Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Glycoside HydrolasesCircular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.SepharoseEnzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.PolysaccharidesTritiumSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.

Characterization and partial purification of a novel neutrophil membrane-associated kinase capable of phosphorylating the respiratory burst component p47phox. (1/6642)

The phosphorylation of p47phox is widely viewed as an important step in the activation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase system. The exact nature of the kinase(s) responsible remains to be elucidated. We show here that such a kinase was detected on neutrophil membranes activated by either PMA or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. This enzyme is not intrinsic to the neutrophil membrane and could be eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. The kinase activity was partially purified and was found not to be due to the presence of previously suggested kinases, including protein kinase C isotypes, mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B. Gel filtration and renaturation in substrate gels suggest a molecular mass of between 45 and 51 kDa. The kinase activity was independent of calcium and lipids but was potently inhibited by staurosporine. Treatment with protein phosphatase 2Ac suggested that the kinase was activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphopeptide maps indicated that the kinase phosphorylated p47phox on similar sites to those found in vivo. These results indicate that activation of neutrophils by PMA results in the activation of a membrane-associated kinase that may play a part in the regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase through its ability to phosphorylate p47phox.  (+info)

Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug. (2/6642)

We have previously noted that sequential extraction of an asthmatic mucous exudate with 6 M guanidinium chloride yielded a fraction of the mucins that were most resistant to solubilization and of high Mr [Sheehan, Richardson, Fung, Howard and Thornton (1995) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 13, 748-756]. Here we show that this mucin fraction is dominated (at least 96% of the total) by the low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B gene product. Seen in the electron microscope the mucins appeared mainly as compact 'island' structures composed of linear threads often emanating from globular 'nodes' rather than the discrete linear threads more typical of mucins that we have previously described. The effect of reducing agents was as expected for other gel-forming mucins, i.e. reduced subunits or monomers of Mr 3x10(6)) were produced within 15 min of treatment. Kinetic experiments on the cleavage of the intact mucins with the proteinase trypsin indicated two clear regimes of fragmentation. An initial rapid cleavage generated mucins ranging from Mr=4x10(6) to 30x10(6) that in the electron microscope appeared as polydisperse threads (500-3000 nm in length), similar to normal and other respiratory mucins that we have previously characterized. A subsequent slower fragmentation over many hours yielded a major fragment of Mr 3x10(6) and length 200-600 nm, very similar in size and Mr to the subunits obtained by reduction. The results suggest that the MUC5B mucin is assembled, first into polydisperse linear threads, which are then linked together via a protein-mediated process. This might involve part of the mucin polypeptide or an as yet unidentified protein(s). The high proteinase susceptibility of the linkage suggests that it might be a point of control for mucin size and thus mucus rheology.  (+info)

An improved method for the structural profiling of keratan sulfates: analysis of keratan sulfates from brain and ovarian tumors. (3/6642)

A previously developed method for the structural fingerprinting of keratan sulfates (Brown et al., Glycobiology, 5, 311-317, 1995) has been adapted for use with oligosaccharides fluorescently labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid following keratanase II digestion. The oligosaccharides are separated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on a Dionex AS4A-SC column. This methodology permits quantitative analysis of labeled oligosaccharides which can be detected at the sub-nanogram ( approximately 100 fmol) level. Satisfactory calibration of this method can be achieved using commercial keratan sulfate standards. Keratan sulfates from porcine brain phosphocan and human ovarian tumors have been examined using this methodology, and their structural features are discussed.  (+info)

Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. (4/6642)

The catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4C) has greater than 65% amino acid identity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AC). Despite this high homology, PP4 does not appear to associate with known PP2A regulatory subunits. As a first step toward characterization of PP4 holoenzymes and identification of putative PP4 regulatory subunits, PP4 was purified from bovine testis soluble extracts. PP4 existed in two complexes of approximately 270-300 and 400-450 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The smaller PP4 complex was purified by sequential phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, DEAE2, and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatographies. The final product contained two major proteins: the PP4 catalytic subunit plus a protein that migrated as a doublet of 120-125 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The associated protein, termed PP4R1, and PP4C also bound to microcystin-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified complex revealed two major peaks, at 35 (PP4C) and 105 kDa (PP4R1). Amino acid sequence information of several peptides derived from the 105 kDa protein was utilized to isolate a human cDNA clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 13 nonidentical repeats similar to repeats found in the A subunit of PP2A (PP2AA). The PP4R1 cDNA clone engineered with an N-terminal Myc tag was expressed in COS M6 cells and PP4C co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged PP4R1. These data indicate that one form of PP4 is similar to the core complex of PP2A in that it consists of a catalytic subunit and a "PP2AA-like" structural subunit.  (+info)

Recombinant human peroxisomal targeting signal receptor PEX5. Structural basis for interaction of PEX5 with PEX14. (5/6642)

Import of matrix proteins into peroxisomes requires two targeting signal-specific import receptors, Pex5p and Pex7p, and their binding partners at the peroxisomal membrane, Pex13p and Pex14p. Several constructs of human PEX5 have been overexpressed and purified by affinity chromatography in order to determine functionally important interactions and provide initial structural information. Sizing chromatography and electron microscopy suggest that the two isoforms of the human PTS1 receptor, PEX5L and PEX5S, form homotetramers. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that PEX5 binds to the N-terminal fragment of PEX14-(1-78) with a very high affinity in the low nanomolar range. Stable complexes between recombinant PEX14-(1-78) and both the full-length and truncated versions of PEX5 were formed in vitro. Analysis of these complexes revealed that PEX5 possesses multiple binding sites for PEX14, which appear to be distributed throughout its N-terminal half. Coincidentally, this part of the molecule is also responsible for oligomerization, whereas the C-terminal half with its seven tetratricopeptide repeats has been reported to bind PTS1-proteins. A pentapeptide motif that is reiterated seven times in PEX5 is proposed as a determinant for the interaction with PEX14.  (+info)

Isolation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Purification and characterization of the 60 S ribosomal subunit proteins L4, L5, L7, L9, L11, L12, L13, L21, L22, L23, L26, L27, L30, L33, L35', L37, and L39. (6/6642)

The proteins of the large subunit of rat liver ribosomes were separated into seven groups by stepwise elution from carboxymethylcellulose with LiCl at pH 6.5. Seventeen proteins (L4, L5, L7, L9, L11, L12, L13, L21, L22, L23, L26, L27, L30, L33, L35', L37, and L39) were isolated from three of the groups (B60, D60, G60) by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose and by filtration through Sephadex. The amount of protein obtained varied from 0.5 to 15 mg. Eight of the proteins (L9, L11, L13, L21, L22, L35', L37 and L39) had no detectable contamination; the impurities in the others were no greater than 9%. The molecular weight of the proteins was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate; the amino acid composition was determined.  (+info)

Acid-catalyzed lactonization of alpha2,8-linked oligo/polysialic acids studied by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. (7/6642)

Recent studies from many laboratories revealed remarkable structural, distributional, and functional diversities of oligo/polysialic acids (OSA/PSA) that exist in organisms ranging from bacteria to man. These diversities are further complicated by the fact that OSA/PSA spontaneously form lactones under even mildly acidic conditions. By using high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with nitrate eluents, we found that lactonization of alpha2,8-linked OSA/PSA (oligo/poly-Neu5Ac, oligo/poly-Neu5Gc and oligo/poly-KDN) proceeds readily, and the lactonization process displays three discrete stages. The initial stage is characterized by limited lactonization occurring between two internal sialic acid residues, reflected by a regular pattern of lactone peaks interdigitated with non-lactonized peaks on HPAEC. In the middle stage, multiple lactonized species are formed from a molecule with a given degree of polymerization (DP), in which the maximum number of lactone rings formed equals DP minus 2. At the final stage, completely lactonized species become the major components, resulting in drastic changes in the physicochemical properties of the sample. Interestingly, the smallest lactonizable OSA are tetramer, trimer, and dimer at the initial, middle, and final stages, respectively. At any of the stages, OSA/PSA of higher DP lactonize more rapidly, but all the lactone rings rapidly open up when exposed to mild alkali. Lactonized OSA/PSA are resistant to both enzyme- and acid-catalyzed glycosidic bond cleavage. The latter fact was utilized to obtain more high DP oligo/poly(alpha2,8-Neu5Gc) chains from a polysialoglycoprotein. Our results should be useful in preparation, storage, and analysis of OSA/PSA. Possible biological significance and bioengineering potentials of lactonization are discussed.  (+info)

Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains. (8/6642)

Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response.  (+info)

Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/ion-exchange-chromatography-columns-market/. Geographically, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market has been segmented on the ...
eng] The ion-exchange chromatography is a technique used to separate the milk whey proteins ß-Lactoglobulin A and B. These proteins are very important to obtain different products for the food industry. From these proteins, amounts of important compounds for the biotechnology industry can be obtained, so it is important to separate them correctly and with the most purity possible. The installation to make this separation is a continuous system made up four ionexchange columns. First of all, it is necessary characterized the columns that will be used. The porosity (¿) and the capacity (¿) of the columns are the two first parameters that should be calculated. To obtain these parameters is not necessary work with the proteins; they are calculated using solutions of salt (Sodium Nitrate) and eluent made up this salt, buffer (Bis Tris Propane) and Hydrochloric acid. The installation used is made up four pumps, columns and the UV Sensor. With this, the concentration of the solutions that are driven ...
Montesinos-Cisneros, R. M., Lucero-Acuña, A., Ortega, J., Guzmán, R. and Tejeda-Mansir, A. (2007), Breakthrough performance of large proteins on ion-exchange membrane columns. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 48: 117-125. doi: 10.1042/BA20060166 ...
Figure 1 Purification of reconstituted T10/β2m heterodimer by ion exchange chromatography. (A) SDS-PAGE analysis of T10 heavy chain (lane 1) and hβ2m (lane 2) in urea, a 0.25 M NaCl ion exchange column peak fraction from the T10/hβ2m purification (lane 3), and a 0.5 M NaCl high salt wash ion exchange column fraction (lane 4). Subunits in lanes 1 and 2 have been size purified in 6 M urea after solubilization in guanidine-HCl. The gel was stained with Coomassie blue. (B) SDS-PAGE analysis of T10 heavy chain (lane 1) and mβ2m (lane 2) solubilized in guanidine-HCl, a 0.27 M NaCl ion exchange column peak fraction from the T10/mβ2m purification (lane 3), and a 0.5 M NaCl high salt wash ion exchange column fraction (lane 4). The gel was stained with Coomassie blue. (C) Ion exchange chromatography profile from the T10/hβ2m heterodimer purification. Two major peaks, one at 0.25 M NaCl in the 0.1-0.3 M NaCl gradient and a second peak eluting at 0.5 M NaCl in the high salt wash, are observed. ...
This application note describes a rapid and robust high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection method for the accurate determination of common sugars in acid-hydrolyzed biomass samples with high carbohydrate concentrations.
g A. Ion exchange Chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is a process for separating proteins and other molecules in a solution based on differences in
Anion Column, Anion-exchange Anion Column, Anion-exchange Column, Atlantis T3 Column, Anion Exchange, Atlantis dc18 Column, Anion Exchange Column Chromatography, Anion-exchange Ion-Exchange Column
A retention model is derived for inorganic cations eluted from cation-exchange columns with eluents containing a single competing cation and a complexing ligand. This model is evaluated using divalent solute cations and a low-capacity fixed-site cation-exchange column, and good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results both for simple cation exchange and also when complexation effects are present. Sodium ions added to the eluent during pH adjustment were found to contribute significantly to the elution of solute cations and should be included in all calculations using the retention model. Retention characteristics were also studied for an ion-interaction chromatographic system using a C18 column, octanesulfonic acid as the ion-interaction reagent, and oxalate as the complexing ligand in the eluent. Experimental data for this system did not show close agreement with the ion-exchange retention model. Discrepancies are attributed to variations in the ion-exchange capacity ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Global Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market to grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the period 2016-2020. Ion-exchange chromatography is a separation process that utilizes the charge of the medium and desired particle. This process can be used for almost any kind of charged molecules ranging from large proteins to small nucleotides and amino acids.. Browse more detail information about Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-ion-exchange-chromatography-market-2016-2020-10351019. Scope of the reports: -. The report provides a basic overview of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography including definitions, classifications, ...
Ion Chromatography market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Ion Chromatography market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Ion Chromatography markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Ion Chromatography companies.
Waters BioSuite ion-exchange column offerings include strong and weak, cation (CXC) and anion-exchangers (AXC) bonded to a pH stable (i.e., pH 2 -12), methacrylic ester-based polymeric resin. The availability of four separation chemistries provides chromatographers with the flexibility required to develop methods that separate proteins and / or peptides based upon minor charge differences. Nonporous (NP) and porous IEX columns are also available. Superior chromatographic resolution is possible using the nonporous IEX offerings however, greater binding capacity is obtained with the porous selections. In addition, selected BioSuite ion-exchange columns are available in PEEK hardware as well as in 21.5 mm preparative column sizes.
[Comparison of the phenylalanine determination by ion exchange column chromatography and the guthrietest in treated phenylketonuric children (authors transl)].
SPE Supra-Clean® SAX (Strong Anion Exchange) Column, 100 mg/1 mL is recommended for extracting basic compounds when analyzing cations.
newera at plaza.snu.ac.kr wrote: , Do not 6M ganidine HCl, 8M urea or some zwitter-ionic detergent make , any difference to cation exchange chromatography or affinity chromatography? As others pointed out already, 6M guanidine will certainly affect your ion exchange chromatography step because of its high ionic strength. However, urea wont. Affinity chromatography on blue sepharose is likely to be affected by both guanidine and urea since it will denature the protein -- affinity chromatography usually needs the native molecule, however. --Cornelius. -- /* Cornelius Krasel, U Wuerzburg, Dept. of Pharmacology, Versbacher Str. 9 */ /* D-97078 Wuerzburg, Germany email: phak004 at rzbox.uni-wuerzburg.de SP3 */ /* Science is the game we play with God to find out what His rules are ...
I regularly use resource Q on FPLC and the loaded protein always has imidazole. In fact I plan to hook up an anion exchange column in series with the Ni-NTA column and do both the purifications together to save time ...
This resin is part of the Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange platform, which is well established in industrial downstream processing. Composed of crosslinked 6% agarose beads with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) weak anion exchange groups, the resin has high chemical stability, allowing well-proven cleaning-in-place (CIP) and sanitization protocols.. Read more ...
Enthaply Berkeley is looking for an Analyst I for our Ion Chromatography and TOC analysis. The shift is from Mon- Friday, 10am-6:30pm. Analysts perform chemical measurements and other tasks to meet the expectations of our clients by efficiently and profitably generating defensible data on time.. Roles and Responsibilities:. • Quantitative sample analysis by Ion Chromatography and TOC. • Preparation of data summaries for inclusion in client reports. • Sample and standard preparation. • Instrument calibration and validation. • Instrument maintenance and troubleshooting. • Maintaining organized records of sample preparation and analysis, equipment maintenance and data collected off site. • Maintain consumables and parts for instruments. • Overhead projects designed to improve efficiency of, or accuracy of analyses. • Communicating relevant updates to applicable people in a timely manner. • Performing other duties and responsibilities as prescribed by the Company. • Compliance ...
An extracellular phosphoglycan (exPG), present in the culturem edium of the promastigote form L oefi shmania donovani, was purified and structurally characterized. The purification scheme included ethanol precipitation of the culture medium, anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, and preparative polyacrylamgeild e electrophoresis. Structural analysis by H-H NMR, methylation linkage analysis, and glycosidase digestion revealed that the exPG consisted of thfoel lowing structure: (CAP)+[[email protected]]lo-11-POr6GalpB1-4Man. The capw as found to be ones eovf eral small, neutral oligosaccharides, the most abundant of which was the trisaccharide [email protected](Manpal-2)Man. The results indicated structural analogy to the cellular-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG) from L. donovani. The important exceptions are a lacko f the lipid anchor, the entire phosphosaccharide core, and several of the repeating disaccharide units. Although the function of exPGis presently ...
