Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.SepharoseIsoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.PolysaccharidesSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).TritiumEndopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Glycoside HydrolasesChymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.GlucosidesSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).EstersMonosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/13503)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (2/13503)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (3/13503)

When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin.  (+info)

Isolation and complete covalent structure of liver microsomal paraoxonase. (4/13503)

Paraoxonase (PON1) is a serum esterase exclusively associated with high-density lipoproteins; it might confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids in oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Here I show that rabbit liver microsomes contain a PON analogue (MsPON) and report the isolation and complete covalent structure of MsPON. In detergent-solubilized microsomes, MsPON co-purifies with the microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) complex. MsPON was separated from the complex and purified to homogeneity under non-denaturing conditions. Automated sequence analysis of intact MsPON and peptides obtained from enzymic and chemical cleavages led to the elucidation of the complete covalent structure of MsPON. The protein is a single polypeptide consisting of 350 residues. The sequence of rabbit liver microsomal MsPON is 60% identical with that of rabbit serum PON1, and 84% identical with the sequence predicted by a human cDNA of unknown function, designated PON3. MsPON has a hydrophobic segment at the N-terminus that might serve to anchor the protein to the microsomal membrane or to the MTP complex. Unlike in the serum enzyme, two potential N-glycan acceptor sites in MsPON are not glycosylated. An absence of N-glycans was also indicated in the rabbit liver MTP. MsPON has a single free cysteine residue at position 38 and a disulphide bond between Cys-279 and Cys-348. The microsomal enzyme lacks three residues at the N-terminus that are present in the serum protein. MsPON lacks four residues at the C-terminus that are present in the rabbit serum protein but absent from human serum PON1. On the basis of the observation that MsPON displays a high degree of similarity with serum PON1, it is proposed that MsPON might have a function related to that of PON1 in serum high-density lipoprotein complexes.  (+info)

Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin. (5/13503)

A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an alpha-galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei. (6/13503)

A membrane-associated galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei was purified 34000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-hexanolamine-Sepharosetrade mark. Using SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the isolated enzyme ran as a relatively broad band with apparent molecular masses of 53 kDa and 52 kDa, indicative of glycosylation and the existence of two isoforms. N-Glycosylation of the enzyme was subsequently confirmed using Western blotting and either specific binding of concanavalin A or peptide-N4-(N-acetylglucosaminyl)asparagine amidase digestion. The de-N-glycosylated enzyme ran with apparent molecular masses of 51 kDa and 50 kDa, indicative of a single N-glycosylation site. The galactosyltransferase exhibited a pH optimum at 7.2 and had a pronounced requirement for Mn2+ ions (KM=2.5 mM) for its action. The transferase activity was independent of the concentration of Triton X-100. The enzyme was capable of transferring galactose from UDP-galactose to a variety of galactose-based acceptors in alpha-glycosidic linkages. The apparent KM values for UDP-galactose and for the preferred acceptor substrate N-acetyl-lactosamine are 46 microM and 4.5 mM respectively. From these results we would like to suggest that the galactosyltransferase functions in the processing of terminal N-acetyl-lactosamine structures of trypanosomal glycoproteins.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (7/13503)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. (8/13503)

The catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4C) has greater than 65% amino acid identity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AC). Despite this high homology, PP4 does not appear to associate with known PP2A regulatory subunits. As a first step toward characterization of PP4 holoenzymes and identification of putative PP4 regulatory subunits, PP4 was purified from bovine testis soluble extracts. PP4 existed in two complexes of approximately 270-300 and 400-450 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The smaller PP4 complex was purified by sequential phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, DEAE2, and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatographies. The final product contained two major proteins: the PP4 catalytic subunit plus a protein that migrated as a doublet of 120-125 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The associated protein, termed PP4R1, and PP4C also bound to microcystin-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified complex revealed two major peaks, at 35 (PP4C) and 105 kDa (PP4R1). Amino acid sequence information of several peptides derived from the 105 kDa protein was utilized to isolate a human cDNA clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 13 nonidentical repeats similar to repeats found in the A subunit of PP2A (PP2AA). The PP4R1 cDNA clone engineered with an N-terminal Myc tag was expressed in COS M6 cells and PP4C co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged PP4R1. These data indicate that one form of PP4 is similar to the core complex of PP2A in that it consists of a catalytic subunit and a "PP2AA-like" structural subunit.  (+info)

*Gel permeation chromatography

Helmut, D. Gel Chromatography, Gel Filtration, Gel Permeation, Molecular Sieves: A Laboratory Handbook; Springer-Verlag, 1969. ... Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a type of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), that separates analytes on the basis of ... Gel permeation chromatography is conducted almost exclusively in chromatography columns. The experimental design is not much ... Commercial gels like PLgel, Sephadex, Bio-Gel (cross-linked polyacrylamide), agarose gel and Styragel are often used based on ...

*RTI-31

... silica gel chromatography; (iv) DIBAL, toluene, -78 °C; (v) ClCOCOCl, DCM, -78 °C, DMSO, 30 min, TEA; (vi) Ph3P+CH2RBr−, n-BuLi ...

*Mycobacterium ulcerans

Total extracted DNA is then run through gel chromatography columns that separate DNA from contaminants on the basis of size. ... The first of these is gel chromatography. Environmental water samples are concentrated and subjected to homogenization with ... but offer superior detection sensitivity and are less time-consuming than gel chromatography. Molecular typing methods may be ... Typically 50-100 restriction fragments are amplified and detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gel. AFLP typing results in a ...

*Chiral Lewis acid

The chiral ligand is recovered quantitatively by silica gel chromatography. Hisashi Yamamoto and coworkers have developed a ...

*Bovine serum albumin

"Characterization of proteins and other macromolecules by agarose gel chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 152 (1): 21- ...

*Keratinase

1990) with the help of membrane ultra filtration and C-75 gel chromatography. He purified enzyme with 70-fold increased ... which shows a 7.5-fold increases in its activity after DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme-activity was inhibited ...

