Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.

Enrichment and characterization of histones by two-dimensional hydroxyapatite/reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (1/289)

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Application of ionic liquids in high performance reversed-phase chromatography. (2/289)

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Use of high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of ceramide-1-phosphate levels. (3/289)

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Unambiguous determination of isobaric histone modifications by reversed-phase retention time and high-mass accuracy. (4/289)

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Primary structure and antibacterial activity of chicken bone marrow-derived beta-defensins. (5/289)

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An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes. (6/289)

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In vitro and in vivo protein-bound tyrosine nitration characterized by diagonal chromatography. (7/289)

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Intrinsic amino acid side-chain hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity coefficients determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of model peptides: comparison with other hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity scales. (8/289)

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Results: The retention time was observed at 2.718 min. The system suitability results were found to be within limits. The method was precise, with lower than 2 %RSD and the calibration curve was linear (r2=1) over a concentration range of 2.5-160 µg/ml. The detection and quantification limit was found to be 0.045 µg/ml and 0.15 µg/ml, respectively. Recovery of the drug was found between 100.09-100.19%. The assay of ropinirole hydrochloride in ROPITOR® and ROPARK® tablets were found to be 100.4 and 103.60 %, respectively. The forced degradation studies were carried out to demonstrate the specificity of the method by exposing the API under conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolytic as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. ...
A simple and precise stability indicating method for the simultaneous estimation of Dapagliflozin and Saxagliptin in combined tablet dosage form was developed and validated using RP-HPLC. The chromatographic separation of the drugs was achieved with a Xterra C-18 analytical column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., part
A simple rapid stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of lidocaine hydrochloride in bulk..
Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a widely used technique for analytical separations but routinely requires empirical optimization. Gaining a better understanding of the molecular reasons for retention may mean more efficient separations with fewer trial and error runs to obtain optimized separations. Vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation (VR-SFG) is a surface specific technique that has allowed for in situ examination of model RPLC stationary phases under various solvent and pressure conditions. In order to improve on past work with model RPLC stationary phases two challenges had to be overcome. First, improved vibrational mode assignments of the C18 stationary phase were needed for proper understanding of this model system. Second, the synthesis of back-surface reference mirrors used in these VR-SFG experiments allowed us to better correct the relative intensities of the various spectral peaks present in typical spectra. After examination of model RPLC systems under various
Inability of UV spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods to perform as stability indicating assay method for the quantification of eugenol
Patta Salomi*, S. Rama Thulasi, K. Ravindra Reddy P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa-516003, Andhra Pradesh, India ABSTRACT A simple reverse phase liquid Chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for determination of Brivaracetam. The mobile composition of Potassium Dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.02M): Methanol 40:60v/v Buffer pH 6.0 adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid, waters column of C18 (250X4.6 ... Read More ». ...
Perform forced degradations analysis on drug formulations and manufactured products including hydrolysis (acid and base catalyzed), thermal, photolysis and oxidation using LC/UV/MS ...
M. Lakshmi Prasanna*, C.S. Parameswari, B.V. Ramana, G. Nagarajan Dr. K.V. Subba Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India A B S T R A C T The aim present research work to development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Glecapravir and Piberentasvir. Chromatographic separation was evaluated by Xterra C18 column (250 X 4.6 mm, ... Read More ». ...
In the setup used in the case study (100 µL protein A column at 12 s residence time and Superdex 200 Increase 10/300), the biggest limitation lies in the 500 µl collected from the protein A column. When higher amounts were eluted from the protein A step, we lost protein as part of the peak was not collected. A solution would be to find a SEC column, onto which larger volumes can be injected, while keeping a good resolution. Increasing the residence time to, for example, 30 s will also increase the yield but triple the run time of the protein A step and consequently reduce the number of samples that can be processed. You also have to keep in mind that one should not load more than 1 mg on the Superdex 200 Increase 10/300 column.. ...
In Canada, about 68% of the population make good resolutions every year. Whether it`s going on a trip, quitting smoking or swearing, taking care of your loved
A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfadimethoxine sodium (SDMS) in Vetricine® oral solution product. The desired separation was achieved on an ODS column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) at room temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (700:299:1, v/v/v), adjusted to a pH of 5.7 ± 0.05 with 0.2N acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.8 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 254 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peaks USP tailing factor, column efficiency, and resolution were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing TMP, SDMS standards, and the oral solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the
Development and Validation of Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for The Estimation of Pseudoephedrine, Ambroxol and Desloratadine in Bulk and Their Tablet Dosage Forms, N. Mallik
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of transdermal sildenafil in nude mouse skin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. AU - Liaw, Jiahorng. AU - Chang, Ting Wei. PY - 2001/12/25. Y1 - 2001/12/25. N2 - A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sildenafil transdermal permeation of nude mouse skin. A reversed-phase column with UV detection at 224 nm was used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase consisted of 32% acetonitrile with 0.2% phosphoric acid in water at pH 5.3 adjusted with 10 M NaOH with the flow-rate set at 1.0 ml/min. The limit of quantitation achieved was 5 ng/ml, and the calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range of 5-500 ng/ml. The relative standard deviations of within- and between-day analyses were all within 15%. Sildenafil was found to be stable between pH 3 and 12 during 24-h incubation with skin. After transdermal administration of 15.8 μg/ml of sildenafil to ...
A dual retention combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has been observed on beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) bonded stationary phase. A typical U-shaped retention curve was achieved owing to dual retention mechanism Based on this observation, a beta-CD column can be operated under reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) modes. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) analysis can be realized on Just a beta-CD column by switching these two different separation modes. In this study, off-line 2D-LC analysis for a natural product was carried out to prove the orthogonal separation between RP-LC and HILIC modes on a Click beta-CD column. Herba Hedyotis Diffusae, the whole grass of Hedyotis Diffusae wild was extracted with water, pretreated with macroporous resin and then first separated at RP-LC mode on the Click beta-CD column to obtain successive fractions, which were then ...
Pristinamycin is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of Staphylococcus infections. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simple stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of pristinamycin in tablet dosage form. Pristinamycin was eluted on the ACE-5, C18-HL, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.2% orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile 63:37 v/v, pumped at 1.5 ml/min flow rate. The column was maintained at 40°C and 10 μl of the solutions were injected. UV detection was performed at 206 nm. The procedure separated pristinamycin and its potential degradation products in an overall analysis time of less than 10 min with pristinamycin eluting at about 3 min. The method was validated according to the regulatory guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and robustness. Forced degradation studies were also performed for pristinamycin bulk drug samples to demonstrate the stability-indicating power of the HPLC
Alfa Aesar™ Potassium dihydrogen citrate hydrate, 99% (dry basis) 500g Alfa Aesar™ Potassium dihydrogen citrate hydrate, 99% (dry basis)...
The objective of the current study is to develop a validated specific stability-indicating isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of levofloxacin and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products and its process-related impurities. Forced degradation studies were performed on levofloxacin as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH)-prescribed stress conditions using acid, base, oxidative, water hydrolysis, thermal stress and photolytic degradation to show the stability-indicating power of the method. Significant degradation was observed during oxidative stress; minor degradation was observed in acidic stress and no degradation was observed in other stress conditions. The chromatographic method was optimized using the samples generated from forced degradation studies and the spiked impurity solution. The analysis was carried out with a 50 mm length × 4.6 mm i.d., 3.0 μm particle ...
Determination of free urinary cortisol is a test of choice in the diagnosis of Cushings syndrome. In this study, cortisol was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in urine samples previously extracted with ether and using triamcinolone acetonide as internal standard (IS). A BDS-Hypersil-C18® column, water-acetonitrile (72:28; v/v), with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 243 nm were used. This method showed to be both effective and efficient, with sensitivity and linearity ranging from 2.50 to 150 μg/L, and can be used in substitution to the radioimmunoassay technique within this concentration range ...
Mutalik, S., Hewavitharana, A., Shaw, P. N., Anissimov, Y. G., Roberts, M. S. and Parekh, H. S. (2009) Development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantification of peptide dendrimers in human skin permeation experiments. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 877 29: 3556-3562. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.08.039 ...
Quality by design approach for simultaneous estimation of doxycycline hyclate and curcumin by RP-HPLC method, C Dhal1, FJ Ahmad1, A Chauhan2, M Jyothi2, RM Singh2, PK Saini2, SC Ma
This paper reports the utilization of 2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde-4-phenylsemicarbazone (PPS) as a complexing reagent for the simultaneous determination and separation of Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), and Ag(I) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector. A good separation was achieved using Microsorb C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase consisted of methanol : acetonitrile : water : sodium acetate (1 mM) (68 : 6.5 : 25 : 0.5 v/v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at 280 nm. The linear calibration range was 2–10 |i|μ|/i|g/mL for all metal ions. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 80 pg/mL for Ni(II), 0.8 ng/mL for Cu(II), 0.16 ng/mL for Pd(II), and 0.8 ng/mL for Ag(I). The applicability and the accuracy of the developed method were estimated by the analysis of Ni(II) in hydrogenated oil (ghee)
A simple, rapid and precise reverse phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Metformin hydrochloride and Telmisartan in bulk drug and in a synthetic mixture. The analysis was carried out using Zodiac ODS C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5μm, Make: Zodiac Life Sciences), pre-packed column. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase containing a buffer of pH 4.0, Acetonitrile and Methanol (30:30:40 v/v/v), was pumped at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min with UV-detection at 228 nm. Both the drugs were well resolved on the stationary phase and the retention times were around 2.523 minute for Metformin hydrochloride and 5.437 minute for Telmisartan. The method was validated and shown to be linear for Metformin hydrochloride and Telmisartan. The correlation coefficients for Metformin and Telmisartan are 0.996 and 0.998 respectively.
China Monopotassium Phosphite 98%, Find details about China Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphite, Mono Potassium Phosphite from Monopotassium Phosphite 98% - Changsha Green Mountain Chemical Co., Ltd.
A simple and reliable reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the routine determination of vitamins A and E and β-carotene in plasma (or serum) with wavelength-programmed ultraviolet-visible absorbance detection is described. A 200-μl aliquot of serum or plasma sample, after deproteinization with ethanol, and containing tocopherol acetate as internal standard, was extracted with butanol-ethyl acetate. Sodium sulphate was added for dehydration. Analytes of extracted samples were found to be stable for at least four days. A 10-μl aliquot of this organic extract was used for HPLC analysis. The mobile phase was methanol-butanol-water (89.5:5:5.5, v/v) and the flow-rate was set at 1.5 ml/min. The analytes of interest were well separated from other plasma constituents within 22 min at 45°C. The lowest detection limits of vitamins A and E and β-carotene were 0.02, 0.5 and 0.1 μg/ml, respectively. The recovery and reproducibility of the present method were around ...
A simple reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine and Olmesartan in bulk and tablet form. Chromatography was performed by isocratic reverse phase separation on a stainless steel column 4.6 x 150mm, symmetry column packed with octa decyl silane bonded to porous silica (C18) with particle size 5 micron with mobile phase containing TEA Buffer of pH 3.0 and Acetonitrile in proportion of 25:75 respectively. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ min and effluent was monitored at 258 nm. The retention times were 2.39 min and 3.33 min respectively. The standard curve was linear over a working range of 05-35 μg/ml for both Amlodipine and Olmesartan and gave an average correlation coefficient of 0.999, and 0.999 for Amlodipine and Olmesartan respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method was 2μg/ml for Amlodipine and Olmesartan. The absolute recovery was 100% for Amlodipine and 100.3 for Olmesartan. Degradation products produced as a result of stress ...
