Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.PaperMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.SepharoseSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.PolysaccharidesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Glycoside HydrolasesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.TritiumPlants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)EstersImmunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.GlucosidesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.GlucosaminePlants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.

Characterization of a neutrophil cell surface glycosaminoglycan that mediates binding of platelet factor 4. (1/1431)

Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) is a platelet-derived alpha-chemokine that binds to and activates human neutrophils to undergo specific functions like exocytosis or adhesion. PF-4 binding has been shown to be independent of interleukin-8 receptors and could be inhibited by soluble chondroitin sulfate type glycosaminoglycans or by pretreatment of cells with chondroitinase ABC. Here we present evidence that surface-expressed neutrophil glycosaminoglycans are of chondroitin sulfate type and that this species binds to the tetrameric form of PF-4. The glycosaminoglycans consist of a single type of chain with an average molecular mass of approximately 23 kDa and are composed of approximately 85-90% chondroitin 4-sulfate disaccharide units type CSA (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)beta1-->) and of approximately 10-15% di-O-sulfated disaccharide units. A major part of these di-O-sulfated disaccharide units are CSE units (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4,6-O-sulfate)beta1-->). Binding studies revealed that the interaction of chondroitin sulfate with PF-4 required at least 20 monosaccharide units for significant binding. The di-O-sulfated disaccharide units in neutrophil glycosaminoglycans clearly promoted the affinity to PF-4, which showed a Kd approximately 0.8 microM, as the affinities of bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate A, porcine skin dermatan sulfate, or bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate C, all consisting exclusively of monosulfated disaccharide units, were found to be 3-5-fold lower. Taken together, our data indicate that chondroitin sulfate chains function as physiologically relevant binding sites for PF-4 on neutrophils and that the affinity of these chains for PF-4 is controlled by their degree of sulfation.  (+info)

Structural features and anticoagulant activities of a novel natural low molecular weight heparin from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. (2/1431)

A natural low molecular weight heparin (8.5 kDa), with an anticoagulant activity of 95 IU/mg by the USP assay, was isolated from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. The crustacean heparin was susceptible to both heparinase and heparitinase II from Flavobacterium heparinum forming tri- and di-sulfated disaccharides as the mammalian heparins. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the shrimp heparin was enriched in both glucuronic and non-sulfated iduronic acid residues. The in vitro anticlotting activities in different steps of the coagulation cascade have shown that its anticoagulant action is mainly exerted through the inhibition of factor Xa and heparin cofactor II-mediated inhibition of thrombin. The shrimp heparin has also a potent in vivo antithrombotic activity comparable to the mammalian low molecular weight heparins.  (+info)

Stereochemical course and steady state mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the GDP-fucose synthetase from Escherichia coli. (3/1431)

Recently the genes encoding the human and Escherichia coli GDP-mannose dehydratase and GDP-fucose synthetase (GFS) protein have been cloned and it has been shown that these two proteins alone are sufficient to convert GDP mannose to GDP fucose in vitro. GDP-fucose synthetase from E. coli is a novel dual function enzyme in that it catalyzes epimerizations and a reduction reaction at the same active site. This aspect separates fucose biosynthesis from that of other deoxy and dideoxy sugars in which the epimerase and reductase activities are present on separate enzymes encoded by separate genes. By NMR spectroscopy we have shown that GFS catalyzes the stereospecific hydride transfer of the ProS hydrogen from NADPH to carbon 4 of the mannose sugar. This is consistent with the stereospecificity observed for other members of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family of enzymes of which GFS is a member. Additionally the enzyme is able to catalyze the epimerization reaction in the absence of NADP or NADPH. The kinetic mechanism of GFS as determined by product inhibition and fluorescence binding studies is consistent with a random mechanism. The dissociation constants determined from fluorescence studies indicate that the enzyme displays a 40-fold stronger affinity for the substrate NADPH as compared with the product NADP and utilizes NADPH preferentially as compared with NADH. This study on GFS, a unique member of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family, coupled with that of its recently published crystal structure should aid in the development of antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory compounds that act by blocking selectin-mediated cell adhesion.  (+info)

Sensitive assay for mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. (4/1431)

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma is the principal polymerase required for mitochondrial DNA replication. Primary or secondary deficiencies in the activity of DNA polymerase gamma may lead to mitochondrial DNA depletion. We describe a sensitive and robust clinical assay for this enzyme. METHODS: The assay was performed on mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle biopsies. High-molecular weight polynucleotide reaction products were captured on ion-exchange paper, examined qualitatively by autoradiography, and quantified by scintillation counting. RESULTS: Kinetic analysis of DNA polymerase gamma by this method showed a K(m) for dTTP of 1.43 micromol/L and a K(i) for azidothymidine triphosphate of 0.861 micromol/L. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 2 microgram of mitochondrial protein. The detection limit was 30 units (30 fmol dTMP incorporated in 30 min). The linear dynamic range was three orders of magnitude; 30-30 000 units. Imprecision (CV) was 6.4% within day and 12% between days. Application of this assay to a mixed population of 38 patients referred for evaluation of mitochondrial disease revealed a distribution with a range of 0-2506 U/microgram, reflecting extensive biologic variation among patients with neuromuscular disease. CONCLUSION: This assay provides a useful adjunct to current laboratory methods for the evaluation of patients with suspected mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes.  (+info)

Localization of the IgG effector site for monocyte receptors. (5/1431)

A peptide consisting of 10 amino acids derived from the CH3 region of human IgG was shown to bind to monocytes and to inhibit rosette formation of antibody-coated erythrocytes with human monocytes. Two myeloma proteins of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclass, both with known deletions in the CH2 region of the gamma chain, showed unimpaired ability to bind to monocytes. These experiments suggest that the isolated peptide represents the primary site of attachment of IgG to monocytes.  (+info)

In yeast the export of small glycopeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol is not affected by the structure of their oligosaccharide chains. (6/1431)

A "quality control" system associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that discriminates between misfolded proteins and correctly folded proteins is present in a variety of eukaryotic cells, including yeast. Recently, it has been shown that misfolded proteins that are N -glycosylated in the lumen of the ER are transported out of the ER, de-N-glycosylated by a soluble peptide: N -glycanase (PNGase) and degraded by action of the proteasome. It also has been shown that small N -glycosylatable peptides follow a fate similar to that of misfolded proteins, i.e., glycosylation in the lumen of the ER, transport out of the ER, and de- N -glycosylation in the cytosol. These processes of retrograde glycopeptide transport and de- N -glycosylation have been observed in mammalian cells, as well as in yeast cells. However, little is known about the mechanism involved in the movement of glycopeptides from the ER to the cytosol. Here we report a simple method for assaying N -glycosylation/de- N -glycosylation by simple paper chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques using an N -glycosylatable(3)H-labeled tripeptide as a substrate. With this method, we confirmed the cytosolic localization of the de- N -glycosylated peptide, which supports the idea that de- N -glycosylation occurs after the export of the glycopeptide from the lumen of the ER to the cytosol. Further, we found that the variations in the structure of the oligosaccharide chain on the glycopeptide did not cause differences in the export of the glycopeptide. This finding suggests that the mechanism for the export of small glycopeptides may differ from that of misfolded (glyco)proteins.  (+info)

Elaboration of pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures. (7/1431)

Pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases were released rapidly by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures when incubated under certain culture conditions having no adverse affect on their viability or morphology. Nucleosidase production was not restricted to any particular type of lymphoblastoid line; enzymes with a high level of activity were elaborated by cells of cultures initiated from healthy subjects and patients with uncontrolled lymphocytic or myelocytic leukemia, as well as by cells of cultures exhibiting mostly B- or T-cell properties. Tritiated thymine and uracil, which were not incorporated to any appreciable extent by DNA- and RNA-synthesizing cells, were identified by paper chromatography as the primary products arising from nucleosidase degradation of radiolabeled thymidine, uridine, and cytidine. Neither adenosine nor guanosine was catabolized. These heat-labile and ultraviolet-sensitive enzymes with a molecular weight of 5 to 10 X 10(4) did not affect the viability, morphology, or proliferation of lymphocytes in mitogenactivated cultures, lymphoblastoid cells in long-term cultures, or fibroblasts in monolayer cultures.  (+info)

Covalent linkage of polyamines to peptidoglycan in Anaerovibrio lipolytica. (8/1431)