An extracellular phosphoglycan (exPG), present in the culturem edium of the promastigote form L oefi shmania donovani, was purified and structurally characterized. The purification scheme included ethanol precipitation of the culture medium, anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, and preparative polyacrylamgeild e electrophoresis. Structural analysis by H-H NMR, methylation linkage analysis, and glycosidase digestion revealed that the exPG consisted of thfoel lowing structure: (CAP)+[[email protected]]lo-11-POr6GalpB1-4Man. The capw as found to be ones eovf eral small, neutral oligosaccharides, the most abundant of which was the trisaccharide [email protected](Manpal-2)Man. The results indicated structural analogy to the cellular-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG) from L. donovani. The important exceptions are a lacko f the lipid anchor, the entire phosphosaccharide core, and several of the repeating disaccharide units. Although the function of exPGis presently ...
E) What enzyme was used to cut the peptide?. 4. The following peptide was determined to have a Tryptophan as the N-terminus amino acid. After treatment with diothiothreitol and iodoacetate, the peptide was then cleaved and the resulting peptides were separated by anion exchange chromatography at pH 7 at 37°C. For all of the peptides, use the pKa values on page 156 in our text. The fragments are ...
Recent technological advances in the way biologic therapeutics are purified may bring size-exclusion chromatography back into the modern purification process.
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Antonio M. Munoz, Paul Yourik, Vaishnavi Rajagopal, Jagpreet S. Nanda, Jon R. Lorsch, Sarah E. Walker RNA Biology, 2017, VOL. 14, NO. 2,
소각 X 선 산란 (SAXS)에 의한 단백질의 용액 구조의 결정은 단 분산 샘플을 필요로한다. 여기에서는, 샘플 준비 및 데이터 수집 간의 최소 지연을 보장하기 위해 두 가지 가능성을 제시 : 온라인 크기 배제 크로마토 그래피 (SEC) 및 ...
Bestemmelsen af ​​opløsningen struktur af et protein ved lille vinkel røntgenspredning (SAXS) kræver monodisperse prøver. Her...
Highly pure proteins are vital for successful experiments; they play roles in research as assay reagents (especially for SPR applications), therapeutic candidates, and of course, as the subjects of structural and biochemical studies. Chromatography is the science of separation and we utilize it to isolate and purify proteins based on their unique physiochemical properties. One […]. The post All Charged Up: The Basics of Ion-Exchange Chromatography appeared first on Bitesize Bio.. ...
Read user reviews, compare products and contact manufacturers of Ion Chromatography products, including recording equipment, columns and accessories on SelectScience.
EAG Laboratories employs Ion Chromatography (IC), a high-throughput and versatile technique to analyze either positive or negative ions.
The AQF-2100H is a fully automatic solution for preparation of samples to be measuredwith ion chromatography or other aqueous solution based methods. Thusit is very wellsuited to substitute time consuming manual preparation steps, such as oxygen bombpyrolysis.. ...
Article Direct injection ion chromatography for the control of chlorinated drinking water: simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Nitrite-N Standard for Ion Chromatography, SPEX CertiPrep. 125mL; Triple-leached LDPE bottle.
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Discover Nuvia HR-S, S, and Q chromatography resins -best-in-class ion exchangers with exceptionally high capacity and selectivity for purification workflows.
No. Although both Buffers N3 of the QIAprep Spin Miniprep and P3 of the QIAGEN Plasmid Kits perform the neutralization step in an alkaline lysis procedure, they are completely different. Buffer N3 contains a proprietary formula that sets up binding conditions for the QIAprep Miniprep columns silica-gel-membrane. Buffer P3 sets up binding conditions for QIAGEN anion-exchange columns. Our website explains QIAGENs nucleic acid purification technologies in more detail ...
... provided by the Guangzhou Lubex Science Instrument Co. Ltd.,The Product Intro:This hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column is specifically designed for the determination of pho...
* PuraTreat R, the gas purification treatment for heavy-duty applications, , * High-efficiency purification process, , , , , , BASF now offers specialty amino acid salt formulations under the PuraTreat R...
The Proteus purification spin column kits for affinity purification of His-tagged proteins (Ni-IMAC) and antibodies (Protein A and G). Supplied with high affinity single step spin columns and desalting/buffer exchange columns which contain a unique flow regulator that imparts flow rate control during the centrifugation step. All supplied with ready-to-use buffers. Available in mini (up to 650 μl sample) and midi (up to 20 ml sample) formats ...
VASCEPA is icosapent ethyl (IPE), the only FDA-approved EPA and CV risk-reducing agent. IPE has undergone a proprietary purification process which has been approved and validated by the FDA.
Separate biomolecules with high resolution by anion exchange chromatography. Glass and polishing columns use continuous-bed matrix for ultra-high purifications.
0079] Aspects of the present specification can also be described as follows: [0080] 1. A method of collecting an elution from a column, the method comprising the steps of: a) applying a sample comprising a protein to a cation exchange chromatography column, wherein the application causes the protein to be retained by the column; b) applying a mobile phase to the cation exchange chromatography column, the mobile phase comprising a buffered solution, wherein application of the mobile phase establishes a conductivity gradient of from about 8 mS/cm to about 90 mS/cm; c) starting an eluate collection when an inlet conductivity value measured for the mobile phase entering the cation exchange chromatography column is from about 25.0 mS/cm to about 27.0 mS/cm; and d) stopping the eluate collection when the inlet conductivity value measured for the mobile phase entering the cation exchange chromatography column is from about 41.0 mS/cm to about 43.0 mS/cm; wherein the eluate collection comprises at least ...
A commercially available 4.6 mm id×50 mm polymethacrylate-based monolithic strong anion exchange column (ProSwiftTM SAX-1S) designed for the separation of proteins has been successfully used to separate small inorganic anions in the presence of a seawater sample matrix. Using a hydroxide eluent with suppressed conductivity detection the ion exchange capacity of this column declined over time; however, using KCl as the eluent, the column performance was stable with a capacity of 530 {micro}equiv. for nitrate. The optimum conditions for the separation of iodate, bromate, nitrite, bromide and nitrate were assessed by constructing van Deemter plots using 1.00 and 0.100 M KCl. Efficiencies of up to 26 700 plates/m were recorded using 1.00 M KCl, at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min but iodate was not baseline resolved from the void peak. By reducing the concentration of the eluent to 0.100 M, efficiencies of up to 39 900 plates/m could be obtained at 0.35 mL/min. By employing a linear gradient ranging from ...
Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. One well-established method of measuring PyOM in the environment is as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), a compound-specific method, which allows both qualitative and quantitative estimation of PyOM. Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). However, BPCA derivatives can contain as much as 150% derivative carbon, necessitating post-analysis correction for the accurate measurement of δ13 C values, leading to increased measurement error. Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). The ...
Analytical calibre of high performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography resin methods in estimation of glycated hemoglobin: a comparitive study, Rukmini MS, As
SPE Part: 8B-S123-ECH Strata™-X-A 33 µm Polymeric Strong Anion, 100 mg / 6 mL, Tubes , 30/Pk Phase: Polymeric strong anion exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Weakly acidic compounds
SPE Part: 8B-S053-FBJ Strata™-XL-A 100 µm Polymeric Strong Anion, 200 mg / 3 mL, Tubes , 50/Pk Phase: Polymeric strong anion exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Weakly acidic compounds present in viscous samples
Florian Dismer, Chris Teske, Jürgen Hubbuch Effects of Alterations in Protein Surface Composition on the Retention Behavior in Ion Exchange Chromatography. GVC/Dechema-Kongress „Industrielle Biotechnologie und Gewinnung von Produkten", 22.-24. May 2006, Würzburg. Florian Dismer, Jürgen Hubbuch. Determination of lysozyme binding orientation on different adsorber materials. ISPPP (International Symposium on Separation of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides), 17.-20. October 2006, Innsbruck. Papers. Florian Dismer, Jürgen Hubbuch. A novel approach to characterize the binding orientation of lysozyme on ion-exchange resins. Journal of Chromatography A, 1149 (2007) 312-320. Mojgan Kavoosi, Nooshafarin Sanaie, Florian Dismer, Jürgen Hubbuch, Douglas G. Kilburn, Charles A.. Haynes. A Novel Two-Zone Protein Uptake Model for Affinity Chromatography and Its Application to the Description of Elution Band Profiles of Proteins Fused to a Family 9 Cellulose Binding Module Affinity Tag. Journal of ...
Product list of China Tartrate Ion Chromatography Standard, show the variety of China products related to Tartrate Ion Chromatography Standard; You can choose the right product of China Tartrate Ion Chromatography Standard on this list.