*Desalting and buffer exchange

These methods are based on gel filtration chromatography, also called molecular sieve chromatography, which is a form of size- ... exclusion chromatography. Desalting and buffer exchange are two of the most common gel filtration chromatography applications, ... There are a number of common formats for performing gel filtration for smaller (less than 4mL) volumes: Chromatography columns ... Dialysis is useful for many of the same desalting and buffer exchange applications performed with gel filtration chromatography ...

*Calitoxin

The resulting pellet was purified using the techniques liquid chromatography, gel filtration, and chromatofocusing. The team ...

*Electrochromatography

It is a combination of size exclusion chromatography (gel filtration chromatography) and gel electrophoresis. These separation ... Chromatography Protein electrophoresis Electrofocusing Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis Temperature gradient gel ... The molecules are separated by size due to the gel filtration mechanism and by electrophoretic mobility due to the gel ... It is a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The capillaries is packed with ...

*Mesoporous silicate

High-performance liquid chromatography Gas-liquid chromatography Silica gel nanotechnology. ...

*Sepharose

Gel permeation chromatography Ahmed, Hafiz (2004). Principles and Reactions of Protein Extraction, Purification, and ...

*Retinol binding protein 4

"Interaction between prealbumin and retinol-binding protein studied by affinity chromatography, gel filtration and two-phase ...

*Casein

... analysis of casein and casein subunits by anion-exchange chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and specific staining methods". ... An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it very ... Finally, the most recent model proposes a double link among the caseins for gelling to take place. All three models consider ... Lucey JA (1 February 2002). "Formation and Physical Properties of Milk Protein Gels". Journal of Dairy Science. 85 (2): 281-94 ...

*Macroprolactin

Gold standard test to diagnose macroprolactin is gel-filtration chromatography. Sadideen H, Swaminathan R. (2006): " ... "chapter 11". Size-exclusion chromatography&f=false Insights Into Infertility Management Check ,url= value (help). JP Medical ...

*Polymer Char

... acterization Polyolefin Gel permeation chromatography / Size Exclusion Chromatography Polymer science Polymer ... Data Unit 200: signals device for gel permeation chromatography instruments. GPC-QC: simplified and fully automated GPC ... instrument to analyze the polyolefin bivariate distribution by TREF and gel permeation chromatography. SGIC 2D: 3D results with ... Infrared detector for composition and concentration measurements in polyolefins for gel permeation chromatography (GPC/SEC), ...

*Mark-Houwink equation

In size-exclusion chromatography, such as gel permeation chromatography, the intrinsic viscosity of a polymer is directly ... "Gel Permeation Chromatography" Archived 2009-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. California Polytechnic State University. 11 Dec. ... Therefore, by running several monodisperse samples of polymer in a gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), the values of K {\ ...

*Thermoresponsive polymers in chromatography

Gewehr, Markus; Nakamura, Katsunori; Ise, Norio; Kitano, Hiromi (1992). "Gel permeation chromatography using porous glass beads ... size exclusion chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography separations as well as pseudo-solid ... The research that appeared to spark an onslaught of modified applications was a gel permeation chromatography technique of ... Hydrophobic interaction chromatography requires high concentration salt elutions and eluent cleaning to remove the salt. To ...

*Gamma-glutamyltransferase

"A high performance gel filtration chromatography method for gamma-glutamyltransferase fraction analysis". Analytical ...

*Actinia cari

This sea anemone contains toxins that can be extracted by the "milking" method using gel and ion exchange chromatography. Two ... and separated using gel chromatography. This had a molecular weight in the range 20,000 to 25,000 daltons. The hemolytic ...

*Stokes radius

Stokes radii are often determined experimentally by gel-permeation or gel-filtration chromatography. They are useful in ... Uversky, V.N. (1993). "Use of Fast Protein Size-exclusion Liquid Chromatography to Study the Unfolding of Proteins Which ...

*Procyanidin

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis allows to separate monomers from larger PCO molecules. Monomers of procyanidins ...

*Proanthocyanidin

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis allows separation of monomers from larger proanthocyanidin molecules. Monomers of ... galloyl glucoses and ellagitannins fit on a single calibration curve in high performance-gel permeation chromatography". ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 (43): 7804-12. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.08.082. PMID 21930278. Engström, M. T.; Pälijärvi, M ...

*Nucleoside phosphoramidite

... s are purified by column chromatography on silica gel. To warrant the stability of the ...

*Size-exclusion chromatography

Modern Size Exclusion Chromatography, Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel Filtration Chromatography, 2nd ed.; Wiley: NY, 2009. ... the technique is known as gel-filtration chromatography, versus the name gel permeation chromatography, which is used when an ... While Lathe and Ruthven used starch gels as the matrix, Jerker Porath and Per Flodin later introduced dextran gels; other gels ... PEGylation Gel permeation chromatography Garrett, Reginald H.; Grisham, Charles M. (2013). Biochemistry (5th ed.). Belmont, CA ...

*Trehalase

The molecular weight of AT was found to be 218 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. AT is a glycoprotein. It has 86% ... In non-denaturing gels this enzyme protein exhibited a molecular mass of 160 kDa, while in sodium dodecyl sulfate- ... These two enzymes were reported to be distinguishable by their molecular weight, behavior in ion-exchange chromatography and ... polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) it showed a mass of 80 kDa. This hydrolase enzyme is specific for trehalose. The ...