Rapid and Sensitive RP-HPLC Method for Determination of Potential Genotoxic Impurity in Dasatinib Drug Substance, Sunil V Lanke, Sajid Syed Shahnawaz, Dhramveer Singh Shekhawat, Ni
Zirconia is known to be one of the best materials for the chromatographic support due to its excellent chemical, thermal and mechanical stability. In this work we report preparation and use of bovine...
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88637-37-0 - SPCKHVPPRJWQRZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Diphenhydramine citrate [USP] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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This application note describes how HTRF® and High throughput LabChip® ProteinEXact ensure a rapid and accurate characterization of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs).
The chemical and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) have been the subject of numerous studies. However, this material has not been characterized to the point at which it can be identified by compound or compound class. The complex and homogenous nature of this material makes characterization studies challenging. CDOM absorbs ultraviolet and visible radiation and is highly photo reactive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical properties of fractions separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as the simple fractionation that occurs during the concentration and extraction of CDOM by C1s SEP-PAK. The focus of this study is the characterization of CDOM in the Suwannee and Manatee Rivers in western Florida. These rivers are a major source of CDOM to the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, which is a river-dominated environment. HPLC fractions were collected for the Suwannee River using reversed-phase HPLC and elution gradient. CDOM
Objective: To develop a validated stability-indicating analytical method for simultaneous estimation of Atenolol (ATN) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) in pharmaceutical combined dosage form by HPTLC. Method: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the separation of ATN and HTZ on plates precoated with aluminium back silica gel 60 F254. Different mobile phases were used on trial and error basis for separation of two drugs. The final mobile phase selected for analysis was n-butanol: ethyl acetate: methanol: tetrahydrofuran in the ratio (1:2:2:1 v/v). Both the drugs showed maximum absorbance at 250 nm which was selected as the detection wavelength throughout the experimental work. Developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Forced degradation of drugs was carried out under various stress conditions and HPTLC method was used for analysing the stability of drugs. Result: HPTLC method was successfully developed for separation of ATN and HTZ with good ...
Fortschr Med. 1987 Aug 30;105(25):63. German.. Determination of (E)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6-(1-methyl-2- phenylethenyl) naphthalene, an antiacne agent, and its phenolic metabolite in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ...
HPLC Application #18828: Atenolol and Related Substances CRS using Kinetex 2.6um C18 100 x 4.6mm at 01.3ml/min. Column used: Kinetex® 2.6 µm C18 100 Å, LC Column 100 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00D-4462-E0
The test the FDA uses to certify each batch of these dyes before they legally may be used in drugs and cosmetics marketed in the United States no longer will be done by visible spectrophotometry, but by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography ...
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE AND METFORMIN IN BULK AND FIXED DOSAGE FORMS BY AREA UNDER CURVE AND DUAL WAVELENGTH MODE
The present work describes a simple first derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of nebivolol and s-amlodipine in tablets. T..
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Disclosed is a single phase liquid composition comprising 0.5 to 30 wt % of a benzotrifluoride solvent, about 0.5 to about 50 wt % of a glycol ether cosolvent, up to about 50 wt % of an alkanol, up to about 10 wt % of a surfactant, and the remainder water. The composition is effective in cleaning hard surfaces, stripping paint, and as a carrier.
This paper outlines the development of a liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of approximately 20 amino acids in simple and complex mixtures that complies with the system suitability requirements of the Ph. Eur. general chapter (2.2.56).
Selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) speciation analysis in edible and medicinal Se enriched P. pulmonarius extracts was performed. Mycelium, colonized substrate, and fruiting bodies at different harvesting times were analyzed using ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to an ICPMS/MS detector. Extraction efficiencies in enzymatically digested and aqueous extracts were between 45.3 and 109% fo ...
Please click on below links to download the course file: 1-What is HPLC? 2-Basic terms and concepts. 3-HPLC instrumentation and trends. 4-Introduction to chromatography software. 5-Types of HPLC; isocratic & gradient. 6-Qualitative and quantitative determination. 7-Normal & reverse phase chromatography modes. 8-HPLC column and trends. 9-Column selection in reverse phase chromatography. 10-HPLC method development. 11-Regulatory[…]. ...
|p|Silia|em||span style=color: #f37021;|Bond|/span||/em||sup|®|/sup| C18 (or C18) is the traditional matrix for reversed-phase chromatography. The high loading provides the highest degree of hydrophobicity commercially available. Considered as the l
|p |Silia|em||span style=color: #f37021;|Bond|/span||/em||sup|®|/sup| Phenyl (Si-PHE) is a sorbent of medium polarity used in reversed-phase chromatography. It has similar retention than C8 but with different selectivity especially for molecules con
This pill with imprint APO ESC 20 is White, Round and has been identified as Escitalopram oxalate 20 mg (base). It is supplied by Apotex Corp..
This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecules capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior) and non-aqueous (cells membrane), or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determination of drugs lipophilicity. In these researches chromatography methods have an important role ...
Dear Everyone: I am trying to transfer for western blot after Tris-Tricine-buffered electrophoresis which looks good for low molecular protein. But, it looks very difficult to transfer onto PVDF membrane with 1200mA.hr. There is no critical difference except containing glycerol(I think is for good resolution). Anyway, although I tried it under the condition, parts of high molecular bands are remained on gel. What should I do for complete transfer? I would appreciated if anyone who know trouble shooting make me know. Thank you. Sincerely yours, SK Park ...
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A stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide in drug substances and dosage forms. Chromatographic separation of quinapril, hydrochlorothiazide and its degradation products was achieved on a RP-18 column, using acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 4.6) as mobile phase in a gradient mode and detection at 216 nm. Stress testing was performed under hydrolytic, oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from main peaks, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The assay was linear for quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide concentrations of 40-200 µg mL−1 and 25-125 µg mL−1, respectively. The developed method was selective, accurate and precise for quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide determination. This method was used to quantify both drugs in combined commercial tablets. The results showed that the proposed method was found to be ...
Table 6: Dual Wavelength RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Two Antispasmodic Drugs: An Application in Pharmaceutical and Human Serum
A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been established and validated for the determination of S (-) Enantiomer in Lacosamide drug substance. The chromatographic system used normal phase DAICEL Chiralcel OD-H column with UV-Vis detection at 210 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of n-hexane-ethanol, 74:6 (%, v/v) and this mixture was transferred to isopropyl alcohol-trifluoroacetic acid in the ratio of 72:6:0.08 (%, v/v). The method is validated for its specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity and ruggedness. Regression analysis data for the calibration plots were indicative of good linear relationships between response and concentration over the range 0.0174µg mL-1 - 5.398 µg mL-1. The correlation coefficient, r2, was 0.9994 and 0.9988. The value of slop and intercept of the calibration plot was 79403 and -16673. The limit of detection and quantitation were 0.087 ± 7.18 µg mL-1 and 0.263 ± 3.68 µg mL-1. ...
Elaeagnus angustifoliaLinn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and...
Background: High Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an integral analytical tool in assessing drug product stability. HPLC methods should be able to separate, detect, and quantify the various drug-related degradants that can form on storage or manufacturing, plus detect any drug-related impurities that may be introduced during synthesis. Objectives: A simple, economic, selective, precise, accurate and stability indicating RP-HPLC (Reversed phase-HPLC) method was developed and validated for analysis of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride (AMI) and Pregabalin (PGB) in the formulation. Method: Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with buffer (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) pH 4.0 and acetonitrile, (40:60 %v/v), as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Result: The detection was performed at 230 nm (nanometer) and sharp peaks were obtained for PGB and AMI at retention time of 4.4 and 9.6 min, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 3.00 µg/mL and 0.59 µg/mL and
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A coupled-column liquid chromatographic method for the direct analysis of 14 urinary nucleosides is described. Efficient on-line clean-up and concentration of 14 nucleosides from urine samples were obtained by using a boronic acid-substituted silica column (40 turn x 4.0 mm I.D.) as the first column (Col-1) and a Hypersil ODS2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) as the second column (Col-2). The mobile phases applied consisted of 0.25 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 8.5) on Col-1, and of 25 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.5) on Col-2, respectively. Determination of urinary nucleosides was performed on Col-2 column by using a linear gradient elution comprising 25 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.5) and methanol-water (60:40, v/v) with UV detection at 260 nm. Urinary nucleosides analysis can be carried out by this procedure in 50 min requiring only pH adjustment and the protein precipitation by centrifugation of urine samples. Calibration plots of 14 standard nucleosides showed ...
B162 α-Tocopherol supplementation has been shown to prevent prostate cancer, yet studies of dietary and serologic vitamin E have been mixed for this malignancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of serum tocopherols and prostate cancer within the cancer screening arm of the PLCO trial among men ages 55-74 years old. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, shipped overnight to a biorepository, and stored at -70 oC. Among cases of prostate adenocarcinoma identified through October 1, 2001, 803 were diagnosed at least one year after blood draw among non-Hispanic white men. Incidence-density sampling was used with frequency-matching by age, time since initial screening, and year of blood draw to select controls (1.2 ratio to cases). Serum concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were determined for cases (n=680), controls (n=824), and batch-based quality control (n=171) samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Coefficients of variation were 5.8% ...
PMID 3401329] Determination of neutral haemoglobin variants by immobilized pH gradient, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry: the case of a Hb Torino alpha 43 (CE1) Phe----Val. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development and validation of analytical method for the estimation of omeprazole, domperidone and their related substances. AU - Srinivas, P.. AU - Siva Rao, T.. AU - Ramakrishnan, E.. AU - Gowda, D.V.. N1 - cited By 2. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. M3 - Article. VL - 4. SP - P906-P911. JO - International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. JF - International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. SN - 0975-6299. IS - 2. ER - ...
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Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is an analytical technique belonging to the wide range of reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) separation techniques. MLC with the use of surfactant solutions above its critical micellar concentration (CMC) and the addition of organic modifiers is currently an important analytical tool with still growing theoretical considerations and practical applications in pharmaceutical analysis of drugs and other biologically active compounds. The use of MLC as an alternative, relatively much faster in comparison to conventional chromatographic separation techniques has several advantages, especially as being suitable for screening pharmaceutical analysis. The analytical data received from MLC analysis are considered a useful source of information to predict passive drug absorption, drug transport and other pharmacokinetics and physicochemical measures of pharmaceutical substances. In the review several MLC assays for determination of drugs and other active ...
The aim was to compare the sensitivity of different grades of polysorbate 20 (PS20) and polysorbate 80 (PS80) against enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidative degradation in pharmaceutically relevant buffer systems. For this purpose, a fast liquid chromatography charged aerosol detection method was developed which allows to (1) differentiate between hydrolytic and oxidative PS degradation and (2) to monitor the PS decay over time. Systematic enzymatic and oxidative forced degradation studies were conducted with multicompendial PS20 and PS80, as well as all-laurate PS20 and all-oleate PS80 (with ,98% oleic acid, as required by the Chinese Pharmacopoiea since 2015). No differences in the sensitivity toward enzymatic degradation were observed between multicompendial PS and high purity grade PS. However, all-laurate PS20 and all-oleate PS80 have a higher predisposition for oxidative degradation as compared to multicompendial PS20 and PS80. The buffer system used within the study played thereby a key role: ...