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of myosin using a DEAE-5PW column. AU - Lema, Mark J.. AU - Pluskal, Malcolm G.. AU - Allen, Paul D.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of myosin using a DEAE-5PW packing was used to purify myosin from skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. This method produces high-speed resolution (30-min analysis) of myosin from contaminating myofibrillar proteins. The column has a high capacity for binding myosin (up to 1 g) and can be used for small-scale preparation of highly purified myosin. Gel analysis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate showed recovery of myosin with very little contamination of other myofibrillar proteins. Myosin was also recovered from small biopsy samples (0.1 g) by a direct extraction technique with recovery of biological ATPase activity.. AB - High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of myosin using a DEAE-5PW packing was used to purify myosin from skeletal, cardiac and ...
Entry-level ion chromatography system for water analysis and for use in education, complete with detector, software, and suppressor. This ion chromatograph can be combined with an autosampler for automated ion chromatography.
To extend the suspension of duty on ion-exchange resin powder comprised of a copolymer of methacrylic acid cross-linked with divinylbenzene, in the potassium ionic form, of a nominal particle size between 0.025 mm and 0.150 mm, dried to less than 10% moisture ...
Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography is a separation technique that uses the properties of hydrophobicity to separate proteins from one another. In this type of chromatography, hydrophobic groups such as phenyl, octyl, or butyl, are attached to the stationary column. Proteins that pass through the column that have hydrophobic amino acid side chains on their surfaces are able to interact with and bind to the hydrophobic groups on the column. HIC separations are often designed using the opposite conditions of those used in ion exchange chromatography. In this separation, a buffer with a high ionic strength, usually ammonium sulfate, is initially applied to the column. The salt in the buffer reduces the solvation of sample solutes thus as solvation decreases, hydrophobic regions that become exposed are adsorbed by the medium. ...
Media for chromatographic applications, wherein the media is a membrane having a surface coated with a polymer such as a polyethyleneimine. The immobilized polymer coating is modified with a charge-modifying agent to impart quaternary ammonium functionality to the media. The media is well suited for chromatographic purification of virus.
ICPAES AccuSPEC Ion Chromatography Standards AA ICPMS SCP SCIENCE XRF AccuSPEC Ion Chromatography Standards (1000 & 10 000 g/ml) for inorganic analysis are packaged with the economic needs of
Isolated neutrophils from healthy donors were used for the isolation of four highly purified forms of myeloperoxidase as determined by spectral (A430/A280 ratio 0.80-0.87) and enzyme-activity measurements. Although the myeloperoxidases exhibited different elution profiles on cation-exchange chromatography, gel filtration indicated similar relative molecular masses. When these forms were assayed for peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities with several substrates, they all exhibited virtually the same specific activities. These results suggest that possible functional differences between the enzymes may be related to differences in their sites of action rather than to differences in enzyme activity. Myeloperoxidase from a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia also revealed a similar heterogeneity on cation-exchange chromatography. However, this myeloperoxidase contained in addition one form with a lower and one form with a higher relative molecular mass, as indicated by gel-filtration ...
The isolation method is optimized for cultures grown in LB media; other rich media may require increased volumes of Suspension-, Lysis-, and Neutralization Buffer, and an additional wash step. The isolation procedure is suitable for all plasmid sizes; lysates of larger constructs (up to 100 kb) should be cleared by filtration to avoid shearing.. The yield of plasmid DNA preparations is dependent on several parameters, e.g., quality of the bacterial culture growth, amount of used culture suspension for the preparation, plasmid type used etc. As a rule of thumb the typical yield of a high copy number plasmid is about 3 - 5 µg of DNA per ml of original bacterial culture (pUC, pTZ, pGEM in common host strains like XL-1 blue, HB101, JM 109). The typical yield of low copy number plasmids is about 0.2 - 1 µg of DNA per ml of original bacterial culture.. The Genopure kits are supplied with folded filters to eliminate the time-consuming centrifugation step after the alkaline lysis. In approximately 2 ...
Dr. Tilo Brunnee (tilo at brunnee.IN-Berlin.DE) wrote: : Hallo! : I attempt to isolate human mast cell heparin proteoglycan from human lungs. : So far I enzymatically and mechanically prepare a single cell suspension : from human lung, add 4 M Guanidine HCl and sonicate to disrupt the cells : and dialyze against 1M NaCl/10mM Phosphate, pH 6.0 and apply this soup on a : Dowex 1x2-200 ion exchange column equilibrated with the same buffer, elute : with 3M NaCl/10mM Phosphate, dialyze against H2O and speedvac to dryness. : I do have some questions regarding heparin: : - Are there more efficient/more gentle ways to prepare highly sulfated : proteoglycans? : - Are ther any contaminants (that bind to strong ion exchange at pH 6 in : the presence of 1 M NaCl?) to expect from crude human lung? : - Is it true that heparin side chains are bound to a protein core in human : mast cells? : - If so, is the heprain sidechain cleaved from the protein core during or : before degranulation? : - Is there any ...
Ion exchange chromatography of rare earths in aqueous organic media. VII. The influence of electrolytes on the ion exchange chromatography of rare ...
Manufacturing and Purification Processes of Complex Protein found in Fraction IV to make a separated Apo, Transferrin, and Alpha 1 Anti strepsin (A1AT) or A combined Transferrin/Apo/Human Albumin/A1AT and all new found proteins - diagram, schematic, and image 71 ...
Gao, B., Wu, N. and Li, Y. (2005), Interaction between the strong anionic character of strong anions and the hydrophobic association property of hydrophobic blocks in macromolecular chains of a water-soluble copolymer. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 96: 714-722. doi: 10.1002/app.21505 ...
Ion Chromatography is especially suited for the separation of inorganic ions, metal complexes and low molecular weight organic species. It is used intensively in environmental analysis. In the Topic Outline you will see how I think to develop this Topic. Mail me if you have any comments or suggestions ...
Courtesy of TOYO SODA Manufacturing Co., Ltd.. Figure 60. The Separation of a Saccharide Mixture by Ion Exchange Chromatography ...
K. M. H. Lang, J. Kittelmann, C. Dürr, A. Osberghaus, J. Hubbuch, A Comprehensive Molecular Dynamics Approach to Protein Retention Modeling in Ion Exchange Chromatography, Journal of Chromatography A, 1381 (2015) 184-193, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.018 ...
To study the interaction of laccases, mediators, and substrates in laccase-mediator systems (LMS), an on-line measurement was developed using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped...
The Synchropak AX300 column has been used to separate a wide range of anions. A standard solution containing F−, Cl−, NO2−, NO3−, HPO42−, SO42−ions can be analysed in 8-14 minutes using a phthalate...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Since its inception in 1994, Scientex has marketed a range of analytical instruments, measurement technologies and related services to a diverse range of customers in the scientific, research/university, manufacturing, life sciences, environmental and energy and resources markets ...
Explore our analytical chromatography portfolio to find the best products for any separation: HPLC, TLC, gas chromatography or ion chromatography.
Demineralisation of whey by a combination of nanofiltration and anion-exchange treatment: a preliminary studyDemineralisation of whey by a combination of nanofiltration and anion-exchange treatment: a preliminary study ...
General Electric - Product Sales Specialist - Chromatography - Topeka - Product Sales Specialist - Chromatography Jobid ge - jobs.cjonline.com
Experts share best practices for downstream purification, and how continuous purification methods can offer increased productivity and greater process reliability and reproducibility in the laboratory and when scaling protein purification processes for the production of commercial quantities ...
In this eBook devoted to Practical Copolymer Analysis using GPC/SEC and Related Techniques, experts discuss how several GPC/SEC methods may improve copolymer sample characterization. Learn about dual-detection methods, polymer liquid adsorption chromatography, 2D chromatography, and more ...
Ion Chromatography offers a quality solution for your application needs. Expert engineers refurbish the systems to OEM standards. Request a quote today!
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TY - JOUR. T1 - λ-crystallin related to dehydroascorbate reductase in the rabbit lens. AU - Suzuki, Takahiro. AU - Bando, Masayasu. AU - Oka, Mikako. AU - Tsukamoto, Hideo. AU - Akatsuka, Ichiko. AU - Kawai, Kenji. AU - Obazawa, Hajime. AU - Kobayashi, Shizuko. AU - Takehana, Makoto. PY - 2003/9. Y1 - 2003/9. N2 - Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of λ-crystallin to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent dehydroascorbate (DHA) reductase found specifically in the rabbit lens. Methods: DHA reductase Fractions I-IV were separated from the λ/βL1-crystallin fraction of rabbit lens soluble protein by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography, and then the enzyme was partially purified from Fraction II by rechromatography on the same ion-exchange column. The isolated DHA reductase fractions were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting, native isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional ...