*Tapioca balls

... are typically neutral in flavor and gel easily, and are therefore often used as a thickening agent in foods like ... "Detection of DEHP in beverages sold in Canada using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry". Bcit Environmental Health Journal. " ...
The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. J. 197, 519-522]. In this paper, chemical and physical properties of the proteinase are presented. The purified enzyme showed three bands on SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, one main band corresponding to an Mr of 31 000 and two minor bands with Mr values of 43 000 and 15 000 respectively. Gel filtration on Bio-gel P-150 and sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium studies give an Mr for the main band of about 35 000. The pI of the enzyme was determined to be 7.2. Haemoglobin was the best substrate, with a Km value of 6.4 X 10(-6)M. It was hydrolysed with a pH optimum between 3.0 and 3.3 for a substrate concentration of 100 microM. The proteinase was stable over the pH range of 3.5-6.5. At pH 6 the enzyme showed stability up to a temperature of 50 degrees C; at pH 3 the activity was ...
An active material capable of forming an electrochemical device excellent in its discharge capacity and rate characteristic is provided. The active material in accordance with a first aspect of the present invention comprises a compound particle containing a compound having a composition represented by the following chemical formula (1), a carbon layer covering the compound particle, and a carbon particle. The active material in accordance with a second aspect of the present invention comprises a carbon particle and a compound particle having an average primary particle size of 0.03 to 1.4 μm, being carried by the carbon particle, and containing a compound represented by the following chemical formula (1): LiaMXO4 (1) where a satisfies 0.9≦a≦2, M denotes one species selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and VO, and X denotes one species selected from the group consisting of P, Si, S, V, and Ti.
This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors.
This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors.
Interactions between C1q and collagen are thought to be due to the similarity in the structure of collagen and part of C1q. In the present paper immunological and biochemical aspects of this similarity were explored. It was found that one of nine rabbit anticollagen sera studied showed a clearcut reactivity with C1q, while anticollagenantibody-positive sera and synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not display any cross-reactivity with C1q. Eleven of twenty collagen-immunized guinea pigs, however, demonstrated cellular cross-reactivity with CLF, the collagen-like fragment of C1q. Gel filtration studies indicated the formation of complexes between CLF and collagen, simulating immunological inhibition of anti-C1q-antibody by collagen. Human RA synovial collagenase was found capable of splitting C1q at a position within its collagen-like fragment. The importance of the interactions between collagen and C1q for the pathological events characterizing RA is discussed.
The Phynexus PhyTip 5k gel filtration columns allow high recovery of functional protein while removing greater than 95% of salts. Watch this video to learn how manual gel filtration can be carried out in just a few simple steps.
Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC or SEC-HPLC) is an analytical technique that separates dissolved macromolecules by size based on their elution from columns
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) products, including GFC & GPC columns.
Our download detection and data to surveying the Today suggests applied to away describe the menu of party in the rabbis, either loading moreTrippy anti-Semitism with meanings before enriching to be eminent passages. To this download detection and data analysis, the issue component makes sent with starsExcellent Paenungulate-specific practice( Table 1). The download detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography sold is a 31 vorticity well suggested of the experience.
An active material having a composition of Li.sub.x Ni.sub.y M.sub.z O.sub.2 (0.8|x|1.5, 0.8|y+z|1.2, 0.ltoreq.z|0.35; M is an element selected from Co, Mg, Ca, Sr, Al, Mn and Fe) is preserved in a gas having a moisture dew point of -20.degree. C. or less from immediately after production of said active material till preparation of an active material mixture-coating material, or is subjected to vacuum drying immediately before preparation of said active material mixture-coating material. The prepared mixture-coating material is applied onto a collector.
The Malvern OMNISEC Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)/Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) uses multi-detection technology for characterising both proteins and polymers.
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), also known as Size Exclusion Chromatography, is a technique that employs columns to separate polymers and proteins according to their hydrodynamic volume in order to determine molecular size and weight.
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Лаборатория биомолекулярной ЯМР-спектроскопии: ЯМР, ЯМР спектроскопия, мембранные и мембрано-активные белки и пептиды, ионные каналы, G-белок сопряжённые рецепторы, спираль-спиральные взаимодействия, мембрано-моделирующие среды
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전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not affected by antigenic stimulation and is apparently produced
0033] Each of the film 105 containing the active material (A) and the film 107 containing the active material (B) can be a thin film of the active material, a film in which particles of the active material are dispersed, or an aggregate of particles of the active material. The thickness of the film 105 containing the active material (A) is preferably greater than or equal to 50 nm and less than or equal to 30 μm. Further, the thickness of the film 107 containing the active material (B) is preferably greater than or equal to 5 nm and less than or equal to 1 μm. When the thickness of the film 107 containing the active material (B) is half or less the thickness of the film 105 containing the active material (A), a reduction of discharge capacitance can be prevented. Further, in the case where particles of the active material are contained in the film 105 containing the active material (A) and the film 107 containing the active material (B) (i.e., in the case where each of the films 105 and 107 is ...
A coated chewing gum includes a gum center containing a water-insoluble gum base and a first active material, and a shell coated around the gum center, with the shell containing a second active material. The coated chewing gum may be made by homogeneously dispersing a first active material in a gum base to form a gum mass; forming discrete masses of the gum mass; and coating the discrete masses with a coating composition containing a second active material.
Final elution volumes of 60 µl, 85 µl, 110 µl, or 165 µl can be selected using the QIAsymphony Virus Blood 200 protocol. Please note that the initial elution volumes are 95 µl, 120 µl, 145 µl, or 200 µl. When calculating the amount of internal control(s) as well as the titer of the processed sample, it is necessary to take into consideration the initial volume of elution buffer that is used for each sample. ...
The present invention relates to an anode material excellent in its charging and discharging characteristics and a secondary battery excellent in its charging and discharging cyclic characteristics. An anode active material is used for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery including an anode having the anode active material, a cathode having a cathode active material and a nonaqueous electrolyte. The capacity of the anode is expressed by the sum of a capacity component obtained when light metal is doped and dedoped in an ionic state and a capacity component obtained when the light metal is deposited and dissolved. The light metal includes an anode base material capable of doping and dedoping the light metal in an ionic state and a fibrous material having an electric conductivity.
Studies were made to characterise soluble Alfa-Amylase (Bacterial). The kinetics of Alfa-amylase on starch is zero order at room temperature (28 0 c) for the first 5 minutes. Hence the activity of Alfa-amylase was measured in terms of mg maltose released during first five minutes. Alfa-amylase showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 Cyanogen bromide was prepared and was used to activate sephadex G200 at pH 11.5. The volume of the cyanogen bromide activated gel, at this pH decreased by about 50 percent, compared to that of the unactivated Sephadex G200. Alfa-amylase was coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sephadex G200 at pH8.3 and 7.0. Coupling of the enzyme led to further decrease in volumes of about 15 percent and 6 percent at pH 8.3 and 7.0 respectively. The amounts of protein in the immobilized Alfa-amylase prepared at pH 8.3 and 7.0 were estimated by, Kjeldhal method, by the tryptophan content and from the difference in the amount of protein present in the original solution and that in the ...