Each ml of this solution contains 1 mmol of potassium ions, 1 mmol of phosphate ions, and 2 mmol of hydrogen ions. Lets dwell on that for a moment. The compound is composed of K+, 2H+ and PO43-. In fact it very closely resembles phosphoric acid (H3PO4) except one of the hydrogen atoms has been substituted with potassium.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of A liquid chromatographic method for quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in rat brain. by Govind T. Vatassery et al.
Gradient elution of polystyrene standards on reversed phase C18 columns by methanol/tetrahydrofuran or methanol/dichloromethane mixtures yielded a strange effect of the molecular weight of the sample...
The requirement of CBD strains comes from the vast medical benefits of CBD (cannabidiol) and the non-psychoactive nature of the ...
After the successful inaugural conference in IICT, Hyderabad last year, this conference has been conceptualized to discuss the advanced techniques and applications of Mass Spectrometry. The experts in this conference will cover various advanced techniques followed by novel applications of Mass Spectrometry in analysis of Pharmaceutical and Forced Degradation products, Metabolites, Food, Environment, Forensic, Clinical and Biological samples. This event will provide you with excellent opportunity to enhance your knowledge on Mass Spectrometry as well as learn the advanced applications in different fields. Further, this event will also help in networking with like minded peers, helping you to build new relationships and optimize your workflow ...
Vadim- I have re-nickelated Ni-NTA-agarose resins with varying success. I believe Qiagen provides a protocol for doing this. If I remember correctly, it involves stripping the resin with EDTA and then passing nickel sulfate over the column. Alternatively, I have also used Ni-NTA columns many more than 5 times and have had pretty good resolution. Since these resins are available for about $5/ml, I would suggest using the resin as long as you still get good resolution and then either replace it (if it is a relatively small volume), or attempting to regenerate it if it is a large volume ...
Prepare the following solutions in a mixture of 92 volumes of mobile phase A and 8 volumes of mobile phase B (dissolution solvent).. For solution (1) dissolve 5.0 mg of hypoxanthine R in the dissolution solvent and dilute to 100.0 ml with the same solvent. Dilute 1.0 ml to 20.0 ml with the same solvent. For solution (2) dissolve 5 mg of didanosine for system suitability RS (containing impurities A to F) in the dissolution solvent and dilute to 10 ml with the same solvent. For solution (3) dissolve 25 mg of the test substance in the dissolution solvent and dilute to 50.0 ml with the same solvent. For solution (4) dilute 5.0 ml of solution (3) to 50.0 ml with the dissolution solvent. Then dilute 5.0 ml of this solution to 50.0 ml with the same solvent.. Operate with a flow rate of 1.0 ml per minute. As a detector use an ultraviolet spectrophotometer set at a wavelength of about 254 nm.. Use the chromatogram supplied with didanosine for system suitability RS and the chromatogram obtained with ...
Validation of Compendial Procedures (3). In addition, USPC proposed appropriate system suitability criteria and specifications and developed two new reference standards (RS) to support the revised monographs: USP heparin sodium identification reference standard (RS) and USP heparin sodium system suitability RS.. The revised monographs were posted June 18, 2008, on the USPC website ) as Revision Bulletins and became official immediately. These monographs are referenced on the FDA website as well and have played an important role in controlling the quality of heparin API in the US (1).. Before posting the heparin Revision Bulletins, USPC solicited feedback from stakeholders by hosting two online meetings in spring 2008. Industry comments as well as submissions of new and improved analytical methods for characterization of heparin were critical in shaping the next stage of the monograph revision.. Stage 2: Comprehensive modernizationUSPC and involved stakeholders realized that a thorough ...
Figure 1: Chromatograms of the analyte standard solutions with the mobile phase composed of 50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.05) with 0.01% diethylamide and different proportion of methanol ...
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Majji AB, Humayun MS, Viagra silagra JD, Suzuki S, Dвanna SA, de Juan E, Jr (1999) OOvernight histological and electrophysiological results of an inactive prescrription electrode array implantation in dogs. 25 gl solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate R (1090 VV).
[Determination of taurine in foods by high performance liquid chromatography].: Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) was quantitated by reversed-phase liquid ch
Title: MIL-STD-1844, Version: -, Date: 1984-Mar-30, Desc: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TRACE CHLORINATED SOLVENTS HYDRAULIC FLUID (30 MAR 1984
View Notes - IMG_0001_NEW_0037 from CHEM 282 at Simon Fraser. If it has a greater affinity for the mobile phase it will move along the plate faster with the mobile phase and if it has a greater
Could anyone help me on this?I am looking at a 106kDa protein in retina. electrophoresis is excellent but only for smaller proteins. I dont get good resolution of high molecular weight proteins, actually I might not even get bands above 70kDa. I have tried different gel concentrations (7-12%)(Tris gels). at 7% the whole sample doesnt run well as if not good homogenisation isdone. at higher percentages I get the previously described motif, so what happens to my high MW ptroteins? do the become fractionated and fall as lower MW?but then the Abd should detect the fraction that has its detection sequence at a lower MW band. do they stay in the membrane during homogenisation and so are located in the precipitant of the centrifugion which goes to the rubbish ...
Striving for some really good resolution ideas? Here are 10 new years resolutions that will make this year your pets healthiest yet!
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A process for forming on any printing stock, single colored and multi-colored images using the expose-in-register and laminate-in-register processes is described. Images having high quality, good resolution, and color flexibility not heretofore economically feasible are obtained using the process of the invention.
ACD/Labs have teamed up with experienced chromatographers Patrik Petersson and Mel Euerby to provide an application for translating liquid chromatography methods. Simply fill in your method information below and translate HPLC methods to UHPLC and vice versa (applicable for any type of analytical gradient chromatography).. Compare Functionality of ACD/Labs Method Translation Tools in ACD/Labs chromatography software (ACD/Method Selection Suite and ACD/AutoChrom) and this Freeware Tool. ...
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For your analytical and preparative HPLC applications use HPLC or UHPLC columns from the manufacturer of NUCLEOSIL, NUCLEODUR and NUCLEOSHELL.
An immiscible lipophilic or hydrophilic liquid phase is separated respectively from a continuous hydrophilic or a lipophilic phase liquid. Fibers having hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties are form
Leaf Powder and Polyherbal Formulation Using Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography". Chromatographia. 61 (9-10): 443-446. doi: ...
Smith, R. M.; Burgess, R.J. (1996). "Superheated water - a clean eluent for reverse phase high performance chromatography". ... Reverse phased HPLC often uses methanol-water mixtures as the mobile phase. Since the polarity of water spans the same range ... The maximum temperature is limited to that at which the stationary phase is stable. C18 bonded phases which are common in HPLC ... Part 2. Comparison of functional group responses". Journal of Chromatography A. 1236: 21-27. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.02.035. ...
Badu-Tawiah, Abraham Kwame (2010). Adsorption isotherms of diamond-packed columns in reverse phase liquid chromatography. OCLC ... Graham Cooks at Purdue University to study high-performance liquid chromatography. There he studied reactions in mass ...
Gaines, Susan M.; Jeffrey L. Bada (1987). "Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of aspartame ... She has published peer-reviewed papers in The Journal of Organic Chemistry and the Journal of Chromatography A, as well as ... diastereomeric decomposition products". Journal of Chromatography A. 389: 219-225. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)94425-5. Gaines, ...
"Determination of modafinil in plasma and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid-chromatography". Journal of ...
Gale, R. W.; Fulton, J. L.; Smith, R. D. (1987). "Organized Molecular Assemblies in the Gas Phase: Reverse Micelles and ... "Richard Smith, Ph.D". Smith, R.D.; Burger, J.E.; Johnson, A.L. (1981). "Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Electron ... Smith, R. D.; Fjeldsted, J. C.; Lee, M. T.; Felix, W.D. (1982). "Capillary Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass ... Other notable contributions have been in the fields of supercritical fluids and related reverse micelle phenomena. On August 22 ...
THF is used as a component in mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. It has a greater elution strength than ... it can be used to dissolve polymers prior to determining their molecular mass using gel permeation chromatography. THF ...
Ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is used to separate and analyse the oligonucleotides after ... "Ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of oligonucleotides:: Retention prediction". Journal of ... Alkylamides can be used as chromatographic stationary phases. Those phases have been investigated for the separation of ... "Analysis of oligonucleotides by liquid chromatography with alkylamide stationary phase". Open Chemistry. 13 (1). doi:10.1515/ ...
Compounds can then be further differentiated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. ... They are generally isolated and measured through the use of chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Additionally, the ... For metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to find flavonoids such as quercetin. ... Chemical compounds are then derived through various chromatography and mass spectrometry separations. However, extraction ...
Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is the most important chromatographic method for measuring solute hydrophobicity. ... Hodges, Robert S.; Zhu, Bing-Yan; Zhou, Nian E.; Mant, Colin T. (1994). "Reversed-phase liquid chromatography as a useful probe ... Non liquid phases can also be used with partitioning methods such as micellar phases and vapor phases. Two scales have been ... About a decade ago, another hydrophilicity scale was published, this scale used normal phase liquid chromatography and showed ...
September 2019). "Tandem Mass Tag Labeling Facilitates Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of ...
Protein deamidation has been commonly analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) through peptide mapping. Recently ...
Fluorescence Detection of Fecal Urobilins and Porphyrins by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography". ...
The derivatized amino acids are subjected to reversed phase chromatography, typically using a C8 or C18 silica column and an ... the amino acids are derivatized then resolved by reversed phase HPLC. An example of the ion-exchange chromatography is given by ... ion exchange chromatography cannot be used, and thin layer chromatography or high-pressure liquid chromatography should be used ... Alternatively, peptides may be desalted and separated by reversed phase HPLC and introduced into a mass spectrometer via an ESI ...
Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) uses reversed-phase HPLC to interrogate SNPs. The key to DHPLC is the ... Oefner PJ; Underhill PA (1995). "Comparative DNA sequencing by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)". Am J ... The assay requires forward and reverse PCR primers that will amplify a region that includes the SNP polymorphic site. Allele ... solid phase which has differential affinity for single and double-stranded DNA. In DHPLC, DNA fragments are denatured by ...
Examples of operations include affinity, size exclusion, reversed phase chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, ... Affinity chromatography often isolates and purifies in a single step. Fermentation (biochemistry) Separation process Unit ...
Most commonly, the crude product is desalted using ethanol precipitation, size exclusion chromatography, or reverse-phase HPLC ... 2) The second approach is only used when the intended method of purification is reverse-phase HPLC. In this case, the 5'- ... The solid phase synthesis was implemented using, as containers for the solid phase, miniature glass columns similar in their ... is purified by reverse-phase HPLC. The collected material is then detritylated under aqueous acidic conditions. On small scale ...
Alternatively, the phosphorimidazolide may be isolated by reverse-phase flash column chromatography with TEAB buffer and ...
Thirdly, proteins may be separated by polarity/hydrophobicity via high performance liquid chromatography or reversed-phase ... High performance liquid chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography is a form of chromatography applying high ... The most common form is "reversed phase" HPLC, where the column material is hydrophobic. The proteins are eluted by a gradient ... Ion exchange chromatography is a very powerful tool for use in protein purification and is frequently used in both analytical ...
... fractions also contained toxins readily separable from the short-chain isotoxin by preparative reverse-phase chromatography. ... Reverse-phase analysis of another peak present in both venoms resolved a toxin that had an N-terminus identical to N. christyi ... Cation exchange chromatography resolved four lethal peaks from N. a. annulata venom and six lethal peaks from N. christyi venom ... The major lethal peaks (about 12% of total venom protein) were purified further with molecular sieve chromatography and were ...