Spermidine and cadaverine were found to be constituents of the cell wall peptidoglycan of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, a strictly anaerobic bacterium. The peptidoglycan was degraded with the N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase and endopeptidase into two peptide fragments, peptide I and peptide II, at a molar ratio of 4:1. Peptides I and II were identified as L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphacadaverine)gammameso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-D-alanine and L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphaspermidine)gammameso-DAP-D-alanine, respectively. The N(1)-amino group of spermidine was linked to the alpha-carboxyl group of the D-glutamic acid residue of peptide II.  (+info)

Introduction. Identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Aim To separation and identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Introduction Chromatography is a techniques separation of mixtures It involves passing the sample, a mixture which contains the analyte, in the mobile phase, often in a stream of solvent, through the stationary phase. The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a mass-start foot race. Each component has a characteristic time of passage through the system, called a retention time. Chromatographic separation is achieved when the retention time of the analyte differs from that of other components mixtures in the sample. There are many types chromatography but there are four main types which are Liquid Chromatography Liquid Chromatography this is used in the world to test water samples to look for pollution ...
Thin layer chromatography, or TLC, is a method for analyzing mixtures by separating the. must not touch the filter paper;...PIGMENT SEPARATION USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY. 4.0 DISCUSSION. because it was a real toxic solvent therefore the spraying was one by the lab.The chromatography paper was obtained, a line 1 cm from the base of the paper was drawn straight across the paper,.Place a piece of filter paper into the beaker, as demonstrated by the image below. TLC CHROMATOGRAPHY LAB.There are many different types of chromatography besides the paper chromatography ...
Definition of Paper chromatography with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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Simple Paper Chromatography Experiment. Best custom written essays, term papers and a lot more! Buy Cheap high-quality research papers, thesis papers, book reports.
View Notes - Scan_Doc0034 from CHEM 2301 at South Texas College. 28 Chapter One Chemical Foundations Figure 1 .1 3 Paper chromatography of ink. (a) A dot of the mixture to be separated is placed at
Paper chromatography is one of the easiest methods of chromatography. It is a method of planar chromatography (stationary phase is in form of a plane).
AbeBooks.com: A Manual of Paper Chromatography and Paper Electrophoresis (9780121069506) by R J & Durrum, E L & Zweig, G Block and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
View Notes - Exp 2 Lab Report from CHM 102 at Rhode Island. Rachel Golub CHM 102 Experiment 2: Paper Chromatography 09-27-06 Lab Report INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, I will be using a variety
affects retention on paper chromatography Design and carry out a scientific investigation on any one factor that affects retention on paper chromatography
The Metal Ion Chromatography Chemistry Laboratory Kit revitalizes your chromatography unit! Students perform paper chromatography using metal ions! Students learn about paper chromatography by creating and analyzing their own chromatograms.
Matter makes up everything in the universe. Our body, the stars, computers, and coffee mugs are all made of matter. There are three different types of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. A solid is something that is normally hard (your bones, the floor under your feet, etc.), but it can also be powdery, like sugar or flour. Solids are substances that are rigid and have definite shapes. Liquids flow and assume the shape of their container; they are also difficult to compress (a powder can take the same shape as its container, but it is a collection of solids that are very small). Examples of liquids are milk, orange juice, water, and vegetable oil. Gases are around you all the time, but you may not be able to see them. The air we breathe is made up of a mixture of gases. The steam from boiling water is waters gaseous form. Gases can occupy all the parts of a container (they expand to fill their containers), and they are easily compressed.. Matter is often a mixture of different substances. A ...
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The light independent reactions are also collectively known as the Calvin cycle - named after American chemist Melvin Calvin. Calvin mapped the complete conversion of carbon within a plant during the process of photosynthesis. ​The experiments performed by Melvin Calvin explained the process that plants use to make food. Radioactively labeled carbon was introduced into algae and analyzed to see where it would be found in the cells by the use of two-dimensional paper chromatography. The results of these experiments showed that carbon dioxide was converted to carbohydrates during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis ...
Companion slide set to the demonstration video, How Can We Find Out What Is in Water?. Learn helpful techniques for how to teach the lesson, How Can We Find Out What Is in Water? in which students use simple paper chromatography to investigate a mystery liquid. Student sheets are provided in English and in Spanish. Grades K-5
Companion slide set to the demonstration video, How Can We Find Out What Is in Water?. Learn helpful techniques for how to teach the lesson, How Can We Find Out What Is in Water? in which students use simple paper chromatography to investigate a mystery liquid. Student sheets are provided in English and in Spanish. Grades K-5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemistry and biochemistry of apiose.. AU - Watson, Ronald R. AU - Orenstein, N. S.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016789045&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016789045&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 775936. AN - SCOPUS:0016789045. VL - 31. SP - 135. EP - 184. JO - Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. JF - Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. SN - 0065-2318. ER - ...
Generally this blog is about sharing ideas parent to parent, and not trying to sell you things. I often mention products that I like, the children like, or weve found very useful, but unless specifically stated in the post, I am not being reimbursed for my opinions. There are advertisements (which I believe use cookies) on this blog, located outside of the posts. I do receive a small kick-back when you click on the ads, so please feel free to click on as many of them as you like ...
Fire Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Fire Information and Meaning, Fireworks Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Fireworks Information and Meaning, Fish Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Fish Information and Meaning, Flags Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Flags Information and Meaning, Flesh Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Flesh Information and Meaning, Flowers Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Flowers Information and Meaning, Food and Nutrition Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Food and Nutrition Information and Meaning, Foreigners Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Foreigners Information and Meaning, Form Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Form Information and Meaning, Fossils Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Fossils Information and Meaning, etc…
Dancing Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Dancing Information and Meaning, Dante Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Dante Information and Meaning, Darkness Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Darkness Information and Meaning, Deafness Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Deafness Information and Meaning, Death Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Death Information and Meaning, Decaying Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Decaying Information and Meaning, Demons Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Demons Information and Meaning, Depth Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Depth Information and Meaning, Deserts Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Deserts Information and Meaning, Devil Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Devil Information and Meaning, etc…
Heroin at a concentration which inhibits the transport of lysine into Staphylococcus aureus stimulates the incorporation of glycerol into the phospholipid fraction of the cells. The stimulation is accompanied by an increased turnover of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. Chromatographic examination of the lipid appears to show the presence of new phospholipids, judged from changes in the profile of elution from silicic acid columns and the appearance of new radioactive spots on silicic acid-impregnated paper chromatograms. Chromatographic analysis of the new components and their hydrolytic products shows that they contain phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. (N-Methyl-14C)-heroin is rapidly taken up by staphylococcal cells, but examination of that part of the radioactivity appearing in phospholipids shows that this is contained in glycerol residues. (7,8-3H)-Dihydroheroin is also taken up rapidly, and 3H is found in association with phospholipids; over 50% of this 3H ...
Prefixes are combined with base units and derived units to form multiples of SI units. The factors designated by prefixes are powers of 10, and most prefixes involve exponents that are simple multiples of 3, thereby facilitating conversion procedures using successive multiplications by 103 or 10−3. Compound prefixes formed by the combination of 2 or more SI prefixes generally are not used. It is preferable to use an expression with a single prefix. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix as part of its name and symbol (kg). However, because compound prefixes are not recommended, prefixes
