A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is closely related to the European pennyroyal (MENTHA PULEGIUM).
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
A benzodiazepine that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE used to flavor food.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.
Ethane is an organic compound, specifically a hydrocarbon (aliphatic alkane), with the chemical formula C2H6, which consists of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, and is the second simplest alkane after methane. However, it's important to note that ethane is not a medical term or concept; it's a basic chemistry term.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
'Frozen foods' in a medical context typically refers to prepared or raw food items that have been rapidly cooled then stored at freezing temperatures, typically below -18 degrees Celsius, to minimize microbial growth and enzymatic reactions, thereby extending their shelf life.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A plant genus of the family POLYGALACEAE that contains onjisaponins, xanthones, pyrones, and benzophenones. The name is similar to other snakeroots such as ASARUM; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains isoscutellarein-7-O-(allosyl(1-2)glucoside).
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Picrates are salts of picric acid, an explosive organic compound previously used as a yellow dye and antiseptic, which are now primarily used in chemical research and industrial applications. Please note that picrates should be handled with care due to their potential explosiveness when heated or subjected to friction.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.

Field-based supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons at industrially contaminated sites. (1/62)

Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of fluoroquinolones in eggs by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction and high pressure liquid chromatography. (2/62)

Simultaneous detection of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin in eggs by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was studied. Lipid matrices that have been considered to result in poor extraction and isolation of fluoroquinolones in eggs were removed first by SFE with supercritical CO(2) alone, and then the fluoroquinolones were extracted by SFE with supercritical CO(2) containing 20% (v/v) methanol for HPLC analysis. A time-course study of the extraction of lipid matrices of eggs suggested that the SFE method successfully removed the matrices within 20 min. When the fluoroquinolones added to control eggs were extracted by SFE, the extraction efficiency was similar to that by the solvent extraction method, giving the recovery percentages from 83 to 96% in a 40 min-extraction time. The fluoroquinolones extracted from eggs by SFE were analyzed simultaneously by HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector with detection sensitivity at about 10 ppb for the detection limit. The standard calibration profiles of fluoroquinolones showed linear responses to HPLC, showing more than 0.995 for the mean r(2) value. This is the first report of the simultaneous measurement of fluoroquinolones in eggs by a combination of SFE and HPLC. Using the SFE method allowed us to avoid extensive sample preparation such as solvent extraction and chromatographic cleanup that are basically required in extraction of fluoroquinolones.  (+info)

Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis. (3/62)

Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.  (+info)

Supercritical fluid clean-up of environmental samples for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. (4/62)

A novel sample-pretreatment method for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In SFE, the extraction efficiency of a certain organic matter is controlled by the pressure and temperature of supercritical CO2. Two-step SFE (1st step at 10 Mpa, 40 degrees C; 2nd step at 30 MPa, 120 degrees C) was applied to diesel exhaust particles containing many kinds of n-alkanes and aromatic species. n-Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted in the 1st and 2nd steps, respectively. This selectivity was utilized for the sample preparation of TOF-SIMS analysis. Diesel exhaust particles after the 1st step of extraction were analyzed with TOF-SIMS, aiming at PAHs as analytical targets. The obtained spectrum was simplified, and mass peaks of individual PAHs were easily assigned, because unwanted compounds, like n-alkanes, were selectively removed by SFE. Furthermore, a simple calculation elucidated the outline of the spectrum.  (+info)

Impacts of extraction methods in the rapid determination of atrazine residues in foods using supercritical fluid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: microwave solvent vs. supercritical fluid extractions. (5/62)

It is an accepted fact that many food products that we eat today have the possibility of being contaminated by various chemicals used from planting to processing. These chemicals have been shown to cause illnesses for which some concerned government agencies have instituted regulatory mechanisms to minimize the risks and the effects on humans. It is for these concerns that reliable and accurate rapid determination techniques are needed to effect proper regulatory standards for the protection of people's nutritional health. This paper, therefore, reports the comparative evaluation of the extraction methods in the determination of atrazine (commonly used in agricultural as a herbicide) residues in foods using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave solvent extraction (MSE) methods were used to test samples of frozen vegetables, fruit juice, and jam from local food markets in Houston. Results showed a high recovery percentage of atrazine residues using supercritical fluid coupled with ELISA and SFC than with MSE. Comparatively, however, atrazine was detected 90.9 and 54.5% using SFC and ELISA techniques, respectively. ELISA technique was, however, less time consuming, lower in cost, and more sensitive with low detection limit of atrazine residues than SFC technique.  (+info)

Stabilized nanoparticles of phytosterol by rapid expansion from supercritical solution into aqueous solution. (6/62)

The basic objective of this work was to form stable suspensions of submicron particles of phytosterol, a water-insoluble drug, by rapid expansion of supercritical solution into aqueous solution (RESSAS). A supercritical phytosterol/CO2 mixture was expanded into an aqueous surfactant solution. In these experiments 4 different surfactants were used to impede growth and agglomeration of the submicron particles resulting from collisions in the free jet. The concentration of the drug in the aqueous surfactant solution was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, while the size of the stabilized particles was measured by dynamic light scattering. Submicron phytosterol particles (<500 nm) were stabilized and in most cases a bimodal particle size distribution was obtained. Depending on surfactant and concentration of the surfactant solution, suspensions with drug concentrations up to 17 g/dm3 could be achieved, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the equilibrium solubility of phytosterol. Long-term stability studies indicate modest particle growth over 12 months. Thus, the results demonstrate that RESSAS can be a promising process for stabilizing submicron particles in aqueous solutions.  (+info)

Isolation of palm tocols using supercritical fluid chromatography. (7/62)

Crude palm oil contains 600 to 1000 ppm of tocols in the form of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These palm tocols have been isolated and analyzed in the past by various chromatographic techniques such as open column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as thin-layer chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has emerged as a more advanced chromatographic technique in recent years. The tocols present in palm oil are successfully isolated using SFC. Identification of these tocols is supported by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry.  (+info)

Feasibility study of online supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-UV absorbance-mass spectrometry for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds. (8/62)

Online coupling of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with liquid chromatography (LC)-UV absorbance-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) is evaluated for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds. The solid-phase intermediate trap is optimized in order to enhance the collection efficiency for the extracted polar components. Pure supercritical CO2 is used first to remove the oil in the seeds. Then methanol-modified CO2 is used to remove the polar components (e.g., phenolic compounds). Catechin and epicatechin (90%) are extracted out of the de-oiled after 240 min with 40% methanol as a modifier. Both singly-linked (B-type) and doubly-linked (A-type) procyanidins are identified by LC-ESI-MS, as well as their galloylated derivatives. The hyphenated system combines the extraction, separation, and detection in series. The experimental design minimizes the chance of analyte oxidation, degradation, and contamination. The traditional off-line SFE-LC method is also studied for comparison with the online method. Both advantages and disadvantages are observed for the online mode.  (+info)

Chromatography, supercritical fluid (SFC) is a type of chromatographic technique that uses supercritical fluids as the mobile phase to separate and analyze components of a mixture. A supercritical fluid is a substance that is maintained at temperatures and pressures above its critical point, where it exhibits properties of both a gas and a liquid, making it an ideal medium for separations due to its low viscosity, high diffusivity, and tuneable solvating strength.

In SFC, the supercritical fluid, typically carbon dioxide (CO2) due to its mild critical point conditions, is used to elute analytes from a stationary phase, such as a silica or polymer-based column. The interactions between the analytes and the stationary phase, along with the properties of the supercritical fluid, determine the separation efficiency and resolution of the technique.

