Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A class of scavenger receptors that are specific for oxidized LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and apoptotic cells. They are expressed almost exclusively in INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES of MACROPHAGES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.

Characterization of a neutrophil cell surface glycosaminoglycan that mediates binding of platelet factor 4. (1/1431)

Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) is a platelet-derived alpha-chemokine that binds to and activates human neutrophils to undergo specific functions like exocytosis or adhesion. PF-4 binding has been shown to be independent of interleukin-8 receptors and could be inhibited by soluble chondroitin sulfate type glycosaminoglycans or by pretreatment of cells with chondroitinase ABC. Here we present evidence that surface-expressed neutrophil glycosaminoglycans are of chondroitin sulfate type and that this species binds to the tetrameric form of PF-4. The glycosaminoglycans consist of a single type of chain with an average molecular mass of approximately 23 kDa and are composed of approximately 85-90% chondroitin 4-sulfate disaccharide units type CSA (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)beta1-->) and of approximately 10-15% di-O-sulfated disaccharide units. A major part of these di-O-sulfated disaccharide units are CSE units (-->4GlcAbeta1-->3GalNAc(4,6-O-sulfate)beta1-->). Binding studies revealed that the interaction of chondroitin sulfate with PF-4 required at least 20 monosaccharide units for significant binding. The di-O-sulfated disaccharide units in neutrophil glycosaminoglycans clearly promoted the affinity to PF-4, which showed a Kd approximately 0.8 microM, as the affinities of bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate A, porcine skin dermatan sulfate, or bovine cartilage chondroitin sulfate C, all consisting exclusively of monosulfated disaccharide units, were found to be 3-5-fold lower. Taken together, our data indicate that chondroitin sulfate chains function as physiologically relevant binding sites for PF-4 on neutrophils and that the affinity of these chains for PF-4 is controlled by their degree of sulfation.  (+info)

Structural features and anticoagulant activities of a novel natural low molecular weight heparin from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. (2/1431)

A natural low molecular weight heparin (8.5 kDa), with an anticoagulant activity of 95 IU/mg by the USP assay, was isolated from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. The crustacean heparin was susceptible to both heparinase and heparitinase II from Flavobacterium heparinum forming tri- and di-sulfated disaccharides as the mammalian heparins. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the shrimp heparin was enriched in both glucuronic and non-sulfated iduronic acid residues. The in vitro anticlotting activities in different steps of the coagulation cascade have shown that its anticoagulant action is mainly exerted through the inhibition of factor Xa and heparin cofactor II-mediated inhibition of thrombin. The shrimp heparin has also a potent in vivo antithrombotic activity comparable to the mammalian low molecular weight heparins.  (+info)

Stereochemical course and steady state mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the GDP-fucose synthetase from Escherichia coli. (3/1431)

Recently the genes encoding the human and Escherichia coli GDP-mannose dehydratase and GDP-fucose synthetase (GFS) protein have been cloned and it has been shown that these two proteins alone are sufficient to convert GDP mannose to GDP fucose in vitro. GDP-fucose synthetase from E. coli is a novel dual function enzyme in that it catalyzes epimerizations and a reduction reaction at the same active site. This aspect separates fucose biosynthesis from that of other deoxy and dideoxy sugars in which the epimerase and reductase activities are present on separate enzymes encoded by separate genes. By NMR spectroscopy we have shown that GFS catalyzes the stereospecific hydride transfer of the ProS hydrogen from NADPH to carbon 4 of the mannose sugar. This is consistent with the stereospecificity observed for other members of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family of enzymes of which GFS is a member. Additionally the enzyme is able to catalyze the epimerization reaction in the absence of NADP or NADPH. The kinetic mechanism of GFS as determined by product inhibition and fluorescence binding studies is consistent with a random mechanism. The dissociation constants determined from fluorescence studies indicate that the enzyme displays a 40-fold stronger affinity for the substrate NADPH as compared with the product NADP and utilizes NADPH preferentially as compared with NADH. This study on GFS, a unique member of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family, coupled with that of its recently published crystal structure should aid in the development of antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory compounds that act by blocking selectin-mediated cell adhesion.  (+info)

Sensitive assay for mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. (4/1431)

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma is the principal polymerase required for mitochondrial DNA replication. Primary or secondary deficiencies in the activity of DNA polymerase gamma may lead to mitochondrial DNA depletion. We describe a sensitive and robust clinical assay for this enzyme. METHODS: The assay was performed on mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle biopsies. High-molecular weight polynucleotide reaction products were captured on ion-exchange paper, examined qualitatively by autoradiography, and quantified by scintillation counting. RESULTS: Kinetic analysis of DNA polymerase gamma by this method showed a K(m) for dTTP of 1.43 micromol/L and a K(i) for azidothymidine triphosphate of 0.861 micromol/L. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 2 microgram of mitochondrial protein. The detection limit was 30 units (30 fmol dTMP incorporated in 30 min). The linear dynamic range was three orders of magnitude; 30-30 000 units. Imprecision (CV) was 6.4% within day and 12% between days. Application of this assay to a mixed population of 38 patients referred for evaluation of mitochondrial disease revealed a distribution with a range of 0-2506 U/microgram, reflecting extensive biologic variation among patients with neuromuscular disease. CONCLUSION: This assay provides a useful adjunct to current laboratory methods for the evaluation of patients with suspected mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes.  (+info)

Localization of the IgG effector site for monocyte receptors. (5/1431)

A peptide consisting of 10 amino acids derived from the CH3 region of human IgG was shown to bind to monocytes and to inhibit rosette formation of antibody-coated erythrocytes with human monocytes. Two myeloma proteins of the IgG1 and IgG3 subclass, both with known deletions in the CH2 region of the gamma chain, showed unimpaired ability to bind to monocytes. These experiments suggest that the isolated peptide represents the primary site of attachment of IgG to monocytes.  (+info)