0069] Hereinafter, a method of preparing the positive active material for a lithium secondary battery will be described. An electrode active material for a lithium secondary battery that is represented by Formula 1 below and that is in a form of primary particles having a particle diameter in a range of 80 to 400 nm may be prepared by mixing a Ni--Mn--Co composite hydroxide, a lithium precursor, and a metal oxide of a metal M, wherein M as the same meaning as in Formula 1, the metal oxide having a particle diameter in a range of 10 to 100 nm, to form a mixture, and heat-treating the mixture at 750 to 800° C. to form the compound represented by Formula 1, the compound being in a form of primary particles having a particle diameter in a range of 80 to 400 nm ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Global Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market to grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the period 2016-2020. Ion-exchange chromatography is a separation process that utilizes the charge of the medium and desired particle. This process can be used for almost any kind of charged molecules ranging from large proteins to small nucleotides and amino acids.. Browse more detail information about Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-ion-exchange-chromatography-market-2016-2020-10351019. Scope of the reports: -. The report provides a basic overview of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography including definitions, classifications, ...
A unique polypeptide, called enhancing factor (EF), which enhances the binding of labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cells, has been isolated. It has been purified to homogeneity from the acid-soluble proteins of mouse intestines. Earlier, EF was partially purified by two cycles of gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel columns. We now report the final purification of EF on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a reverse-phase column (μBondapak C18). The purity of the protein was confirmed when a single peak was obtained in HPLC. Also, a single protein band was obtained in SDS-PAGE. Purified EF has the same properties in vitro as those reported earlier for partially purified EF. ...
Handbook Of Size Exclusion Chromatography And Related Techniques von Chi-San Wu und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
g A. Ion exchange Chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is a process for separating proteins and other molecules in a solution based on differences in
You could certainly try running some of the DNA on the gel if you wanted to. I would suspect that you will see a lot of large molecular weight material that would correspond to the genomic DNA, again it would depend on what kind of protocol you were using to isolate the DNA in the first place, but it might give you some indication of how pure it is. I think for a normal plasmid transformation you use around 200 ng of DNA. I looked back at my yeast DNA isolation protocol and all it says is to try transforming between 1-5 ul of DNA. I recall that it was often tricky to get the plasmid back into bacteria - I would get very few transformants. I do believe that some companies sell kits that make it easier to extract plasmid DNA from yeast, but I havent tried them. I remember that one member of this forum was doing a yeast two hybrid screen recently and he was doing transformations with it. Perhaps he can give you more information ...
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The tricky part of column chromatography is ensuring the resin stays fully immersed in buffer and that the sample loaded is not too dilute. In both ion exchange and affinity chromatography (unlike gel filtration chromatography), the material being purified is adsorbed to the resin and therefore becomes concentrated. This means you can get away with less attention to detail than when performing gel filtration chromatography, where the sample becomes increasingly dilute as it runs through the column. The elution step involved the displacement of the GFP bound to the Ni ions via the hexa-His tag. For this we used a high concentration (300mM) of imidazole (a mimic of His). The GFP was selectively displaced and samples collected in eppendorf tubes in 2-3 drop fractions. Again, this is challenging and I would say that around 10% of you obtained the GFP in a form that was sufficiently concentrated to see it glow in the lab. However as in the SDS PAGE gel at the left, most of the class produced an ...
Format: Spin-Column Elution Volume: ≥ 6 μl Binding Capacity: 10 μg Processing Time: 5 minutes Viral RNA recovery from cultured ...
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Report this document Report View Full Document Most Popular Documents for BIO 4141 2 pages Calcium complex Baylor BIO 4141 - Spring 2013 Erik Odom CHE 2216 11/15/2012 Complexometric Determination of Difference between natural and artificial media in animal tissue culture? Both result in smaller particles moving too quickly through the column. 2. Hopefully those make sense Source(s): Factors affecting filtration: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Size-exclus... this content View Full Document The sources of error in this experiment could have come from incorrectly labeling the 2 mL mark on the test tubes, not cleaning the glass cuvette well, disturbing Sign up to view the full document. Over or under packing the column. Because of the charge on BSA it could not interact with the column, or stick to it, and therefore eluted when this buffer was being used. The 2M Tris, at a pH of 8.00, acting as a salt, caused the cytochrome C to not interact and therefore elute while the BSA stayed in the column (or ...
HPLC Part: 00D-4772-E0 bioZen™ 1.8 µm SEC-3 , LC Column 100 x 4.6 mm, Ea Separation Mode: Gel Filtration Chromatography, Gel Filtration Chromatography (GFC) Format: Column
After ten years of continuously expanding Chromedia, we decided - after ample user tests - to say good bye to Topic Circle navigation and welcome Topic Lines. Each Topic Line will open up subtopics and articles. Now you can navigate through all of Chromedias content - including our growing number of videos - on your computer, tablet or mobile ...
AccuPrep® PCR Purification Kit is designed for the purification of up to 10 ug of DNA fragment from PCR and other enzymatic products within 5 minutes. The size range for effective purification is 100 bp ~10 kb, thus common 20 ~ 40 mer oligonucleotides are removed. The recovery yield exceeds 70~90%. Elution volume can be as little as 30 uL when concentrated product is needed ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
We have a very unusual problem with ssDNA. Perhaps someone has seen ,that before. ,We prepared a decent amount of ssDNA from pBluescript II (SK minus). ,We used Stratagenes VCS-M13 helper phage, scaled up the Stratagene ,protocol to 50 ml, and got what we consider a good quality ssDNA. , ,When we ran the samples on agarose, about 95% of the DNA ran as a ,single band, where you would expect it, 3% were in a faint band ,running a little bit faster (nicked linear DNA?), and a very faint ,band ran where chromosomal DNA would ordinarily be - we suspected that ,was an insignificant contamination with bacterial DNA. , ,We aliquoted the DNA, and froze it at -20. , ,During the 1st week, we thawed the DNA and everything seemed ok. ,ALAS (you knew that was coming), after about a month, we watched in ,horror as the good band lost about 50% of its brightness, while the ,large band (running as chromosome) gets more and more intensive. It ,seems as if the DNA is converting to a large molecular weight ...
I dont recall which, but one of the two (I think its superdex) has somewhat greater tailing of peaks due to hydrophobic interactions ...
Prepacked Columns Sepadextran™ 25 Medium SC are hydrated gel filtration columns designed for rapid and efficient removal of small molecules (salts, dyes, ammonia …) from proteins, enzymes or antibodies samples.|br /||br /| Prepacked columns contain Sep
i tried affi-Gel blue gel from bio rad but it is not working well for some reason. i did equilibrate my sample in phosphate buffer. with proteinG, the yield was very low when i tried directly with TC sup. probably not all of them got eluted even after repeated elution. gel filtration (sephadex G100) does not separate them far enough. i have not tried ion exchage ...
Determination of the molecular mass of M.EcoP1I by size-exclusion chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. (a) The standard curve Ve/Vo versus log molecul