SFC has several advantages over traditional liquid chromatography (LC) techniques, including faster analysis times, lower solvent consumption, and the ability to analyze a wider range of polar and nonpolar compounds. SFC is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug discovery and development, as well as in environmental, food, and chemical analyses.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

"Hedeoma is a genus of aromatic plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It includes about 60 species of annual and perennial herbs and shrrubs, native to North America and Central America. The most common species is Hedeoma pulegioides, also known as American pennyroyal or squawmint, which has a long history of use in traditional medicine for its carminative, diaphoretic, and emmenagogue properties. However, it should be noted that the essential oil of this plant can be toxic if ingested in large amounts. Other species of Hedeoma have also been used in traditional medicine, but their safety and efficacy have not been well-studied."

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

"Calophyllum" is a genus of plants that belongs to the family Calophyllaceae. These evergreen trees and shrubs are native to tropical regions of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The name "Calophyllum" comes from the Greek words "kalos," meaning beautiful, and "phyllon," meaning leaf, which refers to the attractive leaves of these plants.

Many species of Calophyllum have medicinal properties. For example, the bark, leaves, and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum, also known as Alexandrian laurel or Indian laurel, have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including skin diseases, rheumatism, and diarrhea. The oil extracted from the seeds of this plant, called "tamanu oil," is believed to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties and is used in cosmetics and skincare products.

However, it's important to note that while some species of Calophyllum have medicinal uses, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It's always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using any natural remedies or supplements.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Heptanes are a group of hydrocarbons that are composed of straight-chain or branched arrangements of six carbon atoms and are commonly found in gasoline. They are colorless liquids at room temperature with a characteristic odor. In a medical context, exposure to heptanes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Chronic exposure has been linked to more serious health effects, including neurological damage and cancer. Proper handling and use of heptanes, as well as adequate ventilation, are important to minimize exposure and potential health risks.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

"Rosmarinus" is the genus name for rosemary, a woody herb that belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae). The most common species is Rosmarinus officinalis. It is native to the Mediterranean region and is widely used in cooking, cosmetics, and traditional medicine. In a medical context, "Rosmarinus" would refer to the medicinal properties or uses of the rosemary plant.

Drug residues refer to the remaining amount of a medication or drug that remains in an animal or its products after the treatment period has ended. This can occur when drugs are not properly metabolized and eliminated by the animal's body, or when withdrawal times (the recommended length of time to wait before consuming or selling the animal or its products) are not followed.

Drug residues in animals can pose a risk to human health if consumed through the consumption of animal products such as meat, milk, or eggs. For this reason, regulatory bodies set maximum residue limits (MRLs) for drug residues in animal products to ensure that they do not exceed safe levels for human consumption.

It is important for farmers and veterinarians to follow label instructions and recommended withdrawal times to prevent the accumulation of drug residues in animals and their products, and to protect public health.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol). It is used in various industrial applications such as the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other chemicals. In the medical field, methanol is considered a toxic alcohol that can cause severe intoxication and metabolic disturbances when ingested or improperly consumed. Methanol poisoning can lead to neurological symptoms, blindness, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Thermogravimetry (TG) is a technique used in materials science and analytical chemistry to measure the mass of a substance as a function of temperature while it is subjected to a controlled heating or cooling rate in a carefully controlled atmosphere. The sample is placed in a pan which is suspended from a balance and heated at a constant rate. As the temperature increases, various components of the sample may decompose, lose water, or evolve gases, resulting in a decrease in mass, which is recorded by the balance.

TG can be used to determine the weight loss due to decomposition, desorption, or volatilization, and to calculate the amount of various components present in a sample. It is often used in conjunction with other techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to provide additional information about the thermal behavior of materials.

In summary, thermogravimetry is a method for measuring the mass changes of a material as it is heated or cooled, which can be used to analyze its composition and thermal stability.

Prazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders. It works by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain that inhibits the activity of nerve cells and produces a calming effect.

Prazepam has a long half-life, which means it is slowly eliminated from the body and provides sustained anxiety relief over an extended period. It is also used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal.

As with all benzodiazepines, prazepam carries a risk of dependence and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. Common side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and unsteady gait.

Coal ash, also known as coal combustion residuals (CCRs), is the waste that is produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. It is a fine-grained, powdery material that is left over after coal is burned in power plants. Coal ash contains a variety of substances, including heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and chromium, which can be harmful to human health and the environment if not properly managed.

Coal ash is typically stored in large ponds or landfills, but it can also be reused in a variety of applications, such as in concrete, wallboard, and other building materials. However, if coal ash is not handled and disposed of properly, it can pose serious risks to the environment and human health. For example, if coal ash ponds or landfills leak or burst, the toxic heavy metals they contain can contaminate water supplies and soil, posing a threat to both wildlife and humans.

It is important for coal ash to be managed in accordance with federal regulations to ensure that it is handled and disposed of in a way that protects public health and the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established regulations governing the management of coal ash, including requirements for the location, design, and operation of coal ash disposal facilities, as well as standards for the monitoring and reporting of coal ash releases.

Ionic liquids are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of chemistry and physics. They refer to salts that exist in the liquid state at temperatures below 100 degrees Celsius. Ionic liquids are composed entirely of ions and have unique properties such as low volatility, high thermal stability, and good conductivity, making them useful in various applications including chemical reactions, energy storage, and biomedical devices. However, they do not have a direct relation to medical definitions or healthcare.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

'Coriandrum' is the medical term for a plant species that belongs to the family Apiaceae, also known as the carrot or parsley family. The most common and well-known member of this genus is Coriandrum sativum, which is commonly referred to as coriander or cilantro.

Coriander has been used for centuries in cooking and traditional medicine. Both its leaves and seeds have a distinct aroma and flavor that are widely used in various cuisines around the world. The leaves are often called cilantro, especially in North America, while the seeds are known as coriander.

In addition to its culinary uses, coriander has been reported to possess several medicinal properties. It has been traditionally used to treat digestive disorders such as nausea, bloating, and flatulence. Some studies suggest that coriander may have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, although more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

It's worth noting that while 'Coriandrum' is a medical term for the plant genus, it is not typically used in clinical or medical contexts unless discussing its medicinal properties or potential therapeutic applications.

"Satureja" is a genus of plants, also known as savory, that belongs to the family Lamiaceae. There are two main species, Winter Savory (Satureja montana) and Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis), which are native to the Mediterranean region. These plants have been used traditionally in cooking for their aromatic leaves and in traditional medicine for their potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that the use of "Satureja" as a medical treatment should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness in treating specific medical conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

"Foeniculum" is the genus name for a plant species that includes fennel. In a medical context, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is known for its seeds and essential oil, which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as improving digestion, reducing bloating, and alleviating menstrual discomfort. The seeds and oil contain several compounds with potential therapeutic effects, including anethole, fenchone, and estragole. However, it's important to note that the use of fennel in modern medicine is not well-studied, and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

Ethane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is part of the human environment. Ethane is a hydrocarbon, which means it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Specifically, ethane is made up of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms (C2H6). It is a colorless gas at room temperature and has no smell or taste.

In the context of human health, ethane is not considered to be harmful in small amounts. However, exposure to high levels of ethane can cause respiratory irritation and other symptoms. Ethane is also a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming when released into the atmosphere.

Ethane is produced naturally during the breakdown of organic matter, such as plants and animals. It is also produced in small amounts during the digestion of food in the human body. However, most ethane used in industry is extracted from natural gas and petroleum deposits. Ethane is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.

Epitestosterone is a steroid hormone that is structurally similar to testosterone. It is produced in the body, primarily in the testes and adrenal glands, and is a natural component of human urine. Epitestosterone is a weak androgen, meaning it has minimal male sex hormone effects.

The ratio of epitestosterone to testosterone (T/E ratio) in urine is often used as a marker for the detection of doping with anabolic steroids, which are synthetic versions of testosterone. In athletes who have not taken performance-enhancing drugs, the T/E ratio is typically less than 1. However, when anabolic steroids are used, the level of testosterone in the body increases, while the level of epitestosterone remains relatively unchanged, leading to a higher T/E ratio.