In yeast the export of small glycopeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol is not affected by the structure of their oligosaccharide chains. (6/1431)

A "quality control" system associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that discriminates between misfolded proteins and correctly folded proteins is present in a variety of eukaryotic cells, including yeast. Recently, it has been shown that misfolded proteins that are N -glycosylated in the lumen of the ER are transported out of the ER, de-N-glycosylated by a soluble peptide: N -glycanase (PNGase) and degraded by action of the proteasome. It also has been shown that small N -glycosylatable peptides follow a fate similar to that of misfolded proteins, i.e., glycosylation in the lumen of the ER, transport out of the ER, and de- N -glycosylation in the cytosol. These processes of retrograde glycopeptide transport and de- N -glycosylation have been observed in mammalian cells, as well as in yeast cells. However, little is known about the mechanism involved in the movement of glycopeptides from the ER to the cytosol. Here we report a simple method for assaying N -glycosylation/de- N -glycosylation by simple paper chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques using an N -glycosylatable(3)H-labeled tripeptide as a substrate. With this method, we confirmed the cytosolic localization of the de- N -glycosylated peptide, which supports the idea that de- N -glycosylation occurs after the export of the glycopeptide from the lumen of the ER to the cytosol. Further, we found that the variations in the structure of the oligosaccharide chain on the glycopeptide did not cause differences in the export of the glycopeptide. This finding suggests that the mechanism for the export of small glycopeptides may differ from that of misfolded (glyco)proteins.  (+info)

Elaboration of pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures. (7/1431)

Pyrimidine-specific nucleosidases were released rapidly by human lymphoblastoid cells of established cultures when incubated under certain culture conditions having no adverse affect on their viability or morphology. Nucleosidase production was not restricted to any particular type of lymphoblastoid line; enzymes with a high level of activity were elaborated by cells of cultures initiated from healthy subjects and patients with uncontrolled lymphocytic or myelocytic leukemia, as well as by cells of cultures exhibiting mostly B- or T-cell properties. Tritiated thymine and uracil, which were not incorporated to any appreciable extent by DNA- and RNA-synthesizing cells, were identified by paper chromatography as the primary products arising from nucleosidase degradation of radiolabeled thymidine, uridine, and cytidine. Neither adenosine nor guanosine was catabolized. These heat-labile and ultraviolet-sensitive enzymes with a molecular weight of 5 to 10 X 10(4) did not affect the viability, morphology, or proliferation of lymphocytes in mitogenactivated cultures, lymphoblastoid cells in long-term cultures, or fibroblasts in monolayer cultures.  (+info)

Covalent linkage of polyamines to peptidoglycan in Anaerovibrio lipolytica. (8/1431)

Spermidine and cadaverine were found to be constituents of the cell wall peptidoglycan of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, a strictly anaerobic bacterium. The peptidoglycan was degraded with the N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase and endopeptidase into two peptide fragments, peptide I and peptide II, at a molar ratio of 4:1. Peptides I and II were identified as L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphacadaverine)gammameso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-D-alanine and L-alanine-D-glutamic acid(alphaspermidine)gammameso-DAP-D-alanine, respectively. The N(1)-amino group of spermidine was linked to the alpha-carboxyl group of the D-glutamic acid residue of peptide II.  (+info)

The condition typically affects children and young adults, and its symptoms can vary in severity. The most common symptoms include:

* Swelling of the eyelids and face
* Pain and tenderness in the affected eye
* Difficulty moving the eyes
* Double vision or loss of vision in the affected eye
* Headaches
* Fever

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is caused by an inflammation of the adenoids, which are gland-like tissues located near the nasal passages. The condition can be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, allergies, or other factors that cause inflammation.

Diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and drainage of any abscesses that may have formed. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the affected eye.

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare condition, but it can be challenging to diagnose and treat. It is essential to seek medical attention if you or your child experiences symptoms of this condition, as early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:

* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output

Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.

The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:

1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.

The most common types of hemoglobinopathies include:

1. Sickle cell disease: This is caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. It results in the production of sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause anemia, infections, and other complications.
2. Thalassemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin and can result in anemia, fatigue, and other complications.
3. Hemophilia A: This is caused by a defect in the F8 gene that codes for coagulation factor VIII, which is essential for blood clotting. It can cause bleeding episodes, especially in males.
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: This is caused by a point mutation in the G6PD gene that codes for an enzyme involved in red blood cell production. It can cause hemolytic anemia, especially in individuals who consume certain foods or medications.
5. Hereditary spherocytosis: This is caused by point mutations in the ANK1 or SPTA1 genes that code for proteins involved in red blood cell membrane structure. It can cause hemolytic anemia and other complications.

Hemoglobinopathies can be diagnosed through genetic testing, such as DNA sequencing or molecular genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder but may include blood transfusions, medications, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several types of poisoning, including:

1. Acute poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a large amount of a poisonous substance over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a small amount of a poisonous substance over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Occupational poisoning: This occurs when a worker is exposed to a poisonous substance in the course of their work. Examples include exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury.
4. Environmental poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a poisonous substance in their environment, such as through contaminated water or soil.
5. Food poisoning: This occurs when a person eats food that has been contaminated with a poisonous substance, such as bacteria or viruses. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.

Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison and the severity of the exposure. Some common treatments include activated charcoal to absorb the poison, medications to counteract the effects of the poison, and supportive care such as fluids and oxygen. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding poisoning. This includes proper storage and disposal of household chemicals, using protective gear when working with hazardous substances, and avoiding exposure to known poisons such as certain plants and animals. Education and awareness are also important in preventing poisoning, such as understanding the symptoms of poisoning and seeking medical attention immediately if suspected.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and brain.
2. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and other health problems.
3. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
4. Glycogen storage diseases: A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a form of carbohydrate energy.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to produce and break down certain sugars, leading to a buildup of these substances in the body.
6. Citrullinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid citrulline, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and urine.
7. Homocystinuria: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
8. Tyrosinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid tyrosine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and liver.