... determination of hallucinogenic components of Psilocybe mushrooms by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography". ... Using the technique of paper chromatography, Hofmann confirmed the presence of 0.25% (by weight) psilocybin in dried samples. ... Journal of Chromatography. 312: 467-72. doi:10.1016/s0021-9673(01)92800-6. PMID 6543215. Jokiranta J, Mustola S, Ohenoja E, ...
"Quantitation of flupirtine and its active acetylated metabolite by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using ... Pipex Pharmaceuticals (PPXP)' Oral Flupirtine Receives IND With FDA for Phase II Clinical Trial for Fibromyalgia Archived 2017- ... fluorometric detection". Journal of Chromatography. 305 (1): 135-143. doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(00)83321-6. PMID 6707137. Methling ...
... compounds by new postcolumn derivatization system using reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography". Anal. ... Journal of Chromatography A. 676 (2): 311-9. doi:10.1016/0021-9673(94)80431-1. PMID 7921184. Kobayashi Y, Kubo H, Kinoshita T ( ... "Determination of amino acids by ion-pair liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4- ...
... by reversedphase high‐performance liquid chromatography". Phytochemical Analysis. 21 (5): 444-50. doi:10.1002/pca.1216. PMID ...
The TLC method for zearalenone is: normal phase silica gel plates, the eluent: 90% dichloromethane, 10% v/v acetone; or reverse ... Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are commonly used. HPLC alone is not ... phase C18 silica plates; the eluent: 90% v/v methanol, 10% water. Zearalenone gives unmistakable blue luminiscence under UV. α- ...
"Direct determination of sinigrin in mustard seed without desulfatation by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography". ... Journal of Chromatography A. 912 (2): 363-368. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00591-X. PMID 11330806. Hogan, C. Michael (2008). ...
... can be purified from Grammostola spatulata venom by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The toxin ...
Ion pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC) has also been used to distinguish primer extension ... for the detection of methylation differences at specific chromosomal loci using primer extension and ion pair reverse phase ... of cleavage sites by C-to-U conversions or shift in fragment mass by G-to-A conversions in the amplified reverse strand. C- ...
... venom can be fractionated by gel filtration chromatography and the sub-fractions can be further separated by HPLC reverse-phase ...
... microbes Formic acid is often used as a component of mobile phase in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP- ... "Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of virus proteins and other large hydrophobic proteins in formic acid ... Wu, G; Shlykov, S; Van Alseny, F. S; Geise, H. J; Sluyts, E; Van Der Veken, B. J (1995). "Formic Anhydride in the Gas Phase, ... In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules. Owing to its ...
The phase of matter is defined by the phase transition, which is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into ... They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical ... in the case of endergonic reactions the situation is the reverse. A reaction is said to be exothermic if the reaction releases ... Another phase commonly encountered in the study of chemistry is the aqueous phase, which is the state of substances dissolved ...
... by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography estimation.. *^ Ashton CH (February 2001). "Pharmacology and effects of ... enantio-selective separation of phytocannabinoids by enantioselective ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography ...
"Measurement of intracellular vitamin C levels in human lymphocytes by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography ( ... This verdict was reversed by the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York, on the grounds that China formally advised the ... Supreme Court announced that it would consider an appeal filed to reverse the lower court decision.[155] ... scurvy previously induced by an experimental scorbutic diet with extremely low vitamin C content could be completely reversed ...
Paper chromatography. Reversed-phase chromatography. Size-exclusion chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography. Two-dimensional ... Affinity chromatography. Column chromatography. Displacement chromatography. Electrochromatography. Gas chromatography. High- ... performance liquid chromatography. Capillary electrochromatography. Ion chromatography. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography ... chromatography. Van Deemter equation. Chapter 3. Fundamental Spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy. Rayleigh scattering. ...
The GABA(B) receptor antagonist, SGS-742, is currently being tested as a potential therapeutic in an NIH phase II clinical ... Journal of Chromatography B. 792 (1): 99-106. doi:10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00276-9. ISSN 1570-0232. PMID 12829002.. ... high levels of GHB but this can be difficult to measure since GHB has high volatility and may be obscured on gas chromatography ...
... of Proanthocyanidin A2 Content in Phenolic Polymer Isolates by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography". Journal ... of Chromatography A. 1216 (9): 1403-1409. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.12.086. PMID 19168185.. CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link ...
Interference with vesicular storage, activating TAAR1, and reversing the flow of monoamine transporters may play a mechanism in ... two recent large phase III studies of lisdexamfetamine (a prodrug to amphetamine) as an adjunct to an SSRI or SNRI in the ... Commonly used tests include chromatography, immunologic assay, and mass spectrometry.[129] See also[edit]. *Antipsychotics ...
Rajagopal, K (1999). "Mapping the QCD phase diagram". Nuclear Physics A. 661 (1-4): 150-161. arXiv:hep-ph/9908360. Bibcode: ... Princeton field-reversed configuration experiment. *Propulsive Fluid Accumulator, nuclear-powered magnetohydrodynamic ... Chromatography detector. *Chromo-Weibel instability. *Classical-map hypernetted-chain method. *Cnoidal wave ...
Emulsion PCR[46] isolates individual DNA molecules along with primer-coated beads in aqueous droplets within an oil phase. A ... A successful RNA extraction will yield a RNA sample that should be converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) using reverse ... were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography. ... then detects the mRNA pieces using reverse transcription PCRs. The mRNA may then be amplified and sequenced. The combined ...
The host harbouring an agent that is in a mature or sexually active stage phase is called the definitive host. The intermediate ... For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are ... An interesting fact that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, omics, and other advanced ...
Reverse phase chromatography[besut , besut sumber]. Reverse phase chromatography punika piranti analitikal ingkang kiat kaliyan ... reverse phase chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography, sarta supercritical ... 1.1 Kromatografi Cair (Liquid Chromatography) *1.1.1 Reverse phase chromatography. *1.1.2 High performance liquid ... High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gadhah prinsip ingkang sami kaliyan reverse phase.[9] namung ing metode punika, ...
Normal-phase chromatography. *Paper chromatography. *Reversed-phase chromatography. *Size-exclusion chromatography. *Thin-layer ... Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion- ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ...
Terminal phase. If a person will die soon from a disease, regardless of whether that disease typically causes death, then the ... Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. Many diseases that ... Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For ... stage between the earlier disease process and active dying is the terminal phase.. Extent[edit]. Localized disease. A localized ...
reverse osmosis. 10-80 bar. salts, small organic molecules The form and shape of the membrane pores are highly dependent on the ... In gas phase filtration different deposition mechanisms are operative, so that particles having sizes below the pore size of ... another is measurement of the cut-off by gel permeation chromatography. These methods are used mainly to measure membranes for ... This principle is more important for dense membranes without natural pores such as those used for reverse osmosis and in fuel ...
It reverses or halts the effects of the work that has been done to improve health care in these countries, and although smoking ... Bray F, Tyczynski JE, Parkin DM (January 2004). "Going up or coming down? The changing phases of the lung cancer epidemic from ... "Determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in cigarette smoke by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection". ...
... s are generally identified by gas chromatography, taking advantage of their volatility. IR spectra for esters feature an ... Under acidic conditions, the reaction is the reverse reaction of the Fischer esterification. Under basic conditions, hydroxide ... This reaction can suffer from anion availability problems and, therefore, can benefit from the addition of phase transfer ... for analysis by gas chromatography. The method is useful in specialized organic synthetic operations but is considered too ...
... the peak phase, the falling phase, the undershoot phase, and the refractory period. During the rising phase the membrane ... The rapid influx of sodium ions causes the polarity of the plasma membrane to reverse, and the ion channels then rapidly ... they can also be useful in purifying ion channels by affinity chromatography or in assaying their concentration. However, such ... Peak and falling phaseEdit. The positive feedback of the rising phase slows and comes to a halt as the sodium ion channels ...
If the reverse voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage, a large current flows and the LED will be damaged. If the reverse current ... y by Liquid-phase Epitaxy". Appl. Phys. Lett. 28 (9): 499. Bibcode:1976ApPhL..28..499P. doi:10.1063/1.88831.. ... high performance liquid chromatography, UV curing and printing, phototherapy, medical/ analytical instrumentation, and DNA ... For each half-cycle, part of the LED emits light and part is dark, and this is reversed during the next half-cycle. The ...
... by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography estimation.. *^ Ashton CH (February 2001). "Pharmacology and effects of ...
The ability of lactoferrin to bind DNA is used for its isolation and purification using affinity chromatography with columns ... In particular, by destroying the RNA genome, milk RNase inhibits reverse transcription of retroviruses that cause breast cancer ... possibly by suppression of phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). Also, in another experiment done on hamsters ... McCormick JJ, Larson LJ, Rich MA (1974). "RNase inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity in human milk". Nature. 251 (5477 ...
1 SPE and chromatography. *2 Normal phase SPE procedure. *3 Reversed phase SPE ... Reversed phase SPE[edit]. Reversed phase SPE separates analytes based on their polarity. The stationary phase of a reversed ... Solid-phase microextraction[edit]. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), is a solid phase extraction technique that involves the ... Normal phase SPE procedure[edit]. A selection of solid phase extraction cartridges, available in many sizes, shapes, and types ...
a b L. Mattoli, F. Cangi, A. Maidecchi, C. Ghiara, M. Tubaro, and P. Traldi (2005). "A rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ... In mice pre-treated with reserpine,[l] an oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg d-synephrine significantly reversed the hypothermia, while l- ... "Enantioselective LC analysis of synephrine in natural products on a protein-based chiral stationary phase." J. Pharm. Biomed. ... Furthermore, the marked brocho-constriction produced by injections of histamine was not reversed by either l-synephrine or d,l- ...
Normal-phase chromatography. *Paper chromatography. *Reversed-phase chromatography. *Size-exclusion chromatography. *Thin-layer ... Weak affinity chromatography[edit]. Weak affinity chromatography[28] (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity ... and the stationary phase. The stationary phase is first loaded into a column with mobile phase containing a variety of ... Binding to the solid phase may be achieved by column chromatography whereby the solid medium is packed onto a column, the ...
Data from 40 phase II and phase III studies (n = 2045) with patients undergoing a one-hour infusion of 100 mg/m2 docetaxel once ... 2005). "Quantification of docetaxel and its main metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry ... Data from 40 phase II and phase III studies with patients undergoing a one-hour infusion of 100 mg/m2 docetaxel once every ... Observations of severe side effects in the above 40 phase II and phase III studies were also recorded. ...
Various types of chromatography are then used to isolate the protein or proteins of interest based on properties such as ... Hey J, Posch A, Cohen A, Liu N, Harbers A (2008). "Fractionation of complex protein mixtures by liquid-phase isoelectric ... As a result, when the lysate is passed over a chromatography column containing nickel, the histidine residues ligate the nickel ... and chromatography; the advent of genetic engineering has made possible a number of methods to facilitate purification. Methods ...
... a surface coating used in reversed-phase chromatography Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys Ozone-depleting substance, ...
N-glycans from glycoproteins are analyzed routinely by high-performance-liquid-chromatography (reversed phase, normal phase and ... By choosing porous graphitic carbon as a stationary phase for liquid chromatography, even non derivatized glycans can be ... The purity of test samples have been obtained through chromatography (affinity chromatography etc.) and analytical ... Fractionated glycans from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) instruments can be further analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS(MS ...