A facile and easily scalable method for producing disordered carbons as active materials for sodium ion (Na-ion) battery anode has been developed. The materials were synthesized by two-step pyrolysis...
1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. Both zonal and frontal techniques of analysis were used. 2. Under conditions of zonal analysis recoveries of activity were low. It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. Activity profiles obtained experimentally be frontal analysis compared well with the theoretically predicted profile and provide evidence that dissociation of a high-activity complex, with concomitant loss of activity, does occur. Recoveries ...
We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration ...
An electrode active material forming composition, a separator forming composition and a manufacturing method of a lithium secondary battery using the compositions are provided. The method for manufacturing a lithium secondary battery including the steps of (a) coating electrode active material compositions each comprising a electrode active material, a binder and a solvent on an electrode current collector to form a cathode and an anode, (b) forming a separator on both surfaces of the anode using a composition for forming a separator comprising a polymer resin, a plasticizer, a filler and a solvent; (c) disposing and fixedly adhering the cathode on the separator to form a battery structure, (d) drying the battery structure under a vacuum condition, and (e) impregnating an electrolytic solution into the resultant structure, wherein the plasticizer of the composition for forming the separator is at least one material selected from the group consisting of
A battery includes a positive electrode having a current collector and a first active material and a negative electrode having a current collector and a second active material. The battery also includes an auxiliary electrode having a current collector and a third active material. The auxiliary electrode is configured for selective electrical connection to one of the positive electrode and the negative electrode. The first active material, second active material, and third active material are configured to allow doping and undoping of lithium ions. The third active material exhibits charging and discharging capacity below a corrosion potential of the current collector of the negative electrode and above a decomposition potential of the first active material.
A systems approach is applied to the analysis of chromatogram resolution dispersion, or zone broadening, in Gel Permeation Chromatography (G. P. C.). Three possible sources of dispersion are considered; these are: the packed columns, the empty tubing between pump and columns, columns and detector, etc., and the detection system, vis., the differential refractometer cell. It is shown that empty tubing can contribute significantly to the degree of dispersion and to skewness of elution curves and that this dispersion should depend on molecular weight of solute (polymer) and diameter and length of the tubing. The importance of dispersion in the empty tubing is compared with that in the packed columns and refractometer cell. (Author)(*POLYMERS
The purification of glutamate dehydrogenase from sheep rumen mucosa on DEAE-cellulose afforded two enzyme fractions with glutamate dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme fraction II (tissue glutamate dehydrogenase) was freed of contaminating proteins in the subsequent purification step on Sephadex G-200. The approximate relative molecular weight (260 000) of tissue glutamate dehydrogenase (fraction II) was determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and the approximate relative molecular weight of its polypeptide chain (48 000) was established by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in SDS. The pH-optimum of fraction II was 7.9. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of the enzymatic reaction was examined and the following apparent Michaelis constants were found for the individual substrates: NADH 6.25 . 10-5 mol/l, 2-oxoglutarate 4.5 . 10-3 mol/l, and NH4+ 77 . 10-3 mol/l.. ...
Abstract. The present research included the determination of xanthine oxidase XO in tissues of benign and malignant colon tumor patients. Six samples were collected from patients in surgery unit in Al-Zahrawi hospital in Nineveh Governorate, three of them were benign and the others were malignant colon tumors. The results showed that there are (62%) increase in the specific activity of the enzyme in malignant than benign. The research also included an isolation and partial purification of XO using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. The number of purification folds was (12) fold from benign and (17) folds from malignant. The molecular weight of XO was determined using gel filtration on sephadex G-100 and it was found to be (199000 ± 2000 , 191000 ± 2000) dalton from benign and malignant colon tumor respectively. The results also showed that the enzyme gave a maximum activity at (1.5×10-4 M) of xanthine as a substrate and phosphate buffer at pH (8.5), ...
An all-solid-state cell has a fired solid electrolyte body, a first electrode layer integrally formed on one surface of the fired solid electrolyte body by mixing and firing an electrode active material and a solid electrolyte, and a second electrode layer integrally formed on the other surface of the fired solid electrolyte body by mixing and firing an electrode active material and a solid electrolyte. The first and the second electrode layers are formed by mixing and firing the electrode active material and the amorphous solid electrolyte, which satisfy the relation Ty|Tz (wherein Ty is a temperature at which the capacity of the electrode active material is lowered by reaction between the electrode active material and the solid electrolyte material, and Tz is a temperature at which the solid electrolyte material is shrunk by firing).
This paper investigates the relationship between apparent size distribution and molecular complexity of dissolved organic matter from the natural environment. We used a high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method coupled to UV-Vis diode array detection (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures
Colouring of high molecular weight organic substances with the pigment colourant of formula (1) is carried out, for example, by mixing such a pigment colourant with the substrates using rolling mills, mixing or grinding apparatuses, as a result of which the pigment colourant is dissolved or finely divided in the high molecular weight material. The high molecular weight material with the admixed pigment colourant is subsequently processed by methods known perse, for example calendering, compression moulding, extrusion, coating, spinning, casting or by injection moulding, whereby the coloured material acquires its final form. The admixture of the pigment colourant may also be carried out immediately prior to the actual processing step, for example by continuously feeding a solid pigment colourant, for example a pulverulent pigment colourant, and, at the same time, a granulated or powdered high molecular weight organic material, and optionally also additional ingredients, for example additives, ...
Teach students about chemical and physical properties of biomolecules with this size exclusion chromatography kit. A 45-min lab with material for 8 stations.
A method of preparing a composite cathode active material having superior cell characteristics includes mixing and milling starting material, carbon and an organic complexing agent. The mixture is heated at a first temperature in an inert atmosphere to form a composite precursor, and then the precursor is ground and heated at a second temperature in an inert atmosphere to produce a carbon-containing composite cathode material having high electronic conductivity. The said composite cathode has a general formula of LiFe1−xMxPO4-C, within 0≦x|1, M is selected from the group consisting of Co, Ni, V, Cr, Mn and a mixture thereof.
Methods:Purification included: extraction of the enzyme, the precipitation of the enzyme by ammonium sulphate, dialysis, ionic exchange chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-Cellulose), and gel filtration by using Sephacryl S-200. Equal amounts of purified lipase solution were mixed with PBS (Phosphate buffer sodium) solutions of different pH (4,5,... until 10) and incubated in a water bath at 37 oC for 30 minutes, then the lipase activity was estimated. The purified lipase was incubated at different degrees of temperature (5, 15, ...until 85 oC) for 30 minutes. The molecular weight was determined by gel filtration chromatography ...