Inborn errors of metabolism can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood and urine tests. Treatment for these disorders varies depending on the specific condition and may include dietary changes, medication, and other therapies. Early detection and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Treatment for uremia typically involves dialysis or kidney transplantation to remove excess urea from the blood and restore normal kidney function. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, anemia, or electrolyte imbalances.

The term "uremia" is derived from the Greek words "oura," meaning "urea," and "emia," meaning "in the blood." It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe a condition caused by excess urea in the blood. Today, it remains an important diagnostic term in nephrology and is often used interchangeably with the term "uremic syndrome."

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

A type of typhus fever that is caused by a bacterial infection and transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas. The disease is typically found in rural areas where there are poor living conditions and inadequate sanitation, and it is most commonly seen in parts of Africa and Asia.

Symptoms of endemic typhus fever include high fever, headache, muscle aches, and a rash that may appear on the abdomen or palms of the hands. In severe cases, the disease can lead to complications such as kidney failure, pneumonia, and death.

Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination and laboratory tests, and treatment usually involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include controlling flea populations on animals and in living areas, and improving sanitation and living conditions.

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The term "Sarcoma 180" was coined by a German surgeon named Otto Kunkel in the early 20th century. He described this type of cancer as a highly malignant tumor that grows slowly but is resistant to treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The exact cause of Sarcoma 180 is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. The disease typically affects middle-aged adults and is more common in men than women.

The symptoms of Sarcoma 180 can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected area. If left untreated, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body and be fatal.

Treatment for Sarcoma 180 usually involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In some cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. The prognosis for this disease is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 50%.

In summary, Sarcoma 180 is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects connective tissue and has a poor prognosis. It is important for medical professionals to be aware of this condition and its symptoms in order to provide proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several types of drug overdoses, including:

1. Opioid overdose: This is the most common type of drug overdose and is caused by taking too much of an opioid medication or street drug like heroin.
2. Stimulant overdose: This occurs when someone takes too much of a stimulant drug like cocaine or amphetamines.
3. Depressant overdose: This is caused by taking too much of a depressant drug like alcohol, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates.
4. Hallucinogenic overdose: This happens when someone takes too much of a hallucinogenic drug like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary depending on the type of drug taken, but common signs include:

1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Slurred speech and difficulty speaking
3. Dizziness and loss of balance
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Slow or irregular breathing
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Cold, clammy skin
8. Blue lips and fingernails
9. Coma or unresponsiveness
10. Death

If you suspect someone has overdosed on drugs, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Call emergency services or bring the person to the nearest hospital.

Treatment for drug overdoses usually involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluids, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, a patient may need to be placed on life support or receive other intensive treatments.

Preventing drug overdoses is crucial, and this can be achieved by avoiding the use of drugs altogether, using drugs only as directed by a medical professional, and having access to naloxone, a medication that can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose.

In conclusion, drug overdoses are a significant public health issue that can have severe consequences, including death. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of drug overdoses and seek medical attention immediately if you suspect someone has overdosed. Additionally, prevention measures such as avoiding drug use and having access to naloxone can help reduce the risk of overdose.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

The most common form of xanthomatosis is called familial hypercholesterolemia, which is caused by a deficiency of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in the body. This results in high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the skin, eyes, and other tissues.

Other forms of xanthomatosis include:

* Familial apo A-1 deficiency: This is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1), a protein that plays a critical role in the transportation of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.
* familial hyperlipidemia: This is a group of rare genetic disorders that are characterized by high levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
* Chylomicronemia: This is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in the blood.

The symptoms of xanthomatosis vary depending on the specific form of the condition and the organs affected. They may include:

* Yellowish deposits (xanthomas) on the skin, particularly on the elbows, knees, and buttocks
* Deposits in the eyes (corneal arcus)
* Fatty liver disease
* High levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss

Treatment for xanthomatosis typically involves managing the underlying genetic disorder, which may involve dietary changes, medication, or other therapies. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.

In summary, xanthomatosis is a group of rare genetic disorders that are characterized by deposits of lipids in the skin and other organs. The symptoms and treatment vary depending on the specific form of the condition.

Symptoms of pheochromocytoma can include:

* Rapid heartbeat
* High blood pressure
* Sweating
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Headaches
* Nausea and vomiting

If left untreated, pheochromocytoma can lead to complications such as heart failure, stroke, and even death. Therefore, it is important that individuals who experience any of the above symptoms seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Treatment options for pheochromocytoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, medication to manage symptoms, and in some cases, radiation therapy. In rare cases, the tumor may recur after treatment, so regular monitoring is necessary to ensure that any new symptoms are detected early on.