It is important to know the collision rates in the system since this step precedes the adsorption where a three phase system is ... Montana Tech professor Antoine Marc Gaudin defined the early period of flotation as the mechanical phase while by the late ... These collectors coat a particle's surface with a monolayer of non-polar substance to aid separation from the aqueous phase by ... Hydrophobic particles have a tendency to form a separate phase in aqueous media. In froth flotation the effectiveness of an air ...
... of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass ... Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) techniques are used to collect VOCs at low concentrations for analysis.[49] ... 2007). "Human exhaled air analytics: Biomarkers of diseases". Biomedical Chromatography. 21 (6): 553-566. doi:10.1002/bmc.835. ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (3): 540-566. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.117. PMID 19019381.. ...
Journal of Chromatography B. 831 (1-2): 110-5. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.11.050. PMID 16377264.. ... "Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices". Journal of Urban Health. 85 (4): 486-504 ... chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography- ...
Reversed-phase chromatography (also called RPC, reverse-phase chromatography, or hydrophobic chromatography) includes any ... hence the term reversed-phase chromatography. Reversed-phase chromatography employs a polar (aqueous) mobile phase. As a result ... "reversed-phase chromatography". doi:10.1351/goldbook.R05376 Akul Mehta (December 27, 2012). "Principle of Reversed-Phase ... This technique is known as reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography. Aqueous normal-phase chromatography IUPAC, Compendium of ...
Conditions for the isocratic separation by reversed-phase ion-interaction chromatography of Bi(III), Fe(III), Co(III), Ni(II), ... Conditions for the isocratic separation by reversed-phase ion-interaction chromatography of Bi(III), Fe(III), Co(III), Ni(II), ... Column liquid chromatography Ion-interaction chromatography EDTA complexes Heavy metal ions This is a preview of subscription ...
... mercaptoalkanamines and aminoalkyl disulfides were determined by reverse phase thin layer chromatography. The Rm values were ... Reverse Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Aminoalkanethiosulfuric Acids, Mercaptoalkanamines and Aminoalkyl Disulfides. Maria ... "Reverse Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Aminoalkanethiosulfuric Acids, Mercaptoalkanamines and Aminoalkyl Disulfides." Int. ... Reverse Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Aminoalkanethiosulfuric Acids, Mercaptoalkanamines and Aminoalkyl Disulfides. ...
Gradient elution of polystyrene standards on reversed phase C18 columns by methanol/tetrahydrofuran or methanol/dichloromethane ... Unusual signal enhancement in reversed-phase chromatography of polystyrene monitored by UV detector. ... Gradient elution of polystyrene standards on reversed phase C18 columns by methanol/tetrahydrofuran or methanol/dichloromethane ... Column liquid chromatography UV detection Solubility Polystyrene Sample precipitation Gradient elution This is a preview of ...
This application note presents a method of extracting barbiturates from urine and plasma samples by using Tox-Elut solid phase ... Application Note: Detecting Barbiturates by Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography. 5 May 2010 ... This application note presents a method of extracting barbiturates from urine and plasma samples by using Tox-Elut solid phase ... Latest: Three Novel Ways Scientists are Using Chromatography to Keep Environmental Contaminants... ...
... quantitation of underivatized amino acids in human blood samples by volatile ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography ... A validated method that is based on the use of volatile ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to stable isotope dilution ... as mobile phase modifiers. The collisionally activated dissociation spectra of the amino acids were investigated and the ...
Normal and reversed phase thin layer chromatography data in quantitative structure-activity relationship study of compounds ... Thin layer chromatography was performed on silica gel NP 60F(254) and silica gel RP2 60F(254) (silanized) plates impregnated ... with two mobile phases - the systems were chosen as models of drug-5-HT-receptor interaction. Relationships between ...
... a reversed-phase ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) ultrahigh resolution MS (UHRMS) method was evaluated for the comprehensive profiling of NAs ... of naphthenic acids in technical mixtures and oil sands process-affected water using polar reversed-phase liquid chromatography ... In this work, a reversed-phase ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) ultrahigh resolution MS (UHRMS) method was evaluated for the comprehensive ... Keywords: Naphthenic acid; Oil sands process-affected water; Polar cyanopropyl-bonded phase column; Ultra-HPLC ultrahigh ...
... have successfully been developed for naturally occurring phenolic compounds in a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) ... Predicting Retention Times of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: A Quantitative ... Predicting Retention Times of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: A Quantitative ... "Predicting Retention Times of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: A Quantitative ...
... have successfully been developed for naturally occurring phenolic compounds in a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) ... reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is considered a practically state-of-the-art technique; as reversed- ... Structure-retention and mobile phase-retention relationships for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of ... Predicting Retention Times of Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography: A Quantitative ...
Reversed-phase gradient HPLC separation of the dansylated or methylated antibiotic compounds produced superior chromatographic ... Although a base-line resolution of the known four major antimycins Al, A2, A3, and A4 was readily achieved with mobile phases ... Of the numerous chromatographic systems examined, a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (70:30) and 0.005 M ... the separation of the new antibiotic subcomponents was highly sensitive to variation in mobile phase conditions. The type and ...
Reverse Phase and Normal Phase High end Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). High end Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used being an ... The cellular phase for a reverse phase system usually consists of water or buffer solution, methanol, acetonitrile and IPA. IPA ... Normal phase HPLC means the stationary phase is made from polar packing material while the cellular phase is of non-polar or ... The rule is opposite of normal phase system, where the stationary phase is packed non-polar material and the mobile phase is ...
Liquid chromatography, HPLC, UHPLC, Reversed phase, Preparative chromatography, Adsorption isotherm, Injection profile, Sample ... Deformations of overloaded bands under pH-stable conditions in reversed phase chromatography. Edström, Lena Uppsala University ... Journal of Chromatography A On the subject. Analytical Chemistry Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... 2011 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1218, no 15, 1966-1973 p.Article in ...
on a preparative scale by HPLC on RP-18 phases with water as the eluent. These dextrins were obtained by the transfer of a- ... reversed-phase ; of functionalized dextrins) ; functionalized dextrin sepn reversed phase HPLC; liq chromatog functionalized ... Separation of functionalized dextrins by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography Andriamboavonjy, E. ; Flaschel, ... Home , Separation of functionalized dextrins by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ...
PHASE HIGH -PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY / DENSITOMETRY. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2012, vol.57, n.1, pp.1033-1035 ... as mobile phase. Densitometric scanning was performed at 267 nm. The Rf values for PRH and FNZ were found to be 0.63 and 0.48, ... SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE USING REVERSED - ...
Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Separation of Intact Proteins by Chromatographic Focusing and Reversed Phase of the ... Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Separation of Intact Proteins by Chromatographic Focusing and Reversed Phase of the ... Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Separation of Intact Proteins by Chromatographic Focusing and Reversed Phase of the ... Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography Separation of Intact Proteins by Chromatographic Focusing and Reversed Phase of the ...
Finally, a separation example demonstrated the excellent separation power of on-chip IP-RP chromatography by achieving a large ...
o-Phthaldialdehyde Precolumn Derivatization and Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Polypeptide ... are analyzed with good selectivity by high-performance liquid chromatography employing 3-microns particle size reversed-phase ...
MEASUREMENT OF FREE COENZYME A IN BIOLOGICAL EXTRACTS BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. Ole Chr. ... MEASUREMENT OF FREE COENZYME A IN BIOLOGICAL EXTRACTS BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ... MEASUREMENT OF FREE COENZYME A IN BIOLOGICAL EXTRACTS BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ... MEASUREMENT OF FREE COENZYME A IN BIOLOGICAL EXTRACTS BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ...
Rapid and Sensitive Reverse-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Estimation of Ketorolac in Pharmaceuticals ... Rapid and Sensitive Reverse-phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Estimation of Ketorolac in Pharmaceuticals ... Chaudhary RS, Gangwal SS, Jindal KC, Khanna S. Reversedphase high‑performance liquid chromatography of ketorolac and its ... A reliable, rapid and sensitive isocratic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and ...
... and characterized a concentrated solution of EAA as a reversed phase mobile phase replacement for organic... ... Ethylammonium Acetate as a Mobile Phase Modifier for Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography. ... and characterized a concentrated solution of EAA as a reversed phase mobile phase replacement for organic solvents like ... Column liquid chromatography Aqueous mobile phase modifier Ethylammonium acetate Water-soluble vitamins ...
... and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related ... Liquid Chromatography (LC/HPLC)Gas Chromatography (GC)Sample PreparationMass SpectrometryPharmaceutical AnalysisEnvironmental ... Virtual SymposiumFree Simulators for Virtual Chromatography Laboratory ExperimentsCritical Needs in Separation Science. ... GCGC-MSGeneralIndustrialLCLC-MSMedical/BiologicalMisc TechniquesPharmaceuticalsPolymersSample PrepSize-Exclusion Chromatography ...
Ion-pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method Status : Confirmed, Current Published : November 2004 ... Liquid chromatography, Chromatography, Food products, Milk, Dairy products, Cheese, Determination of content, Chemical analysis ... Methode par chromatographie liquide a haute performance en phase inverse par paire dions. ... Determination of hens egg white lysozyme content by high performance liquid chromatography ...
Doped Reversed Phase Chromatography Gels. Faster, better and more economic than traditional separation technologies.. ... and silica gels for industrial applications as well as high performance chromatography gels for the pharmaceutical ...
I: Investigation of the effect of column temperature in capillary reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of ... Investigation of the effect of column temperature in capillary reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of ... The effect of column temperature on separation of proteins in reversed phases capillary LC has been investigated in the range ... Mobile phase components and the trap columns were pointed out as the source of the interferences, but no strategy was developed ...
Lipoxin A4: Problems with its determination using reversed phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and confirmation with ... The determination of lipoxin A(4) has been accomplished by chromatographic separation using a C18 reversed phase column and ... The authors recommend the use of chiral chromatography in the determination of pro-resolving lipid mediators, together with ...
... phase high performance liquid chromatography centrifugal thin layer chromatography and droplet countercurrent chromatography ... Comparative study of peptide type antibiotics in reversed phase thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high performance ... Journal Of Chromatography: 3-96, 1984. Use of ion paired reversed phase thin layer chromatography for the analysis of peptides ... Reversed phase high performance thin layer chromatography and column liquid chromatography of metal complexes of pheophorbide a ...
"Influence of eluent composition on the retention factor of azoles in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, ... Influence of eluent composition on the retention factor of azoles in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. ... Influence of eluent composition on the retention factor of azoles in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. ... Influence of eluent composition on the retention factor of azoles in reversed-phase... Kurbatova, S.; Kharitonova, O. 2008-05- ...
Profiling of ornithine lipids in bacterial extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ... Profiling of ornithine lipids in bacterial extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ... were investigated by high-performance reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization mass ...
Synthesis and Characterization of Reversed-Phase Continuous Beds for Isocratic and Gradient Capillary Liquid Chromatography and ...