Medical professionals and anti-doping agencies use a specific cutoff value for the T/E ratio to determine if an individual has violated doping regulations. It's important to note that some individuals may have naturally higher T/E ratios due to genetic factors, which can complicate the interpretation of test results in anti-doping tests.

Pesticide residues refer to the remaining pesticide chemicals, including their metabolites and degradation products, that are present in or on food commodities or environmental samples after a pesticide application has ended. These residues can result from agricultural use, such as spraying crops to control pests, or from non-agricultural uses, like treating buildings for termite control.

Regulatory agencies establish maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food and feed are below those that may pose a risk to human health. Monitoring programs are in place to check compliance with these MRLs, and enforcement actions can be taken if violations occur.

It's important to note that not all pesticide residues are harmful, as some pesticides degrade into harmless compounds over time or leave behind residues below levels of concern for human health. However, long-term exposure to even low levels of certain pesticide residues may still pose a risk and should be avoided when possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "frozen foods" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to food that has been frozen and preserved at low temperatures. While there may be some medical concerns related to the consumption of certain types of frozen foods (such as those high in sodium or fat), it's not a term that would be used within a medical context. If you have any questions about the safety or nutritional content of specific frozen foods, I'd recommend consulting with a healthcare provider or a nutritionist.

Chemical fractionation is a process used in analytical chemistry to separate and isolate individual components or fractions from a mixture based on their chemical properties. This technique typically involves the use of various chemical reactions, such as precipitation, extraction, or chromatography, to selectively interact with specific components in the mixture and purify them.

In the context of medical research or clinical analysis, chemical fractionation may be used to isolate and identify individual compounds in a complex biological sample, such as blood, urine, or tissue. For example, fractionating a urine sample might involve separating out various metabolites, proteins, or other molecules based on their solubility, charge, or other chemical properties, allowing researchers to study the individual components and their roles in health and disease.

It's worth noting that while chemical fractionation can be a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures, it can also be time-consuming and technically challenging, requiring specialized equipment and expertise to perform accurately and reliably.

Silica gel is not typically considered a medical term, but it is often used in medical contexts. Silica gel is a form of silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is a naturally occurring mineral. It is usually produced in a porous form, with a large surface area and high absorption capacity.

In the medical field, silica gel is sometimes used as a desiccant in packaging to protect sterile medical supplies from moisture during storage and transportation. This helps maintain the sterility of the products and ensures their effectiveness when they are used. Silica gel can also be found in some medical devices, such as wound dressings, where it can help absorb excess exudate and maintain a moist environment that promotes healing.

It is important to note that silica gel should not be ingested or inhaled, as it can cause irritation to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

Etiocholanolone is an endogenous steroid hormone, a metabolic breakdown product of both testosterone and androstenedione. It is a 5β-reduced derivative of androstanedione and is produced in the liver as well as in the gonads and the adrenal glands.

Etiocholanolone can be measured in urine to help evaluate for certain medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal cancer. Increased levels of etiocholanolone may indicate increased production of androgens, which can occur in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome, virilizing ovarian tumors, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

It is important to note that the measurement of etiocholanolone should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings, as there are many factors that can affect its levels.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

"Lavandula" is the biological name for a genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It includes around 39 species of flowering plants native to the Old World, primarily the Mediterranean region and parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. The most common species is Lavandula angustifolia, also known as English lavender or true lavender. These plants are well-known for their fragrant purple flowers and have been used in various applications, such as perfumes, essential oils, and herbal remedies, due to their pleasant scent and potential medicinal properties. However, it is important to note that the term "Lavandula" itself does not constitute a medical definition but rather refers to a group of plants with diverse uses and benefits.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rosa" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the genus of plants that includes roses. If you have a question about a medical condition or term, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction or partitioning, is a method used in chemistry to separate and purify compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids. In this process, a solution containing the target compound is mixed with a second solvent in which the compound of interest has greater solubility. After mixing, the two liquids are allowed to separate into distinct layers based on their differences in density. The desired compound will then preferentially partition into the second solvent layer, allowing for its separation from other components in the original solution. This process can be repeated multiple times to increase the purity of the extracted compound. It is commonly used in various fields including pharmaceuticals, biochemistry, and environmental science for the extraction and isolation of organic compounds.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

"Polygala" is a term that refers to a genus of plants commonly known as seneca snakeroot, milkwort, or gaywings. These plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating respiratory and nervous system disorders. However, it's important to note that "Polygala" is not a medical term or concept related to human health or disease.

If you are looking for a medical definition, I would need more information about the specific term or concept you are interested in. Please let me know if you have any further questions!

Volatile oils, also known as essential oils, are a type of organic compound that are naturally produced in plants. They are called "volatile" because they evaporate quickly at room temperature due to their high vapor pressure. These oils are composed of complex mixtures of various compounds, including terpenes, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and alcohols. They are responsible for the characteristic aroma and flavor of many plants and are often used in perfumes, flavors, and aromatherapy. In a medical context, volatile oils may have therapeutic properties and be used in certain medications or treatments, but it's important to note that they can also cause adverse reactions if not used properly.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

"Sideritis" is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It includes around 150 species, many of which are native to the Mediterranean region and central Asia. Several species of Sideritis are used in traditional medicine, particularly in southern Europe. The name "Sideritis" comes from the Greek word for "iron," as some species were believed to have properties that helped heal wounds caused by iron weapons.

In a medical context, however, "Sideritis" is not a widely recognized term and does not have a specific medical definition. If someone is referring to "Sideritis" in a medical context, they are likely talking about the use of these plants in traditional medicine or as dietary supplements. Some proponents of herbal medicine claim that Sideritis has various health benefits, such as reducing anxiety and improving digestion, although there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

"Acorus" is a genus of perennial plants in the family Acoraceae. The most common species is Acorus calamus, also known as sweet flag or calamus. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including as a stimulant, carminative, and antiemetic. However, it's important to note that the use of this plant in modern medicine is limited due to concerns about its potential toxicity and lack of rigorous scientific evidence supporting its efficacy. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any products containing Acorus for medicinal purposes.

Magnesium compounds refer to substances that contain magnesium (an essential mineral) combined with other elements. These compounds are formed when magnesium atoms chemically bond with atoms of other elements. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and it readily forms stable compounds with various elements due to its electron configuration.

Examples of magnesium compounds include:

1. Magnesium oxide (MgO): Also known as magnesia, it is formed by combining magnesium with oxygen. It has a high melting point and is used in various applications such as refractory materials, chemical production, and agricultural purposes.
2. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2): Often called milk of magnesia, it is a common antacid and laxative. It is formed by combining magnesium with hydroxide ions.
3. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with chlorine gas. It has various uses, including as a de-icing agent, a component in fertilizers, and a mineral supplement.
4. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): Also known as Epsom salts, it is formed by combining magnesium with sulfur and oxygen. It is used as a bath salt, a laxative, and a fertilizer.
5. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide. It has various uses, including as a fire retardant, a food additive, and a dietary supplement.

These are just a few examples of the many different magnesium compounds that exist. Each compound has its unique properties and applications based on the elements it is combined with.

'Catharanthus' is a genus of plants in the Apocynaceae family, commonly known as the dogbane family. The most well-known species is Catharanthus roseus, also known as Madagascar periwinkle or rosy periwinkle. This plant contains alkaloids that have been used in the production of drugs for cancer treatment. Vincristine and vinblastine are two such alkaloids derived from C. roseus, which have shown significant anti-cancer properties and are used to treat various types of cancers, including leukemia and lymphoma.

It is important to note that the use of Catharanthus or its derivatives should be under medical supervision due to their potent biological activities and potential side effects.

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

"Laurus" is a genus name in botany, which includes the bay tree or bay laurel (Laurus nobilis). The leaves of this tree have been used historically for medicinal purposes, such as to treat digestive complaints and skin conditions. However, "Laurus" itself is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. It's important to note that the use of botanical preparations in medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have potential side effects.

