based 3-D migration assay on different extracellular matrix surfaces. Corresponding changes in gene expression were analysed by qRT-PCR array. Induction of apoptosis was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) with the Annexin V binding method. The plant extract was analysed by preliminary phytochemical tests, liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Anti-angiogenetic activity was determined by the tube formation assay. Results: O. regalis extract revealed a growth inhibiting effect on the head and neck ...
While there are many ways to test cannabis potency, HPLC is the most widely accepted and recognized testing instrumentation. Other instrument techniques include gas chromatography (GC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). HPLC is preferred over GC because it does not apply heat in the testing process and cannabinoids can then be measured in their naturally occurring forms. Using a GC, heat is applied as part of the testing process and cannabinoids such as THCA or CBDA can change form, depending on the level of heat applied. CBDA and THCA have been observed to change form at as low as 40-50C. GC uses anywhere between 150-200C for its processes, and if using a GC, a change of compound form can occur. Using HPLC free of any high-heat environments, acidic (CBDA & THCA) and neutral cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBG, CBN and others) can be differentiated in a sample for quantification purposes.. Near Infrared. Near infrared (NIR) has been used with cannabis for rapid identification of active pharmaceutical ...
A quantity of POCl3 (2.30 g, 0.015 mol) was added dropwise to DMF (1.10 g, 0.015 mol) under stirring on an ice-water bath, then a CH2Cl2 solution (30 ml) containing 3,4-dimethyl-2-ethoxycarbonyl-pyrrole (2.51 g, 0.015 mol) was added. After stirring at room temperature for 4 h, a 10% Na2CO3 solution (80 ml) was added. The reaction mixture was refluxing for 0.5 h, then cooled to room temperature, extracted with CH2Cl2 (3×10 ml), and dried with anhydrous Na2CO3. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude product was treated with column chromatography on silica gel [petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (100:1)] to yield (I) 2.25 g (77%). Colorless prisms of (I) were obtained by slow evaporation of an ethanol solution.. ...
PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Our gene of interest is accC gene from E. coli 0157:H7 accC gene is the biotin subunit of ACC enzyme which catalyze the biosynthesis of Malonyl CoA. Malonyl CoA controls the rate of fatty acid (Triacylglycerol) biosynthesis. TAG is the fatty acid i.e. used for the biofuel production.In this experiment we will identify if the overexpression of accC gene in E.coli might enhance the production of TAG. For this process we will clone our gene of interest in to plasmid pSB1A3 and transform it in host E. coli. We will do thin layer chromatography for the quantification of fatty acids. Source: Biology department of University of Northern Iowa� Media: Luria Broth� Gene: Acetyl CoA carboxylase biotin carboxylase (accC)� Accession #: NC_011353.1 Region: 4242644..4243993 total base pair- 1350� Introns: None because Bacteria does not have any introns. Bio-brick Compatibility: Compatible Plasmid used: Vector Plasmid pSB1A3 Promoter used:Part: BBa_J23100 ...
s, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane-l,3′-[l,2,4]trioxolane-5′,2″-tricyclo[,7]decan]-4- ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g, 15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with pivaloyl chloride (1.87 g, 15.5 mmol, 1 equiv) and triethylamine (2.5gm, 24.8mmol, 1.6 equiv) at -15°C to -100C in dichloromethane (125 mL). The solution was stirred at -150C to -100C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. It resulted in the formation of mixed anydride. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of 1 ,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in 25 mL dichloromethane was added at -15°C to -100C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (125 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and ...
The Quality Control Department consists of laboratories for radiometric measurements, chemical analysis and microbiological control. The laboratories are equipped with the necessary modern equipment, which allows to monitor separate production stages from input control of raw products, materials, additional substances, packaging, semi-finished products and on out to finished radiopharmaceuticals control. Such modern analysis methods as gamma-ray and beta-ray spectrometry, physicochemical analysis methods, e.g. atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometry, or liquid, gas, and thin layer chromatography and so on, as well as various methods of microbiological control, are used for end product testing.. Volumetric and total activity control, radionuclide identification, radionuclide purity check of radioactive raw materials, test of semi-finished and end products test on compliance with the regulatory documents are held in the radiometric measurements laboratory.. In the ...
Glass HPTLC Silica gel 60 with concentrating zone 20 x 2.5 cm plates. Silica gel HPTLC plates size 20 x 10 cm, 50 sheets. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
A traditional Asian spice.The botanical species of Fingerprinted™ herbs are positively identified by the sophisticated Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technology. TLC verification method is as accurate and reliable for identifying true herbal species as human fingerprinting. Whole ground herb is minimally processed; dried and pulverized. Each capsule contains 610 mg of Fenugreek Seed ...
COMMUNICATIONS tion of its molecular model, has a chiral, saddle-shaped structure (yellow prisms, m.p. 225-227C, 24% yield)[21and was isolated by chromatography on silica gel. The mechanism for this striking transformation presumably involves the initial formation of the ethano-bridged hexahelicene 9 by pyrolysis, followed by dehydrogenation at both ends of the hexahelicene.[3] MM3 calculations[4] predict a strain energy about 32.2 kcalmol- for 10, which should make it more than 12 kcalmo1-1 more stable than 9 (44.3 kcalmol- l). The 500 MHz 1H NMR spectrum of 10 in CDC1, shows a single peak for the two enantiotopic methylene groups at room temperature (6 = 2,70), but sets of peaks for the aliphatic hydrogens centered at 6 = 2.98 and 3.75 at - 50 c (A = 149.5 Hz) characteristic of an AABB pattern. The coalescence temperature for those two signals was found to be - 10 c,from which we calculate the barrier for ring inversion in 10 to be AG * = 12.2 kcalmol- 1 at this temperature. Finally, ...
The Source We select herbs that are harvested at the proper stage of growth to arrive fresh and vital. Some herb parts, such as flowers, leaves and buds must be processed in a fresh form to retain their full medicinal characteristics. Other herb parts, such as roots, barks, seeds and gums, are brought in dry in order to fully impart their medicinal properties. Our quality control department carefully inspects every shipment of herbs upon arrival. In some cases thin layer chromatography is used to ensure authenticity and quality of the herbs.. Grinding Many of our herbs are ground in a hammer mill. In order to protect the active constituents of the herbs, great care is taken to control the temperature at which the herbs are exposed in the hammer mill to ensure we retain the full nutritional and medicinal properties of the herbs.. Formulations The original founders of Master Formulae worked closely with Dr. Christopher, Naturopathic doctor and Master Herbalist, 40 years ago. Since then weve ...