Sepadextran is a beaded gel filtration medium prepared by cross-linking dextran It can be used for protein and nucleic acid purifications exclusion limit 5kD for proteins and 10 bases for nucleic acids for Sepadextran-25 and 25kD for proteins and 20 bases for nucleic acids for Sepadextran-50
Filtração em gel: separação por faixas de PM Figure 4.3. Gel Filtration Chromatography. A mixture of proteins in a small volume is applied to a column filled with porous beads. Because large proteins cannot enter the internal volume of the beads, they emerge sooner than do small ones Carga? (histonas = +) Cromatografia de troca iônica + - Figure 4.4. Ion-Exchange Chromatography. This technique separates proteins mainly according to their net charge Substrato? Cromatografia de afinidade Figure 4.5. Affinity Chromatography. Affinity chromatography of concanavalin A (shown in yellow) on a solid support containing covalently attached glucose residues (G). Colunas de material finamente dividido • • muito mais sítios de interação tempo "infinito" de purificação... Solução: HPLC High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Figure 4.6. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Gel filtration by HPLC clearly defines the individual proteins because of its greater resolving power: (1) ...
소각 X 선 산란 (SAXS)에 의한 단백질의 용액 구조의 결정은 단 분산 샘플을 필요로한다. 여기에서는, 샘플 준비 및 데이터 수집 간의 최소 지연을 보장하기 위해 두 가지 가능성을 제시 : 온라인 크기 배제 크로마토 그래피 (SEC) 및 ...
Amersham Biosciences Handbook. Affinity chromatography separates proteins on the basis of a reversible interaction between a protein (or group of proteins) and a specific ligand coupled to a chromatography matrix. The technique offers high selectivity, hence high resolution, and usually high capacity for the protein(s) of interest. Purification can be in the order of several thousand-fold and recoveries of active material are generally very high.. ...
Highly pure proteins are vital for successful experiments; they play roles in research as assay reagents (especially for SPR applications), therapeutic candidates, and of course, as the subjects of structural and biochemical studies. Chromatography is the science of separation and we utilize it to isolate and purify proteins based on their unique physiochemical properties. One […]. The post All Charged Up: The Basics of Ion-Exchange Chromatography appeared first on Bitesize Bio.. ...
Malvern OMNISEC is a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for molecular weight, Intrinsic viscosity. Call us-{1800-3002-0330} Contact directly or Send enquiry. Malvern is best provider of particle size analyzer instruments and we are suppliers and exporters - Aimil.com
HPLC Part: KF-805 Shodex GPC® KF-805 High Performance, LC Column 300 x 8 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Separation of polymers Separation Mode: Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Solid Support: Polymer Format: Column USP Designation: N/A
Agilent Technologies M Column - Specialty 127 cm (5) Cage Columns - For J&W Scientific HP-PLOT Al2O3 GC Columns : HP-PLOT (porous layer open tubular
With the ability to characterize color, sparkle, and coarseness, the new MA-T Family can help manufacturers control effect finishes.
Superdex™ prepacked columns are designed for high-performance, laboratory-scale separations of proteins,peptides, and other biomolecules according to size. High performance gel filtration offers fast separations with high resolution for a variety of applications including protein purification, studies of complex formation, and screening of uncharacterized samples.
Recent technological advances in the way biologic therapeutics are purified may bring size-exclusion chromatography back into the modern purification process.
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DUBLIN, Dec. 7, 2017 /PRNewswire/ --The Zeolite Molecular Sieve Market: Global Industry Analysis, Trends, Market Size and Forecasts up to 2023 report has ...
A stacked battery has at least two cell segments arranged in a stack. Each cell segment may have a first electrode unit having a first active material electrode, a second electrode unit having a secon
a term sometimes used to denote methods of purification of substances by affinity chromatography in which a specific contaminant in a sample interacts with and is selectively retained by the adsorbent, especially as opposed to positive chromatography.. [...] ...
[121 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Chromatography Instruments Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Chromatography Instruments Revenue,...
Over the past 10 years Upfront has worked with a range of industrial partners to isolate valuable protein fractions, Upfront Chromatography, Tel +45 3927 3763
Alfa Aesar is a leading manufacturer and supplier of research chemicals, pure metals and materials for a wide span of applications.
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Please note that in this PDF only the phase description and the corresponding article numbers for the different phases are displayed. To order bulk material in your desired dimension and quantity, please take a look at the order information for our phases. ...
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GE AKTA fast protein liquid chromatography system is an eagle-i resource of type Fast protein liquid chromatography instrument at Universidad Central del Caribe.
Mucilage is extruded from the bark of Pseudolarix amabilis and Abies nephrolepis upon injury. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure and chemical contents of mucilage extruded from mucilage cells (MCs) in the bark of these species. A large number of MCs containing translucent or dark materials in their lumina were observed in the secondary phloem of P. amabilis and A. nephrolepis. The translucent or dark materials in MCs stained positive with ruthenium red and PAS, indicating the presence of polysaccharides. The average length and diameter of MC in P. amabilis were 1500 μm and 254 μm, respectively, and the corresponding values for A. nephrolepis were 419 μm and 166 μm. Chemical analysis of low molecular weight fractions prepared from mucilage by HPAEC-PAD showed sucrose, glucose and fructose peaks, and in addition galacturonic acid and fucose peaks. Furthermore, 1H NMR spectra for the high molecular weight fraction showed the signals characteristic of pectin. This demonstrates that
Definition of Ammonium sulphate precipitation with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
This invention is to provide a nickel-cadmium alkaline storage battery in which the content of nickel hydroxide and/or nickel oxide in a negative active material is from 2 to 60 wt% based on the total amount of cadmium, and the content of cadmium hydroxide in the negative active material is 0.95 or lower in terms of a weight ratio to nickel hydroxide in a positive active material; a manganese dioxide-cadmium alkaline storage battery in which the content of cadmium hydroxide in a negative active material in the discharged state is 0.84 or lower in terms of a weight ratio to manganese dioxide in a positive active material; and a silver oxide-cadmium alkaline storage battery in which the content of cadmium hydroxide in a negative active material in the discharged state is 1.36 or lower in terms of a weight ratio to silver in a positive active material. According to the alkaline storage battery of the present invention, charge control can easily be done with high accuracy because the battery shows abrupt
The protein sample obtained was concentrated using a centrifugation concentrator with a molecular size limit of 30 kDa subsequent filtration. 250μl of the solution were applied to an analytical gel filtration column Superdex 200 10/30 with 1x PBS as running buffer at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. In the chromatogram (shown in the figure on the right in section B), there is an aggregate peak at the exclusion limit that may be caused by the preceding concentration and a major peak at an elution volume of 13.580 ml. The calibration line that was obtained from the calibration proteins b-amylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, BSA, ovalbumine, carboanhydrase, cytochrome C and aprotinin filtrated with the same experimental setup resulted in a regression line with the formula y = -39206 x + 3.3463. Using this formula and the elution volume of the limonene synthase, an apparent molecular mass of 70.1 kDa could be determined for the produced limonene synthase. This fits quite well the theoretical molecular mass ...
Matossian, rogers A.; Rogers, P; Ledbetter, J A.; and Herzenberg, L A., "Molecular weight determination of two genetically linked cell surface murine antigens: thb and ly-6." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 534 ...