Sulfamethazine is a long-acting, oral sulfonamide antibiotic. Its chemical name is Sulfamethazine, and its molecular formula is C12H14N4O2S. It is primarily used to treat various bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for bacterial reproduction. Sulfamethazine has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, its use has declined in recent years due to the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to sulfonamides and the availability of other antibiotics with better safety profiles.

Like all medications, Sulfamethazine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and skin rashes. In rare cases, it may also cause severe adverse reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. It is essential to use this medication only under the supervision of a healthcare professional and follow their instructions carefully.

DEAE-cellulose chromatography is a method of purification and separation of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and enzymes. DEAE stands for diethylaminoethyl, which is a type of charged functional group that is covalently bound to cellulose, creating a matrix with positive charges.

In this method, the mixture of biological molecules is applied to a column packed with DEAE-cellulose. The positively charged DEAE groups attract and bind negatively charged molecules in the mixture, such as nucleic acids and proteins, while allowing uncharged or neutrally charged molecules to pass through.

By adjusting the pH, ionic strength, or concentration of salt in the buffer solution used to elute the bound molecules from the column, it is possible to selectively elute specific molecules based on their charge and binding affinity to the DEAE-cellulose matrix. This makes DEAE-cellulose chromatography a powerful tool for purifying and separating biological molecules with high resolution and efficiency.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Tetralones are not a medical term, but rather a chemical classification. They refer to a class of organic compounds that contain a tetralone ring structure, which is a cyclohexanone fused to a benzene ring. These compounds have various applications in the pharmaceutical industry as intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. Some tetralones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, but they are not themselves approved medical treatments.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Cardenolides are a type of steroid compound that are found in certain plants and animals. These compounds have a characteristic structure that includes a five-membered lactone ring, which is attached to a steroid nucleus. Cardenolides are well known for their toxicity to many organisms, including humans, and they have been used for both medicinal and poisonous purposes.

One of the most famous cardenolides is digitoxin, which is derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). Digitoxin has been used as a medication to treat heart conditions such as congestive heart failure, as it can help to strengthen heart contractions and regulate heart rhythm. However, because of its narrow therapeutic index and potential for toxicity, digitoxin is not commonly used today.

Other cardenolides include ouabain, which is found in the seeds of the African plant Acokanthera ouabaio, and bufadienolides, which are found in the skin and parotid glands of toads. These compounds have also been studied for their potential medicinal uses, but they are not widely used in clinical practice due to their toxicity.

It is important to note that cardenolides can be highly toxic to humans and animals, and exposure to these compounds can cause a range of symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, and even death. As such, it is essential to use caution when handling or coming into contact with plants or animals that contain cardenolides.

Distillation is a laboratory technique or industrial process in which a mixture is heated to produce a vapor, which is then condensed and collected as a purified liquid. In the medical context, distillation may refer to the process of extracting or purifying certain substances, such as essential oils from plants or alcohol for use in medicinal preparations. It is also used in the production of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds. The process works by taking advantage of differences in volatility between components in a mixture: those with lower boiling points vaporize first and are condensed separately, allowing for their isolation.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Flurbiprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Flurbiprofen is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and topical creams or gels. It is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, dental pain, and migraines.

Like other NSAIDs, flurbiprofen can cause side effects, such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems, especially when taken in high doses or for long periods of time. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before taking this medication.

Chemical precipitation is a process in which a chemical compound becomes a solid, insoluble form, known as a precipitate, from a liquid solution. This occurs when the concentration of the compound in the solution exceeds its solubility limit and forms a separate phase. The reaction that causes the formation of the precipitate can be a result of various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or the addition of another chemical reagent.

In the medical field, chemical precipitation is used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the presence of certain substances in body fluids, such as blood or urine. For example, a common test for kidney function involves adding a chemical reagent to a urine sample, which causes the excess protein in the urine to precipitate out of solution. The amount of precipitate formed can then be measured and used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

Chemical precipitation is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heavy metal poisoning. In this case, a chelating agent is administered to bind with the toxic metal ions in the body, forming an insoluble compound that can be excreted through the urine or feces. This process helps to reduce the amount of toxic metals in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with poisoning.

Chromatography, agarose is a type of chromatography technique that utilizes agarose gel as the stationary phase in the separation and analysis of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. This method is commonly used in molecular biology for various applications, including DNA fragment separation, protein purification, and detection of specific nucleic acid sequences or proteins.

Agarose gel is a matrix made from agarose, a polysaccharide derived from seaweed. It has a porous structure with uniform pore size that allows for the size-based separation of molecules based on their ability to migrate through the gel under an electric field (in the case of electrophoresis) or by capillary action (in the case of capillary electrophoresis).

The charged molecules, such as DNA or proteins, interact with the agarose matrix and move through the gel at different rates depending on their size, charge, and shape. Smaller molecules can migrate more quickly through the pores of the gel, while larger molecules are retarded due to their inability to easily pass through the pores. This results in a separation of the molecules based on their physical properties, allowing for their analysis and characterization.

In summary, chromatography, agarose refers to the use of agarose gel as the stationary phase in the separation and analysis of biological molecules using various chromatography techniques, such as electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis.

Lignans are a type of plant compound that have antioxidant and estrogen properties. They are found in various plants such as seeds, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Once consumed, some lignans can be converted by intestinal bacteria into enterolactone and enterodiol, which can have weak estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects in the body. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of cancer and heart disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and potential health benefits.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

I am not a medical expert, but I can provide some information that may be helpful. "Picrates" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Instead, it is a term used in chemistry to refer to salts of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol), which was once used as a yellow dye and explosive.

Picric acid has been used historically in some medical applications, such as a component in certain topical antiseptics and in histological staining procedures. However, its use in modern medicine is quite limited due to its high sensitivity to impact, heat, and friction, which makes it potentially dangerous to handle.

Therefore, it's important to note that "picrates" is not a medical term per se but rather a chemical one, and any medical application of picric acid or its salts would be highly specialized and unlikely to be encountered in most healthcare settings.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "microwaves" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; they are commonly used in communication devices and home appliances such as microwave ovens. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Reverse-phase chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that is commonly used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to separate, identify, and purify complex mixtures of chemicals or biological molecules. In this technique, the stationary phase is a nonpolar solid, such as octadecyl silica (ODS) or C18, which is coated with a polar solvent, while the mobile phase is a nonpolar solvent, such as methanol or acetonitrile.

The term "reverse-phase" refers to the fact that the polarity of the stationary and mobile phases is reversed compared to normal-phase chromatography. In normal-phase chromatography, the stationary phase is polar and the mobile phase is nonpolar, which results in the separation of analytes based on their polarity. However, in reverse-phase chromatography, the stationary phase is nonpolar and the mobile phase is polar, which means that the separation of analytes is based on their hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

In reverse-phase chromatography, hydrophobic molecules elute more slowly than hydrophilic molecules because they have a stronger affinity for the nonpolar stationary phase. The retention time of an analyte can be adjusted by changing the composition of the mobile phase or the pH of the solution. This technique is widely used in the analysis of drugs, metabolites, peptides, proteins, and other biological molecules.