Looking for horizontal chromatography? Find out information about horizontal chromatography. Paper chromatography in which the chromatogram is horizontal instead of vertical Explanation of horizontal chromatography
Monday - We completed two labs on Monday. In the first, we separated the pigments found in a leaf of spinach using a technique called paper chromatography. Using an organic solvent, the four pigments in a spinach leaf travel different distances on a piece of paper so that the students can see that green is not the only color of the pigments in a plant. While that experiment was running (it takes awhile for the solvent to travel on the paper), the students looked at the structure of a leaf under the microscope. For homework, the students completed any of the lab questions that they did not complete in class ...
Sucralfate is an amorphous complex of aluminium hydroxide and sucrose sulphate, identified by the name: β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside octakis (hydrogen sulphate) aluminium complex. When the pH in the stomach is below 4, there is extensive polymerization and cross-linking of Sucralfate. The condensed polymer is a very sticky, viscid, yellow white gel. Even though the pH in the duodenum is well above 4, gel retains its viscid, demulcent properties. The gel adheres strongly to epithelial cells and to the base of ulcer craters. The affinity for the crater base is much higher than that for the epithelial surface and it is difficult to wash the gel from the crater. The gel remains adherent to ulcerated epithelium for, at least 12 hours and this binding to ulcer craters probably represent the main therapeutic action ofSucralfate ...
Prefixes and Suffixes. A prefix is a word part added to the beginning of a root word. A prefix changes the meaning of a word. A suffix is a word part added to the end of a root word. A suffix also changes the meaning of a word. Prefixes We Know. Examples. im- not in- not Slideshow 736122 by ciqala
We need to define how prefixes interact with contractions. I propose that mappings with prefixes have precedence, and that prefixes should be matched first. This is to keep them reasonably implementable: When we have a mapping with both a prefix and a contraction suffix (like in Japanese: ぐ,ゞ), then the matching needs to go in both directions. The contraction might involve discontiguous matching which needs complex text iteration and handling of skipped combining marks (or rewriting of the text, as in the UCA). Prefix matching should be first because it is contiguous and therefore simple. Once the prefix is matched, we can return to the original text index (right after the prefix) and look at all of the contractions for the prefix ...
Biology prefixes and suffixes help us to understand biology terms. The prefix (chrom- or chromo-) means color. A chromoplast is a pigmented plant cell.
What is the difference between Affix Prefix and Suffix? Prefix can be used at the beginning of a word. Suffix can be used at the end of a word. Affix can..
Biology prefixes and suffixes help us to understand science terms. The prefix auto- means self, same, or refers to an involuntary process.
Can you name the Surgical Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terms Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by awheeler9
File lib/rss/rss.rb, line 823 def install_ns(prefix, uri) if self::NSPOOL.has_key?(prefix) raise OverlappedPrefixError.new(prefix) end self::NSPOOL[prefix] = uri end ...
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Concentrations of uranium as low as 1 ppm are determined in soils and sediments by ascending paper chromatography, subsequent to a hot nitric acid attack of the samples. The reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-napthol (PAN), which is used to develop the chromatograms, is capable of detecting 0.05 micrograms of uranium. The method is rapid and inexpensive. ...
Prior to the 1970s, few reliable chromatographic methods were commercially available to the laboratory scientist. During 1970s, most chemical separations were carried out using a variety of techniques including open-column chromatography, paper chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography. However, these chromatographic techniques were inadequate for quantification of compounds and resolution between similar compounds. During this time, pressure liquid chromatography began to be used to decrease flowthrough time, thus reducing purification times of compounds being isolated by column chromatogaphy. However, flow rates were inconsistant, and the question of whether it was better to have constant flow rate or constant pressure was debated. (Analytical Chem. vol 62, no. 19, oct 1 1990 ...
1. A synthetic 3-([14C]valine)-labelled tetradecapeptide renin substrate was used to measure renin concentration. Renin liberated 14C-labelled angiotensin I, which was separated from the labelled substrate by paper chromatography. The conversion of substrate into angiotensin I was quantitated by liquid-scintillation counting of radioactivity. 2. The rate of conversion of the substrate into angiotensin I was shown to be linearly related to renin concentration and time under suitable conditions. Angiotensin generation measured in this system agrees well with that measured by bioassay. 3. It is suggested that the use of a pure substrate offers advantages that include the standardization of current units of renin measurement.. ...
... _Paper Chromatography Uses - Buzzle Chromatography is a method used to separate different components of a mixture. There are different t ... Separation Techniques - FREE Chemistry Materials, Le
PREFIX dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX def-bw: ,http://environment.data.gov.uk/def/bathing-water/, PREFIX def-bwq: ,http://environment.data.gov.uk/def/bathing-water-quality/, PREFIX def-ef: ,http://location.data.gov.uk/def/ef/SamplingPoint/, PREFIX qb: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/cube#, PREFIX rdf: ,http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, PREFIX skos: ,http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#, PREFIX time: ,http://www.w3.org/2006/time#, CONSTRUCT {?item rdfs:label ?___5 . ?item def-bwq:abnormalWeatherException ?___6 . ?item def-bwq:sampleWeek ?___7 . ?___7 rdfs:label ?___8 . ?item def-bwq:discountable ?___9 . ?item def-bwq:samplingPoint ?___10 . ?___10 skos:prefLabel ?___11 . ?item def-bwq:faecalStreptococciQualifier ?___12 . ?___12 def-bwq:countQualifierNotation ?___13 . ?item def-bwq:bathingWater ?___14 . ?___14 skos:prefLabel ?___15 . ?item def-bwq:samplingPoint ?___16 . ?___16 def-ef:samplePointNotation ?___17 . ?item ...
PREFIX dct: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX def-bw: ,http://environment.data.gov.uk/def/bathing-water/, PREFIX def-bwq: ,http://environment.data.gov.uk/def/bathing-water-quality/, PREFIX def-ef: ,http://location.data.gov.uk/def/ef/SamplingPoint/, PREFIX qb: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/cube#, PREFIX rdf: ,http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, PREFIX skos: ,http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#, PREFIX time: ,http://www.w3.org/2006/time#, CONSTRUCT {?item def-bwq:totalColiformCount ?___2 . ?item def-bwq:entrovirusQualifier ?___3 . ?___3 def-bwq:countQualifierNotation ?___4 . ?item def-bwq:intestinalEnterococciQualifier ?___5 . ?___5 def-bwq:countQualifierNotation ?___6 . ?item def-bwq:samplingPoint ?___7 . ?___7 def-ef:samplePointNotation ?___8 . ?___7 skos:prefLabel ?___9 . ?item def-bwq:escherichiaColiQualifier ?___10 . ?___10 def-bwq:countQualifierNotation ?___11 . ?item rdfs:label ?___12 . ?item def-bwq:intestinalEnterococciCount ...
Is there any possible way to get the Gentoo Prefix on OS X (10.4.11) to compile the source for GNOME or KDE, and then use the native X11 available in OS X. Id like to see this prefix idea overtake MacPorts, formerly DarwinPorts and Fink. I would be willing to take on this project if it has not been started yet. I just need some help getting my feet wet with the Developers and such. If this has already been started, please lead me to the right place ...
Remember when you were young and playing with money, when your mom would tell you to stop it because it was dirty? It turns out she was right all along. You knew it was dirty, but do you know how dirty a dollar bill is?
The 1.5 schematron skeleton that I have would have created an attribute with the prefix test named dummy-for-xmlns. Using the above schematron as the schema works, but using the NVDL results in an error message saying attribute test:dummy-for-xmlns is not allowed somewhere ...
Yes, but the issue is that I will pass in a weight range for an object, not a prefix. the total of prefix, all prefix2, plus and suffix is the weight of the object. and that needs to be in the given range ...
as there is an indefinite amount of "space" to fill and there is no worry about blocking out others.. its a bit more confusing (visually, conceptually), but its basic premise is stacking images next to each other.. in fact, it is quite common on hygrid to take up whole blocks. there are numerous examples, including cases where art was drawn on paper and scanned in as several hygrid squares - ...hygrid?center=syd067. ...
1. Three subcutaneous injections of Pneumococcus Type II vaccine confer on monkeys a complete immunity against experimental Pneumococcus Type II pneumonia. A similar protection can be bestowed on monkeys against Pneumonococcus Type IV pneumonia by three subcutaneous injections of a vaccine prepared from the same strain of pneumococcus.. 2. The subcutaneous injection of monkeys with three doses of Pneumococcus Type III vaccine confers a complete immunity against this type in only 50 per cent of cases (four out of eight monkeys vaccinated).. 3. In spite of the immunity induced in monkeys by three subcutaneous injections of Pneumococcus Types II, III, and IV vaccine, specific protective bodies against the homologous types are not demonstrable in their serums when the vaccine is so administered.. ...