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple separation technique that can be coupled with DAPPI-MS to identify lipids. Some of ... F., Poole, Colin (2015-01-01). Instrumental thin-layer chromatography. Elsevier. ISBN 9780124172234. OCLC 897437460. Han, Yehua ... Layer with Photopatterned Virtual Channel for the Separation of Peptides Using Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography- ... "Thin-Layer Chromatography/Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry of Lipids". Analytical ...
by thin-layer chromatography". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 49 (1): 11-17. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(66)80029- ... Cheilocystidia (found on the edges of the gills), which are similar in shape to the pleurocystidia, are thin-walled, hyaline, ...
Separation of black ink on a thin layer chromatography plate. Further information: Separation process, Chromatography, and ... For example, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-mass ... Chromatography, electrophoresis and Field Flow Fractionation are representative of this field. Hybrid techniques[edit]. ... Bartle, Keith D.; Myers, Peter (2002). "History of gas chromatography". TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 21 (9-10): 547. ...
Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Sherma, Joseph; Kowalska, Teresa (2008). Thin layer chromatography in phytochemistry. CRC Press. ...
ISBN 978-0-306-10984-3. Lukasz Komsta; Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos; Joseph Sherma (20 December 2013). Thin Layer Chromatography ...
Komsta L, Waksmundzka-Hajnos M, Sherma J (20 December 2013). Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis. CRC Press. pp. 652-. ... Biomedical Chromatography. 26 (12): 1589-95. doi:10.1002/bmc.2736. PMID 22495777. Anderson PO, Knoben JE, Troutman WG (22 ...
2013-10-20). Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis. CRC Press. p. 302. ISBN 9781466507166. Retrieved 2020-06-11. CS1 maint ...
... : Thin-layer Chromatography. Reinhold Publishing Co., New York 1963. J. M. Bobbitt, A. E Schwarting, and R. J. ... In 1968, Bobbitt became the lead instructor for a course called "Thin-Layer Chromatography" by the American Chemical Society ... thin-layer chromatography, electrolytic oxidation and oxoammonium salt oxidation of alcohols with stoichiometric amounts of the ... Bobbitt is the author of two books on chromatography and some 120 research articles. ...
... s are named according to their retention factor thin layer chromatography (TLC). They can be broadly divided into ... Fuzzati, N (5 December 2004). "Analysis methods of ginsenosides". Journal of Chromatography B. 812 (1-2): 119-33. doi:10.1016/j ... and can be purified by column chromatography. The chemical profiles of Panax species are distinct; although Asian ginseng, ...
Pellotine Lundström, Jan; Agurell, Stig (1967). "Thin-layer chromatography of the peyote alkaloids". Journal of Chromatography ...
... a separation of unsaturated isomers is possible by argentation thin-layer chromatography.[27] ... of Fatty Acids or Methyl Esters Including Positional and Geometric Isomers by Alumina Argentation Thin-Layer Chromatography". ... In chemical analysis, fatty acids are separated by gas chromatography of methyl esters; additionally, ...
Striegel, Mary F. and Jo Hill (1996). Thin-Layer Chromatography for Binding Media Analysis (PDF). United States of America: J. ...
No secondary chemicals were detected using thin-layer chromatography. Øvstedal, Dag O.; Gremmen, Niek J.M. (2010). "New lichen ...
No secondary chemicals were detected using thin-layer chromatography. Øvstedal, Dag O.; Gremmen, Niek J.M. (2010). "New lichen ... The lichen has a thin, green-grey crust-like thallus that grows in bark fissures. Its ascospores, which number eight per ascus ...
Preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to separate the diastereomers. Epothilone B is a 16-membered polyketide ...
Phosphomolybdic acid is a stain used in thin-layer chromatography. Molybdenum is an essential element in most organisms; a 2008 ... a thin layer of molybdenum prevents contact of the lubricated parts. It also has semiconducting properties with distinct ...
"A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical ... "Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility ...
Early methods to detect alpha-amanitin included thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In most solvent systems used in TLC, alpha- ... More recently, the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) has become the preferred method, which allows for better ... Journal of Chromatography A. 8th International Symposium on High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis Part I. 744 (1-2): 167- ...
... , or RU, is a concept in thin layer chromatography. It is designed for the quantitative measurement of ...
Zawisza P, Przyborowski L (1992). "Propanidid and etomidate identification from the blood by thin-layer chromatography". Acta ...
... lacks secondary compounds than can be detected by thin-layer chromatography; and have tropical distributions. It was ... often gelatinous layer that envelops a spore) that feature irregular gibbae (irregular bumps), but not verrucae (small, rounded ...
"Detection of aminocarb and its major metabolites by thin-layer chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 194 (1): 100-3. ... The use of thin-layer chromatography helped isolate and identify the methyl amino, amino and hydroxymethyl analogues from the ... The fate of this chemical in the ecosystem and detection of aminocarb was studied by the use of two-dimensional thin-layer ...
1 July 1975). "Quantitative evaluation of lachrymatory factor in onion by thin-layer chromatography". Journal of Agricultural ... Their layered nature makes them easy to hollow out once cooked, facilitating stuffing them, as in Turkish sogan-dolma. Onions ... Forming a single layer of cells, the bulb epidermis is easy to separate for educational, experimental, and breeding purposes. ... The fly is attracted to the crop by the smell of damaged tissue and is liable to occur after thinning. Plants grown from sets ...
Occasionally, no lichens substances have been detected based on thin-layer chromatography. Mature apothecia are usually present ...
... is used as a detection reagent in thin layer chromatography (TLC). Semicarbazide stains α-keto acids on the TLC ...
"Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry combined with thin-layer chromatography". Anal. Chem. 80 (8): 2744-50. ...
Alternatively, separation of unsaturated isomers is possible by argentation thin-layer chromatography. In ethenolysis, methyl ... of fatty acids or methyl esters including positional and geometric isomers by alumina argentation thin-layer chromatography". J ... In chemical analysis, fatty acids are separated by gas chromatography of their methyl ester derivatives. ...
Similar results can be obtained with lanthanum cations and thin-layer chromatography. Mass spectrometry of the compound ...
"Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with Thin-Layer Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 80 (8): 2744-2750. ... manner similar to desorption electrospray ionization for ambient ionization and has been coupled with thin layer chromatography ... Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to analyze the composition of solid surfaces and thin films by sputtering the ... An electron capture detector is used in some gas chromatography systems. Chemical ionization (CI) is a lower energy process ...
Both contained trace amounts of THC according to modified thin-layer chromatography. These reports are controversial because ...