... (SFC)[1] is a form of normal phase chromatography that uses a supercritical fluid such as ... Taylor, Larry T. (2009). "Supercritical fluid chromatography for the 21st century". The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 47 (3 ... "Integration of supercritical fluid chromatography into drug discovery as a routine support tool". Journal of Chromatography A. ... supercritical fluid chromatography is sometimes called convergence chromatography.[2] The idea of liquid and gas properties ...
or Supercritical Fluid Chromatography columns. The types of stationary phases are classified as Pirkle type (Brush type), ... doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)00986-7. West, Caroline (2019). "Recent trends in chiral supercritical fluid chromatography". TrAC ... Chiral column chromatography is a variant of column chromatography that is employed for the separation of chiral compounds, i.e ... v t e v t e (Chromatography, Stereochemistry, All stub articles, Stereochemistry stubs, Analytical chemistry stubs). ...
Smith, R. D.; Fjeldsted, J. C.; Lee, M. T.; Felix, W.D. (1982). "Capillary Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass ... and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-MS (1983). He was the recipient of the 2013 Award for a Distinguished Contribution in ... Matson, D.W.; Petersen, R.C.; Smith, R.D. (1986). "Formation of Silica Powders from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluid ... Other notable contributions have been in the fields of supercritical fluids and related reverse micelle phenomena. On August 22 ...
Ya Ling, Jian; Ying Zhang, Guo; Jie Cui, Zhao; Kai Zhang, Chang (2007). "Supercritical fluid extraction of quinolizidine ... and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography" (PDF). Journal of Chromatography A. 1145 (1-2): 123-127. doi: ... by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry". Journal of Pharmaceutical and ...
"Supercritical fluid extraction of kava lactones from Piper methysticum (kava) herb". Journal of High Resolution Chromatography ... Pharmaceutical and herbal supplement companies extract kavalactones from the kava plant using solvents such as supercritical ... using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)". Food Chemistry. 151: 554-560. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.120. ...
"Differentiation of ring-substituted regioisomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine by supercritical fluid chromatography". ...
... have been detected in Yunnan Baiyao powder formulations through capillary supercritical fluid chromatography. Yunnan Baiyao ... of panaxadiol and panaxatriol in radix notoginseng and Yunnan baiyao by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography]". Yao Xue ...
... gas or supercritical fluid chromatographic systems. This is a dedicated software connected to an hardware interface within the ... Chromatography software is called also Chromatography Data System (CDS) . It is located in the data station of the modern ... Many chromatography software packages are provided by manufacturers, and many of them only provide a simple interface to ... RSC chromatography monographs (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-1-84973-662-6. Mazzarese, Robert P.; ...
Nexera UC fully automated supercritical fluid extraction - supercritical fluid chromatography - mass spectrometry system; ... "Nexera UC Unified Chromatography - The Swiss Knife of analytics - SHIMADZU UK LIMITED". www.shimadzu.co.uk. waters. "Full ... AQUITY QDa mass detector for chromatography; Bronze - AB Sciex LLC - CESI-MS system using capillary electrophoresis combined ... 2003: Gold - Dionex Corp - ICS 2000 Reagent-Free ion chromatography system; Silver - Thermo Electron Corp - Finnigan LTQ hybrid ...
... enantio-selective separation of phytocannabinoids by enantioselective ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography ... THC and its 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH metabolites can be detected and quantified in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using ... by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography estimation. Ashton CH (February 2001). "Pharmacology and effects of ...
Linford has worked on topics including supercritical fluid chromatography and the formation of first alkyl monolayers on ... In his group they also undertake liquid chromatography (HPLC and TLC) and solid phase extraction (SPE), develop hydrophobic ... His lab is devoted towards synthesizing hydrophobic surfaces, diamond stationary phases for liquid chromatography and ...
Keene P. Dimick Award in Chromatography, Third International Symposium on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Award for ... supercritical fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Additionally, he is highly acclaimed for his research in ... ACS Short Course on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography 1988, 1990 - Organizing Committee, International Symposium, "Microcolumn ... Tswett Award and Medal in Chromatography; American Chemical Society Award in Chromatography; ISCO Award in Biochemical ...
... or a supercritical fluid (supercritical-fluid chromatography, SFC). The mobile phase consists of the sample being separated/ ... Supercritical fluid chromatography is a separation technique in which the mobile phase is a fluid above and relatively close to ... Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is also known as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or gel filtration chromatography and ... Affinity chromatography Aqueous normal-phase chromatography Binding selectivity Chiral analysis Chromatofocusing Chromatography ...
... supercritical fluid chromatography, laboratory informatics, rheometry and microcalorimetry. The business was started by James ( ... The company's first major break came when Dow Chemical bought one of Waters' first gel permeation chromatography instruments, ... Waters markets to the laboratory-dependent organization in these market areas: liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, ... Empower chromatography and MassLynx mass spectrometry software, Oasis sample preparation products, NuGenesis lab management ...
When compared to gas or liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography is a better way to measure chiral inversion ... Chen L, Dean B, La H, Chen Y, Liang X (2019). "Stereoselective supercritical fluidic chromatography -mass spectrometry (SFC-MS ... Dynamic chromatography shows how the elution profile changes over time. This makes it useful for figuring out how pH, ... On the other hand, gas chromatography is the best way to test a substance that is stable at high temperatures but has a low ...
... chromatography (SFC) can be used on an analytical scale, where it combines many of the advantages of high ... Recent supercritical fluids have shown the capability to reduce particles up to a range of 5-2000 nm. Supercritical fluids act ... gases and supercritical fluids. Also, there is no surface tension in a supercritical fluid, as there is no liquid/gas phase ... supercritical fluid water with a sheet of solid high pressure water ice at the bottom. The advantages of supercritical fluid ...
gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), ... "Preparative supercritical fluid chromatography: A powerful tool for chiral separations". Journal of Chromatography A. 1467: 33- ... Supercritical Fluid Chromatography in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Implementation in Development and Quality Control, LC GC, ... But the appropriate expression is "enantioselective chromatography". Chiral chromatography has advanced to turn into the most ...
... carbon dioxide: Supercritical fluid chromatography, a form of liquid chromatography using supercritical carbon ... a Generation IV nuclear reactor concept that uses supercritical water as the working fluid Supercritical flow, where flow ... similar to freeze drying Supercritical fluid, a substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point ... the bifurcation is called supercritical Pitchfork bifurcation, in mathematics, similar to Hopf bifurcation Super Critical, an ...
... a curve whose ranges contain the entire 2-dimensional unit square Supercritical fluid chromatography, a form of normal phase ... chromatography Specific fuel consumption (disambiguation) Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the fuel consumption of a ...
... gas chromatography) UPLC (ultra performance liquid chromatography) Supercritical fluid chromatography Electrophoresis Ligand ... gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) LC-DAD (liquid chromatography-diode array detection) CE-MS (capillary electrophoresis- ... The first studies measuring drugs in biological fluids were carried out to determine possible overdosing as part of the new ... Initially, nonspecific assays were applied to measuring drugs in biological fluids. These were unable to discriminate between ...
Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal ... 7, 1992 The Scientist, June, 1990 Robert Brownlee Foundation Chromatography Forum (Articles with short description, Short ... to form the Bay Area Chromatography Colloquium. Bob Stevenson is quoted as saying in his Nine Lives of the California ... a manufacturer of columns and pumps for high-performance liquid chromatography systems. Bob Brownlee took the initiative "along ...
20 Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography D6551/D6551M - 05(2019) ... C by Gas Chromatography D6353 - 06(2017)e1 Guide for Sampling Plan and Core Sampling for Prebaked Anodes Used in Aluminum ... Ester Fluids Used in Electrical Apparatus D6873/D6873M - 19 Practice for Bearing Fatigue Response of Polymer Matrix Composite ... by Capillary Gas Chromatography D6145 - 97(2018) Guide for Monitoring Sediment in Watersheds D6146 - 97(2018) Guide for ...
Supercritical CO 2 is used in certain industrial cleaning processes. Caffeine Dry cleaning Perfume Supercritical fluid ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1152 (1-2): 234-246. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.046. hdl:10261/12445. PMID 17353022. "Test ... Yeo, S.; Kiran, E. (2005). "Formation of polymer particles with supercritical fluids: A review". J. Supercrit. Fluids. 34 (3): ... making it a desirable candidate working fluid for transcritical cycles. Supercritical CO2 is used as the working fluid in high ...
"Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes". ... Phosphomolybdic acid is used as a reagent for staining phenolics in thin layer chromatography. Polyphenols can be studied by ... Liquid-liquid extraction can be also performed or countercurrent chromatography. Solid phase extraction can also be made on C18 ... Instrumental chemistry analyses include separation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and especially by reversed ...
... packing in liquid chromatography. Giddings also envisioned the capabilities of Supercritical fluid chromatography, by ... "J. Calvin Giddings". 75 years of Chromatography a Historical Dialogue. Journal of Chromatography Library. Vol. 17. 1979. pp. 87 ... Giddings, J. C. (1963-12-01). "Liquid Chromatography with Operating Conditions Analogous to Those of Gas Chromatography". ... flow in paper and thin-layer chromatography, preparative-scale, and programmed-temperature gas chromatography (GC), exclusion ...
Secondary ion mass spectrometry Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Titration ... Gas chromatography (GC) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Gas chromatography-IR spectroscopy (GC-IR) Gel permeation ... chromatography-IR spectroscopy (GPC-IR) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) High performance liquid chromatography-IR ... Liquid chromatography-IR spectroscopy (LC-IR) Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Mass spectrometry (MS) Mössbauer ...
Determination of Uranium by Packed-Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - CEA Saclay Robust liquid chromatography-tandem ... Improved liquid chromatography-MS method for the determination of pemetrexed in human plasma - Journal of Chromatography B, ... and flash chromatography. Interchim developed a unique flash chromatography system (PuriFlashEvo430 - integrated functions). ... The activity in Chromatography spans HPLC, LC/MS, FPLC, MPLC - GC, GC/MS, GPC, GFC - RMN - AA, IR, ICP, UV - SPE. Interchim ...
January 2015). "Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera ... Classically, unsaturated isomers were separated and identified by argentation thin-layer chromatography. The saturated fatty ... This fatty acid composition results in a more fluid cell membrane but also one that is permeable to various ions (H+ & Na+), ... which are amenable to separation and quantitation using by gas chromatography. ...
January 2015). "Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera ... which are then separated by gas chromatography or analyzed by gas chromatography and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Separation of ... This fatty acid composition results in a more fluid cell membrane but also one that is permeable to various ions (H+ & Na+), ... Other separation techniques include high-performance liquid chromatography (with short columns packed with silica gel with ...
There are different tacit understandings of supercritical fluids. For example, "a fluid is considered to be 'supercritical' ... adsorption from supercritical gases in extraction processes and chromatography. Besides, knowledge of gas/solid interface ... Supercritical adsorption also referred to as the adsorption of supercritical fluids, is the adsorption at above-critical ... Fabrication of block copolymer monolayers by adsorption from supercritical fluids: A versatile concept for modification and ...
Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)[1] is a form of normal phase chromatography that uses a supercritical fluid such as ... Taylor, Larry T. (2009). "Supercritical fluid chromatography for the 21st century". The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 47 (3 ... "Integration of supercritical fluid chromatography into drug discovery as a routine support tool". Journal of Chromatography A. ... supercritical fluid chromatography is sometimes called convergence chromatography.[2] The idea of liquid and gas properties ...
Liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography are now mainstay technologies in most analytical laboratories. Click to read more ... Liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography are now mainstay technologies in most analytical laboratories. These technologies ... although there may be some modifications to ensure that the supercritical fluid is not in a gaseous state when the system is ... For analytical chromatography systems where the flow is reasonably high the leak can normally be seen as a gradual build-up of ...
Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Substances can be in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state depending on the ... Introduction to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. HPLC is an abbreviation for high-performance liquid chromatography. ... Chromatography refers to the measurement method, chromatogram refers to the measurement results, and chromatograph refers to ... Chromatography separates components in a particular substance and performs qualitative and quantitative analyses on those ...
Journal of Chromatography. A, 1218(30), 4918-27. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.11.055 ... 637g) Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Reaction to Modify Metabolites from Biomass. Conference ... The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 62, 96-101. doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2011.12.007 ... Pereira, C. G., & Meireles, M. A. a. (2009). Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Bioactive Compounds: Fundamentals, Applications ...
Separation of nine tocochromanols in cold-pressed oils by supercritical fluid chromatography using different HALO® stationary ... previous post: Developing Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) Separation Methods with HALO® HILIC and HALO® ...
Data comparing the separation and elution of vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography ... Data comparing the separation and elution of vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography ... Data comparing the separation and elution of vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography ... Data comparing the separation and elution of vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography ...
J Vet Diagn Invest 15(1):42-45.Kelly KL, Johnston JJ [1995]. Supercritical-fluid extraction of strychnine using 2 different ... Braselton WE, Johnson M [2003]. Thin layer chromatography convulsant screen extended by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. ... Fluid and electrolyte balance should be monitored and restored if abnormal. Measures to prevent and correct accumulation of ...
Averica uses supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) instead of conventional liquid chromatography. When compared with ... conventional liquid chromatography, SFC replaces the use of more toxic chemicals with pressurized carbon dioxide. This limits ...
... single-vendor solutions in supercritical fluid chromatography with acquisition of Aurora SFC Systems assets ... Supercritical fluid chromatography is anormal phase technique that provides different selectivity comparedto reversed phase ... Agilent now offers single-vendor solutions in supercritical fluid chromatography with acquisition of Aurora SFC Systems assets ... "With theacquisition of Auroras supercritical fluid chromatography assets,Agilent will be able to provide fully integrated, ...
Supercritical fluid chromatography, pressurized liquid extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. Anal. Chem. 78, 3909- ... supercritical fluid chromatography (Henry and Yonker, 2006), atomic absorption spectrometry (Ribeiro et al., 2017), inductively ... Determination of arsenic species in solid matrices utilizing supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography ... There are many techniques for separation and detection of TMs, including gas chromatography (Wang and Cui, 2016), capillary ...
Laser capture of tomato pericarp tissues for microscale carotenoid analysis by supercritical fluid chromatography - (Peer ... Laser capture of tomato pericarp tissues for microscale carotenoid analysis by supercritical fluid chromatography. Methods in ...
White, C.M.; Houck, R.K., Analysis of mono-, di-, and triglycerides by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography, J. Hi. Res ... Retention Indices for Programmed-Temperature Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Anal. ...
Supercritical Fluids: Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) ... Regeneration of the Catalysts by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (Articles) Farid M. Gumerov, Ayrat A. Sagdeev, Rustam F. ... Waste Management in Propylene Epoxidation Process with the Use of Supercritical Fluid Media (Articles) ... Regeneration of Spent Catalyst and Impregnation of Catalyst by Supercritical Fluid (Articles) ...
High pressure liquid chromatography. *Gas chromatography. *Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). *Capillary electrophoresis ... A large number of examples are given to assist in this process, including thin-layer, gas, HPLC, supercritical fluid, capillary ... describe the role of chromatography and separation science in various fields; discuss the role of chromatography and separation ... The basic objectives of this book are to: provide basic information on chromatography and separation science; show how simple ...
Supercritical Fluid/Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (SFC/UHPLC) Hybrid System. Views this week: 1 · Total views: ...
u003cbr\u003e4.2 Gas chromatography. \u003cbr\u003e4.3 Supercritical fluid chromatography. \u003cbr\u003e4.4 Liquid ... supercritical fluid chromatography","hydrolisis","liquid chromatography","p-chemical","plastic","plastics","polymer","rubber"," ... u003cbr\u003e4.2 Gas chromatography. \u003cbr\u003e4.3 Supercritical fluid chromatography. \u003cbr\u003e4.4 Liquid ... 6.2.5 Biological fluids. 6.2.6 Concentrated suspensions. 6.2.7 Electro- and magneto-rheological materials. 6.2.8 Concluding ...
We have about fifteen UHPLCMS, ten preparative LC-MS, and four supercritical fluid (SFC)-MS systems. There is also all the ... In my group there are eight people, and we use a number of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass ... other chemistry support equipment, such as ten flash chromatography instruments, microwave synthesizers, and all the robotics ...
Nova Sep SuperSep 30/50 Automated, Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography unit, s/n 0973-4-03, (yr 2003) ...