The determination of pneumococcus types in lobar pneumonia is of value in the field of prognosis and as a prerequisite for specific serum therapy. The method for the determination of types should be as rapid as possible and a standard technique should be employed. The most satisfactory method is by the intraperitoneal inoculation of a mouse with the patients sputum, by which means a rapid and abundant growth of the pneumococcus is obtained and secondary organisms are rapidly eliminated in most instances. The diagnosis of type is made directly on the peritoneal exudate. Certain factors in the method commonly used have interfered with the rapid determination of types in an appreciable number of cases, notably the growth of other organisms in the peritoneal exudate together with the pneumococcus, and some confusion has arisen because occasional strains of pneumococci have been encountered that show cross agglutination reactions when undiluted immune serum is used. Such reactions have been shown to ...
The volume is divided into three sections. Section I, edited by Lyman C. Craig, consists of physico-chemical methods of separation of biological compounds. These methods are counter-current distribution, paper chromatography, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. These methods have stimulated progress in medical research in recent years and promise much for the future.. Section III, edited by Melvin Cohn, also involves separations. These are of immunological substances. The separations are by ethanol fractionation and by precipitin reactions in liquid media and in gels.. Section II, edited by A. C. Corcoran, concerns methods of study of renal function. These include plasma disappearance rates, renal ...
prefix rdf: ,http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, . @prefix rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, . @prefix xsd: ,http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#, . @prefix owl: ,http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#, . @prefix dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, . @prefix sd: ,http://www.w3.org/ns/sparql-service-description#, . @prefix dcat: ,http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#, . @prefix void: ,http://rdfs.org/ns/void#, . @prefix foaf: ,http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/, . @prefix prov: ,http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#, . @prefix : ,http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/prov/raw-file/tip/examples/eg-24-prov-o-html-examples/rdf/eg-24-prov-o-html-examples.ttl#, . ,, a prov:Bundle; prov:wasDerivedFrom ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Justices_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States_by_court_composition,, ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Justices_of_the_Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States_by_seat,, ,http://www.w3.org/2011/prov/track/issues/374,; prov:wasAttributedTo ,http://tw.rpi.edu/instances/TimLebo,; . ...
The prefix, mono- and mon-, implies one, single or alone. We created the list of words with the prefix mono- and mon- by referencing two dictionaries: Merr
PREFIX sdmx-measure: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/sdmx/2009/measure#, PREFIX dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX eus: ,http://ontologycentral.com/2009/01/eurostat/ns#, PREFIX rdf: ,http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, PREFIX qb: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/cube#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, SELECT ?time ?value ?geo FROM ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/data/hlth_co_inpst, FROM ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/dic/geo, WHERE { ?s qb:dataSet ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/id/hlth_co_inpst#ds, . ?s dcterms:date ?time . ?s eus:geo ?g . ?g rdfs:label ?geo . ?s sdmx-measure:obsValue ?value . FILTER (lang(?geo) = "en") } ORDER BY ? ...
PREFIX sdmx-measure: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/sdmx/2009/measure#, PREFIX dcterms: ,http://purl.org/dc/terms/, PREFIX eus: ,http://ontologycentral.com/2009/01/eurostat/ns#, PREFIX rdf: ,http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, PREFIX qb: ,http://purl.org/linked-data/cube#, PREFIX rdfs: ,http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#, SELECT ?time ?value ?geo FROM ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/data/urb_lpopcb, FROM ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/dic/geo, WHERE { ?s qb:dataSet ,http://estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/id/urb_lpopcb#ds, . ?s dcterms:date ?time . ?s eus:geo ?g . ?g rdfs:label ?geo . ?s sdmx-measure:obsValue ?value . FILTER (lang(?geo) = "en") } ORDER BY ? ...
By checking the prefix value from RbConfig::CONFIG, we can then take the sitearch and sitelib paths and substitute that prefix value for whats given by thye user with CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX.. ...
The CONVERT_ADD spreadsheet function (known as CONVERT in other applications) has many more conversion factors implemented, as defined in OASIS ODFF/OpenFormula, for details see http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/documents.php?wg_abbrev=office-formula The full list is: SI prefix: unit may be prefixed by one SI prefix, supported prefixes are: y Yocto 1.00E-24 z Zepto 1.00E-21 a Atto 1.00E-18 f Femto 1.00E-15 p Pico 1.00E-12 n Nano 1.00E-09 u Micro 1.00E-06 m Milli 1.00E-03 c Centi 1.00E-02 d Deci 1.00E-01 1.00E+00 e Deca 1.00E+01 h Hecto 1.00E+02 k Kilo 1.00E+03 M Mega 1.00E+06 G Giga 1.00E+09 T Tera 1.00E+12 P Peta 1.00E+15 E Exa 1.00E+18 Z Zetta 1.00E+21 Y Yotta 1.00E+24 Information units "bit" and "byte" may also be prefixed by one IEC 60027-2 / IEEE 1541 prefix, supported prefixes are: 1 ki kibi 1024 Mi mebi 1048576 Gi gibi 1073741824 Ti tebi 1099511627776 Pi pebi 1125899906842620 Ei exbi 1152921504606850000 Zi zebi 1180591620717410000000 Yi yobi 1208925819614630000000000 // MASS: 1 Gram ...
diff --git a/git-remote-testgit b/git-remote-testgit index b9810fd..6c348b0 100755 --- a/git-remote-testgit +++ b/git-remote-testgit @@ -6,24 +6,34 @@ url=$2 dir=$GIT_DIR/testgit/$alias prefix=refs/testgit/$alias -refspec=refs/heads/*:${prefix}/heads/* + +default_refspec=refs/heads/*:${prefix}/heads/* + +refspec=${GIT_REMOTE_TESTGIT_REFSPEC-$default_refspec} gitmarks=$dir/git.marks testgitmarks=$dir/testgit.marks +test -z $refspec && prefix=refs + export GIT_DIR=$url/.git mkdir -p $dir -test -e $gitmarks ,, echo -n , $gitmarks -test -e $testgitmarks ,, echo -n , $testgitmarks +if [ -z $GIT_REMOTE_TESTGIT_NO_MARKS ]; then + test -e $gitmarks ,, echo -n , $gitmarks + test -e $testgitmarks ,, echo -n , $testgitmarks +else + echo -n , $gitmarks + echo -n , $testgitmarks +fi while read line; do case $line in capabilities) echo import echo export - echo refspec $refspec + test -n $refspec && echo refspec $refspec echo *import-marks $gitmarks ...
Surnames that contain prefixes or particles (eg, von, de, La, van) are spelled and capitalized according to the preference of the persons named. 1. van Gylswyk NO, Roche CI. 2. Van Rosevelt RF, Bakker JC, Sinclair DM, Damen J, Van Mourik JA. 3. Al-Faquih SR. 4. Kang S, Kim KJ, Wong T-Y, et al. |
Perfect Fit » Contour Posterior Adjustable Back Cushion replacement parts for the Quickie Rhythm With Delphi (Chairs w/ S/N Prefix Rtm)
IMS™ High Performance Prefix Resolution for z/OS® reduces database reorganization time by quickly resolving database points while reducing resource consumption
Phenomenological theory of iontophoresis. Local equations for iontophoresis. Ionoosmotic body forces. Edge conditions for the local fields. Ionoosmotic slip. Smoluchowskis formula for iontophoresis.
When you think about the amount of money that the average office spends on paper each year, it makes sense to try to find the cheapest price But, loc
Doing some research and this stuff seems like its pretty good! Though, anything on paper can seem real good. Have any of you guys/gals tried this
... -These wonderfully decorative patterns on paper, known as Chiyogami, are silkscreened onto machinemade sheets of mixed kozo and sulphite. They are more popularly known as Yuzen in the United States.
... -These wonderfully decorative patterns on paper, known as Chiyogami, are silkscreened onto machinemade sheets of mixed kozo and sulphite. They are more popularly known as Yuzen in the United States.
Depending on local decisions and audiences, Green Maps are often printed on paper. Of course, this impacts trees, and leads to the question, how can we give back? ...
initialize() can receive a null parameter for messages (at least thats what EdgeListVertex does). We should avoid that and pass an empty Iterable instead. That should be cheap for us inside of the InputFormat, just passing a static immutable empty list.. setMessages(Iterable,M,) should be changed to putMessages(Iterable,M,). the set prefix suggests an assignment, while setMessages is used to transfer the messages to the internal datastructure the user is responsible for. putMessages() should clarify this.. ...
This thesis is concerned with the algebraic theory of finite state processes. The processes we focus on are those given by a signature with prefix, summation and recursion, considered modulo strong bisimulation. We investigate ...
Disease. Ive been using this word frequently. Not out loud, but in my head. And always pertaining to myself. Disease: not meaning ill, tainted or disordered. But literally the opposite-the reverse of-ease. Pronounce it dis-ease. [Dis: a Latin prefix meaning
A selective method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic separation of lead(II) with Versatic10 (liquid cation exchanger) coated on silanised silica gel. Its quantitative extraction has been achieved from 0.1M acetate buffer at the optimum pH 4.5-6.0. The effects of pH, flow-rate, stripping agents on extraction and elution have been investigated. Exchange capacity of the prepared exchanger at different temperatures with respect to lead(II) has been determined. The extraction equilibrium constant (Kex) and different standard thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by temperature variation method. The effect of pH on Rf values in ion exchange paper chromatography has been investigated. Lead(II) has been separated from synthetic multi-component mixtures containing various metal ions associated with it in ores and alloy samples. The method effectively permits sequential separation of lead(II) from synthetic quaternary mixture containing its congeners Cu(II), Sn(II), Hg(II) ...