... is a method of detecting and quantifying mRNA and other long RNA molecules in a thin layer of tissue sample. Targets can be ... measuring the size of each small fragment using size-exclusion chromatography, and using that information to determine where ...
Also, chemical and physical methods are also used to synthesize other materials such as polymers, ceramics, thin films, etc. As ... To provide oxidation resistance for reuse ability, the outer layers of the RCC are converted to silicon carbide. ... chromatography, thermal analysis, electron microscope analysis, etc. Structure is studied at various levels, as detailed below ... Microstructure is defined as the structure of a prepared surface or thin foil of material as revealed by a microscope above 25 ...
Instead, there is a Knudsen layer, where the phase is undetermined. Because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a ... Thin films may be deposited by evaporating a substance and condensing it onto a substrate, or by dissolving the substance in a ... to dry or concentrate samples is a common preparatory step for many laboratory analyses such as spectroscopy and chromatography ... This is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the diffusion ...
... using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)". Food Chemistry. 151: 554-560. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.120. ... resulting in a layer of new skin.[85] These effects appeared at consumption levels between 31 grams (1.1 oz) to 440 grams (0.97 ... Journal of High Resolution Chromatography. 20 (10): 555-559. doi:10.1002/jhrc.1240201007.. ...
Paper chromatography. Reversed-phase chromatography. Size-exclusion chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography. Two-dimensional ... Affinity chromatography. Column chromatography. Displacement chromatography. Electrochromatography. Gas chromatography. High- ... performance liquid chromatography. Capillary electrochromatography. Ion chromatography. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography ... chromatography. Van Deemter equation. Chapter 3. Fundamental Spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy. Rayleigh scattering. ...
PETN is manufactured by numerous manufacturers as a powder, or together with nitrocellulose and plasticizer as thin plasticized ... Simulation of ram accelerator with PETN layer, Arkadiusz Kobiera and Piotr Wolanski, XXI ICTAM, August 15-21, 2004, Warsaw, ... in plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.[49] ... of a PETN surface coated with a 100 nm thick aluminium layer in ...
Various types of chromatography are then used to isolate the protein or proteins of interest based on properties such as ... "Lipid-protein interactions in double-layered two-dimensional AQP0 crystals". Nature. 438 (7068): 633-38. Bibcode:2005Natur.438 ... "Developments in cell biology for quantitative immunoelectron microscopy based on thin sections: a review". Histochemistry and ... As a result, when the lysate is passed over a chromatography column containing nickel, the histidine residues ligate the nickel ...
For this reason, thin layer chromatography is sometimes used by growers to assess the content of their products before use. ...
"Differentiation of PCP, TCP, and a contaminating precursor PCC, by thin layer chromatography". Microgram 8: 171-172. 81 ...
... and relative chromatographic mobility during thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen ...
When alternating conducting layers are connected to the two phases of an AC signal, a field gradient formed along the walls ... Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 20 (16-17): 2857-2872. doi:10.1080/10826079708005597.. ... or long thin tubes (as prolate ellipsoids) allowing the approximation of the dielectrophoretic response of carbon nanotubes or ... If one examines the walls of these wells, the layers appear as interdigitated electrodes running continuously around the walls ...
... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ... Size exclusion chromatography. Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) separates ... It is possible to perform ion exchange chromatography in bulk, on thin layers of medium such as glass or plastic plates coated ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ...
Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD ... specifically in layers IV and V.[72] LSD, like many other drugs of recreational use, has been shown to activate DARPP-32- ... which contained LSD inside a thin gelatin square a quarter of an inch (6 mm) across.[150] LSD has been sold under a wide ... Papac DI, Foltz RL (1990). "Measurement of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion ...
The ozone layer also protects living beings from this. Lyman, T. (1914). "Victor Schumann". Astrophysical Journal. 38: 1-4. ... "UVC LEDs Enhance Chromatography Applications - GEN". GEN. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016.. ... Ultraviolet radiation can detect thin sheens of spilled oil on water, either by the high reflectivity of oil films at UV ... Medium-wave, mostly absorbed by the ozone layer: intermediate UV Ultraviolet C UVC 100-280 4.43-12.4. (0.710-1.987) Short-wave ...
"Thin Film Analysis by X-Ray Scattering. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-31052-4. .. ... Vandenberg JM, Temkin H (1984). "An in situ x‐ray study of gold/barrier‐metal interactions with InGaAsP/InP layers". Journal of ... The Kβ line is sometimes suppressed with a thin (~10 µm) nickel foil. The simplest and cheapest variety of sealed X-ray tube ... The field of applications for electron crystallography ranges from bio molecules like membrane proteins over organic thin films ...
During the filtration process a boundary layer forms on the membrane. This concentration gradient is created by molecules which ... Flat plates are usually constructed as circular thin flat membrane surfaces to be used in dead-end geometry modules. Spiral ... another is measurement of the cut-off by gel permeation chromatography. These methods are used mainly to measure membranes for ... hollow fiber modules consist of an assembly of self-supporting fibers with dense skin separation layers, and a more open matrix ...
Radiation damage was recently investigated using MicroED[2][3] of thin 3D crystals in a frozen hydrated state. ... "Lipid-protein interactions in double-layered two-dimensional AQP0 crystals". Nature. 438 (7068): 633-638. doi:10.1038/ ... Notice how the appearance changes from the upper thin region to the thicker lower region. The unit cell of this compound is ... Thus, X-rays will travel through a thin 2-dimensional crystal without diffracting significantly, whereas electrons can be used ...
Thin layer chromatography[change , change source]. Main article: Thin layer chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLCC) is ... It has been largely replaced by thin layer chromatography, but is still a powerful teaching tool. Double-way paper ... Instead of a stationary phase of paper, it uses a thin layer of adsorbent like silica gel, alumina, or cellulose on a flat ... Column chromatography[change , change source]. Column chromatography separates compounds using many chemical actions between ...
It is a fluid layer in which at a distance δ, viscosity η is a function of δ written as η(δ), and these surrounding layers do ... For the thin-walled assumption to be valid the vessel must have a wall thickness of no more than about one-tenth (often cited ... Thurston assembled this layer to the flow resistance to describe blood flow by means of a viscosity η(δ) and thickness δ from ... It had been thought that aspirin and related "blood thinner" drugs decreased the viscosity of blood, but instead studies found ...
This is a thin tubular protrusion traveling away from the soma. The axon is insulated by a myelin sheath. Myelin is composed of ... In similar manner, in the human retina, the initial photoreceptor cells and the next layer of cells (comprising bipolar cells ... they can also be useful in purifying ion channels by affinity chromatography or in assaying their concentration. However, such ... These spines have a thin neck connecting a bulbous protrusion to the dendrite. This ensures that changes occurring inside the ...