  • The experimental Rm values for a series of aminoalkanethiosulfuric acids, mercaptoalkanamines and aminoalkyl disulfides were determined by reverse phase thin layer chromatography. (mdpi.com)
  • Normal and reversed phase thin layer chromatography data in quantitative structure-activity relationship study of compounds with affinity for serot. (nih.gov)
  • Thin layer chromatography was performed on silica gel NP 60F(254) and silica gel RP2 60F(254) (silanized) plates impregnated with solutions of aspartic acid, serine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, asparagine, threonine and their mixtures (denoted as S1-S11 models), with two mobile phases - the systems were chosen as models of drug-5-HT-receptor interaction. (nih.gov)
  • SURANA, SANJAY J and NAWALE, PRAJAKTA S . SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE USING REVERSED - PHASE HIGH -PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY / DENSITOMETRY . (scielo.cl)
  • The obtained results showed that reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC), especially with tetrafydrofurane used as an organic modifier of mobile phase, is a useful tool for lipophilicity estimation, as well as for prediction of β-blockers' biological properties. (bocsci.com)
  • The chromatographic behavior of 23 new 2-alkylidene-4-oxothiazolidine derivatives was investigated by means of the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP TLC) on the C18 and CN stationary phases. (ac.rs)
  • A validated method that is based on the use of volatile ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to stable isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the simple and accurate quantitation of underivatized amino acids in biological samples. (nih.gov)
  • The determination of lipoxin A(4) has been accomplished by chromatographic separation using a C18 reversed phase column and tandem mass spectrometry detection. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Corrigendum to "Development of a lipid profiling system using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry with rapid polarity switching and an automated lipid identification software" [J. Chromatogr. (elsevier.com)
  • The coupling of mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance to chromatography has broadened the possibilities for determining organic reaction mechanisms. (rsc.org)
  • Although individual facilities and research groups may have their own equipment, the Department also maintains a core facility of more than 20 scientific instruments in the areas of Atomic Spectroscopy, Molecular Spectroscopy, Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, Electrochemistry, and Materials Characterization. (wcu.edu)
  • A comprehensive structural characterization of the complex family of isomeric forms related to Oleuropein aglycone (OA) detected in virgin olive oil (VOO) was performed by reverse phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-FTMS), integrated by enzymatic/chemical reactions performed on Oleuropein, the natural precursor of OA. (usda.gov)
  • consists of essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which varies with species, climate, and growing environment. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the invention describes the concept of using perfluorocarbon emulsions for examining the ADME/PK (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics) properties of chemical mixtures in animals and a method for preparing the emulsions for direct analysis by techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. (google.com.au)
  • A reversed-phase capillary ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. (pnl.gov)
  • In-vial dual extraction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry applied to streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. (regionh.dk)
  • Conditions for the isocratic separation by reversed-phase ion-interaction chromatography of Bi(III), Fe(III), Co(III), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) chelates with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid have been studied using UV-Vis detection. (springer.com)
  • For this reason, normal phase chromatography is more commonly used for separation of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of stationary phases available for use in RPC, allowing great flexibility in the development of separation methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sufficient separation of 22 underivatized amino acids was achieved on a C18 column in 36 min using perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as mobile phase modifiers. (nih.gov)
  • Although a base-line resolution of the known four major antimycins Al, A2, A3, and A4 was readily achieved with mobile phases containing acetate buffers, the separation of the new antibiotic subcomponents was highly sensitive to variation in mobile phase conditions. (usgs.gov)
  • Of the numerous chromatographic systems examined, a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (70:30) and 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium phosphate at pH 3.0 yielded the most satisfactory results for the separation of the subcomponents. (usgs.gov)
  • Reversed-phase gradient HPLC separation of the dansylated or methylated antibiotic compounds produced superior chromatographic characteristics and the presence of added electrolytes was not a critical factor for achieving separation. (usgs.gov)
  • The HPLC include a pump that delivers the mobile phase and sample through the system, an auto sampler or injector port for sample introduction, the stationary phase where separation of compounds takes place, a detector to detect the compounds and a good integrator or a computer system for the visible output. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Separation of both these drugs were achieved on aluminum backed silica gel 60 RP-18 F 254 S HPTLC plates, prewashed with methanol using methanol: toluene: ammonia (7:3:0.5 v/v) as mobile phase. (scielo.cl)
  • A relative newcomer to the proteomic separation arena is the commercial instrument PF2D from Beckman Coulter that separates proteins in the first dimension using chromatofocusing followed in line by reversed phase chromatography in the second dimension, thereby separating intact proteins based on pI and hydrophobicity. (mcponline.org)
  • Finally, a separation example demonstrated the excellent separation power of on-chip IP-RP chromatography by achieving a large operation range of DNA length (10-300 bp) with a 5-bp difference among 11 dsDNA fragments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ZEOsphere® DRPDoped Reversed Phase Chromatography GelsFaster, better and more economic than traditional separation technologies. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The effect of column temperature on separation of proteins in reversed phases capillary LC has been investigated in the range of 25ºC-125ºC. (uio.no)
  • Additionally, separation of two and three proteins using temperature gradient as an alternative to mobile phase gradient has been investigated. (uio.no)
  • Satisfying separation was accomplished using both mobile phase and temperature gradient without any significant difference in recovery between the modes. (uio.no)
  • A mobile phase gradient that almost separated a mixture of ten proteins at 30ºC was carried out under different temperature conditions, flow rates, and with or without a preheater to heat the mobile phase prior to the column to investigate if the separation could be improved. (uio.no)
  • If silica gel for advanced normal-phase and reversed phase chromatography is required, we recommend using the irregular shaped LiChroprep® or the perfect spherical PharmPrep™ - highly versatile materials providing fast, effective and reproducible separation. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Reverse-phase chromatography of polar biological substances: separation of catechol compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. (aaccjnls.org)
  • A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with amperometric detection is described for the separation and quantification of uric acid, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine. (duke.edu)
  • The isocratic separation of a standard mixture of the compounds was achieved in 5 min on a Spherisorb 5 C18 reversed-phase column, with a mobile phase of NaH2PO4 (300 mmol dm-3, pH 3.0)-methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (97.8 + 0.5 + 1.5 + 0.2). (duke.edu)
  • The effect of pH and the composition of the mobile phase on the separation are described. (duke.edu)
  • Liquid chromatography separation of cysteine-conjugated ADCs to characterize the drug loading distribution is the topic of this paper. (abbviecontractmfg.com)
  • In this work, we present a novel on-line chromatographic method coupling hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) dedicated to class-specific separation of polar lipid to reversed-phase chromatography (RP) for non-polar lipid analysis. (rsc.org)
  • 13,19,22,26-29 HILIC chromatography on the other hand avoids isobaric overlaps between different classes as it enables lipid class-separation by hydrophilic interaction. (rsc.org)
  • The chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column maintained at 25 ºC and an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile 8020 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min-1 and UV- detection at 265 nm. (bvsalud.org)
  • A reversed-phase column with UV detection at 224 nm was used for chromatographic separation. (elsevier.com)
  • Normal-phase flash chromatography1 has been widely adopted as the method of choice for separation of product mixtures and reaction by-products. (biotage.com)
  • Reversed-phase purification is a modification of normalphase chromatography that provides an efficient mechanism for the separation of polar compounds. (biotage.com)
  • It is impossible to retain and obtain base-line separation for this compounds on traditional reversed-phase core-shell column. (helixchrom.com)
  • Compounds are retained by weak reverse phase and weak ion-exchange mechanisms, but synergy of two mechanism provides efficient separation with excellent peak shape, symmetry and efficiency. (helixchrom.com)
  • We also compare the kinetic performance of the optimised HILIC separation with a previously developed high pH reversed-phase approach. (regionh.dk)
  • In particular, the dependence of the retention properties of these solutes on mobile phase composition, pH, and buffer concentration was evaluated with the aim of optimizing and improving the selectivity and retention of solute separation. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This suggests preferred use of ion chromatography for separation and analysis of compounds below 4 carbon atoms in the alkyl side chain. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, on the reversed phase column, most metabolites eluted very rapidly with little or no separation. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This property distinguishes it from a pure HILIC (hydrophilic interaction chromatography) columns where separation by polar differences is obtained through partitioning into a water-rich layer on the surface, or a pure RP stationary phase on which separation by nonpolar differences in solutes is obtained with very limited secondary mechanisms operating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparative reversed-phase HPLC under optimal conditions enabled isolation of pure samples of the methylated antimycin subcomponents for use in structural studies. (usgs.gov)
  • It can also be used for isolation and purification of high value compounds, called preparative chromatography. (diva-portal.org)
  • on a preparative scale by HPLC on RP-18 phases with water as the eluent. (epfl.ch)
  • Preparative column chomatography (advanced normal phase and reversed phase chromatography) plays an important role in purifying valuable compounds in research, pilot plant operation and production. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Gradient elution of polystyrene standards on reversed phase C18 columns by methanol/tetrahydrofuran or methanol/dichloromethane mixtures yielded a strange effect of the molecular weight of the sample on the specific peak are (mAUs per μg sample injected). (springer.com)
  • Note that C18, C8 and phenyl are dedicated reversed-phase resins, while cyano columns can be used in a reversed-phase mode depending on analyte and mobile phase conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This application note presents a method of extracting barbiturates from urine and plasma samples by using Tox-Elut solid phase extraction columns and identification through UV/Vis absorbance spectrum comparisons with a reference library. (selectscience.net)
  • Commonly used packaging material in reverse phase columns are silica linked with carbon-18 (C18). (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Elution behavior of short dsDNA strands in silicon micropillar array columns in ion pair reversed-phase chromatography mode. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These derivatives are analyzed with good selectivity by high-performance liquid chromatography employing 3-microns particle size reversed-phase columns. (nih.gov)
  • A test mixture of salicylate, nitrofurantoin, and acetophenone was separated in this order on C1, C4, and C18 columns using an EAA modified aqueous mobile phase. (springer.com)
  • Mobile phase components and the trap columns were pointed out as the source of the interferences, but no strategy was developed to deal with the problem. (uio.no)
  • The classification map based on the carotenoid test can also be used to follow the advancements in stationary phase design, differences, and similarities of superficially porous particle (SPP) phases, of sub-2-µm fully porous particle (FPP) columns, and varied ligand chemistries. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Reversed-phase chromatography of proteins, performed on columns packed with porous or coated, solid-core particles possessing wide pore size particles ( e.g., 300Å), and functionalized with short ligand length chemistries (e.g. (waters.com)
  • These 450Å, 2.7 µm columns were developed in response to shortcomings of existing reversed-phase columns designed for LC or LC-MS analysis of intact mAb or mAb subunits. (waters.com)
  • For more than 20 years, chromatographers have benefited from performance characteristics that Waters reversed-phase columns have provided for protein separations. (waters.com)
  • The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the retention properties of 25 siloxane-bonded type-B silica columns under typical reversed-phase liquid chromatography conditions with binary aqueous mobile phases containing 10-70% (v/v) methanol and acetonitrile. (usda.gov)
  • Polymer-based reversed-phase Thermo Scientific™ IonPac™ and OmniPac™ HPLC columns are resistant to solvents, acids and bases while permitting the use of eluents from pH 0 to 14, and are used for high-efficiency ion chromatography (IC) separations of hydrophobic, ionizable compounds such as surfactants and larger organic acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • RediSep Rf Gold Cyano high performance columns have a cyano bound silica gel that has an intermediate polarity, between that of normal and reversed phase silica gel. (selectscience.net)
  • Reversed-phase chromatography is a technique using alkyl chains covalently bonded to the stationary phase particles in order to create a hydrophobic stationary phase, which has a stronger affinity for hydrophobic or less polar compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) have successfully been developed for naturally occurring phenolic compounds in a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) system. (mdpi.com)