1DAM: Crystal structure of two quaternary complexes of dethiobiotin synthetase, enzyme-MgADP-AlF3-diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme-MgADP-dethiobiotin-phosphate; implications for catalysis.
NON-DIRECTORY SAMPLE DESIGNS. Non-directory random digit samples are basically of three kinds: simple two-stage, two-stage cluster, and stratified. A simple two-stage sample selects a working prefix, including its area code, at random, then adds a four-digit random number. The procedure is repeated until the sample is complete. A two-stage cluster design clusters telephone numbers by prefix (exchange, central office). A sample of prefixes is then selected by either a random or systematic procedure. Within these selected prefixes, four random digits are generated to create the sample of numbers. The stratified sample develops random digits for each working prefix, thereby stratifying the population by prefix. Stratified designs differ on the methods used to allocate the sample to the prefix strata.. While the two-stage designs are commonly used in national studies, the stratification designs have been used in local and regional studies. It is not feasible to stratify by prefix in national samples ...
On paper, what was to happen was obvious. It was obvious. I say that twice because I know all about Black Swans and how much more predictable things look in hindsight. But, on paper? It goes back to honesty. Martial artists need to be honest about their expectations, to inspect what they expect. On paper, it would have been nice if someone in Shoguns camp said that his opponent is younger, stronger, with more reach, more rhythm and timing, more recent fight experience, more conditioning and a high class wrestler. It would have been nice if someone had been honest and said that Shogun would have to outsmart him because he cant outclass him. But it didnt seem that anyone said that because Shogun came out as if he was fighting anyone, not the man in front of him. He fought as if the man in front of him didnt matter ...
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Internet-Draft Why 64 September 2014 At least one DHCPv6 client unconditionally installs a /64 prefix as on-link when it configures an interface with an address, although some specific operating system vendors seem to change this default behavior by tweaking a client-side script. This is in clear violation of the IPv6 subnet model [RFC5942]. The motivation for this choice is that if there is no router on the link, the hosts would fail to communicate with each other using the configured addresses because the "on-link assumption" was removed in [RFC4861]. This is not really about the magic number of 64, but an implementation may sometimes pick an arbitrary value of prefix length due to the removal of the on-link assumption, and the value chosen will most likely be 64. Typical IP Address Management (IPAM) tools treat /64 as the default subnet length, but allow users to specify longer subnet prefixes if desired. Clearly, all IPAM tools and network management systems would need to be checked in ...
Heres an astonishing number to digest. Each person in the United States uses about 700 pounds of paper each year. Paper is everywhere in our lives. Every year in the United States, more than 2 billion individual books, 24 billion newspapers, and 350 million magazines are published on paper ...
Simplify email categorization - it will be easier for you and others to manage mail. Define the set of prefixes for all emails you send or let SubSwitch to autodiscover it. While writing insert prefix to the title - choose one from your set.. ...
On 12/14/2009 10:28 PM, ecordy75 wrote: , Dear TeX, , My Mathtype Version 6.0 with MS Word 2000 has become impossibly slow. , It takes 5 minutes for a 5-page document to load with all the Mathtype , images. , Fast easy typesetting is necessary for me to DO the math. , The formulae I manipulate are SO big that I have no way of organizing , them practically on paper. , , I need to use a WYSIWYG typesetting program only. , TeX (LaTeX, and just about any other form of TeX) is not a WYSIWYG system. Decades ago, Blue Sky managed a quasi-WYSIWYG system that flipped back and forth between TeX operations and display, but that would not get you anything like the speed you ask for. Further, TeX does all its calculations in long integers, for reasons that are explained in /TeX, the Program. / If speed of calculation is your primary need, TeX is not for you. / /I doubt that even luatex would meet your criteria. Massive mathematical calculations more or less have to be done in programs designed to get maximum ...
From old master prints and drawings to large-scale contemporary works that incorporate elements of collage or photographic techniques, works of art on paper encompass prints, drawings and photographs in seemingly unlimited variety.
And I dont know really. But I do know I figure stuff out while I write. I also know that putting it on paper is a good (although sometimes uncomfortable) practice. I also like recording the thought process - maybe you guys will see where I jumped a thought. Maybe I will see it myself.. I think I basically want to live my life to its fullest potential on my own terms.. HA! The "Big Why" is actually pretty easy. The explanation of is what takes a bit of work. And I intend to talk about it in no particular order.. I like being in control of my own time. Nothing is worse than having your schedule ruled by someone else. Now, that is not to be confused with submitting control of time to those I care for and enjoy doing for. I do not mind bed time stories, helping on the farm, making a big dinner, taking long walk and those things which are done for the benefit of others. However, it is my choice to offer up that time. It is not demanded of me. My livelihood and financial well-being does not depend on ...
Disable असमर्थ बनाना ਅਸਮਰਥ ਕਰਨਾ Due to power failure, the light system was disabled. Disadvantage अलाभ, बाधा ਅਲਾਭ, ਬਾਧਾ What are the disadvantages of this product? Disagree असहमत होना ਅਸਹਿਮਤ ਹੋਣਾ I totally disagree with your idea. Disallow अस्वीकार करना ਅਸ੍ਵੀਕਾਰ ਕਰਨਾ His boss disallowed him for going home.
Gesture and motion controls are cool on paper and in concept, but they simply arent as convenient and effective as plain old buttons, knobs, and switches.
Hello Guys, I have been working on Walking Bass lines with my teacher. I am composing them on paper and trying to come up with different lines...
JenMarie Zeleznak, Touch Me Deeply As You Once Had, And I Will Not Soon Forget It, 2016. Watercolor Pencil on Paper, 30 x 30 in.. Sold. ...
Hey everyone - I have a couple of items that I would like to update you all on. 1) I would like to welcome HavocBreaks as a Sponsor on SCF. They will be starting to post their breaks on SCF over the next week or so. 2) I have added new Prefixes for Sponsor or SCF Staff Breaks that are occurring. This is a trial run for the balance of 2017. These prefixes are for Sponsors and/or staff only! 3) Reward Points payouts for October deals will be done on or before November 15th.
i have had enough,and got no hair left,i need to find the structural formula for ill try my best to explain CH2=CH-CH-OH WITH A CH3 UNDER THE SECOND CH.+CH3-CH-C WITH A CH3 UNDER THE FIRST CH ,A DOUBLE BOND FROM THE C TO O AND A SINGLE ...
tert-Boc-valyl-(3-hydroxy-4-amino-5-(2-naphthyl)pentanoyl)-alanylisoamylamide: structure and RN given in first source; RN given refers to the (3S,4S) isomer; RN not found in Chemline 7/86
Here I have some fungi that I dont know what they are and I havent been able to find out what they might be (its very hard to find something abstract if you dont know what it is called). I have labelled such species with the RRfu moniker prefix. Contact me if you have information that might help ...
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159 error(A genetic map is already specified for trait \%s\ while parameter \%s\ is set.\n,prefix.c_str(), param_name.c_str ...
names: ,ul, ,li, Cryptographic hash prefix ,li, Tag or branchname ,li, Timestamp: ,i,YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS,/i, ,li, ,i,tag-name,/i, ,big,,b,:,/b,,/big, ,i,timestamp,/i, ,li, ,b,root :,/b, ,i,branchname,/i, ,li, ,b,merge-in :,/b, ,i,branchname,/i, ,li, Special names: ,ul, ,li, ,b,tip,/b, ,li, ,b,current,/b, ,li, ,b,next,/b, ,li, ,b,previous,/b, or ,b,prev,/b, ,li, ,b,ckout,/b, for embedded docs ...
Order of play on the main showcourt Rod Laver Arena at the Australian Open on Tuesday (play starts at 0000 GMT, prefix denotes seeding):
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Chiralblock CB11067 CAS No.41153-30-4.BOC-L-4-Fluorophe;BOC-l-4-Fluorophenylalanine; BOC-p-fluoro-Phe-OH; BOC-Phe(4-F)-OH; tert-Butoxycarbonyl-L-4-fluorophenylalanine;(2S)-2-[(TERT-BUTOXY)CARBONYLAMINO]-3-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)PROPANOIC ACID,(S)-2-(TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYLAMINO)-3-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)PROPANOIC ACID,(S)-2-TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYLAMINO-3-(4-FLUORO-PHENYL)-PROPIONIC ACID,(S)-N-BOC-4-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE,4-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE, N-BOC PROTECTED,BOC-(S)-2-AMINO-3-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)PROPANOIC ACID,BOC-4-FLUORO-L-PHE,BOC-4-FLUORO-L-PHE-OH,BOC-4-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE,BOC-4-FLUORO-PHENYLALANINE,BOC-L-4-FLUOROPHE,BOC-L-4-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE,BOC-L-PHE(4-F),BOC-L-PHE(4-F)-OH,BOC-P-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE,BOC-P-FLUORO-PHE-OH,BOC-PHE(4-F)-OH,BOC-PHE(P-F)-OH,N-ALPHA-T-BUTYLOXYCARBONYL-4-FLUORO-L-PHENYLALANINE,N-ALPHA-T-BUTYLOXYCARBONYL-L-4-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE,N-BOC-L-4-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE,N-TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL-4-FLUOROPHENYL-L-ALANINE,RARECHEM BK PT 0032,TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL-L-4-FLUOROPHENYLALANINE,MFCD00079672.
Chromatography technique separate molecules Column chromatography Paper chromatography Thin layer TLC Gas Liquid high performance liquid chromatography Affinity Supercritical fluid Size exclusion Expanded Bed Adsorption EBA Chromatographic Separation Reversed-phase Two dimensional Simulated moving bed Pyrolysis gas Fast protein liquid Countercurrent Chiral