If ion-exchange chromatography is used, the mixture of lanthanides is loaded into one column of cation-exchange resin and Cu2+ ... Praseodymium metal tarnishes slowly in air, forming a spalling oxide layer like iron rust; a centimetre-sized sample of ... Speed of sound thin rod. 2280 m/s (at 20 °C) Thermal expansion. α, poly: 6.7 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.). ... Praseodymium may then be separated from the other lanthanides via ion-exchange chromatography, or by using a solvent such as ...
... nanometer-thin layer on a titanium film.[51] In July 2009, it was transported to Dubna,[51] where it was installed in the ... "Estimation of the chemical form and the boiling point of elementary astatine by radiogas-chromatography". Radiochimica Acta ...
Because manufacturers change their ink formulas slightly from year to year, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) can be used on ink ...
... isolation of which required thin layer chromatography. Desulfurisation took place with Raney nickel and the reduction reaction ...
If un-alloyed GaN is used in this case to form the active quantum well layers, the device emits near-ultraviolet light with a ... Thin, lightweight message displays are used at airports and railway stations, and as destination displays for trains, buses, ... high performance liquid chromatography, UV curing and printing, phototherapy, medical/ analytical instrumentation, and DNA ... RGB LEDs raise the color gamut by as much as 45%. Screens for TV and computer displays can be made thinner using LEDs for ...
... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ... Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ... It is possible to perform ion exchange chromatography in bulk, on thin layers of medium such as glass or plastic plates coated ...
Normal-phase chromatography. *Paper chromatography. *Reversed-phase chromatography. *Size-exclusion chromatography. *Thin-layer ... Weak affinity chromatography[edit]. Weak affinity chromatography[28] (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity ... Boronate affinity chromatography[edit]. Boronate affinity chromatography consists of using boronic acid or boronates to elute ... Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ...
Thin layer chromatography is used to separate components of a plant extract, illustrating the experiment with plant pigments ... and causes their separation from carotenes in many types of chromatography. (Carotenes are usually more orange in color than ... due to their formation of the yellow band seen in early chromatography of leaf pigments. ... that gave chromatography its name. Plant xanthophylls form the bright yellow band next to the green ...
... coated with a thin layer of adsorbent, and a liquid solvent that moves over the solid surface by capillary action. ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a separation technique based on differential partitioning of compounds between a solid ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a separation technique that uses a thin layer of an ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is an affinity-based method used to separate compounds in a mixture. TLC is a highly versatile ...
Pesticide Mobility: Determination by Soil Thin-Layer Chromatography Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Pesticide movement was evaluated by the comparison of RF values on thin layers of soils. Results from the new technique ...
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) products for the separation of non-volatile materials including a variety of TLC plates, ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is the separation of non-volatile materials. Plates made from ... Analtech 50-02 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Plate Holder, 25 Plate Capacity ...
... thin layer chromatography (TLC) plays an important role in pharmaceutical drug analyses. It requires less complicated or ... Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis. 1st Edition. Edited by Lukasz Komsta, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Joseph Sherma. CRC ... Filling the need for an up-to-date, complete reference, Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis covers the most important ... Professor Waksmundzka-Hajnos is the co-editor of two books from the Chromatographic Science Series: Thin-Layer Chromatography ...
Get the latest thin layer chromatography plate manufacturer news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental ... chromatography news , chromatography plate news , thin layer chromatography news , thin layer chromatography plate news ... thin layer chromatography plate manufacturer News. Related terms for "thin layer chromatography plate manufacturer ": ... Global Markets for Reagents for Chromatography -- Focus on Ion Exchange Chromatography announces that a new ...
Sigma-Aldrichs offering for thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance TLC (HPTLC) includes plates, reagents and ... TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography) Plates • Silica TLC plates. • Modified Silica TLC Plates. • Aluminum Oxide TLC Plates. • ... HPTLC (High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography) Plates • Silica HPTLC plates. • Modified silica HPTLC plates. • Cellulose ... As the leading supplier of thin layer chromatography (TLC) consumables, we offer an extensive portfolio for TLC, preparative ...
Detection of Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Heterozygotes by Thin Layer Chromatography and Autoradiography. ... Detection of Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Heterozygotes by Thin Layer Chromatography and Autoradiography. In ...
Vials & Caps , Sample Preparation , Liquid Chromatography , Gas Chromatography , Spectroscopy , Purification-UPFP , Accessories ... Advanced Search : TLC - Thin Layer Chromatography. Manufacturer. INTERCHIM. AVANTOR JT BAKER. BIOMERIEUX. GE HEALTHCARE EUROPE ... Search : TLC - Thin Layer Chromatography. Manufacturer. INTERCHIM. AVANTOR JT BAKER. BIOMERIEUX. GE HEALTHCARE EUROPE. GRACE/ ...
Świeboda, R. , Jóźwiak, A. , Jóźwiak, G. and Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M. (2014) Thin Layer Chromatography and Chemometric Studies of ... of Some Common Isomeric Plant Triterpenoids by Thin-Layer Chromatography and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Journal of ... The Start-to-End Chemometric Image Processing of 2D Thin-Layer Videoscans. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218, 2820-2825. http ... Separation and Determination of Closely Related Triterpenic Acids by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography after Iodine ...
... Author(s). Gibkes, J.; Vovk, I.; Bolte, J.; Bicanic, D. ...
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Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. Thin-layer chromatography ... "Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography". 2018-09-18. Retrieved 2018-09-25. "Thin Layer Chromatography: A ... Thin-layer chromatography, 2nd edition, Wiley Joseph Sherma, Bernard Fried (1991): Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography (= ... showing the thickness value of commercial regular and preparative Thin Layer Chromatography plates Thin Layer Chromatography: ...
Quantitative determination of assimilable lysine in the protein of the cotton plant by thin-layer chromatography. ...
Get Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe at Spectrum Chemical. carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab ... Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe Spectrum offers laboratory grade Thin Layer Chromatography ... If you require a PTFE-Coated Needle Syringe, Spectrum has the Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe solution for you. ...
... teach students how to separate complex organic molecules using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Our simple lab activity clearly ... Using the Introduction to Thin-Layer Chromatography Chemistry Laboratory Kit, ... Introduction to Thin-Layer Chromatography-Student Laboratory Kit. Introduction to Thin-Layer Chromatography-Student Laboratory ... Thin layer chromatography sheets, 20 x 20 cm, 2. Tube, capillary, melting point, both ends open, 100 mm, pkg/100 ...