  • In a normal phase application, the non-polar compounds will be eluted faster compared to polar compounds. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Inside a reverse phase HPLC, the non-polar compounds are retained in the line longer than the polar compounds. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • It can be used for identification and quantification of interesting compounds generally present in low concentrations, called analytical scale chromatography. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have shown that shape recognition, which indicates the ability of the stationary phase to separate closely related compounds such as isomers, mainly depends on the bonding density, the pore size, and the ligand type (mono- or polyfunctional). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • In Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography the most polar compounds elute first with the most non-polar compounds eluting last . (chromatographyshop.com)
  • Our polymer based reverse phase chromatography packings have been widely used in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, isolation and purification of organic compounds, proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. (chromspheres.com)
  • Amino acids are very polar compounds with limited or no retention in reversed-phase chromatography. (helixchrom.com)
  • A method for analyzing the ADME/PK properties of a mixture of compounds is (1) perfusing an animal or organ with a perfluorocarbon emulsion blood substitute, (2) administering the mixture of test compounds, (3) withdrawing an aliquot of the perfusate, (4) disrupting the emulsion, and (5) analyzing the aqueous phase of the perfusate for the concentration of test compounds. (google.com.au)
  • Its main application areas include polar, ionizable and highly lipophilic compounds which cannot easily be separated by normal-phase techniques. (biotage.com)
  • Reversed-phase chromatography facilitates the isolation of milligram to multi-gram quantities of polar compounds from naturally occurring materials or from synthetic reaction products. (biotage.com)
  • In the view of chromatography these compounds are very polar and similar in properties. (helixchrom.com)
  • This toolkit of alternative Flash media provides faster, cleaner separations by eliminating common problems encountered in normal-phase purification of basic compounds. (selectscience.net)
  • In normal-phase chromatography, the least polar compounds elute first and the most polar compounds elute last. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANP retention has been demonstrated for a variety of polar compounds on the hydride based stationary phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4] An interesting feature of these phases is that both polar and nonpolar compounds can be retained over some range of mobile phase composition (organic/aqueous). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important feature of the hydride-based phases is that for many analyses it is usually not necessary to use a high pH mobile phase to analyze polar compounds such as bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • EAA as a modifier allowed for faster separations of water-soluble vitamins on a reversed phase column designed for totally 100% aqueous mobile phases. (springer.com)
  • Isabelle François UGent , Alberto Dos Santos Pereira UGent and Patrick Sandra UGent ( 2009 ) High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques, 34th International symposium, Abstracts . (ugent.be)
  • Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a widely used technique for analytical separations but routinely requires empirical optimization. (byu.edu)
  • Different chromatographic separations were developed for lipidomics tasks including reversed-phase chromatography (RP), normal phase chromatography (NP), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), strong anion exchange chromatography (SAX) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). (rsc.org)
  • Ang, C.Y. and Mosley, F.A. Determination of thiamin and ribofla- vin in meat products by high-pressure liquid chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • While the overall retention mechanism remains the same, subtle differences in the surface chemistries of different stationary phases will lead to changes in selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five proteins have been used as models to study changes in retention time and recovery using a 150 x 0.3 mm PLRP-S column and a water/Acn mobile phase gradient. (uio.no)
  • Kharitonova, O. 2008-05-09 00:00:00 The linear dependence of the retention factor of indole, imidazole, triazole, and tetrazole derivatives on the acetonitrile content of the mobile phase was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • The relationship between the retention of ethanol on the brush phase with water/methanol mixtures, as shown in figure 35, can now be explained. (chromatography-online.org)
  • The liberation of the chains from the surface results in an increase in the effective surface area of the stationary phase and the retention of the solute also starts to increase. (chromatography-online.org)
  • The retention mechanism on brush type phases under these conditions might be anomalous. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Unlike ion-exchange or ion-pair chromatography, mixtures of both acidic and basic substances can be separated in a single chromatographic run, because the retention is governed by hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar moiety of the solute molecules and the octadecyl-silica stationary phase. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Retention increases as the amount of the polar solvent (water) in the mobile phase increases. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • The aim of presented study was to investigate influence of different organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, dioxin and tetrahydrofurane) on β-blockers' retention on C18 bonded silica gel stationary phase. (bocsci.com)
  • In this work, the liquid chromatography retention time in monomeric and polymeric stationary phases of PAHs was investigated. (org.rs)
  • Thus, polar solutes (such as acids and amines) are most strongly retained, with retention decreasing as the amount of water in the mobile phase increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the amount of the nonpolar component in the mobile phase must be 60% or greater with the exact point of increased retention depending on the solute and the organic component of the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug distribution profiles of ADCs are routinely characterized by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). (abbviecontractmfg.com)
  • N. E. Mostafa ,E. A. Eissa ,A. M. El Bastawissy , Reverse-phase gas liquid chromatography of lubricating oils: i- interaction coefficient and oxidation mechanism, Egypt. (who.int)
  • The most common approaches are reversed-phase chromatography with ion-pairing reagent and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). (helixchrom.com)
  • reversed phase (RP), aqueous normal phase (ANP), and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) for the analysis of polar metabolite standard mixtures and for their coverage of urinary metabolites. (strath.ac.uk)
  • François I, Dos Santos Pereira A, Sandra P. Comprehensive and off-line supercritical fluid chromatography: reversed phase liquid chromatography for the analysis of complex triglyceride profiles. (ugent.be)
  • Subsequent increase in methanol concentration merely increases the interactions of the ethanol with the mobile phase and, by adsorption of the solvent onto the surface of the reverse phase, reduces the interactive forces with the reverse phase. (chromatography-online.org)
  • From the adsorption isotherm it is seen that the sulphonate must be present in the mobile phase at about 10 to 15 %w/w in order to cover most of the reverse phase surface. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Cation exchange, nonspecific hydrophobic interactions, and adsorption chromatography behavior were observed. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Reversed phase chromatography occurred at low concentrations of acetonitrile, electrostatic and adsorption interactions at higher organic modifier concentrations. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • 3] In addition the substantial negative charge on the surface of hydride phases is the result of hydroxide ion adsorption from the solvent rather than silanols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversed-phase chromatography (also called RPC, reverse-phase chromatography, or hydrophobic chromatography) includes any chromatographic method that uses a hydrophobic stationary phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s, most liquid chromatography was performed using a solid support stationary phase (also called a column) containing unmodified silica or alumina resins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the stationary phase is hydrophilic in this technique, molecules with hydrophilic properties contained within the mobile phase will have a high affinity for the stationary phase, and therefore will adsorb to the column packing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elution of the hydrophilic molecules adsorbed to the column packing requires the use of more hydrophilic or more polar solvents in the mobile phase to shift the distribution of the particles in the stationary phase towards that of the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of a hydrophobic stationary phase is essentially the reverse of normal phase chromatography, since the polarity of the mobile and stationary phases have been inverted - hence the term reversed-phase chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, hydrophobic molecules in the polar mobile phase tend to adsorb to the hydrophobic stationary phase, and hydrophilic molecules in the mobile phase will pass through the column and are eluted first. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more hydrophobic the molecule, the more strongly it will bind to the stationary phase, and the higher the concentration of organic solvent that will be required to elute the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal phase HPLC means the stationary phase is made from polar packing material while the cellular phase is of non-polar or low polarity solvents. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Commonly used polar stationary phase or column is filled with silica. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • The rule is opposite of normal phase system, where the stationary phase is packed non-polar material and the mobile phase is polar. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • In pure water the hydrocarbon chains of the brush phase are collapsed on the surface and thus, the effective surface area of the stationary phase is much reduced. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Consequently, there will be less ion exchange material on the stationary phase surface. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Silica based Octadecyl (C18) material is the most common stationary phase. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • The column contains a non-polar stationary phase that interacts with the compound of interest as it is pumped through the column. (avomeen.com)
  • First, improved vibrational mode assignments of the C18 stationary phase were needed for proper understanding of this model system. (byu.edu)
  • This interference of resonant and nonresonant signals on fused silica surfaces has not been previously examined and further studies of the model RPLC stationary phase must properly deal with the non-negligible nonresonant interference that is present. (byu.edu)
  • While using the SCX stationary phase, several interactions occurred with varying strengths, depending on the mobile phase composition. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • octadecyl (C18) is the most common stationary phase, but octyl (C8) and butyl (C4) are also used in some applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the mobile phase is both "aqueous" (water is present) and "normal" (less polar than the stationary phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • A true ANP stationary phase will be able to function in both the reversed phase and normal phase modes with only the amount of water in the eluent varying. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reliable, rapid and sensitive isocratic reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for assay of ketorolac tromethamine in tablets and ophthalmic dosage forms using diclofenac sodium as an internal standard. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Chromatographic analysis was performed on Oyster BDS (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) column using mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min in isocratic mode. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Determination of creatine phosphate levels in brain tissue by isocratic reverse-phase, ion-paired high-performance liquid chromatography. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The utilization of isocratic, reverse-phase, ion-paired high-performance liquid chromatography for analysis of creatine phosphate allows for rapid quantification of multiple samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The analyte is separated from coextracted materials by isocratic ion-pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography, following removal of late-eluting materials on an acid alumina cleanup column, and is detected at 270 nm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation (VR-SFG) is a surface specific technique that has allowed for in situ examination of model RPLC stationary phases under various solvent and pressure conditions. (byu.edu)
  • In order to improve on past work with model RPLC stationary phases two challenges had to be overcome. (byu.edu)
  • Finally, this tool is very convenient for a rapid selection of identical or different stationary phases on the basis of the three studied properties. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • To this effect, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed, yielding the results helpful in interpretation of interactions among investigated substances, binary mobile phases, and the two different stationary phases. (ac.rs)
  • Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. (pnl.gov)
  • The potential to separate proteins, rather than peptides, by liquid chromatography using two dimensions would potentially provide the same advantages as 2DE. (mcponline.org)
  • The mass spectrometer is coupled to a reverse-phase LC unit, which reduces sample complexity and increases concentration of the peptides during MS acquisition. (mcponline.org)
  • Mixtures of water or aqueous buffers and organic solvents are used to elute analytes from a reversed-phase column. (wikipedia.org)
  • It would also appear that for certain solutes, the best reverse phase for operation with aqueous mixtures containing very little solvent might be a bulk reverse phase. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Binary mixtures of methanol and water, tetrahydrofuran and water, and acetone and water were used as mobile phases. (ac.rs)
  • R-M(0) values were determined for these mobile phase mixtures by linear extrapolation to 0% (v/v) organic modifier. (ac.rs)
  • Binary mixtures of methanol-water, acetonitrile-water, and tetrahydrofuran-water were used as mobile phases. (ac.rs)
  • Chromatographic properties of sixteen β-blockers were studied using planar chromatography. (bocsci.com)
  • Examples of solvents used to make up a normal phase mobile phase are hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl ether, plus isopropyl alcohol (IPA). (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Most of the solvents used in the mobile phase are usually water immiscible and have low polarity. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • IPA can be used in both reverse plus normal phase as it is miscible along with water as well as water immiscible solvents. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • We have synthesized the low melting hygroscopic ionic liquid ethylammonium acetate (EAA) and characterized a concentrated solution of EAA as a reversed phase mobile phase replacement for organic solvents like methanol. (springer.com)