Overall, while pheochromocytoma is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition, prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Example sentence: The patient was diagnosed with experimental sarcoma and underwent a novel chemotherapy regimen that included a targeted therapy drug.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

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"chromatography". Online Etymology Dictionary. Runge placed drops of reactant solutions on blotting paper and then added a drop ... He first used the term chromatography in print in 1906 in his two papers about chlorophyll in the German botanical journal, ... Unlike modern paper chromatography, capillary analysis used reservoirs of the substance being analyzed, creating overlapping ... Whelan, W. J. (1995). "The advent of paper chromatography". The FASEB Journal. 9 (2): 287-288. doi:10.1096/fasebj.9.2.7781933. ...
"Paper chromatography , chemistry". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-01. Nowotny, Dr Thomas; Levi, Dr Rafael (2014). ...
LFTs derive from paper chromatography, which was developed in 1943 by Martin and Synge, and elaborated in 1944 by Consden, ... "Paper chromatography , chemistry". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-01. Engvall, E (1972-11-22). "Enzyme-linked ... Conference paper; Published paper (Refereed)). Guo W, Hansson J, van der Wijngaart W (2018). "Capillary pumping independent of ... The pads are based on a series of capillary beds, such as pieces of porous paper, microstructured polymer, or sintered polymer ...
... paper chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography which is more commonly known as gas chromatography. The modification of ... The introduction of paper chromatography was an important analytical technique which gave rise to thin-layer chromatography. ... Pakhomov, V. P. (2003). "Chromatography in Pharmaceutical Chemistry (100 Years of the Discovery of Chromatography by M. S. ... A theory of chromatography. 2. Application to the micro-determination of the higher monoamino-acids in proteins". Biochemical ...
"Techniques and Reagents for Paper Chromatography." Analytical Chemistry 23(6): 823-826. Toennies, G. and D. L. Gallant (1949 ...
"Paper chromatography of urinary amino acids. A 30 year survey of dietary influences on the normal pattern, and patients' ... results". Biomedical Chromatography. 1 (3): 95-100. doi:10.1002/BMC.1130010302. ISSN 0269-3879. PMID 3506825. Wikidata ...
Paper chromatography of phenolic acids" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 218 (1): 293-303. PMID 13278337. Stevenson ...
These can be separated by paper chromatography. At 200 °C the hexa-phosphate is produced. At 250 °C the typical chain length is ...
Willstätter invented paper chromatography independently of Mikhail Tsvet. Willstätter was born into a Jewish family in ...
... showing her working with a technique called paper chromatography, spraying reagent on liquids dropped onto paper to detect ... Paper chromatography of steroid sapogenins and their acetates. J Biol Chem 1952;197(1): 47-55. Hayden AL, Heftmann E, Johnson ... HEFTMANN, E; HAYDEN, AL (May 1952). "Paper chromatography of steroid sapogenins and their acetates". The Journal of Biological ... "Hidden Figures in Paper Chromotography". The NIH Catalyst. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 7, 2017. "Criminal ...
V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 72 (4): 1710-1718. doi ...
The partition coefficient principle has been applied in paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, gas phase and liquid- ... Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), also known as gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography, separates ... ligand-exchange chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography of carbohydrates ... They are analogous to the calculation of retention factor for a paper chromatography separation, but describes how well HPLC ...
I.-Fractionation and paper chromatography of water-soluble substances". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 8 (2): ... in the 1960s by the means of spectroscopy or by fractionation or paper chromatography. They have been identified as ...
Nitric acid test and paper chromatography test are used in the detection of argemone oil. The paper chromatography test is the ...
Karl-Kroupa, E. (1956). Use of paper chromatography for differential analysis of phosphate mixtures. Analytical Chemistry. 28(7 ... 78(8): 1772 Langguth, R. P., Osterheld, R. K., & Karl-Kroupa, E. (1956). Verification by Chromatography of the Thermal ...
"Identification of corticosteroids of beef adrenal extract by paper chromatography". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 193 (2 ...
ISBN 978-0-900663-07-9. Chromatography, Electrophoresis; [Lectures and Papers. Ann Arbor]. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. 1971. ...
The process is similar to paper chromatography with the advantage of faster runs, better separations, and the choice between ... Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. Thin-layer chromatography ... A strip of filter paper (aka "wick") is put into the chamber so that its bottom touches the solvent and the paper lies on the ... doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.12.071) F. Geiss (1987): Fundamentals of thin layer chromatography planar chromatography, Heidelberg ...
Hotchkiss RD (1948). "The quantitative separation of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides by paper chromatography". J Biol Chem ... when Hotchkiss separated the nucleic acids of DNA from calf thymus using paper chromatography, by which he detected a unique ...
Hydrindantin Paper chromatography Chemicals and reagents, 2008-2010, Merck "Fingerprinting Analysis". Bergen County Technical ... In the analysis of a chemical reaction by thin layer chromatography (TLC), the reagent can also be used (usually 0.2% solution ... The rest of the amino acids are then quantified colorimetrically after separation by chromatography. A solution suspected of ... solution is commonly used by forensic investigators in the analysis of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces such as paper. ...
... paper chromatography, pyrrole, chinoline, phenol, thymol and atropine. Runge placed drops of reactant solutions on blotting ... as precursors of paper chromatography". Chromatographia. 38 (3-4): 243-254. doi:10.1007/BF02290345. S2CID 94297466. Wikimedia ... The solutions would react as they spread through the blotting paper, often producing colored patterns. His results were ... observing them in the course of experiments on the precipitation of reagents in blotting paper. In 1832 botanist Christian ...
With Kaufmann she developed paper chromatography techniques to identify and quantify fatty acids. Budwig used these techniques ...
Ninhydrin revealed where the different chemicals were on the paper used for chromatography. Bands were cut out of the paper, ... They used absorption dialysis and paper chromatography to separate chemical components from seeds, focusing on strong bases. ...