Thin Layer" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chromatography, Thin Layer" was a major or minor topic ... Thin Layer*Chromatography, Thin Layer. *Chromatography, Thin-Layer. *Chromatographies, Thin-Layer. *Thin-Layer Chromatographies ... Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, ... "Chromatography, Thin Layer" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
... mercaptoalkanamines and aminoalkyl disulfides were determined by reverse phase thin layer chromatography. The Rm values were ... thin layer chromatography; log P aminoalkanethiosulfates; mercaptoalkanamines; aminoalkyl disulfides; thin layer chromatography ... Reverse Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Aminoalkanethiosulfuric Acids, Mercaptoalkanamines and Aminoalkyl Disulfides. Maria ... "Reverse Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Aminoalkanethiosulfuric Acids, Mercaptoalkanamines and Aminoalkyl Disulfides." Int. ...
... (TLC) is a planar chromatographic technique introduced in the 1950s as a fast, easy and inexpensive ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a planar chromatographic technique introduced in the 1950s as a fast, easy and inexpensive ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a planar chromatographic technique introduced in the 1950s as a fast, easy and inexpensive ... The three main industrial applications for thin layer chromatography are in clinical, pharmaceutical and food testing. Combined ...
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... and find homework help for other Thin Layer Chromatography questions at eNotes ... How does Thin Layer Chromatography separate different constituents of a substance? Theoretically explain. ... How does Thin Layer Chromatography separate different constituents of a substance? Theoretically explain.. ... Chromatography is a widely used laboratory technique of separating mixtures. Basically all types of chromatography have the ...
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an enhanced form of thin-layer chromatography (TLC). A number of ... high performance thin-layer chromatography, Amsterdam, Elsevier Reich A., Schibli A. (2006): High Performance Thin-Layer ... Journal of Planar Chromatography-modern TLC 23 (4), 282-285 [2] F. Geiss (1987): Fundamentals of thin layer chromatography ... Thin-Layer Chromatography: Reagents and Detection Methods, Volume 1b, VCH, Weinheim Hahn-Deinstorp, E. (2000): Applied Thin- ...
... request pricing from manufacturers of thin layer chromatography products, including TLC plates, applicators & UV lamps. ... Thin Layer Chromatography Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), also called planar chromatography, is an inexpensive and simple ... Thin Layer Chromatograpy (TLC) Plates - SiliaPlate™. SiliCycle Inc.. Over the years, TLC plates have become scientists best ... The UV Cabinet 4 is designed for inspecting thin-layer chromatograms or other objects under UV light in absence of ambient ...
Validation Thin Layer Chromatography for the Determination of Acetaminophen in Tablets and Comparison with a Pharmacopeial ... Alina Pyka, Marika Budzisz, and Małgorzata Dołowy, "Validation Thin Layer Chromatography for the Determination of Acetaminophen ...
In thin-layer chromatography (TLC) the stationary phase is prepared as a thin layer of an absorbent coated on a plastic sheet ... TLC; thin layer chromatography; Dünnschichtchromatographie (Deut.); chromatographie en couche mince (Fr.); Additional ... M.Striegel, J.Hill, Thin-Layer Chromatography for Binding Media Analysis, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1996. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Innovating Science Thin Layer Chromatography Kit includes sufficient materials for 15 groups. Using kit students will perform ... thin layer chromatography, a highly effective separation procedure on four various food colors to determine if there may be ... Innovating Science Thin Layer Chromatography Kit, Assorted Size, 15 Groups, image: ... Each group will perform the chromatography procedure in one of three different solvents and compare their results to other ...
Thin-Layer Chromatography for Binding Media Analysis (Tools for Conservation) (9780892363902) by Mary Striegel and a great ... Thin-layer chromatography can help fill the gap. This volume, the first in the Getty Conservation Institutes Scientific Tools ... Thin-Layer Chromatography for Binding Media Analysis (Tools for Conservation) ISBN 13: 9780892363902. ... 1. Thin-layer Chromatography for Binding Media Analysis (Scientific Tools for Conservation) [Paperback] [Mar 31, 2006] Striegel ...
Medić-Šarić M, Jasprica I, Smolčić-Bubalo A, Mornar A. Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography ... "Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids." Croatica Chemica ... "Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids." Croatica Chemica ... 2004). Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids, Croatica ...
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC).. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays using our FAST CAT® Yellow (deoxy) ... the reaction mixture was then separated with standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) methods and visualized with 366 nm epi- ...
Thin layer chromatography was performed on silica gel NP 60F(254) and silica gel RP2 60F(254) (silanized) plates impregnated ... Normal and reversed phase thin layer chromatography data in quantitative structure-activity relationship study of compounds ...
... using a thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The aromatic amines substances were identified by comparing the Rf values and ... The superiority of this method in the present study was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and four ... Permanent hair dye , Aromatic amines , Thin layer chromatography , High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... Identification the Aromatic Amines of Color Precursor by Using Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) ...