C. Wells and S.J. Singer) turned his interest to figuring out the particular distinction between ordinary and sickle cell hemoglobin molecules. Breaking the protein molecules down into shorter fragments referred to as peptides, Pauling and co-personnel subjected these fragments to a different separatory procedure known as paper chromatography. When this procedure is placed on samples of usual and mutant (sickle) hemoglobin molecules (alpha and beta chains) that had been damaged down into specific peptides, all the spots are the same -- except for just one very important location (proven darkened in the ultimate chromatogram below), which represents the difference between sickle cell and normal hemoglobin ...
Place a bid on Zoe, charcoal on paper by Jill Hooper to help support the School of the Arts, College of Charleston fundraising auction.
The stories of the old fisherman (by Viktor Miller-Gausa) Several collecting images. Made on paper using capillary pens and watercolors. via Mikhail Semaev http://bit.ly/1hxPaYU
This comment on Turtle applies to SPARQL as well (the Turtle grammar is copied from the SPARQL grammar at this point). The fix is easy (= I have done it in ARQ and am testing it out). Some syntax tests, good and bad, to formally pin this down should be done and Ill provide them. As relates to formally deciding on LC today, Im open to either delaying for two weeks or to deciding today conditional on making the change to doc and some tests in the next 2 days or so. Andy -------- Original Message -------- http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-rdf-comments/2012Jul/0006.html Subject: Turtle: Prefixes now can contain colons (:)? Date: Sat, 14 Jul 2012 22:40:50 +0200 From: Mathias Hasselmann ,[email protected], To: [email protected] Hello, When adopting code for the updated grammar Ive noticed that that addition of colons to local names also injected colons to PN_PREFIX: http://dvcs.w3.org/hg/rdf/raw-file/default/rdf-turtle/index.html#grammar-production-PN_PREFIX [167s] ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Scientific Prefix. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Jannie. When I fall into a procrastination trap, what works for me is to schedule a series of meetings with people. For each meeting, I try to have some mini-outcome. It builds a bit of momentum and it acts sort of like mini milestones. Its also like casting a wide net because Im not sure exactly who might be just the catalyst I needed. @ Giovanna. Thank you. Theres definitely something powerful about thinking on paper. What Ive noticed is some things sound better until you write them down. Next, some things looked better on paper than when you actually do them. Its a little set of checks and balances. I think what happens is each iteration gives us more clarity.. ...
ISBN 978-0-900663-07-9. Chromatography, Electrophoresis; [Lectures and Papers. Ann Arbor]. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. 1971. ...
"Techniques and Reagents for Paper Chromatography." Analytical Chemistry 23(6): 823-826. Toennies, G. and D. L. Gallant (1949 ...
Paper chromatography of phenolic acids" (pdf). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 218 (1): 293-303. PMID 13278337. Stevenson ...
These can be separated by paper chromatography. At 200°C heat the hexa-phosphate is the most common and at 250°C the typical ...
Willstätter invented paper chromatography independently of Mikhail Tsvet. Willstätter was born into a Jewish family in ...
... showing her working with a technique called paper chromatography, spraying reagent on liquids dropped onto paper to detect ... Paper chromatography of steroid sapogenins and their acetates. J Biol Chem 1952;197(1): 47-55. Hayden AL, Heftmann E, Johnson ... 2] HEFTMANN, E; HAYDEN, AL (May 1952). "Paper chromatography of steroid sapogenins and their acetates". The Journal of ... "Hidden Figures in Paper Chromotography". The NIH Catalyst. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 7, 2017. "Criminal ...
V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (4): 1710-1718. doi ...
I.-Fractionation and paper chromatography of water-soluble substances". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 8 (2): ... in the 1960s by the means of spectroscopy or by fractionation or paper chromatography. They have been identified as ...
Karl-Kroupa, E. (1956). Use of paper chromatography for differential analysis of phosphate mixtures. Analytical Chemistry. 28(7 ... 78(8): 1772 Langguth, R. P., Osterheld, R. K., & Karl-Kroupa, E. (1956). Verification by Chromatography of the Thermal ...
"Identification of corticosteroids of beef adrenal extract by paper chromatography". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 193 (2 ...
Paper chromatography Chemicals and reagents, 2008-2010, Merck Fingerprinting Analysis. bergen.org Ruhemann, Siegfried (1910). " ... In the analysis of a chemical reaction by thin layer chromatography (TLC), the reagent can also be used (usually 0.2% solution ... The rest of the amino acids are then quantified colorimetrically after separation by chromatography. A solution suspected of ... solution is commonly used by forensic investigators in the analysis of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces such as paper. ...
Hotchkiss RD (1948). "The quantitative separation of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides by paper chromatography". J Biol Chem ... when Hotchkiss separated the nucleic acids of DNA from calf thymus using paper chromatography, by which he detected a unique ...
... paper chromatography, pyrrole, chinoline, phenol, thymol and atropine. He was the first to notice in 1855 the phenomenon of " ... as precursors of paper chromatography". Chromatographia. 38 (3-4): 243-254. doi:10.1007/BF02290345. Anft, Berthold, with R. E. ... Runge placed drops of reactant solutions on blotting paper and then added a drop of a second reactant solution on top of the ... The solutions would react as they spread through the blotting paper, often producing colored patterns. His results were ...
It is useful for isolating anthocyanins in room-temperature chromatography using standard filter paper. Bate-Smith, E. C. (Sep ... Forestal is a solvent used in chromatography, composed of acetic acid, water, and hydrochloric acid in a 30:10:3 ratio by ... Chromatography, Elsevier Science, E. Heftmann (ed), Amsterdam, pp. 1050. ISBN 0-444-51108-3 (2004) (retrieved via google books ...
Plants make various photosynthetic pigments, some of which can be seen here through paper chromatography. Xanthophylls ... Sugar, starch, cotton, linen, hemp, some types of rope, wood and particle boards, papyrus and paper, vegetable oils, wax, and ... ISBN 978-0-85199-291-4. Gray, Asa; Sargent, Charles (1889). Scientific Papers of Asa Gray: Selected by Charles Sprague Sargent ... Silyn-Roberts, Heather (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentation. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0 ...
With H.P. Kaufmann she developed paper chromatography techniques to identify and quantify fatty acids. Budwig used these ... in a 2010 paper in the journal Nutrients. She developed the Budwig protocol, a purported anti-cancer diet, in 1952. The basis ...
He was able to do this with the newly developed paper chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Chargaff met Francis ... During his time at Columbia, Chargaff published numerous scientific papers, dealing primarily with the study of nucleic acids ... National Science Foundation - The President's National Medal of Science Erwin Chargaff Papers, American Philosophical Society ...
Paper chroma-tography of some spinach leaf extract shows the various pigments present in their chloroplasts. Xanthophylls ...
Early paper on the use of displacement ion-exchange chromatography to separate rare earths: Spedding, F. H.; Powell, J. E. ( ... been very difficult and expensive to separate rare earths from each other in their ores but ion-exchange chromatography methods ...
English chemist Richard Synge proved that the compound was an original antibiotic and a polypeptide using paper chromatography ... He would later go on to receive the Nobel Prize for his work in chromatography. The crystal structure was finally established ...
... as revealed by paper chromatography. Reversibility is demonstrated by using the complementary keto/amino acid pair as starting ...
... is Hale's study on fluorescence in which he linked fluoresced colors to specific chemicals using paper chromatography. In ... The paper, which was published in the journal Ecology, exemplifies Hale's ability to use technology to innovate new ideas. He ... The techniques that he utilized included spot tests, early thin layer chromatography, and fluorescence (turning of color with ...
Still's paper describing flash column chromatography remains his most highly cited publication and holds the distinction of ... Today, flash column chromatography is one of the most important methods for the purification of organic compounds, especially ... Prior to this report, column chromatography using silica gel as a stationary phase had already been established as a valuable ... Still and coworkers also developed the purification technique known as flash column chromatography which is widely used for the ...
Diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism using filter paper urine, urease treatment, isotope dilution and gas chromatography- ... The urine specimen is collected on a filter paper, which is then air-dried and sent to the laboratory for analysis using a gas ... chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument ("GC-MS"). GC-MS is a FDA approved method for urinary analyte detection, a gold ... ". "Colin F. Poole, Gas Chromatography, Elsevier 2012". "Kuhara, 2001. ...
Papers using Chromatography as a research method or discussing it in a subsection do not have Chromatography as subjects. ... A document can have the subject of Chromatography if this is what the author wishes to inform about. ... http://www.cs.vassar.edu/faculty/welty/papers/fois-98/fois-98-1.html. ...
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to measure the amount of capsaicin and major capsaicinoids within pepper ... entered the public gallery of the New South Wales Legislative Council and launched a paper plane into the air in the form of a ...