Instrumental in his DNA discoveries were the innovation of paper chromatography, and the commercially-available ultraviolet ... He did his experiments with the newly developed paper chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Chargaff met Francis ... Cohen says that "Almost alone among the scientists of this time, Chargaff accepted the unusual Avery paper and concluded that ... During his time at Columbia, Chargaff published numerous scientific papers, dealing primarily with the study of nucleic acids ...
It is useful for isolating anthocyanins in room-temperature chromatography using standard filter paper. Bate-Smith, E. C. (Sep ... Forestal is a solvent used in chromatography, composed of acetic acid, water, and hydrochloric acid in a 30:10:3 ratio by ... ISBN 0-444-51108-3 (2004) (retrieved via google books 9/27/2010) (Solvents, Chromatography, Anthocyanins). ... Chromatography, Elsevier Science, E. Heftmann (ed), Amsterdam, pp. 1050. ...
The Preparation and Paper Chromatography of Pure Adrenochrome". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 36 (5): 853-857. doi:10.1139/v58 ...
The paper chromatography method involves using capillary tubes to add small samples of the wine to chromatograph paper. The ... and finally lactic acids near the top of the paper. A significant limitation to paper chromatography is that it will not show ... Winemakers can track the progression of malolactic fermentation by paper chromatography or with a spectrophotometer. ... After the paper is pulled out and dried, the distance of yellow-colored "splotches" from the base line denotes the presence of ...
... paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and what would become known as high-performance liquid chromatography. Since then, ... Paper chromatography is a technique that involves placing a small dot or line of sample solution onto a strip of chromatography ... The plane can be a paper, serving as such or impregnated by a substance as the stationary bed (paper chromatography) or a layer ... It is similar to paper chromatography. However, instead of using a stationary phase of paper, it involves a stationary phase of ...
Paper chroma-tography of some spinach leaf extract shows the various pigments present in their chloroplasts. Xanthophylls ...
Modern biochemical research has been greatly aided by the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray ... along with the publication by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828 of a paper on the chemical synthesis of urea, and is notable for being ...
... or water through filter paper, such as in chromatography. Power-law scaling connects the rate of flow to the distribution of ... The formation and propagation of cracks and tears in materials ranging from steel to rock to paper. The variations of the ...
Runemark used the newly discovered technique of paper chromatography as a tool in lichen taxonomy, and his monograph included ...
"Competitiveness of Irradiated Methyl Eugenol Fed Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera philippinensis." Paper presented by the senior ... This facility analyzes degradation products through gel permeation chromatography and separates different molecular weight ...
Ranked among the top 10 chemists in 2021, he has authored nearly 900 scientific paper and 200 patents including 96 US patents. ... Novel continuous rods of macroporous polymer as High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Separation Media. Analytical Chemistry ...
Other laboratory applications of fritted glass include packing in chromatography columns and resin beds for special chemical ... similar to a piece of filter paper. The fluid can go through the pores in the fritted glass, but the frit will often stop a ...
The Journal of Chromatography A is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers in analytical chemistry, with ... Journal of Chromatography B "Journals Ranked by Impact: Biochemical Research Methods". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of ...
Signal/modulator-carrier chromatography may separate watermarks from the recording or detect them as glitches. Additionally, ... Present State and Emerging Scenarios of Digital Rights Management Systems - A paper by Marc Fetscherin which provides an ... Schiermeier, Quirin (2015). "Pirate research-paper sites play hide-and-seek with publishers". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature. ... An analogous argument was made in an early paper by Kathleen Conner and Richard Rummelt. A subsequent study of digital rights ...
Zaveri, Mihir (25 September 2020). "Even Paper Bags Will Be Banned From N.J. Supermarkets". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 ... Journal of Chromatography A. 315: 201-210. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)90737-X. Quoted from a campaign site giving no details of ... SAE Mobilus (Report). SAE Technical Paper Series. Vol. 1. doi:10.4271/2006-01-3612. Bielenberg, Robert W.; Rohde, John D.; Reid ...
The Journal of Chromatographic Science (JCS) is a peer reviewed academic journal of chromatography. It is published by Oxford ... The Journal focuses on research papers describing practical and preparative applications and analytical methods relevant to a ...
In a paper published in December 2010, the scientists suggest that if organics were present, they would not have been detected ... October 2006). "The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and ... On 12 April 2012, an international team including Levin and Patricia Ann Straat published a peer reviewed paper suggesting the ... According to a paper authored by a team led by Rafael Navarro-González of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, "those ...
For metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to find flavonoids such as quercetin. Compounds can then ... geologist Amadeus William Grabau proposed a new rock classification system in his paper 'Discussion of and Suggestions ... They are generally isolated and measured through the use of chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Additionally, the ... Chemical compounds are then derived through various chromatography and mass spectrometry separations. However, extraction ...
In 1914, two scientific papers claimed quebrachine was chemically identical to yohimbine. This was disputed, and the matter ... Badr JM (January 2013). "A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine ... "Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility ...
Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 877 (29): 3695-700. doi:10.1016/j. ... Scientific Advisory Committee Opinion Paper 13. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Archived from the original ( ... "Determination of metformin in human plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry". ... in surface and pore water by high-resolution sampling-direct injection-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass ...
... with a miniature writing brush on inserted paper, an auspicious couplet in perfect Chinese calligraphy. In addition to works of ... Conservation Lab Historical Architecture Conservation Lab Sample Preparation Lab Computed Tomography Lab Chromatography-Mass ...