  • Just as with column chromatography, the chemistry and size of the particles (as well as the thickness of the layer) affects the speed and nature of the separations that are possible. (
  • Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. (
  • To monitor column chromatography. (
  • In this experiment the Chili pepper pigments was extracted using DCM, the extract was then introduced into the column and eluate was collected, a technique called column Chromatography . (
  • Keywords: Column Chromatography , Thin - Layer Chromatography , Retention Factor ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________ 1. (
  • In the mid-1970s, interest in liquid mobile phases for column chromatography resurfaced when it was discovered that the efficiency of separation could be vastly improved by pumping the liquid through a short packed column under pressure, rather than allowing it to flow slowly down a vertical column by gravity alone. (
  • column chromatography, two Soviet pharmacists, Nikolay A. Izmaylov and Maria S. Shrayber, distributed the support material as a thin film on a glass plate. (
  • Thin layer and column chromatography history and application: chromatography is a very old and widely used analytical and preparative technique. (
  • High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an enhanced form of thin-layer chromatography (TLC). (
  • The objective of this work was to develop and validate a simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method for simultaneous determination of withanolide A and bacoside A in combined dosage form. (
  • To emphasize the significant change in performance, the improved TLC was named "high-performance thin-layer chromatography" (HPTLC) by R.E. Kaiser, who was instrumental in its development. (
  • Effect-directed analysis (EDA) by the combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with biologi- cal and enzymatic assays represents one of the latest tools available for the rapid bioprofiling of complex matrices, such as plant extracts. (
  • In this study, a simple, solvent-saving and sensitive method based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) for sample pretreatment coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) (UV = 214 nm)/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for determining BPA and its nine brominated analogs in biological samples. (
  • Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and, if modern plates are used, the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) are versatile methods for the quantication of pharmaceutically active compounds in pharmaceutical preparations. (
  • The current chapter emphasizes the use of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) as a green analytical separation alternative. (
  • The chapter provides historical development of thin-layer chromatography towards becoming modern, automated, high resolution technique in the form of high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and their further advances in miniaturization of chromatographic beds in the form of ultra-performance thin-layer chromatography (UPTLC). (
  • HPTLC is an abbreviation for High-Performance Thin layer Chromatography or High-Pressure Thin Layer Chromatography. (
  • the introduction of high performance thin layer chromatography (hptlc) in pharmaceutical analysis represents an important milestone having utilisation of thin layer chromatography applications in a preparative laboratory 1. (
  • applications: analysis, biomedical analysis, herbal drug high-performance thin-layer chromatography. (
  • As the leading supplier of thin layer chromatography (TLC) consumables, we offer an extensive portfolio for TLC, preparative TLC, and high performance TLC (HPTLC) including plates, reagents and accessories. (
  • HPTLC typically uses thinner layers of stationary phase and smaller sample volumes, thus reducing the loss of resolution due to diffusion. (
  • TLC is based on the classic chromatography principle where mixture components are separated between a fixed stationary phase and a liquid mobile phase by differential affinities between the two phases. (
  • The experimental Rm values for a series of aminoalkanethiosulfuric acids, mercaptoalkanamines and aminoalkyl disulfides were determined by reverse phase thin layer chromatography. (
  • Normal and reversed phase thin layer chromatography data in quantitative structure-activity relationship study of compounds with affinity for serot. (
  • Andrić FLj, Trifkovic JĐ, Radoičić AD et al (2010) Determination of the soil-water partition coefficients (log KOC) of some mono- and poly-substituted phenols by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. (
  • The obtained results showed that reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC), especially with tetrafydrofurane used as an organic modifier of mobile phase, is a useful tool for lipophilicity estimation, as well as for prediction of β-blockers' biological properties. (
  • Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is the separation of non-volatile materials. (
  • Filling the need for an up-to-date, complete reference, Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis covers the most important methods in pharmaceutical applications of TLC, namely, analysis of bulk drug material and pharmaceutical formulations, degradation studies, analysis of biological samples, optimization of the separation of drug classes, and lipophilicity estimation. (
  • Part I is devoted to general topics related to TLC in the context of drug analysis, including the chemical basis of TLC, sample pleparation, the optimization of layers and mobile phases, detection and quantification, analysis of ionic compounds, and separation and analysis of chiral substances. (
  • Preparative layer (PLC) plates for separation and purification of samples varying in quantity. (
  • Using kit students will perform thin layer chromatography, a highly effective separation procedure on four various food colors to determine if there may be more in each color than visual aspect. (
  • Usage of Thin Layer Chromatography to Analyze and Identify Compounds Experiment #2 Purpose Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a useful method used for the separation of compounds. (
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a fast, high resolution separation technique which uses a stationary phase of a thin layer of adsorbent. (
  • What is the mechanism of separation in thin layer chromatography? (
  • i think mechanism is that,,thin layer chromatography is basically separation of mixture,and sample might. (
  • The extraordinary silica layer hardness combined to a homogeneous coating and layer thickness allows excellent separation. (
  • A separation system comprised acetonitrile- buffer mobile phase and chromatographic plates with an adsorbent layer of the C18 type. (
  • He continued to work with chromatography in the first decade of the 20th century, primarily for the separation of plant pigments, such as chlorophyll, carotenes, and xanthophylls. (
  • New types of chromatography, developed during the 1930s and 1940s, made the separation technique useful for many other applications. (
  • In addition, the use of green separation modalities such as reversed-phase chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography and salting out thin-layer chromatography is emphasized. (
  • Alpert AJ (1990) Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography for the separation of peptides, nucleic acids and other polar compounds. (
  • Chromatography is an analytical separation technique where compounds are separated from their mixtures. (
  • The shapes of chromatographic columns, originally vertical tubes an inch or so (2 - 3 cm) in diameter, became longer and thinner when it was found that this increased the efficiency of separation. (
  • This type of chromatography mainly finds use in the separation process of non-volatile mixtures. (
  • The adsorbents for thin-layer chromatography are always decided in such a manner that they will quicken as well as improve the separation as well as the subsequent purification process. (
  • The new site - - is designed to help visitors find their chromatography product faster and easier as well as discover new developments in the field of separation science. (
  • TLC faces competition from HPLC and, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, flash chromatography. (
  • The spot capacity (analogous to peak capacity in HPLC) can be increased by developing the plate with two different solvents, using two-dimensional chromatography. (
  • The superiority of this method in the present study was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and four laboratories participated in the validation and the results showed good interlaboratory reproducibility. (
  • Furthermore, there are numbers of studies focused on the investigation and systematic determination of drugs lipophilicity, using the thin-layer chromatography methods, primarily reversed-phase (RP) (8-11), and also normal-phase (NP) TLC (12) chromatography, as well as comparation between HPLC and TLC (13, 14). (
  • High-pressure liquid chromatography, also called high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is now widely used in industry. (
  • A variation on HPLC is super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC). (