GE AKTA fast protein liquid chromatography system is an eagle-i resource of type Fast protein liquid chromatography instrument at Universidad Central del Caribe.
QIAGEN-tips contain a unique, patented anion-exchange resin which eliminates the need for expensive equipment and reagents such as ultracentrifuges, HPLC/FPLC‚ or CsCl. Toxic and mutagenic substances such as phenol, chloroform, and ethidium bromide are also not required. Plasmid purification on QIAGEN resin is based on the interaction between negatively charged phosphates of the DNA backbone and positively charged DEAE groups on the surface of the resin (see figure |a href=/ca/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/qiagen anion-exchange resin/images/chemical structure of positively charged deae groups of qiagen resin/>Chemical structure of positively charged DEAE groups of QIAGEN resin|/a>). The salt concentration and pH conditions of the buffers used determine whether DNA is bound or eluted from the column. The key advantage of QIAGEN anion-exchange resin arises from its exceptionally high charge density. The resin consists of defined silica beads with a particle size of 100 µm, a
QIAGEN-tips contain a unique, patented anion-exchange resin which eliminates the need for expensive equipment and reagents such as ultracentrifuges, HPLC/FPLC‚ or CsCl. Toxic and mutagenic substances such as phenol, chloroform, and ethidium bromide are also not required. Plasmid purification on QIAGEN resin is based on the interaction between negatively charged phosphates of the DNA backbone and positively charged DEAE groups on the surface of the resin (see figure |a href=/hu/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/qiagen anion-exchange resin/images/chemical structure of positively charged deae groups of qiagen resin/|Chemical structure of positively charged DEAE groups of QIAGEN resin|/a|). The salt concentration and pH conditions of the buffers used determine whether DNA is bound or eluted from the column. The key advantage of QIAGEN anion-exchange resin arises from its exceptionally high charge density. The resin consists of defined silica beads with a particle size of 100 µm, a
Thermo Scientific™ ProPac™ SCX-20 Strong Cation Exchange LC Column SCX-20G Thermo Scientific™ ProPac™ SCX-20 Strong Cation Exchange...
Higher value products demand for chromatographic techniques. The techniques are used for. concentration, de salting and purification of protein preparation. When choosing a chromatographic. technique, a number of factors need to be put into consideration. These factors may include iso-. electric point, biological affinity, hydro-phobicity and molecular weight in proteins. Each of the above. properties can be exploited by different specific chromatographic methods. The following are the. chromatographic parameters that need to be considered; recovery, capacity and resolving power.. The following are different types of chromatography used in downstream processing.  Adsorption chromatography.  Affinity chromatography.  Gel filtration chromatography.  Ion exchange chromatography.  High performance liquid chromatography.  Distillation.  Ion exchange chromatography. In adsorption chromatography, separation is done according to affinity of protein or any other. material. Affinity ...
Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1
Creative BioMart, a world leading biotech company focused on supplying quality protein products including recombinant proteins, native proteins, GMP proteins, etc. and custom protein services, is pleased to enlarge its chromatography offerings to better serve scientists in the field of life sciences.. Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Commonly used chromatography techniques include: gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and affinity chromatography.. Upon this update, Creative BioMart now contains all types of chromatography at all scales of matrix including: cross-linked agarose, cross-linked cellulose, dextran, methacrylic and polystyrene. Customers can choose from affinity chromatography, antibody affinity chromatography to gel filtration chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, ...
This all-new edition of the highly successful first edition contains a wealth of up-to-date information on this major analytical technique. Ion-exchange, ion-exclusion, and ion-pair chromatography are treated together with their detection methods, and a discussion of quantitative analysis is also given. The complete range of application possibilities of this technique is described and illustrated with numerous chromatograms. Special chapters are featured on applications in environmental analysis, clinical chemistry as well as in the food and beverage industry. From reviews of previous editions:This volume can be highly recommended to both the experienced user and the newcomer in the field of ion chromatography. Zeitschrift fuer Wasser- und AbwasserforschungEverybody who is actively dealing with ion chromatography cannot afford to miss this book. LaborpraxisThis book is a valuable aid to all scientists wishing to work confidently with these different methods, as well as practitioners who employ these
Definition of Ammonium sulphate precipitation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Adenosine nucleosidase was purified from Alaska pea seeds six days after germination. A 3-fold purification has been reached with a 0.56 % recovery. The purification scheme involved ammonium sulfate precipitation between 30% and 60% saturation, followed by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE column. A final chromatography step used a hydroxyapatite column. The subunit molecular weight of adenosine nucleosidase was determined by SDS-PAGE to be 26.7 kD. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum velocity, V max, for inosine were determined to be 377.7 141.7 M and 0.00078 0.000106 M/min respectively ...
Adenosine nucleosidase was purified from Alaska pea seeds six days after germination. A 3-fold purification has been reached with a 0.56 % recovery. The purification scheme involved ammonium sulfate precipitation between 30% and 60% saturation, followed by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE column. A final chromatography step used a hydroxyapatite column. The subunit molecular weight of adenosine nucleosidase was determined by SDS-PAGE to be 26.7 kD. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum velocity, V max, for inosine were determined to be 377.7 141.7 M and 0.00078 0.000106 M/min respectively ...
The University of Texas at Arlington and Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., the world leader in serving science, announced that they have been granted a United States patent (#8,293,099) for a novel charge detector for ion chromatography that they developed together. The invention has been commercialized as the Thermo Scientific Dionex QD detector, which was introduced in March 2012 at the Pittcon Conference and Expo.. The detector, used in combination with the Thermo Scientific Dionex ICS-4000 ion chromatography system, is well suited for analysis of polyphosphates by environmental testing laboratories, organic acids in the food and beverage industry and amines in chemicals. It offers an easy-to-use alternative to traditional conductivity detectors for peak identification, peak purity analysis and quantification, while generally providing more information.. The charge detector was invented by UT Arlington chemistry professor Purnendu "Sandy" Dasgupta, along with Bingcheng Yang of his research group ...
NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SYNTHESIZING AMP: PRECIPITATION INSIDE AN ION-EXCHANGE RESIN AND ITS APPLICATION TO SEPARATION OF CESIUM FROM FISSION-PRODUCTS AND TO A 137 m Ba GENERATOR Harko Tamura Matsuda and Alcídio
I need to produce amylase immobilized from bacillus subtilis. Before that, i have to do ammonium sulphate precipitation. I add the ammonium sulphate 4.5g (30 saturated) into 20ml of amylase produced at 4 degree celcius and centrifuge it. But, there is no pellet found and I cant proceed to immobilization. I am very worry as i have to finish my project in one month. I need some advice. ...
ÄKTAxpress. ÄKTAxpress for protein purification gives you the highest possible purity needed for structural and functional studies. Optimized protocols with a choice of up to four purification steps minimize the need for chromatography expertise. Tag removal and maintenance procedures can be integrated into the purification protocols, eliminating manual interference during a run. Purification schemes for double affinity-tagged proteins are also supported. A four-step protocol may consist of affinity chromatography (AC), desalting (DS), ion exchange chromatography (IEX) and gel filtration (GF).. ÄKTA Pure. ÄKTA pure is a flexible and intuitive chromatography system for fast purification of proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids from microgram levels to tens of grams of target product. Is a reliable system where hardware and UNICORN™ system control software are designed to work together with columns and media to meet any purification challenge.. ÄKTA Purifier ÄKTA™purifier systems are ...