The constriction toward the tip of the Pasteur pipettes may be plugged with a bit of tissue paper or cotton wool to filter off ... With a bit of skill, Pasteur pipettes may also be used for microscale column chromatography. With appropriately fine silica gel ... University of Colorado at Boulder, Procedure for Microscale Flash Column Chromatography Archived 2013-05-24 at the Wayback ... the bulb may be squeezed for microscale flash column chromatography. Pasteur pipettes can also be used for microscale ...
Personal hygiene baby diapers Adult incontinence Feminine hygiene Paper and packaging Paper lamination Cardboard and case ... determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography, GPC Shear adhesion failure temperature (SAFT) Peel adhesion failure temperature ( ...
Cotton tape dyed red with safflower was formerly used to tie up government papers in Britain, giving rise to the term red tape ... in historical textiles by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric ...
Despite its common name - Anthony's Poison Arrow frog - suggesting that it was used by natives when hunting, a paper written by ... Journal of Chromatography A; 896: 229-238, 2000. Damaj, M.I.; et al. (1994). "Pharmacological effects of epibatidine optical ...
By running an affinity chromatography, B-Galactosidase can be isolated and tested by reacting collected samples with ONPG and ... without/with uv filter to control better the effect of uv brighteners within the paper stock. Samples are usually prepared in ...
Historical papers include: Discovery of genes involved in predisposition to medulloblastoma (Michael Taylor and James Rutka ... cartridge or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Microarray and Gene Expression Core Facility has a dedicated ... Support of other researchers worldwide is found in many similar publications, with at least 145 papers in scholarly journals, ... Since 2002, over 270 such papers have been published. ...
... 's 1954 paper with A. T. James, "Gas-Liquid Chromatography: A Technique for the Analysis and Identification of ... He published far fewer papers than the typical Nobel winners-only 70 in all-but his ninth paper contained the work that would ... Ettre, C. (2001). "Milestones in Chromatography: The Birth of Partition Chromatography" (PDF). LCGC. 19 (5): 506-512. Archived ... and in techniques that laid the foundation for several new types of chromatography. He developed partition chromatography ...
Van Berkel, Gary J.; Sanchez, Amaury D.; Quirke, J. Martin E. (2002). "Thin-Layer Chromatography and Electrospray Mass ... Zhu, Hongying; Li, Gongyu; Huang, Guangming (2014). "Screening of Complicated Matrixes with Paper Assisted Ultrasonic Spray ... Zhang, Jialing; Zhou, Zhigui; Yang, Jianwang; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei (2012). "Thin Layer Chromatography/Plasma ... chromatography and imaging methods". Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 28 (16): 1779-1791. doi:10.1002/rcm.6960. ISSN ...
Faculty members have published 64 papers in International journals, 215 in National and 535 papers were abstracted in various ... UV-visible spectrophotometer Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer High-performance liquid chromatography Atomic ... Teachers are encouraged to participate in seminars with paper presentation. During the last five years 24 teachers received Ph. ...
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky begins a series of papers discussing the use of liquid fuel rockets to reach outer space, space suits, ... Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet invents chromatography, an important analytic technique. The International Committee of Atomic ...
A 1955 paper states that molybdenum blue is unstable and is not used commercially as a pigment. The chemistry of these pigments ... detection of the heteroatom silicate phosphate Dittmer's spray reagent for phospholipids is used in thin layer chromatography ... Recently, paper-based devices have become very attractive to use colorimetric determination for making inexpensive, disposable ... "Portable infrared lightbox for improving the detection limits of paper-based phosphate devices". Measurement: 108607. doi: ...
The project resulted in four papers on pectic enzymes, one of which published in Nature. At Berkeley, he was in charge of the ... Demain said that he and Phaff "apparently were the first in the world to carry out affinity chromatography, using a pectic acid ... Demain published over 500 papers, co-edited or co-authored fourteen books, and took out 21 U.S. patents. Demain was born in ...
They published a paper in February 1970, reporting multiple examples of two such activities, with half-lives of 14 ms and 2.2± ... This report included an initial chemical examination: the thermal gradient version of the gas-chromatography method was applied ... According to the paper, the isotope produced by JINR was probably 261105, or possibly 260105. ... Lucchesi, Cristane; Cuadros, Alex (April 2013), "Mineral Wealth", Bloomberg Markets (paper), p. 14 Papp, John F. "Niobium ( ...
... is also commonly used as a polar stationary phase for gas chromatography, as well as a heat transfer fluid ... Oregon State University informational paper on using PEG as a wood stabilizer (CS1 maint: unfit URL, Webarchive template ...
In 1906 botanist Mikhail Tsvet invented paper chromatography, an early predecessor to thin layer chromatography, and used it to ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a quick alternative to more complex chromatography methods. TLC can be used to analyze inks ... Gas chromatography (GC) performs the same function as liquid chromatography, but it is used for volatile mixtures. In forensic ... These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, ...
The paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet and strips. Each package includes 100 sheets. This paper can be used in ... Chromatography paper is a fine grade of paper made from cotton cellulose. ... Chromatography paper is a fine grade of paper made from cotton cellulose. The paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet ... Paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet and strips. The roll form is 1" wide, 0.16 mm thick, and 600 feet long. The ...
A study making extensive use of techniques based on paper partition chromatography. ...
30 min This medium thick paper is recommended for general chromatography applications. Grade 238 is also ideal for use as wicks ... Chromatography, Electrophoresis & Blotting Paper * Pleated Paper * Beer Testing Paper * Phase Seperation Filter Paper * Sugar ... Chromatography, Electrophoresis & Blotting Paper - Grade 238. * * Chromatography Blotting Paper - 2388-2030 - Grade 238, 20cm x ... Testing Filter Paper * Pulp Test Blotter and Blotting Paper * Seed Testing Paper * pH Papers and Test Strips ...
23.1 What is Paper Chromatography?. 23.2 What is Thin Layer Chromatography?. 23.3 What is Gas Chromatography?. 23.4 What is ... 23.5 What is High Pressure Liquid Chromatography?. 23.6 What is Ion Chromatography?. 23.7 What is Gel Permeation Chromatography ...
Paper chromatography Last post by rdescene « Tue Feb 08, 2011 1:20 pm. ...
As a result of these benefits, paper has been used in applications ranging from spot tests for metals and paper chromatography ... missed many excellent papers relating to paper microfluidics. For those papers missed, we apologize in advance. ... Paper-chromatography; Chemical-properties; Enzymatic-effects; Enzymes; Nanotechnology; Electrochemical-reactions; ... with scientific reports dating back to the early 1800s with litmus paper. As a substrate material, paper (and related porous ...