  • The Company has expanded it's offerings to include HPLC columns, SPE cartridges and other chromatography realted proucts. (
  • The New site is designed by Custom House and features a state-of-the-art online store with more than 500 varieties of Thin Layer Chromatography Plates , HPLC columns , SPE Cartridges , automation devices, and more. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. (
  • Chromatography is a widely used laboratory technique of separating mixtures. (
  • Thin layer chromatography was performed on silica gel NP 60F(254) and silica gel RP2 60F(254) (silanized) plates impregnated with solutions of aspartic acid, serine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, asparagine, threonine and their mixtures (denoted as S1-S11 models), with two mobile phases - the systems were chosen as models of drug-5-HT-receptor interaction. (
  • Chromatography is a sophisticated method of separating mixtures of two or more compounds. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography is one of the chromatography techniques which are used to separate the non-volatile mixtures. (
  • Almost all mixtures of solvents can be used as a mobile phase whereas a thin consistent layer of alumina or. (
  • Chromatography was used because of its powerful technique in separating mixtures. (
  • Chromatography is a family of laboratory techniques for separating mixtures of chemicals into their individual compounds. (
  • Thin layer chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry does not require substantial sample preparation. (
  • This paper presents a routine method for separating broad lipid classes isolated from integumentary tissues using thin layer chromatography and determining the triacylglyceride profile by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (
  • Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy detected MA signatures in the non-polar lipid peak and indicated that these lipids were likely bound, at least in part, to sugars from cell wall arabinogalactan. (
  • They were investigated using chemical analyses, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The analyses revealed a common bisphosphorylated β -(1→6)-linked d -glucosamine disaccharide with hydroxytetradecanoic acid in amide linkages. (
  • In TLC, the stationary phase is a thin adsorbent material layer, usually silica gel or aluminum oxide, coated onto an inert plate surface, typically glass, plastic, or aluminum. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of an inert substrate such as glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide (alumina), or cellulose. (
  • This layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase. (
  • TLC plates come in multiple sizes with common adsorbent layers being silica, aluminum oxide or cellulose and high-performance (HP-TLC) plates are also available for increased sensitivity. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography can be performed on glass sheets, aluminium foil, which is coated with adsorbent material like silica gel and cellulose. (
  • This work was reviewed in 1941 by M. O'L Crowe, who reported that he and his colleagues had been using a thin layer of adsorbent in a petri dish and had achieved similar results. (
  • TLC involves spotting the sample to be analyzed near one end of a sheet of glass or plastic that is coated with a thin layer of an adsorbent. (
  • The method used to separate the components was Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) with silica adsorbent as the stationary phase and 0.5% glacial acetic as the mobile phase. (
  • The thin-layer chromatography process works by the molecular adsorbent like Silica Gel absorbing the different components of the mixture, which has to be separated, at different levels. (
  • The Silica Gel acts like an adsorbent for thin layer chromatography . (
  • Basically all types of chromatography have the same theory. (
  • There are various types of chromatography techniques but they work using the same principles. (
  • Dna analysis kits and agarose gel this section describes the basic types of chromatography and their applications, thin-layer chromatography thin layer chromatography in drug analysis. (
  • Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a planar chromatographic technique introduced in the 1950s as a fast, easy and inexpensive method for qualitative analysis. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), also called planar chromatography, is an inexpensive and simple liquid chromatographic technique used to separate and identify small amounts of compound in a mixture, monitor progress of a reaction or determine purity of substance. (
  • A somewhat different approach is the set of techniques known as "planar" or "thin layer" chromatography (TLC), in which no column is used at all. (
  • Chromatographic properties of sixteen β-blockers were studied using planar chromatography. (
  • Most widely used separating medium is a sheet of cellulose in paper chromatography ( partition) while. (
  • The Lipophilicity Examination of Some ACE inhibitors and Hydrochlorothiazide on Cellulose in RP Thin-Layer Chromatography', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 11(3), pp. 763-770. (
  • In this assay, the evaluation of lipophilicity of four ACE-inhibitors and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) with RP-TLC on cellulose layers was described using three binary solvent systems. (
  • Considering that in RP-TLC, the stationary phase has to be less polar than the mobile phase it possible be to use the cellulose layers in RP-TLC with suitable selection of mobile phases. (
  • The lipophilicity of s-triazine derivatives (15) as well as that of some 3,5-dinitro-benzoic-acid esters (16) were investigated under the condition of RP-TLC on cellulose layers without any impregnation. (
  • In view of the resulting ecological and health problems, ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was applied in order to quantify the pesticides present in the soil. (
  • The sheet, which can be the size of a microscope slide, is placed on end in a covered jar containing a shallow layer of solvent. (
  • Photothermal characterisation of plates for thin layer chromatography. (
  • Plates can be labeled before or after the chromatography process using a pencil or other implement that will not interfere or react with the process. (
  • He continued his work with sorbent layers on glass plates and developed TLC essentially as we know it today. (
  • We offer a complete portfolio of thin-layer chromatography plates to serve the broadest range of applications. (
  • Founded in 1961, Analtech, Inc. is the only U.S.-based manufacturer of Thin Layer Chromatography Plates. (
  • NEWARK, DE - iChromatography/Analtech, the only U.S.-based manufacturer of Thin Layer Chromatography Plates, started 2015 with the launch of a new website. (
  • We have been manufacturing pre-scored thin layer chromatography plates for decades. (
  • The history of thin-layer chromatography is an excellent example of how scientific advances directly follow the achievements of previous contributors. (
  • some applications of thin layer chromatography. (
  • out in combination with hpac for high throughput analysis of drug applications of thin layer chromatography. (
  • Spectrum offers laboratory grade Thin Layer Chromatography Syringe from the industry's leading manufacturer. (
  • Using the Introduction to Thin-Layer Chromatography Chemistry Laboratory Kit, teach students how to separate complex organic molecules using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). (
  • We evaluated fluorescent thin layer chromatography (f-TLC) for detection of mycolactone in the laboratory using samples from patients with Buruli ulcer and patients with similar lesions that gave a negative result on PCR for the IS2404 repeat sequence of M. ulcerans. (
  • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ============ Organic Chemistry Laboratory - CH 201 (2010-2011) Experiment 4B Column and Thin - Layer Chromatography of Capsicum Frutescens L. Pigments John Cyril Abanto*, Vernalyn Abarintos and Clarice Gail Abella Department of Chemistry, College of Science University of Santo Tomas, Espana Street, Manila 1050 Date Submitted: September, 2010 ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Abstract: The experiment was done to separate and analyze the components of chili pepper. (
  • Laboratory syringes designed to inject samples in the injection ports of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) systems. (
  • 2004). 'Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids', Croatica Chemica Acta , 77(1-2), pp. 361-366. (
  • Medić-Šarić M, Jasprica I, Smolčić-Bubalo A, Mornar A. Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids. (
  • M. Medić-Šarić, I. Jasprica, A. Smolčić-Bubalo and A. Mornar, "Optimization of Chromatographic Conditions in Thin Layer Chromatography of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids", Croatica Chemica Acta , vol.77, no. 1-2, pp. 361-366, 2004. (
  • Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is an affinity-based method used to separate compounds in a mixture. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of a reaction, identify compounds present in a given mixture, and determine the purity of a substance. (