Four size exclusion chromatography (SEC) calibration techniques were tested for use in the molecular weight characterisation of Streptococcal Hyaluronic Acid (HA). An exponential equation, evaluated using the Hamielec method, was superior to the customary peak position method. It provided the most accurate estimates of the weight average molecular weight, Mw. The calibration was valid for HA in the range 800 - 2500 kDa, and permitted the calculation of both polydispersity and molecular weight distributions for HA from Streptococcal fermentations. This exponential calibration approach should have application in the characterisation of other large biopolymers, particularly where pore size of available SEC media is limiting ...
GE Healthcare Sepharose Agarose Gel Filtration Media Sepharose CL-2B gel; 1000mL GE Healthcare Sepharose Agarose Gel Filtration Media Gel Filtration Media...
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A first step in characterizing a protein often involves determining its molecular weight. From this information, different proteins may be compared and the number of amino acid residues in a protein can be determined. Here, students determine the molecular weight of two unknown proteins by comparing their electrophoretic migration with the migration of standard proteins. The protein standards and unknowns have been pre-stained so that your students can follow ...
[96 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Affinity Chromatography Columns Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Affinity Chromatography Columns market...
VisiBlot Standard I is a mixture of 10 recombinant proteins of a molecular weight range from 25 kDa to 150 kDa. Protein bands of 25 kDa, 45 kDa and 85 kDa are prestained allowing monitoring of protein separation during SDS PAGE. The remaining five proteins contain several IgG binding sites. Hence marker proteins bind to primary or secondary antibodies used in Western Blotting facilitating easy marker visualization on the transfer membrane. Because the proteins have no chromophore attached, the marker enables accurate molecular weight estimation. Recommended loading volume for a mini gel is 5 µl/lane. Ready-to-use, no reconstitution, further dilution or heating required Prestained bands for monitoring electrophoresis and membrane transfer Visualization of marker proteins on Western Blots by horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase-based immune-detection methods Molecular weight determination of proteins detected on transfer membrane
Omnifit Chromatography Column Replacement Endpieces: Fixed Fixed endpiece; Bore size: 10mm; Operating pressure: 600 psi Omnifit Chromatography Column Replacement...
FPLC is an acronym for fast protein liquid chromatography. The term FPLC was coined and introduced by GE Healthcare (formerly Pharmacia) in 1982 and was originally referred to as fast-performance liquid chromatography as an opposite to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FPLC is used by researchers working in laboratory or preparative protein purification scale. FPLC systems are useful in purifying proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules with the objective of achieving desired purity and yield in a consistent manner. Automation allows process consistency and time savings to enable researchers to quickly prepare for the next research step.. ...
There are two basic forms that the vant Hoff curve can take. These two types of curve relate to the two basic types of chromatography. The first interactive chromatography where the major retentive mechanism results from solute phase interactions and the second exclusion chromatography where the major retention mechanism depends on the amount of stationary phase available to each solute. As stated in book 7, neither form of chromatography can be exclusive, but one can be predominant. An example of the type of linear curve that is produced by interactive chromatography is shown in figure 1 It is seen the vant Hoff curve indicates a very large enthalpy value ...
A lectin from Delonix regia (DRL) seeds was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 followed by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl- Sepharose and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column. Hemagglutinating activity was monitored using rat erythrocytes. DRL showed no specificity for human erythrocytes of ABO blood groups. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single protein in the presence of 0.1 M of dithiothreitol (DTT) and in nonreducing conditions. Native-PAGE showed that DRL is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 12 kDa, as determined by denaturing gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. An amino acid composition revealed the absence of cysteine residues, the presence of 1 mol methionine/mol protein and a high proportion of acidic amino acids and glycine. The N-terminal sequence of DRL was determined by Edman degradation, and up to 16 amino acid residues showed more than 90% homology ...
Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/ion-exchange-chromatography-columns-market/. Geographically, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market has been segmented on the ...
Proteoglycans have been implicated in the invagination and formation of various embryonal cavitied primordia. In this paper the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan is analysed (CSPG) in the lens primordium during lens vesicle formation, and demonstrate that this proteoglycan has a speci®c distribution pattern with regard to invagination and fusion processes in the transformation of placode into lens vesicle. More speci®cally, CSPG was detached in: (1) the apical surface of lens epithelial cells, where early CSPG expression was observed in the whole of the lens placode whilst in the vesicle phase it was restricted to the posterior epithelium; (2) intense CSPG expression in the basal lamina, which remained constant for the entire period under study; (3) CSPG expression in the intercellular spaces of the lens primordium epithelium, which increased during the invagination of the primordium and which at the vesicle stage was more evident in the posterior epithelium; and (4) CSPG ...
This article aims to investigate the use and benefits of using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and structure-activity relationship modeling for screening and prioritization of organic contaminants in complex matrices. The benefit of applying comprehensive screening techniques to samples with high organic contaminant content is primarily that compounds with diverse physicochemical properties can be analyzed simultaneously. Here, a heavily contaminated industrial area was surveyed for organic pollutants by analyzing soil, sediment, and surface water samples. The hazard of the pollutants were ranked using SARs. The water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using dichloromethane and directly analyzed by GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TofMS). Soil and sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath and subjected to gel permeation chromatography to eliminate lipids and humic matter. The low molecular weight fraction was then ...
The giardins are a family of approximately 30000 Mr structural proteins found in microribbons attached to microtubules in the disc cytoskeleton of Giardia. After examining the solubility of giardins in various agents, a method has been developed to extract these polypeptides and subsequently precipitate them selectively. The giardin chains are soluble in 10 mM-HEPES/EDTA buffer at high pH and low ionic strength, but become insoluble in 10 mM-MES/EDTA buffer at pH 6.7 when the ionic strength is raised above 50 mM salt. By dialysing giardin extracts in turn against dissociating and reassembly buffers, the purification is obtained of a subset of giardin chains identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as the cytoskeleton bands 14a, 14b and 15. The structures forming under assembly conditions are all composed of fine filaments, 2-3 nm in diameter. Filaments after the first cycle of assembly are found in bundles, narrow ribbons of two or three filaments, and large ...
Middle ear effusion was obtained from children with chronic secretory otitis media undergoing myringotomy. The effusions contained about 120 mg/ml non-dialysable solids, of which 18-31% was mucus glycoprotein. The purified mucus glycoprotein had a composition characteristic of other mucus glycoproteins. Amino acid analysis of the glycoprotein indicates a protein core consisting of glycosylated regions resistant to proteolysis and non-glycosylated regions susceptible to proteolysis. Analysis of the mucus glycoprotein by gel filtration on Sepharose 2B showed that reduction caused a decrease in hydrodynamic size and proteolysis caused a further decrease. The difference was confirmed by sedimentation coefficient and viscosity measurements. The reduced glycoprotein had an intrinsic viscosity of 0.113 ml/mg and an S0(20) of 15.2S compared to a value of 0.018 ml/mg and 9.6S for the proteolytically digested glycoprotein. These results suggest a model for this middle ear mucus glycoprotein, in which the native