We detail a method to fabricate three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic devices for use in the development of immunoassays. ... chromatography paper, blue: nylon membrane, green: thick chromatography paper). The Scale bar = 25 mm except for the separate ... chromatography paper, blue: nylon membrane, green: thick chromatography paper). Dimensions are given for each zone within the ... Whatman chromatogrpahy paper, Grade 4. Sigma Aldrich. WHA1004917. Fisherbrand chromatography paper (thick) Fisher Scientific. ...
In the present paper, the application to chromatography of the critical phenomena of compressed gases or overheated liquids as ... High-Performance Liquid Chromatography or even Thin Layer Chromatography. The present status and future perspectives for SFC ... Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) received an uneasy welcome, mainly because of the lack of commercially available ... is not accepted by Pharmacopeia committees for the analysis of drugs and medical forms to the same extent as Gas Chromatography ...
The present communication deals with the application of paper partition chromatography to the identification of natural ... APART from an early attempt by other authors1-3 to adapt a method of paper chromatography for the examination of natural ... APART from an early attempt by other authors1-3 to adapt a method of paper chromatography for the examination of natural ... The present communication deals with the application of paper partition chromatography to the identification of natural ...
More about Candy Chromatography Research Paper. * Research Paper. 1375 Words , 6 Pages ... Candy Chromatography Research Paper. 1471 Words Jul 23rd, 2013 6 Pages I. INTRODUCTION. A. Background of study. Candy-coated ... Research Paper. 958 Words , 4 Pages Research Paper Inclusion is a type of teaching that is being researched by many school ... Research Paper. 1046 Words , 5 Pages Research Paper In the United States, starting salaries for teachers who have completed a ...
Paper chromatography is one method for testing the purity of compounds and identifying substances. Paper chromatography is a ... A paper chromatography variant, two-dimensional chromatography involves using two solvents and rotating the paper 90° in ... Separations in paper chromatography involve the same principles as those in thin layer chromatography, as it is a type of thin ... Here the solvent travels up the chromatographic paper. Both descending and ascending paper chromatography are used for the ...
Whatman no.1 Chromatography Paper Strip (20 X 130mm). Siccors. Pin. Dark Paper/Black Sugar Paper. Retort Sand/ Test Tube Rack. ... the factors that affecting the movement of pigment during chromatography were porosity of the chromatography paper,solubility ... Paper Chromatography. http://lhschem351%20%20Paper%20Chromatography%20Lab.htm. -Carriying out the paper chromatography,. http ... Cover the chromatography strip with a dark paper to protect the pigments.. 15. Calculate the Rf value of each pigment using the ...
Extensive range of products for low pressure column chromatography: media, empty columns, pre-packed Flash chromatography ...
Learn how paper chromatography can separate a mixture. *Separate universal indicator and wet erase markers with paper ... Carolina ChemKits®: Introduction to Paper Chromatography. 2 Items Exclusive. *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... In this introductory kit, students are introduced to paper chromatography as a means for separating a mixture. They separate ... They use this data to understand how chromatography could be used to identify unknown components of a mixture. This activity ...
This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ... This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ... This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ...
This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ... This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ... This highly pure paper grade is not only ideal for blotting and chromatography, but also for a wide range of absorption ... Process Chromatography * Chromatography Membranes and Resins * Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEX) * Affinity Chromatography ...
15.0cm x 100m) Chromatography:Paper Chromatography Products ... The world standard chromatography paper: 18mm paper for general ... GE Healthcare Whatman Grade 1 Chr Cellulose Chromatography Paper Type: Roll; L x W: 5.9 x 328.0 ft. ( ... Whatman Grade 1 Chr Cellulose Chromatography paper is a smooth surface, 0.18 mm thick paper with a linear flow rate (water) of ... GE Healthcare Whatman Grade 1 Chr Cellulose Chromatography Paper Ensures the wicking capability and uniformity of capillary ...
Buy Chromatography Paper for your lab, stockroom or classroom. Capitol Scientific offers top of the line lab supplies and ... Chromatography Column Stopcock Valves. Chromatography Paper. Chromatography Paper [Cellulose]. Chromatography Paper [Ion ...
The paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet and strips. Each package includes 100 sheets. This paper can be used in ... Chromatography paper is a fine grade of paper made from cotton cellulose. ... Chromatography paper is a fine grade of paper made from cotton cellulose. The paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet ... Paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet and strips. The roll form is 1" wide, 0.16 mm thick, and 600 feet long. The ...
What is paper chromatography? Meaning of paper chromatography as a legal term. What does paper chromatography mean in law? ... Definition of paper chromatography in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Paper chromatography legal definition of paper chromatography https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/paper+ ... Related to paper chromatography: Thin layer chromatography. PC. abbreviation for PRIVY COUNCIL, Privy Counsellor, police ...
... which types of paper and solvents can be used at home for paper chromatography experiments please see the Paper Chromatography ... Then tape the paper to a pencil and hang it into the dish of solvent so it is barely touching. See Paper Chromatography: Is ... For a more basic chromatography project, see:. Paper Chromatography: Basic Version. Share your story with Science Buddies!. I ... In paper chromatography, you can see the components separate out on the filter paper and identify the components based on how ...
Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography. ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography ...
water); 3 Chr.; 100/Pk; 46 x 57cm Chromatography:Paper Chromatography Products ... GE Healthcare Whatman 3 Chr Chromatography Paper 0.36mm Thick; Flowrate of 130mm/30 min. ( ... Grade 3 Chr cellulose chromatography sheets is a 0.36 mm paper for general applications with medium/heavy solute loadings.. ...
Learn more about Chromatography Paper. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our ... Flow rate is the highest of all chromatography papers in the whatman range. Thick paper with fairly soft surface. ... Flow Rate: 130mm/30 minutes (water). Paper Thickness: 0.34mm. Sheet Size: 46x57cm. ... Flow Rate: 130mm/30 minutes (water). Paper Thickness: 0.34mm. Sheet Size: 20x25cm. ...
DE20 cellulosic ion-exchange paper in dilute ammonia solution, a partial resolution of the components is possible. Salicylate ... salicylate and acetophenetidin is subjected to chromatography on Whatman No. ... STREET, H., NIYOGI, S. A New Technique of Chromatography and Ionophoresis on Ion-exchange Paper: Application to the Separation ... A New Technique of Chromatography and Ionophoresis on Ion-exchange Paper: Application to the Separation of Barbiturate, ...
It can also be used to explain about colors, adhesion and the process of chromatography using gels. ... It can also be used to explain about colors, adhesion and the process of chromatography using gels. ... It can also be used to explain about colors, adhesion and the process of chromatography using gels. ...
Filter paper sheets MN 214 ff, Chromatography, fat-free, 90-100 mm/30 min Content 100 Piece(s) ... Filter paper sheets MN 827, Chromatography, Medium fast, 100-120 mm/10 min Content 100 Piece(s) ... Filter paper sheets MN 214, Chromatography, 90-100 mm/30 min, Smooth Content 500 Piece(s) ... Filter paper sheets MN 218, Chromatography, 90-100 mm/30 min, Smooth Content 100 Piece(s) ...
Analysis of Inorganic Compounds by Paper Chromatography: Part III. Study of various factors effecting theR f values of cations ... Tewari, S.N. Analysis of Inorganic Compounds by Paper Chromatography: Part III. Study of various factors effecting theR f ...
... of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.. [Xin ... A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous ... released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ... fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food. ...
Our discs come in packs of 9 cm or 11 cm diameter chromatography paper. Buy yours today. ... Help your students discover the hidden identities of most water-soluble links with our filter paper for chemistry. ... Home/Shop by Subject / Science Parties / Party Themes/CSI/Spy/Chromatography Filter Paper ... Water from a cup is drawn up to the center of a disc using a paper towel. As the water is absorbed into the filter disc the ...
This method utilizes paper partition chromatography and differential spray reagents for location of the separated spots. ( ... This method utilizes paper partition chromatography and differential spray reagents for location of the separated spots. ( ... Title : PAPER PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MIXTURES OF CHLORIDE, CHLORITE, CHLORATE AND PERCHLORATE, ...
  • Three popular selections are presented here from the variety of extraordinarily high quality electrophoresis, blotting and chromatography papers available from Rose Scientific. (rosesci.com)
  • Uniform, smooth and white, these blotting paper sheets are of a high purity, high quality and high value standard. (rosesci.com)
  • The papers are offered in a variety of thicknesses and flow rates: 601 is thin, with a medium flow rate (referenced to 1 CHR), 238 is of medium thickness and is our most widely used blotting paper (referenced to 3 MM CHR) and 320 is one of the thickest on the market with an extremely high flow. (rosesci.com)