Characterization of gelbstoffe in Monterey Bay by nylon absorption, UV, and paper chromatography Thesis /. 1972. ...
Chromatography Paper In stock A small booklet of approximately 10 long, narrow chromatograhy papers. 4" X 3/4" ...
The method described uses paper and thin-layer chromatography. Thin-layer cliromatograph3 using wide-pore silica gel ... by letting light which has passed through a paper ribbon treated with lead acetate impinge on a photocell. When the amount of ...
110 samples from eleven Medical Officers Of Health areas in Jaffna district were analyzed by using thin layer chromatography ... These nonpermitted colour spots were not detectable by paper chromatography analysis but appeared in thin layer chromatography ... N. Bachalla, "Identification of synthetic food colors adulteration by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric methods," ... In chromatography, retention factor (Rf) is the fraction of the sample in the mobile phase at equilibrium [7, 8, 12]. It was ...
In this lab activity, students will master the techniques of paper chromatography. Using paper chromatography, students will ... Ordering information: Lab materials include Chromatography vials with caps, Chromatography paper strips, 4 different pens with ... Materials not included are Distilled water; 100 mL, Scissors, Pencils, Notebook paper, and Plain white paper.. ...
... the separation of mixtures through filtration and paper chromatography; the test of the law of Boyle; the determination of the ...
Chromatography. Chromatography. *Autosampler Vial Crimpers and Decappers. *Autosampler Vials, Caps, and Closures ... Exam Table Roll Paper at ... Underpads and Roll Paper * Graham Professional™ Exam Table Roll ...
They can be used with paper or gel electrophoresis or paper chromatography. Trays will withstand autoclaving. Do not place over ... Chromatography*Circulators & Accessories*Clamps, Supports, Stands & Bases*Compression Fittings*Condensers*Critical Environment* ...
Chromatography paper strip sampling of enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 positive stool specimens. Virol J. 2005;2:6. DOI ...
... is an author on scientific papers, white papers, chromatography articles and a degree module and has co-authored a book with ... She gained a Pexa award for her paper on the dispersion of hydrocarbon vapours in ventilated air. ... the RSC as a practical reference to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, for analysts at all experience levels. ...
For detection of SCD the same filter papers were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant™, BioRad). ... This paper reports data since the programme started in January 1995 up to December 2011 on the incidence of screened disorders ... and blood is collected by heel-prick onto filter paper (S&S 903) by technicians or trained nurses. For babies remaining in ...
Cobalt test paper allows the quick and easy detection of Cobalt (Co²⁺). ... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) * TLC / HPTLC plates and sheets * TLC micro sets ... Qualitative test paper Cuprotesmo for Copper: 0.05 μg Cu on surfaces Content 40 Test(s) ... Cobalt test paper allows the quick and easy detection of Cobalt (Co²⁺). more ...
Chromatography is a standard analytical tool for today’s chemists and biochemists — found in most laboratories it ... In the first part of the paper, Martin and Synge for the first time ever, presented a theory of chromatography that attempted ... But in 1942 a paper was published which changed chromatography forever.. A New Form of Chromatogram Employing Two Liquid Phases ... The new form of chromatography that they described became known as partition chromatography due to the way that the sample ...
... by measuring the amount of radioactivity associated with the reaction products after separation by paper chromatography as ...
Paper Chromatography. -. * How to separate sand and copper(II) sulfate salt from its mixture, Separation Methods [Online Video] ...
... in the field have coincided with the appearance of new experimental techniques such as paper and ion-exchange chromatography, ... Paper (190) , Phosphate (5) , Physical (511) , Point (583) , Polar (13) , Primitive (77) , Proper (148) , Reason (757) , ... paper electrophoresis, and countercurrent distribution, peculiarly appropriate to the compounds of this group. ...
Detection of Numerous Y Chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms by Denaturing High-performance Liquid Chromatography. (Abstract) ... Author, Year, Paper, Journal. Haplogroup(s). Adamov D., Guryanov V., Karzhavin S., Tagankin V., Urasin V, (2015).. Defining a ... Additional Older Papers:. Haplogroup(s). Hurles ME, Veitia R, Arroyo E, Armenteros M, Bertranpetit J, Perez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, ... Y-DNA Papers Cited - 2019-2020. The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions ...
Capillary electrokinetic chromatography of insulin and related synthetic analogues. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, ... Within the work presented in this paper, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ... "Capillary Electrokinetic Chromatography of Insulin and Related Synthetic Analogues." Journal of Chromatography. A, vol. 1216, ... Within the work presented in this paper, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ...
Microidentification of alkyl halides, O-alkyl and N-alkyl groups by paper chromatography. 1954, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 1175-1178 ... 4-dinitrobenzyl ethers by paper chromatography. 1968, Vol. 33, Issue 11, pp. 3876-3879 [Abstract] ...
... and paper and thin layer chromatography of amino acids and sugars used for nearly 30 years in the HNN. The IMD included in the ... The filter paper with the dry blood sample is stable for a long time, which allows for it to be sent by mail. Most of the cards ... The feasibility to carry out laboratory tests in a small blood sample able to be conserved for a long time in a filter paper ( ... In order to minimize the possibility of mixing samples up, the original form has the filter paper attached to its right end; ...
Chromatography paper, Whatman, 3 mm Chr. Add to cart. * Cleaner, Whiteboard. Add to cart ...
... followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For accurate and reliable measurement of PEth ... Extraction of the analytes from DBS filter paper cards is performed using an organic extraction, ... Weinmann, W., Schröck, A. & Wurst, F. M. Commentary on the paper of Thompson P. et al.: Phosphatidylethanol in postmortem brain ... Extraction of the analytes from DBS filter paper cards is performed using an organic extraction, followed by liquid ...
  • Extraction of the analytes from DBS filter paper cards is performed using an organic extraction, followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For accurate and reliable measurement of PEth, the two most abundant analogs, PEth 16:0/18:1 and PEth 16:0/18:2, are quantified. (