Laboratory work: three half-days of lab work: (i) supercritical fluid extraction; (ii). supercritical fluid chromatography; and ... Supercritical fluid technology (NAKE 002) 4.5 hp. Kursbeskrivning The course "Supercritical Fluid Technology" is given bi- ... supercritical fluid extraction, chromatography, polymer processing, particle formation,. reactions and biocatalysis.. ... will gain a deep understanding on the use of supercritical fluids in different processes such as extraction and chromatography ...
... the conventional LC was replaced by convergence chromatography (CC), which is a type of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC ... Greener chromatography. − Disposable cartridge, complexity. [61]. 2015. Wine, beer. 20 mL. LLE with 4 mL of CH2Cl2. Ebselen. LC ... Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is suitable for the analysis of less volatile odorants which give ... Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Sun, B. Recent progress in food flavor analysis using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS ...
leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture and flame photometric ... Fast supercritical fluid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture and flame photometric ... By combination of liquid-solid chromatography, capillary GLC and mass spectrometry, the essential oil obtained by steam ... Conventional and enantioselective gas chromatography with microfabricated planar columns for analysis of real-world samples of ...
Find your ultraviolet chromatography system easily amongst the 22 products from the leading brands (Biobase, Gilson, Jasco ... supercritical fluid (2) * ion (2) * GPC (1) * flash (1) * gas (1) Submit ... high-performance liquid chromatography systemIonus PCD ion for the food industry for research and development ... high-performance liquid chromatography systemIonus ion for the food industry for research ...
Analysis of polar urinary metabolites for metabolic phenotyping using supercritical fluid chromatography and mass spectrometry ... Investigating sub-2 μm particle stationary phase supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical ... Gao, W., Gray, N., Heaton, J., Smith, N. W., Jia, Y. & Legido-Quigley, C., 9 Mar 2012, In: Journal of Chromatography A. 1228, p ... Gray, N., Heaton, J., Musenga, A., Cowan, D. A., Plumb, R. S. & Smith, N. W., 10 May 2013, In: Journal of Chromatography A. ...
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and all kind of extractions by liquids in which ... supercritical fluids, overheated fluids, fluids at standard stage and overheated fluids.. 3. Adducts or Clusters in Mass ... The CO2 is a common supercritical fluid for SFC.. However, the other supercritical fluids including overheated water have been ... substances from the complex mixtures by using chromatography columns in capillary columns supercritical fluid chromatography ( ...
A supercritical fluid method for extracting fumonisin-B1 (116355830) (FB1) from grain dusts was developed. The procedure was ... intended for use with an online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique for determining FB1 in grain dust ... The FB1 detection limit using supercritical fluid extraction was estimated to be 150 parts per billion. Four replicate analyses ... The corresponding relative standard deviations were 5.66 and 6.46%. The authors conclude that supercritical fluid extraction ...
... supercritical fluid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis) are available for ... enantiospecific immunoassay and radioreceptor assay) and separation science methods(includes gas chromatography, ...
... with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC ... Gas chromatography - flame ionization detection, along with diode-array (DAD) and charged aerosol detection (CAD) ...
  • HPLC is an abbreviation for high-performance liquid chromatography. (jascoinc.com)
  • Feed samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) as well as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with MS/MS. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The procedure was intended for use with an online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique for determining FB1 in grain dust samples contaminated with Fusarium-moniliforme and was developed using spiked corn dust samples. (cdc.gov)
  • In pharmaceutical analysis using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, repeatability assessment is significant to obtain reliable and precise quantitative results. (bvsalud.org)
  • An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UHPLC-UV) for determining ergosterol was applied as an example of the repeatability assessment. (bvsalud.org)
  • To quantitatively evaluate the serum concentration of brassicasterol-d1, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of picolinyl ester-derivatized ergosterol-d1 and brassicasterol-d1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Instrumentation and simple troubleshooting for high-performance liquid chromatography with universal and selective detection. (lu.se)
  • Instrumentation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography SFC has a similar setup to an HPLC instrument. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pumping systems do not differ between HPLC and SFC substantially, although there may be some modifications to ensure that the supercritical fluid is not in a gaseous state when the system is started. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • This course covers modern liquid chromatography (HPLC and UHPLC) that are especially used for bioanalytical applications. (lu.se)
  • For a deeper insight into mass spectrometric detection the LifeScience course "Mass spectrometry for small molecules" is recommended.course covers modern liquid chromatography (HPLC) especially for bioanalytical applications. (lu.se)
  • Bioanalytical HPLC includes advanced theoretical treatment of liquid chromatographic separation modes and the underlying distribution and adsorption equilibria including reversed-phase chromatography, normal-phase chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), size exclusion chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. (lu.se)
  • Supercritical fluid chromatography is anormal phase technique that provides different selectivity comparedto reversed phase UHPLC separation, and SFC is used for a broad rangeof applications, so the revenue potential for Agilent extends farbeyond the life-sciences market. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • In my group there are eight people, and we use a number of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instruments. (labmanager.com)
  • Gas chromatography - flame ionization detection, along with diode-array (DAD) and charged aerosol detection (CAD) with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC), have been used to quantify lignin monomers and dimers. (lu.se)
  • We develop and optimize analytical methods for organic and organometallic compounds, using either liquid chromatography (UHPLC) or supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with MS and MS/MS characterization or quantification. (lu.se)
  • In this work the supercritical extraction of antioxidant capacity compounds from Persea americana (avocado) was carried out experimentally. (aiche.org)
  • Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Bioactive Compounds: Fundamentals, Applications and Economic Perspectives. (aiche.org)
  • Fish plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-QqQMS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Participants will gain a deep understanding on the use of supercritical fluids in different processes such as extraction and chromatography, material/polymer design, pharmaceutical drug formulation, crystallisation, chemical reactions and biocatalysis. (lu.se)
  • leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture and flame photometric detection (HRGC-ECD/FPD). (bvsalud.org)
  • Supercritical fluid extraction of fumonisin B1 from grain dust. (cdc.gov)
  • After the 20min extraction period, the supercritical carbon-dioxide was transferred to a collecting tube containing a 1:1 mixture of methanol/isooctane to trap the analyte. (cdc.gov)
  • Recovery experiments in which the supercritical extraction procedure was compared with the standard solvent/solvent extraction procedure using ethyl-acetate and a 3:1 mixture of methanol/water revealed that 40 times more FB1 could be recovered by supercritical fluid extraction than by solvent/solvent extraction. (cdc.gov)
  • The FB1 detection limit using supercritical fluid extraction was estimated to be 150 parts per billion. (cdc.gov)
  • Four replicate analyses of a naturally contaminated corn dust sample using supercritical fluid and solvent/solvent extraction found FB1 at concentrations of 78.16 and 2.12 parts per million (ppm), respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that supercritical fluid extraction provides a fast, effective, and reproducible method for extracting FB1 from grain dust samples. (cdc.gov)
  • It can be coupled to a highly modular supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and LC/SFC system. (lu.se)
  • In this study, the determination of oxalic acid in herbal medicines was performed by using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HILIC-ECD) method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because the supercritical phase represents a state whereby bulk liquid and gas properties converge, supercritical fluid chromatography is sometimes called convergence chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the mobile phase is a fluid in the supercritical state, the stationary phase is packed inside columns similar to those used in liquid chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CO2 subsequently becomes supercritical fluid throughout the injector and the column oven, when the temperature and pressure it is subjected to, are raised above the critical point of the liquid, thus the supercritical state is achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercritical fluids combine useful properties of gas and liquid phases, as it can behave like both a gas and a liquid in various aspects. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, a supercritical fluid behaves like a liquid, because its density property is near liquid, thus, a supercritical fluid shows a similarity to the dissolving effect of a liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid Chromatography as a Game-Changer in Measuring. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • Liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography are now mainstay technologies in most analytical laboratories. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • If dealing with capillary chromatography where the flow is very low, it may not be feasible to see a build-up of liquid, as the rate of evaporation may well match the rate of leakage. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • When the mobile phase is not a liquid, and instead is a gas at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure, as in SFC, this presents even bigger challenges, and in this scenario monitoring of the back pressure will give a good indication if the fluid delivery system is working as it should be. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • Averica uses supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) instead of conventional liquid chromatography. (mass.gov)