With growing evidence for phosphohistidine in mammalian cell signalling, there is a pressing need for development of analytical strategies that permits high-throughput characterisation of these acid-labile phosphorylation sites from complex biological systems. Standard phosphoproteomics workflows that rely on acidic conditions for phosphopeptide enrichment are not suitable for characterisation of these types of phosphopeptides. We have develop an unbiased phosphopeptide enrichment strategy based on strong anion exchange (SAX) chromatography (UPAX) that permits enrichment of these acid-labile phosphopeptides for characterisation by LC-MS/MS. Not only have we identified ~300 novel sites of endogenous His phosphorylation in human cell extracts, we have also demonstrated even more extensive phosphorylation of Asp, Arg and Lys in human cells at levels that exceed phosphotyrosine. This study represents the first unbiased phosphoproteomics investigation in any biological system. Critically these data ...
Amino-Acid Analyzers Questions & Answers 1. What is the drawback that occurs in using ion exchange chromatography on sulphonated polystyrene resin and colourimetry for amino-acid analysis? a) Less accuracy b ...
This application note describes a simple, effective protocol for the extraction of methylmalonic acid (MMA) from serum using ISOLUTE® SAX strong anion exchange solid phase extraction plates, demonstrating high, reproducible analyte recoveries with low protein and phospholipid content in the extracts. Very clean extracts are possible due to the purely anion exchange retention mechanism available using this silica based sorbent. This minimizes the co-extraction of endogenous interferences through hydrophobic (or non-polar) retention. The method can be easily automated using the Biotage Extrahera. Details of the automated procedure and data comparing manual and automated method performance are included ...
A method of removing ash from sugar containing solutions comprises contacting the sugar containing solution against one side of an ultrafiltration membrane with a stripping fluid to strip away monovalent ions and low molecular weight sugars which pass through the membrane. The stripping fluid is contacted at high pressure against one side of a nanofiltration membrane which allows passage of monovalent ions and water only. The deashed retentate can be returned to sugar containing solution, pass through an ion exchange column or cause to contact one side of a high pressure ultrafiltration membrane which allows passage of water monovalent ions and low molecular weight sugars. The permeate from the high pressure ultrafiltration membrane can be subjected to ion exchange to provide a liquid sugar having a low ash content while the retentate can be evaporated to a sugar product. The use of the semipermeable membranes allows efficient deashing of sugar containing solutions (i.e. sugar cane or sugar beet
MEP home page for methods and instrumentation for modern titration, ion chromatography, pH and conductivity measurement, NIR and Raman ...
K Peek, N B Roberts, W H Taylor; The Separation of Human Pepsin 1 by High Performance Ion-Exchange Chromatography (HPIEC). Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 10P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074010P. Download citation file:. ...
FPLC is an acronym for fast protein liquid chromatography. The term FPLC was coined and introduced by GE Healthcare (formerly Pharmacia) in 1982 and was originally referred to as fast-performance liquid chromatography as an opposite to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FPLC is used by researchers working in laboratory or preparative protein purification scale. FPLC systems are useful in purifying proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules with the objective of achieving desired purity and yield in a consistent manner. Automation allows process consistency and time savings to enable researchers to quickly prepare for the next research step.. ...
A long history in transplant medicine and now the era of Regenerative Medicine. Cord blood stem cells are doing amazing things. Learn More ...
A long history in transplant medicine and now the era of Regenerative Medicine. Cord blood stem cells are doing amazing things. Learn More ...
Protocols, applications and pricing for HPLC columns, micro dialysis membranes and kits, 96 well dialysis or equilibrium dialysis plates, and micro sample SPE Tips for LC-MS desalting.
For instance, a mixture of amino acids may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Under a particular set of conditions, ... as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions. ... In liquid chromatography, the eluent is the liquid solvent; in gas chromatography, it is the carrier gas.[1] ... In a liquid chromatography experiment, for example, an analyte is generally adsorbed, or "bound to", an adsorbent in a liquid ...
The fragments can be purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, or affinity chromatography.[38] ...
... is a positively charged resin used in ion-exchange chromatography, a type of column chromatography, for the separation and ... Peterson, Elbert A.; Sober, Herbert A. (1956). "Chromatography of Proteins. I. Cellulose Ion-exchange Adsorbents". Journal of ... "DEAE and CM Bio-Gel ® A Ion Exchange Gels Instruction Manual" (PDF). Bio-Rad. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "DEAE-Dextran" (PDF). GE ... DEAE-Sepharose, DEAE-650 and DEAE-Sephadex are commonly used in chromatography. DEAE-C is a weak anion exchanger. This exchange ...
"Detectors for ion-exchange chromatography". Retrieved 17 May 2009. Hans Falkenhagen, Theorie der Elektrolyte, S. Hirzel Verlag ... Conductivity detectors are commonly used with ion chromatography. Debye-Falkenhagen effect Wien effect Svante Arrhenius Alfred ... The concentration of ions in a solution of a weak electrolyte is less than the concentration of the electrolyte itself. For ... Whether this constitutes ion association is a moot point. However, it has often been assumed that cation and anion interact to ...
"Glycated Hemoglobin in Uremic Patients as Measured by Affinity and Ion-Exchange Chromatography" (PDF). clinchem.com. Retrieved ... when measured by ion-exchange chromatography. The thiobarbituric acid method (a chemical method specific for the detection of ... The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction ... High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): The HbA1c result is calculated as a ratio to total hemoglobin by using a ...
Cosgrove DJ (1969). "Ion-exchange chromatography of inositol polyphosphates". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 165 (2): 677-86. doi: ...
They isolated it using ion-exchange chromatography. Publication of the finding was delayed until later due to the war. Marinsky ... His research was concerned with nuclear inorganic chemistry, physicochemical studies of ion exchange, and polyelectrolyte and ... Isolated Promethium Ions, New York Times, September 8, 2005 Reactor Chemistry - Discovery of Promethium Archived 2015-07-06 at ...
They isolated it using ion-exchange chromatography. Publication of the finding was delayed until later due to the war. Marinsky ...
They isolated it using ion-exchange chromatography. Publication of the finding was delayed until later due to the war. In ...
SILAC Chromatography Affinity chromatography Glycoproteomics Ion exchange chromatography Mass spectrometry Cohen, Philip (2002- ... Peptides are separated using ion exchange chromatography. Phosphopeptides are enriched using phosphospecific antibodies, ... immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, or titanium dioxide ... immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. Phosphopeptides are analyzed using mass ...
The D-500 operates using ion exchange chromatography. A sample is first rendered into liquid form by a technician. A small ...
These can be separated by ion exchange chromatography. Either cation exchange chromatography is used at a low enough pH that ... followed by ion chromatography, first with anion beads and then with cation beads.[citation needed] Displacement chromatography ... Transferrin can instead be removed by size exclusion chromatography. This method is one of the more reliable chromatography ... or anion exchange chromatography is used at a high enough pH that the desired antibody flows through the column while anions ...
Individual ions have been separated by ion exchange chromatography. Anhydrous rhodium chloride crystallises in the YCl3 and ... The sodium salt is converted to H3RhCl6 by ion exchange chromatography. Recrystallization of this acidic salt from water ... the hexaaquo ion) to "raspberry-red". Some of these species are [Rh(H2O)6]3+, [RhCl(H2O)5]2+, cis- and trans-[RhCl2(H2O)4]+, ...
In biomolecules, proteins can be separated by ion exchange chromatography. Biological proteins are made up of zwitterionic ... In the common case when the surface charge-determining ions are H+/OH−, the net surface charge is affected by the pH of the ... In systems in which H+/OH− are the interface potential-determining ions, the point of zero charge is given in terms of pH. The ... When a mixture containing a target protein is loaded into an ion exchanger, the stationary matrix can be either positively- ...
Hager DA, Jin DJ, Burgess RR (August 1990). "Use of Mono Q high-resolution ion-exchange chromatography to obtain highly pure ... Aspartyl (asp) residues in the RNAP will hold on to Mg2+ ions, which will, in turn, coordinate the phosphates of the ... However, x-ray crystallographic studies of both types of enzymes reveal that, other than containing a critical Mg2+ ion at the ...