  • The method uses 200 microliters of urine and is based on 2D-on-line ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IC- MS/MS) and isotope dilution quantification (Schutze et. (
  • A study making extensive use of techniques based on paper partition chromatography. (
  • The new form of chromatography that they described became known as ' partition chromatography ' due to the way that the sample ' partitioned ' itself between the two liquid phases. (
  • This paper can be used in electrophoresis applications. (
  • They can be used with paper or gel electrophoresis or paper chromatography. (
  • Within the work presented in this paper, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) as micelle-forming agent, and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) with microemulsions consisting of SDS, n-octane and 1-butanol were investigated for the separation of human insulin and five synthetic analogues. (
  • The principal method used for the detection of diazinon or its metabolites in biological samples is gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector (FPD), a mass spectroscopy detector (MS), an electron capture detector (ECD), or a flame ionization detector (FID). (
  • The paste was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and found to contain butanoic acid, butyl ester, N-butyl ether, acetic acid, toluene, di-tert-butyl peroxide, 1-butanol, acetic acid ethenyl ester, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene dioxide. (
  • 1 extraction was carried out using immunoaffinity column, separated by reversed-phase (C-18) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) , and quantified by fluorescence detector. (
  • This paper reports data since the programme started in January 1995 up to December 2011 on the incidence of screened disorders and the molecular basis of positive screened cases. (
  • L'article présente les données collectées, depuis le commencement du programme en janvier 1995 jusqu'en décembre 2011, sur l'incidence des troubles dépistés ainsi que la base moléculaire des cas positifs dépistés. (
  • Concentration and 1987 greater purification by sweep co-distillation omentum) and Florisil/anhydrous sodium sulfate column chromatography. (
  • As a substrate material, paper (and related porous hydrophilic materials) has many unique advantages over traditional device materials including power-free fluid transport via capillary action, a high surface area to volume ratio that improves detection limits for colorimetric methods, and the ability to store reagents in active form within the fiber network. (
  • Paper has been used as a substrate material in analytical testing for centuries, with scientific reports dating back to the early 1800s with litmus paper. (
  • reported the first microfluidic paper-based analytical device (iPAD) for chemical analysis. (
  • We also limited our search criteria and resulting discussion to papers describing analytical measurements. (
  • Chromatography is a standard analytical tool for today's chemists and biochemists - found in most laboratories it is the key technique for separating compounds into their components. (
  • Chromatography paper is a fine grade of paper made from cotton cellulose. (
  • The paper is available in three forms: roll, sheet and strips. (
  • Lab materials include Chromatography vials with caps, Chromatography paper strips, 4 different pens with water soluable ink, Rulers, Microfuge tubes, and Pipets. (
  • is an author on scientific papers, white papers, chromatography articles and a degree module and has co-authored a book with the RSC as a practical reference to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, for analysts at all experience levels. (
  • Kids learn the colors of the rainbow along with chromatography as they watch marker streaks climb up and meet across a wet paper towel. (
  • One example of this is a CDMS, or chromatography data management system. (
  • Archer J.P. Martin and Richard L.M. Synge worked together at the Wool Industries Research Association in Leeds and in 1941 they published a paper entitled ' A New Form of Chromatogram Employing Two Liquid Phases ' in the Biochemical Journal. (
  • This paper reports the incidence of sickle cell diseases, other haemoglobinopathies and haemoglobinopathy carriers over a 12-month period using high performance liquid chromatography as a primary screening method. (
  • DNA probes and mycolic acids high-pressure liquid chromatography performed on a culture from a clinical specimen) are acceptable under this criterion. (
  • Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for Saxitoxin levels using High Power Liquid Chromatography. (
  • In this lab activity, students will master the techniques of paper chromatography. (
  • Many of the advances in chemistry and biology are based on new techniques being discovered in chromatography - leading to new molecules being discovered. (
  • How Do You Prepare Column Chromatography? (
  • How Does Column Diameter Affect Column Chromatography? (
  • In the first part of the paper, Martin and Synge for the first time ever, presented a theory of chromatography that attempted to explain the concentration of the solute at any point in the column and also how the resolution of the column was affected by various factors including the column's length. (
  • Using paper chromatography, students will separate the inks of several water soluble pens, calculate the relative rate of flow for each color dye on the chromatogram, and identify a type of pen based upon the quantitative measurements obtained. (
  • This medium thick paper is recommended for general chromatography applications. (
  • As a result of these benefits, paper has been used in applications ranging from spot tests for metals and paper chromatography to lateral flow immunoassays. (
  • This simple yet elegant development led many to realize paper as a substrate material for applications where low-cost and portability are critically important. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Le programme national de dépistage néonatal aux Émirats arabes unis couvre actuellement 16 maladies ou troubles : l'hyperthyroïdie congénitale, la drépanocytose, l'hyperplasie congénitale des surrénales, le déficit en biotinidase ainsi que 12 troubles des acides aminés, organiques et gras. (
  • There are several factors that affect HETP - for an introduction to HETP see this article on the Chromatography Today website - and the work by Martin and Synge gave an HETP of 0.002cm, previous separations with columns had only achieved an HETP of 1.0cm. (
  • During this time over 1 000 articles have been published in the field, making a full comprehensive review citing all papers impossible. (
  • As a result, we seek to highlight the papers we find to be most impactful for the field. (
  • The paper written by Martin and Synge was important because it laid the foundations of all the future work in the field of chromatography. (
  • Thus, this paper "reviews" technical assistance activities related to drug supply in light of the additional responsibilities assumed by the Organization with the establishment of the Strategic Fund. (
  • Chromatography was invented by Mikhail Tsvet in the 1900s - he separated the different pigments found in green leaves using tube packed with a solid material. (