  • As already discussed, mobile phase components can act like solvents or solutes. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Normal phase chromatography, an adsorptive mechanism, is used for the analysis of solutes readily soluble in organic solvents, based on their polar differences such as amines, acids, metal complexes, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic molecules can be eluted from the column by decreasing the polarity of the mobile phase using an organic (non-polar) solvent, which reduces hydrophobic interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remember that cyano can be used in both normal plus reverse phases and some column producers produce two types of cyano line to suit each phase. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • In this second part of the "Column Watch" series, additional studies were conducted to show more detail and demonstrate the usefulness of this classification map: Does the evolution of the stationary phases provide real changes in their chromatographic behaviour? (chromatographyonline.com)
  • The column used is a perfusion packed column in reversed phase mode. (innoget.com)
  • Our polymer chromatography column packing material is made of highly crosslinked monodisperse polymer resins including highly crosslinked polystyrene divinylbenzen, polymethyl methacrylate, copolymers of PS/DVB and PMMA. (chromspheres.com)
  • The system is optimized for reverse phase chromatography, which allows the analyst to utilize a highly polar mobile phase solution that carries the compound of interest through the chromatography column. (avomeen.com)
  • Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to purify a crude extract of bovine parathyroid glands, in a single run on an analytical column, to give a high yield of homogeneous material with full bioactivity in in vivo bioassay. (monash.edu)
  • Yasumoto, K. Tadera, K., Tsuji, H. and Mitsuda, H. Semi-auto-mated system for analysis of vitamin B6 complex by ionexchange column chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • It should be noted that HPLC method development is a complicated process where many operational parameters, including column selectivity parameters, column kinetic properties, mobile phase compositions, column temperature, ion pair types and concentration, gradient profile, and their interactions need to be considered. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Investigated validation parameters included selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness (changes in column temperature , mobile phase composition and flow). (bvsalud.org)
  • In this method, Nucleosil C18 300 A column (250×4.6 mm ID), equipped with a guard column and acetonitrile containing TFA as mobile phase was used. (ac.ir)
  • Williams, R.C., Baker, D.R. and Schmit, J.A. Analysis of water soluble vitamins by high speed ion exchange chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 19-25 Indeed, RP chromatography separates lipids based on hydrophobic properties such as fatty acid chain length, degree of saturation and double bond position. (rsc.org)
  • The authors recommend the use of chiral chromatography in the determination of pro-resolving lipid mediators, together with transition area ratio and fragmentation spectra to improve selectivity for identification and quantitation purposes. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Selectivity is one of the most important factors in chromatography. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Changing the chemistry of the bonded phase (e.g. from C18 to cyano or phenyl) is a more powerful tool in altering the selectivity. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • Procedure for characterization and quantification of soybean proteins by Perfusion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (innoget.com)
  • However, the denaturation of proteins may actually be beneficial in the later analysis of the samples obtained from the chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PF2D system (Beckman Coulter) is a two-dimensional LC system that uses chromatographic focusing to separate intact proteins in the first dimension by pI (from 8.5-4.0) and in the second dimension by reversed phase chromatography, which separates based on hydrophobicity, thus enhancing the precise detection of isoforms and/or PTMs that alter the pI and/or hydrophobicity of a protein. (mcponline.org)
  • A research group from the Analytical Chemistry Department of Alcalá University has developed an analytical method of Perfusion reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to characterize and quantify soybean proteins in commercial products in short analysis times. (innoget.com)
  • The method for determining the soy proteins in commercial products by Perfusion high-performance liquid chromatography is carried out in a high pressure liquid chromatograph that allows to work in gradient and it has coupled an absorption ultraviolet visible detector (UV-vis) of variable wavelength. (innoget.com)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) storage proteins, and their genetic variability in different winter and spring isolines, cultivars and landraces. (ac.ir)
  • The lipophilicity parameters obtained from the reversed-phase experiments were compared with the calculated log P values. (ac.rs)
  • Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications , Vol. 223, No. 1, 10.04.1981, p. 59-67. (monash.edu)
  • Journal of Chromatography A , Vol. 1326, 24.01.2014. (elsevier.com)
  • Journal of Chromatography A . 2014 Jan 24;1326. (elsevier.com)
  • C. Barrachina, and P. Cuadra-Crespo, "Determination of stoichiometric coefficients and apparent formation constants for β -cyclodextrin complexes of trans -resveratrol using reversed-phase liquid chromatography," Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 1135, no. 2, pp. 158-165, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • S. Das and K.-Y. Ng, "Quantification of trans -resveratrol in rat plasma by a simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method and its application in pre-clinical study," Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies , vol. 34, no. 14, pp. 1399-1414, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications , 765 (2), 161-166. (elsevier.com)
  • Liaw, J & Chang, TW 2001, ' Determination of transdermal sildenafil in nude mouse skin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ', Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications , vol. 765, no. 2, pp. 161-166. (elsevier.com)
  • Owing to a need for simple extraction and purification for analysis of water soluble vitamins in food samples by RP-HPLC with UV-detector, the methods of bromelain and protease hydrolysis and $C_{18}$ Sep-Pak solid phase extraction were employed. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Reversed-phase flash chromatography is a very effective purification technique. (biotage.com)
  • Biotage reversed phase KP-C18-HS SNAP cartridges have been shown in a number of applications to be effective for the purification of natural products. (biotage.com)
  • Normal-phase flash purification is commonly used by organic chemists in pharmaceutical drug discovery and process development labs. (biotage.com)
  • Reversed-phase flash purification is an excellent solution for these applications. (biotage.com)
  • High end Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used being an analytical instrument to separate certain substances in a sample. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • However , large amount of IPA in a cellular phase will cause high pressure in the HPLC system due to its high density value. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • Despite the relatively high viscosity of EAA, plate count values averaged only about 15% less for EAA as compared to methanol using the same mobile phase composition and could be raised by either working at a temperature above ambient or reducing the flow rate. (springer.com)
  • Traditional C18 (ODS) phases are hydrophobic and have a high polarity due to the lower purity silicas on which they are based. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • Simultaneous determination of guanine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. (duke.edu)
  • This novel technique employs a mobile phase 50 mM ammonium acetate for high sensitivity in MS and elution with a gradient of water/isopropanol. (abbviecontractmfg.com)
  • The recoveries of standard water soluble vitamins by the bromelain and protease hydrolysis and $C_{18}$ Sep-Pak solid phase extraction were significantly high compared to AOAC methods in most of vitamins. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Wong, F.F. Analysis of vitamin B6 in extractives of food materi-als by high-performance liquid chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Hoppner, K. and Lampi, B. The determination of folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) in fortified products by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Although numerous papers have been published on reversed phase HPLC method development and optimization by DOE strategies [5,8-10], method development strategies that fully rely on DOE need to search the entire high dimensional design space, which usually requires large amount of experimental trials, especially for complex samples. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • In this study, cortisol was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in urine samples previously extracted with ether and using triamcinolone acetonide as internal standard (IS). (unifesp.br)
  • Linear relationships between the volume fraction of the organic mobile phase modifier and the RM values were established for each solute with high correlation coefficient values (r0.99). (ac.rs)
  • Exposure to pentachlorophenol is most commonly evaluated by analysis of urine, blood, feces, or adipose or other tissues, using gas chromatography (GC) combined with electron capture detection (ECD) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with ultraviolet (UV) detection. (cdc.gov)
  • Determination of tranexamic acid in cosmetic products by high-performance liquid chromatography via a simple method. (innovareacademics.in)
  • To date, research on TA in both cosmetics and other pharmaceutical products using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has not been done directly (without derivatization). (ui.ac.id)
  • Determination de la teneur en furosine. (bsigroup.com)
  • Ion-pair reverse-phase liquid chromatographic determination of amprolium in complete feeds and premixes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When coupled with the use of more effective and reproducible bonding processes, a new generation of reversed-phase materials was produced. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • This supports the premise that lower hydrophobicity of the bonded phase is the key to enabling online nRPLC-MS analysis of antibody−drug conjugates. (abbviecontractmfg.com)
  • RP chromatography has emerged as state of the art method for LC-MS based lipidomics analysis as it allows polar and non-polar lipid analysis in one run, however isobaric overlaps from different lipid classes can occur complicating lipid identification. (rsc.org)
  • The authors put an emphasis on the computational methods for the different phases of a proteomics analysis, but the underlying principles in protein chemistry and instrument technology are also described. (wiley.com)
  • Results: The optimal analysis condition used a ultraviolet detector at a wavelength of 210 nm, acetonitrile: double-distilled water: phosphoric acid (64:34:2) as the mobile phase and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. (ui.ac.id)
  • The aqueous component of the mobile phase usually contains from 0.1 to 0.5% formic or acetic acid, which is compatible with detector techniques that include mass spectral analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9030-09-5 (Cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase) Role: ANST (Analytical study) (for dextrin functionalization for reversed-phase HPLC sepn. (epfl.ch)
  • Therefore, this study aimed to develop a simple and rapid analytical method for TA (without derivatization) in cosmetic cream samples using reverse-phase HPLC and water as a solvent. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The carotenoid test allows one to build a simple classification map of stationary phases used in reversed‑phase liquid chromatography, on the basis of the shape recognition (plotted on the x axis), the polar surface activity (plotted on the y axis), and the phase hydrophobicity (related by the bubble size). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • The only observable difference for the Gemini phases is that the hydrophobicity of Gemini NX (n°156) is lower than that for Gemini C18 (n°127) as indicated by the smaller bubble size. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • The hydrophobicity of the bonded phase is varied, and the least hydrophobic bonded phase in the series, poly(methyl methacrylate), is found to resolve the intact constituents of a model ADC (Ab095-PZ) and a commercial ADC (brentuximab vedotin) under the MS-compatible conditions. (abbviecontractmfg.com)
  • The cellular phase for a reverse phase system usually consists of water or buffer solution, methanol, acetonitrile and IPA. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • The mobile phase consisted of 32% acetonitrile with 0.2% phosphoric acid in water at pH 5.3 adjusted with 10 M NaOH with the flow-rate set at 1.0 ml/min. (elsevier.com)
  • The mobile phase contains 4mM DOSS with 0.3% diethylamine and 1% acetic acid in 40% acetonitrile. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Underivatized amino acids can be retained by combination of reversed-phase and cation exchange mechanism. (helixchrom.com)
  • EPRUI Biotech Co. Ltd. offers a new generation of reversed phase polymer HPLC packing material. (chromspheres.com)
  • Catecholamines and their metabolites have been separated isocratically by reverse-phase chromatography with aqueous (no organic solvent admixed) eluents. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The mobile phase is generally a binary mixture of water and a miscible polar organic solvent. (chromatographyshop.com)
  • should always be run with at least 1% organic solvent in the mobile phase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Waters offers PoraPak™ Rxn, a family of polymer-based chromatography products for superior cleanup of synthetic reactions. (selectscience.net)
  • This type of technique is now referred to as normal-phase chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC first started along with normal phase. (fibrefestinternational.com)
  • For reversed phase and normal phase chromatography the quality of the sorbent is of tremendous importance. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Aqueous normal-phase chromatography (ANP) is a chromatographic technique that involves the mobile phase region between reversed-phase chromatography (RP) and organic normal-phase chromatography (ONP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical stationary phases for normal-phase chromatography are silica or organic moieties with cyano and amino functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another aspect of the behavior of the bulk phase at low solvent concentrations is that it does, in fact, confirm the cross-linked nature of the bulk phase. (chromatography-online.org)
  • In pure water, (or at very low concentrations of solvent) octane sulphonate will cover the outer reverse phase surface when there is only about 0.5 %w/w of octane sulphonate in the mobile phase. (chromatography-online.org)
  • 10 On general terms, MS based lipidomics strategies involve (1) direct-infusion shotgun lipidomics approaches 10-12 and/or (2) the combination of liquid chromatography (LC) and MS. 2,13-18 Shotgun lipidomics offers the advantage of fast lipid profiling but the direct infusion leads to problems with isomeric and isobaric lipid species and a limited dynamic range in a sample of interest. (rsc.org)
  • Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS. (pnl.gov)
  • Validated quantitation of underivatized amino acids in human blood samples by volatile ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to iso. (nih.gov)