  • This paper is our most widely used blotting paper. (rosesci.com)
  • He observed them in the course of experiments on the precipitation of reagents in blotting paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Runge placed drops of reactant solutions on blotting paper and then added a drop of a second reactant solution on top of the first drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solutions would react as they spread through the blotting paper, often producing colored patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper, sometimes called bibulous paper, is a highly absorbent type of paper or other material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper referred to as bibulous paper is mainly used in microscopy to remove excess liquids from the slide before viewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper has also been sold as a cosmetic to aid in the removal of skin oils and makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper is made from different materials of varying thickness, softness, etc. depending on the application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper is reputed to be first referred to in the English language in the 15th century but there is a tradition in Norfolk, England that it was invented by accident at Lyng Mill on the River Wensum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its marked absorbency having been noted, however, led to its subsequently being produced and used as blotting paper, replacing sand, which was the material that had been used for absorbing superficial wet ink. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although usually categorized as separate from blotting paper, differences in the constituents and thickness of blotting paper and watercolor paper are subtle, and making a distinction between the two is unnecessary as the production process is nearly identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting paper is also used in pool/spa maintenance to measure pH balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs active in microgram range, most notably LSD, are commonly distributed on blotting paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • A liquid solution of the drug is applied to the blotting paper, which commonly is perforated into individual doses and artfully decorated with what is known as blotter art. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used to remove ink from writings, the writing may appear in reverse on the surface of the blotting paper, a phenomenon which has been used as a plot device in a number of detective stories, such as in the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blotting papers are also commonly used in cosmetics to absorb excess sebum oil from the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prices for blotting papers can range from as low as $3.00 per packet to as high as $30 or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is a popular debate of whether blotting papers can help reduce acne by absorbing excess oil, or cause it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quality of the blotting papers and the use of other ingredients such as mineral oils may be a determining factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can find out more about the science and uses of chromatography at www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/Chem_p008.shtml Or, you can just add a few pipe cleaners to make butterflies, and move on from science to art. (blogspot.com)
  • The first true chromatography is usually attributed to the Russian-Italian botanist Mikhail Tsvet.Tsvet applied his observations with filter paper extraction to the new methods of column fractionation that had been developed in the 1980s for separating the components of petroleum. (prezi.com)
  • A circular filter paper is taken and the sample is deposited at the center of the paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filter paper can be purchased from our partner Amazon.com . (sciencebuddies.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To facilitate HbA 1c determination, we evaluated an HbA 1c filter paper system enabling capillary blood sampling at home by the patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Capillary blood (two drops) was applied to a filter paper (HbA 1c Via Post) and sent to the laboratory where a small disc was punched out on the filter paper. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The stability of blood impregnated on filter paper was checked at different temperatures over different periods of time. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS There was an excellent agreement ( r = 0.99) between HbA 1c values from capillary blood on filter paper and HbA 1c values from venous blood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HbA 1c values were constant when stored on filter paper for 5-7 days at 20-21°C (room temperature) or at 4-6°C (refrigerator) for 10 days as well as at −70°C for several months after blood sampling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS The HbA 1c filter paper system enables capillary blood sampling at home, eliminates the need of vein puncture in children and adults, and provides the diabetologist with an HbA 1c value when the patient visits the clinic without a need for a previsit phlebotomy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1) Draw a LINE near the bottom of a sheet of filter paper. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Why do we use pencil instead of pen for the baseline on the filter paper? (getrevising.co.uk)
  • So the baseline is not carried up the filter paper along with the dye/colouring. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • It was then that scientists discovered that a strip of porous (full of small holes) filter paper could substitute for the column of absorbing powder. (discoveriesinmedicine.com)
  • The sample is spotted on the filter paper at the base line or the spotting line. (blogspot.in)
  • Different components travel at different rates and the most soluble substance move further on the filter paper than the least soluble substance. (blogspot.in)
  • Each fraction for each ph was placed on its corresponding filter paper strips. (studymode.com)
  • Place the black jellybean in the center of the filter paper and allow it to sit for about 10.Experiments can be sensitive to slight sample impurity, or sample degradation. (flicr.us)
  • of flow of mobile phase along the filter paper. (flicr.us)
  • Tsvet applied his observations with filter paper extraction to the new methods of column fractionation that had been developed in the 1890s for separating the components of petroleum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is useful for isolating anthocyanins in room-temperature chromatography using standard filter paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percolation of fluids through disordered media, such as petroleum through fractured rock beds, or water through filter paper, such as in chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filter paper is a semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filter paper has various properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filter paper is mostly used because even a small piece of filter paper will absorb a significant volume of liquid The raw materials are different paper pulps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The raw materials (pulp) for the filter paper are coarse long fiber, often from fast growing trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Qualitative filter paper is used in qualitative analytical techniques to determine materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different grades of qualitative filter paper according to different pore size. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are total 13 different grades of qualitative filter paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • This filter paper is used for monitoring specific contaminants in the atmosphere and soil testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative filter paper, also called ash-free filter paper, is used for quantitative and gravimetric analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of filter paper has specific water flow rate and absorption speed to maximize the result of paper chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absorption speed of this type of filter paper is from 6 cm to 18 cm and the thickness is from 0.17 mm from 0.93 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction thimbles are rod-shape filter paper often used in Soxhlet extractors or atomized extractors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These strips are used similarly to litmus strips, however filter paper is usually used for litmus strips, generally to allow for the property of diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a fritted glass filter, a disc or pane of fritted glass is used to filter out solid particles, precipitate, or residue from a fluid, similar to a piece of filter paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • d On a strip of chromatography paper, draw a pencil line 3 cm from the bottom. (rsc.org)
  • He also helped develop the methods of capillary analysis, a precursor to paper chromatography, published a paper on the possibility of television (years before the discovery of the electron), contributed to chromosome theory, worked on properties of aerosols and gelatins, the origins of silicosis, the role of carbon dioxide in plant life and the mechanism of both black and white and colour photographic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first part of the paper they presented the first ever theory of chromatography that attempted to explain the concentration of the solute at any point in the column and also how the resolution of the column was affected by various factors including the column's length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knox's work over this period included development of the Knox Equation, now used commonly to describe the spreading of a solute into bands in liquid chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used as standard chromatography paper for routine and simple analysis. (fishersci.fi)