For similar reasons, it is a useful eluent in ion-exchange chromatography. It is also used for electropolishing/etching of ... The reaction gives nitrous oxide and perchloric acid due to a concurrent reaction involving the ammonium ion and can be ...
... size exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, strong/weak ion exchange, isotope coded protein labelling (ICPL), and ... that reflects ions using an electric field. This increases the ion flight path, thereby increasing time of flight between ions ... The AP-MALDI ion source is easily coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer[34] or any other MS system equipped with ESI ( ... A counter ion source such as Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is usually added to generate the [M+H] ions. A good example of a matrix ...
... to prepare the plasma for following ion exchange chromatography steps. After ion exchange there are generally further ... or reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with high efficiency cation exchange chromatography and subsequent tandem mass ... Methods incorporating chromatography generally begin with cryodepleted plasma undergoing buffer exchange via either ... It is composed primarily of water with small amounts of minerals, salts, ions, nutrients, and proteins in solution. In whole ...
EDTA was used in separation of the lanthanide metals by ion-exchange chromatography. Perfected by F.H. Spedding et al. in 1954 ... Due to the expense of this method, relative to counter-current solvent extraction, ion-exchange is now used only to obtain the ... In industry, EDTA is mainly used to sequester metal ions in aqueous solution. In the textile industry, it prevents metal ion ... In the laboratory, EDTA is widely used for scavenging metal ions: In biochemistry and molecular biology, ion depletion is ...
The finding was obtained by the use of DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography. The technique separated the enzymes by the ...
"Glycated Hemoglobin in Uremic Patients as Measured by Affinity and Ion-Exchange Chromatography" (PDF). clinchem.com. Retrieved ... when measured by ion-exchange chromatography. The thiobarbituric acid method (a chemical method specific for the detection of ... The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction ... Point of care (e.g., doctor's office) devices use immunoassay ororonate affinity chromatography.[citation needed] ...
... for ion-exchange and sediment-sorption chromatography in aqueous solution (ion exchange and precipitation); as an inert carrier ... Sorbent of the ions of metals from solutions of their salts, for example, CsNO3, AgNO3, Ba(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, etc., ... the ability of aluminum oxide to chemosensitivity fluorine ions used for the purification of water with increased fluorine ... adsorbent for gas and liquid adsorption chromatography (adsorption); ...
In ion-exchange chromatography the selectivity coefficient is defined in a slightly different way Solvent extraction is used to ... ISBN 0-03-035523-0. Section 30E Selectivity coefficient in ion exchange chromatography,"goldbook.iupac.org/goldbook/S05566.html ... The target ion in this case is divalent, Cu2+. This ion is classified as borderline in the scheme of Ahrland, Chatt and Davies ... Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 229-294. doi: ...
Ion exchange chromatography Endotoxins are negatively charged, and will bind to an anion exchanger. If the target substance is ... must be cleaned off the column using NaOH An alternative to anion exchange is cation exchange chromatography, in which ... Cation exchange chromatography has been shown to effectively purify β-interferon. (Dembinski, et al.) Ultrafiltration Because ... Example of using anion exchange chromatography to purify albumin (Uppsala): 2% of the endotoxin does not bind to the column. ...
... was separated from the other compounds by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Apamin is a polypeptide ... Transport of potassium ions out of the cell along their concentration gradient causes the membrane potential to become more ... which hinders the transport of potassium ions. This will increase the neuronal excitability and lower the threshold for ...
Main article: Ion. An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons. When an ... According to this theory, the crucial things being exchanged are charges.[32] There are several other ways in which a substance ... They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical ... When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. ...
... from Dow Water & Process Solutions features world-class IX resins that serve a diverse array of ... DOWEX MONOSPHERE™ Chromatography Resins. DOWEX MONOSPHERE 99 Ca/220. SAC. G. Ca. ... Ion exchange (IX) resins are polymers that are capable of exchanging ions with ions in a solution that is passed through them. ... ION EXCHANGE RESIN MARKETS. Shopping for the right treatment solution? Say hello to the industrys most complete line of IX ...
Ion-exchange electrokinetic capillary chromatographyIon-pairing • Metal complex • Micellar electrokinetic capillary ... ion-pairing and ion-exchange electrokinetic chromatography. This paper discusses how these secondary mechanisms can be ... Auxiliary separation mechanisms included in the review are micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, ...
Biochrom launches EZ Nin Reagent for use in ion exchange chromatography systems Biochrom Ltd, a manufacturer of quality ... a ready-to-use ninhydrin formulation for use in ion exchange chromatography systems with post-column derivatisation for ... Agilent Technologies introduces new ion exchange and size exclusion columns for analysis of bio-molecules Agilent Technologies ... today announced the availability of new ion exchange and size exclusion columns specifically designed for the analysis of bio- ...
Therefore ion exchange chromatography consists of cation exchange chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. In addition ... Anion-exchange chromatography mainly recollects biomolecules by the interaction of amine groups on the ion-exchange resin with ... Anion-Exchange Chromatography[edit]. Anion-Exchange chromatography involves the use of positively charged beads. In the ... Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEC) is a purification method aimed at separating proteins based on charge, which is dependent on ...
Analysis was performed by ion-exchange chromatography (Mono S, high-performance liquid chromatography), and the eluate was ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography. ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography ... Capillary Blood on Filter Paper for Determination of HbA1c by Ion Exchange Chromatography ...
DE20 cellulosic ion-exchange paper in dilute ammonia solution, a partial resolution of the components is possible. Salicylate ... salicylate and acetophenetidin is subjected to chromatography on Whatman No. ... STREET, H., NIYOGI, S. A New Technique of Chromatography and Ionophoresis on Ion-exchange Paper: Application to the Separation ... A New Technique of Chromatography and Ionophoresis on Ion-exchange Paper: Application to the Separation of Barbiturate, ...
Ion exchange chromatography: overview. Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates proteins with differences in surface charge ... When should I use ion exchange chromatography?. Ion exchange chromatography can be used in any part of a multistep purification ... How does ion exchange chromatography work?. The net surface charge of proteins varies according to the surrounding pH. The pH ... Q&As on ion exchange chromatography. During a webinar on IEX, attendees asked more than 50 questions. We have compiled them ...
Ion exchange chromatography: overview. Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates proteins with differences in surface charge ... When should I use ion exchange chromatography?. Ion exchange chromatography can be used in any part of a multistep purification ... How does ion exchange chromatography work?. The net surface charge of proteins varies according to the surrounding pH. The pH ... Ion exchange chromatography resins can be used at high flow rates, because binding kinetics for IEX are fast, and rigid ...
Cellufine MAX Weak ion Exchange Media. Cellufine MAX Cation Exchange Media. Fig. 7 Residence time vs. DBC for Cellufine MAX CM ... Cellufine MAX S-r, S-h and Q-r, Q-h Ion Exchange Chromatography Media. ... Cellufine MAX Cation Exchange Media. Cellufine MAX Anion Exchange Media. Fig. 5 Residence time vs. IgG-DBC for Cellufine MAX S ... Cellufine MAX Cation Exchange Media. Cellufine MAX Anion Exchange Media. Fig 4. Pressure-flow velocity curves for Cellufine MAX ...
... online size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and online ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). ... Online Size-exclusion and Ion-exchange Chromatography on a SAXS Beamline. Martha E. Brennich1, Adam R. Round2,3, Stephanie ... Selkirk, C. Ion-exchange chromatography. Protein Purification Protocols. 125-131 (2004).. *Yigzaw, Y., Hinckley, P., Hewig, A ... Ion-exchange chromatography, which separates molecules based on their charge and, hence, their binding affinity to the IEC ...
Purification of protein A by ion-exchange chromatography. GERALDINE M. SCULLY, PATRICK J. CONSIDINE ... Purification of protein A by ion-exchange chromatography Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... a method that uses ion change to separate your lives substances, anions and cations based on their particular electrical ... Definition for "ion exchange chromatography"*a method that uses ion change to separate… ... Agriculture Dictionary for "ion exchange chromatography"*Separation strategy when the stationary period… ... How would you define ion exchange chromatography?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. ...