  • When compared with conventional liquid chromatography, SFC replaces the use of more toxic chemicals with pressurized carbon dioxide. (mass.gov)
  • Inaddition, the technology is sold as part of an upgrade option toAgilent's 1100, 1200 and 1260 Series liquid chromatography (LC)systems. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • The most prevalent technique used in food testing iscurrently liquid chromatography. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Coffee flavor chemical data from 155 samples were obtained by analyzing volatile (headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS)) and nonvolatile (liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD)) fractions, as well as from sensory data. (bvsalud.org)
  • Corn dust samples, 0.25 gram, were extracted with 15 milliliters (ml) of liquid supercritical carbon-dioxide in an SFX2- 10 system under a pressure of 1,200 pounds per square inch at 60 degrees-C for 20 minutes (min). (cdc.gov)
  • For accurate quantitative or qualitative analysis, liquid chromatography is today combined with different mass spectrometric techniques. (lu.se)
  • Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix. (bvsalud.org)
  • Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)[1] is a form of normal phase chromatography that uses a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table 7-1 lists the applicable analytical methods for determining diazinon and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The principal method used for the detection of diazinon or its metabolites in biological samples is gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector (FPD), a mass spectroscopy detector (MS), an electron capture detector (ECD), or a flame ionization detector (FID). (cdc.gov)
  • The data presented is related to the research article "Analysis of multiple vitamin D metabolites by ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPSFC-MS/MS)" (Jenkinson et al. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • This article will include data obtained from method development, optimization and analysis of multiple vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPSFC-MS/MS). This includes chromatograms from column screening to confirm the most suitable column for analyte separation. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • I develop analytical methods based on chromatography and mass spectrometry for analysis of metabolites in various tissue. (lu.se)
  • A rapid method for the separation of vitamin D and its metabolites by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (lu.se)
  • Linear gradient elution supercritical fluid chromatography with electrochemical detection was developed using hydroxyacetophenones as analytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • We compared the performance of the present method to isocratic elution supercritical fluid chromatography, and the repeatability, linearity, and detection capability all showed better analytical parameters in the gradient elution. (bvsalud.org)
  • As such, we found that gradient elution supercritical fluid chromatography can achieve the faster separation and save resources compared to isocratic elution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since the use of Normal Phase mode of chromatography remained less common, so did SFC, therefore it is now commonly used for selected chiral and achiral separations and purification in the pharmaceutical industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentration and 1987 greater purification by sweep co-distillation omentum) and Florisil/anhydrous sodium sulfate column chromatography. (cdc.gov)
  • Preparative chromatography seeks to separate the components of a mixture for further use (and is thus a form of purification). (chemeurope.com)
  • The observer could represent the detector used in some forms of analytical chromatography. (chemeurope.com)
  • Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary (stationary phase) while the other (the mobile phase) moves in a definite direction. (chemeurope.com)
  • For analytical chromatography systems where the flow is reasonably high the leak can normally be seen as a gradual build-up of residual mobile phase around the pump head, or possibly even salt deposits. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. (chemeurope.com)
  • Analytical chromatography normally operates with smaller amounts of material and seeks to measure the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. (chemeurope.com)
  • Analytical chromatography is used to determine the existence and possibly also the concentration of analyte(s) in a sample. (chemeurope.com)
  • We have about fifteen UHPLCMS, ten preparative LC-MS, and four supercritical fluid (SFC)-MS systems. (labmanager.com)
  • The operator uses software to set mobile phase flow rate, co-solvent composition, system back pressure and column oven temperature, which must exceed 40 °C for supercritical conditions needed to be achieved with CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a modifier, you can use all solvents that can be used for chromatographic columns such as methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, acetonitrile, THF, halogen solvents and other silica gel-based chromatography columns. (thelabstore.co.uk)
  • Simultaneously, advances continually improved the technical performance of chromatography, allowing the separation of increasingly similar molecules. (chemeurope.com)
  • CO2 utilized in carbon dioxide dedicated pumps, which require that the incoming CO2 and pump heads be kept cold, in order to maintain the carbon dioxide at a temperature and pressure fit for supercritical fluidic state, where it can be effectively metered at a specified flow rate range. (wikipedia.org)
  • with high-pressure cell design and the quenching of ionization by the carbon dioxide carrier fluid. (canada.ca)
  • However, there are special features in these systems, because of the need to keep the mobile phase at supercritical fluidic state over the entire system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, there should be a precise pressure control mechanism, a restrictor to keep the pressure above a certain point, because pressure is another essential parameter to keep the mobile phase in a supercritical fluid state, so it is kept at the required minimal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of check valves ensures that the delivery of the fluid is in the correct direction i.e. onto the column and not into the mobile phase reservoirs. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • It is thus important that the pump seal is in full contact with the piston, throughout all of the motion of the piston, to ensure that the mobile phase fluid does not leak [1]. (chromatographytoday.com)
  • Gas chromatography mass spectrometry is also available for the analysis of volatile compounds, as well as a state-of-the-art pipetting robot for automated sample preparation. (lu.se)
  • Chromatography separates components in a particular substance and performs qualitative and quantitative analyses on those components. (jascoinc.com)
  • Laser capture of tomato pericarp tissues for microscale carotenoid analysis by supercritical fluid chromatography. (usda.gov)
  • Interestingly, Mikhail's surname "Цвет" means "color" in Russian, so there is the possibility that his naming the procedure chromatography (literally "color writing") was a way that he could make sure that he, a commoner in Tsarist Russia, could be immortalized. (chemeurope.com)
  • SANTA CLARA, Calif.-Although itdidn't disclose the sum it paid, Agilent Technologies Inc. did letthe world know in late August that it had acquired the assets ofRedwood City, Calif.-based Aurora SFC Systems Inc. , which it called"a leading provider of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)products for laboratory research and analysis. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Chromatography refers to the measurement method, chromatogram refers to the measurement results, and chromatograph refers to the instrument. (jascoinc.com)
  • A supercritical fluid method for extracting fumonisin-B1 (116355830) (FB1) from grain dusts was developed. (cdc.gov)
  • There is also all the other chemistry support equipment, such as ten flash chromatography instruments, microwave synthesizers, and all the robotics for automating synthesis and compound storage and management. (labmanager.com)
  • The Journal of Supercritical Fluids , 62 , 96-101. (aiche.org)
  • He first used the term chromatography in print in 1906 in his two papers about chlorophyll in the German botanical journal, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft . (chemeurope.com)
  • It was the Russian botanist Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet who invented the first chromatography technique in 1900 during his research on chlorophyll . (chemeurope.com)
  • Temperature is critical to keep the fluids in a supercritical state, so there should be a heat control tool in the system, similar to that of GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analyte is the substance that is to be separated during chromatography. (chemeurope.com)
  • During this intensive course the students will get a theoretical and practical insight into the field of supercritical fluids and its multiple applications. (lu.se)
  • The course "Supercritical Fluid Technology" is given bi-annually at advanced level for PhD students, postdocs and other researchers. (lu.se)
  • Invited lectures: invited lecture(s) in selected field(s) of supercritical fluid technology. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, Section 3.2.3 on Viscosity of anisotropic liquids and Section 3.6.3 on Instabilities in the flow of elastic fluids of Chapter 3 are completely rewritten. (chemtec.org)