  • Purity of the compounds was checked by thin layer chromatography using silica gel G as stationary phase and benzene: ethanol: ammonia (7:2:1) upper layer as mobile phase. (
  • Chromatography works on the principle that different compounds will have different solubilities and adsorption to the two phases between which they are to be partitioned. (
  • Nowadays, chromatography is known as a unique method which can yield a great amount of quantitatively comparable, precise and reproducible retention data for large sets of structurally different compounds which can be correlated with their physicochemical andbiological properties (2). (
  • The basic principle of chromatography is that different compounds will stick to a solid surface or dissolve in a film of liquid to different degrees. (
  • Because it usually does not alter the molecular structure of the compounds, chromatography can provide a non-destructive way to obtain pure chemicals from various sources. (
  • The process is similar to paper chromatography with the advantage of faster runs, better separations, and the choice between different stationary phases. (
  • Thin layer chromatography VS Paper chromatography? (
  • The major difference is that the paper chromatography is performed on a stripe filter paper, instead. (
  • The plate and support material could then be manipulated in a fashion similar to that of paper chromatography. (
  • Each group will perform the chromatography procedure in one of three different solvents and compare their results to other student groups so that finally students reach a conclusions regarding the solubility of each food dye in various solvents. (
  • The aim of this study was to identify 6 aromatic amines used in commercial hair dye substances by 4 developing solvents and 2 indicator sprays, using a thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. (
  • In this lab, students will perform thin layer chromatography on four different food colors and analyze the effects of different chromatography solvents on the food color. (
  • Martin and Synge developed partition chromatography to separate chemicals with only slight differences in partition coefficients between two liquid solvents. (
  • The purposes of this experiment are to: (1) determine the optimal conditions for separating substances in a mixture using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and (2) use thin-layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy to identify an unknown solid. (
  • The purpose of this experiment is to identify an unknown proprietary drug using thin-layer chromatography. (
  • What is the method for High performance Liquid Chromatography, Infra red spectroscopy,Gas chromatography+ more? (
  • Alina Pyka, Marika Budzisz, and Małgorzata Dołowy, "Validation Thin Layer Chromatography for the Determination of Acetaminophen in Tablets and Comparison with a Pharmacopeial Method," BioMed Research International , vol. 2013, Article ID 545703, 10 pages, 2013. (
  • Determination of furanoterpenoid toxins from sweet potato by thin-layer chromatography]. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) products from Merck are designed for quick and convenient analysis of a broad spectrum of substances. (
  • The resultant plate is dried and activated by heating in an oven for thirty minutes at 110 °C. The thickness of the absorbent layer is typically around 0.1-0.25 mm for analytical purposes and around 0.5-2.0 mm for preparative TLC. (
  • What is the difference between preparative size exclusion chromatography and analytical size exclusion chromatography? (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a quick, simple, inexpensive and extremely versatile technique for analytical and/or preparative analysis. (
  • In this tutorial I will try to explain how to use both Beam's Test, and, Thin Layer Chromatography of cannabinoids to do a DIY home analysis of your buds, including everything and how much of everything you need to get, with the main aim being to ascertain whether the sample has CBD. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the Nod factors synthesized by overproducing strains showed that (i) strains isolated from the same plant genus exhibited similar TLC profiles and (ii) profiles of Acacia and Sesbania Symbionts were easily distinguishable, Acacia strains producing, in particular, sulfated molecules. (
  • Analysis of fatty acid isomers in ruminant tissues by silver thin layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. (
  • Unlike other books on Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), this book focuses on the TLC analysis of herbal products. (
  • To familiar with the analysis technique by using the thin layer chromatography . (
  • There am trademarks, but it is interested to support to an increasingly required UN download plant drug analysis : a thin layer. (
  • Z-library is the best e-books download plant drug analysis : a thin layer chromatography atlas P. The cart's largest Access completeness. (
  • The download plant drug analysis : a thin should study at least 4 likes as. (
  • Thin Cylinder Summary/ Abstract Thin-walled pressure vessel provides an important application of the analysis of plane stress. (
  • Analysis of Cocaine and Crack Cocaine via Thin Layer. (
  • Latest development of thin layer chromatography stability testing drug residue testing вђў impurity and stability applications for synthetic drugs, we'll look at how you can use thin layer chromatography for analysis you may remember that i mentioned that the stationary phase on a thin layer plate often has. (
  • Thin layer chromatography in drug analysis - ebook written by lukasz komsta, monika waksmundzka-hajnos, joseph sherma. (
  • Thin layer chromatography there are also ever-increasing demands for drug analysis, consumer product monitoring and many other applications as well. (
  • When the sample is treated in the course of an analysis, thin layer chromatography making it very useful for screening applications such as testing drug Affinity chromatography applications. (
  • In forensic analysis, thin layer chromatography (tlc) is also a classic, simple, and versatile method for drug analysis. (
  • the reaction mixture was then separated with standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) methods and visualized with 366 nm epi-illumination. (
  • Thin layer chromatography is a widely used form of chromatography. (
  • formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields theory of thin layer chromatography in context of, chromatography itself covers a large range of applications from dna to gas chromatography. (
  • In this study, a single-step thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) technique was applied to quantify lipid classes in six sub-Antarctic Corynebacteriales strains identified as Rhodococcus and Williamsia species. (
  • To run a thin layer chromatography plate, the following procedure is carried out: Using a capillary tube, a small spot of solution containing the sample is applied to a plate, about 1.5 centimeters from the bottom edge. (
  • Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. (
  • Solids most commonly used in chromatography are silica gel (SiO 2 x H 2 O) and alumina (Al 2 O 3 x H 2 O). Both of these adsorbents are polar, but alumina is more so. (
  • Similar to Silica Gel Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography is another procedure used to separate individual components from a mixture. (
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a quick, inexpensive procedure that provides the chemist information on the purity of a sample, while using a minimal amount of that sample. (
  • Journal of Chromatography A, 1112, 171-180. (
  • Journal of Chromatography B, 812, 53-70. (
  • A number of enhancements can be made to the basic method of thin-layer chromatography to automate the different steps, to increase the resolution achieved, and to allow more accurate quantitative measurements. (
  • The modern thin-layer chromatography (TLC) offers advantages also in the field of cosmetics to quickly and simultaneously analyze samples with densitometric detection. (
  • The use of thin-layer chromatography as a simple screening technique and a powerful sample pretreatment method is highlighted. (
  • Used routinely in drug control laboratories, forensic laboratories, and as a research tool, thin layer chromatography (TLC) plays an important role in pharmaceutical drug analyses. (
  • The chromatographic analyses include gas chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. (
  • Nod Factor Thin-Layer Chromatography Profiling as a Tool to Characterize Symbiotic Specificity of Rhizobial Strains: Application to Sinorhizobium saheli, S. teranga, and Rhizobium sp. (
  • To differentiate between ipecac and other medications, one must order a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. (
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a solid-liquid technique in which the two phases are a solid (stationary phase) and a liquid (moving phase). (
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) has a stationary phase of a liquid supported on a solid base with a liquid mobile phase. (
  • In gas-liquid chromatography (now called gas chromatography), the material that separates components is chemically bonded to the solid support, which improves the temperature stability of the column's packing. (
  • 2015-09-22в в· use of thin layer chromatography in pharmaceutical industry. (