The Separation of Human Pepsin 1 by High Performance Ion-Exchange Chromatography (HPIEC) K Peek K Peek ... K Peek, N B Roberts, W H Taylor; The Separation of Human Pepsin 1 by High Performance Ion-Exchange Chromatography (HPIEC). Clin ...
... the stationary phase consists of ion-exchange resins which may be acidic or basic Explanation of ion-exchange chromatography ... Find out information about ion-exchange chromatography. A chromatographic procedure in which ... ion-exchange chromatography. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ion-exchange chromatography. [′ī‚än iks‚chānj ‚krō· ... encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ion-exchange+chromatography,ion-exchange chromatography,/a,. *Facebook ...
Media for membrane ion exchange chromatography US12857937 US20100323430A1 (en) 2007-11-19. 2010-08-17. Media For Membrane Ion ... B01J47/00-Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus therefor * B01J47/12-Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus ... Media for membrane ion exchange chromatography US20110065900A1 (en) * 2008-05-30. 2011-03-17. Ge Healthcare Bio-Science Ab. ... Media for membrane ion exchange chromatography US20110065900A1 (en) * 2008-05-30. 2011-03-17. Ge Healthcare Bio-Science Ab. ...
Selkirk, C. Ion-exchange chromatography. Protein Purification Protocols. 125-131 (2004).. *Yigzaw, Y., Hinckley, P., Hewig, A ... Brennich, M. E., Round, A. R., Hutin, S. Online Size-exclusion and Ion-exchange Chromatography on a SAXS Beamline. J. Vis. Exp. ... Hutin, S., Brennich, M. E., Maillot, B., Round, A. Online ion-exchange chromatography for small angle X-ray scattering. Acta ... Vedantham, G. Ion exchange chromatography of proteins and clearance of aggregates. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 10, 421-426 (2009). ...
... ion-exchange chromatography using a wide pH range in the first dimension, and non-porous reverse-phase chromatography in the ... To evaluate the systems application in a clinical laboratory setting, the characteristics of the ion-exchange chromatography- ... ion-exchange chromatography using a wide pH range in the first dimension, and non-porous reverse-phase chromatography in the ... To evaluate the systems application in a clinical laboratory setting, the characteristics of the ion-exchange chromatography- ...
The Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market to grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the period 2016-2020. Ion-exchange chromatography is a ... The Global Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Ion-Exchange ... Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market Opportunities:. With a purpose of enlightening new entrants about the possibilities in this ... Ion-Exchange Chromatography Industry grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the Size, Growth, Trends and Forecast to 2020. ...
Ion Exchange Columns. Ion exchange columns vary widely in size, packing material and material of construction. Depending on its ...
Chromatography Columns for Ion Exchange from Pall Life Sciences - Laboratory, Food, Beverage on SelectScience ... AcroSep™ Chromatography Columns for Ion Exchange. AcroSep™ Chromatography Columns for Ion Exchange by Pall Life Sciences - ... AcroSep™ Chromatography Columns for Ion Exchange. Manufacturer Pall Life Sciences - Laboratory, Food, Beverage. Be the first to ... Patented ceramic HyperD® ion exchange chromatography resin features "gel-in-a-shell" technology, providing rapid protein ...
... Zhou, ... To this end, the ion exchange chromatography recovery of CHO-HBsAg from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was shown ... Hepatitis B surface antigen, Ion-exchange chromatography, Poly(ethylene glycol), Retention behaviour Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn: ... 2005 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1095, no 1-2, 119-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published Abstract [ ...
Speciation of Inositol Phosphates in Lake Sediments by Ion-Exchange Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry, Inductively ... utilizing oxalateoxalic acid extraction followed by determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem ...
Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ...
Also described is a chromatography scheme and method for purifying monoclonal antibodies, wherein the anion exchange sorber is ... Little or no dilution of the cation exchanger pool (or affinity column exchange pool where no cation exchanger is used) is ... and optionally one or more polishing devices such as cationic exchange columns. ... B01J47/00-Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus therefor * B01J47/12-Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus ...
Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylcholine breakdown by ion-exchange chromatography. Bombesin and TPA (12-O- ... Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylcholine breakdown by ion-exchange chromatography. Bombesin and TPA (12-O- ... Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylcholine breakdown by ion-exchange chromatography. Bombesin and TPA (12-O- ... Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylcholine breakdown by ion-exchange chromatography. Bombesin and TPA (12-O- ...
  • Agilent Technologies, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., GE Healthcare, Metrohm AG, and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation are some of the major players in the ion chromatography market that are disrupting the market by launching several new products. (prnewswire.com)
  • Agilent Technologies Inc. (NYSE: A) today introduced a headspace instrument for gas chromatography (GC) sample analysis, the 7697A Headspace Sampler. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Agilent Technologies, Inc., (NYSE: A) today introduced the Agilent CrossLab supplies portfolio, providing high-quality supplies for major brands of gas chromatography systems. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Agilent Technologies, Inc. (NYSE: A) today introduced the Agilent LTM Series II system for gas chromatography, the second generation of its proprietary low thermal-mass technology that greatly increases sample throughput using faster column heating/cooling cycles. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary (stationary phase), the other (the mobile phase) moving in a definite direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-1970s, interest in liquid mobile phases for column chromatography resurfaced when it was discovered that the efficiency of separation could be vastly improved by pumping the liquid through a short packed column under pressure, rather than allowing it to flow slowly down a vertical column by gravity alone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent successes in the use of salt mediated pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with volatile mobile phases have shown there to be significant promise in using online mass spectrometric (MS) detection to facilitate peak detection. (nih.gov)
  • Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two immiscible phases flow past each other and exit at opposite ends of the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha-neurotoxin-like peptide can be separated from the protease inhibitor, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography can be used, in the presence of high salt (1M NaCl) and alkaline conditions (pH = 8.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Desalting and buffer exchange are two of the most common gel filtration chromatography applications, and they can be performed using the same resin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport of potassium ions out of the cell along their concentration gradient causes the membrane potential to become more negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this, the solution of the solubilized protein is subject to dialysis or ion exchange chromatography in the presence of phospholipids or membrane lipid mixtures to remove the surfactant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beginning of a new impulse: A) An exchange of ions (charged atoms) across the nerve cell membrane sends a depolarizing current towards the end of the nerve cell (cell terminus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a charged impermeant ion (for example, a protein) on one side of a membrane will result in an asymmetric distribution of permeant charged ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Na+ does cross the membrane via leak channels (the permeability is approximately 1/10 that of K+, the most permeant ion) but, as per the pump-leak model, it is extruded by the Na+/K+-ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because there is a difference in concentration of ions on either side of the membrane, the pH may also differ when protons are involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • if damage occurs to the brain and cells lose their membrane integrity, ions will rush into the cell to balance chemical and electrical gradients that were previously established. (wikipedia.org)
  • degree (habilitation) based on dissertation on membrane ion-selective electrodes and their application in water analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nafion has received a considerable amount of attention as a proton conductor for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells because of its excellent thermal and mechanical stability. (wikipedia.org)