WikiGenes - Chromatography, GelWikiGenes - Chromatography, Gel

Gene context of Chromatography, Gel. *By gel filtration chromatography, one of the mutant Cdc28 proteins exhibited kinase ... Associations of Chromatography, Gel with chemical compounds. *The protein has been purified to homogeneity by gel filtration ... Anatomical context of Chromatography, Gel. *Using a procedure involving DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and gel filtration ... Gel. *Fibronectin was resolved from activity A by gelatin affinity chromatography or gel filtration [36]. ...
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Gel filtration Chromatography - Protein and ProteomicsGel filtration Chromatography - Protein and Proteomics

Gel filtration Chromatography - (Apr/04/2011 ). Hello friends,. I am doing gel filtration chromatography(GFC) to seperate a 12 ... Why is my gel bed getting compressed is it beacuse of the flow rate. Is it normal? Or should I reduce the flow rate further.(As ... most gel filtration matrices will compress under flow, especially if pumped.. after packing and prior to running a sample the ... in case you dont already have it i am attaching the gel filtration handbook from ge healthcare.. ...
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Fundamentals of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) - Part 1 : WatersFundamentals of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) - Part 1 : Waters

This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors. ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ...
more infohttp://www.waters.com/waters/educationInstance.htm?locale=en_US&eiid=134920241

Fundamentals of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) - Part 1 : WatersFundamentals of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) - Part 1 : Waters

This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors. ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ...
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Desalting and Gel Filtration Chromatography | Thermo Fisher Scientific - ZADesalting and Gel Filtration Chromatography | Thermo Fisher Scientific - ZA

affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography is useful for many of the same purposes as dialysis, because both ... Gravity-flow columns and chromatography cartridges use head-pressure from a buffer-chase to push the sample through the gel ... Desalting and buffer exchange are two of the most widely used gel filtration chromatography applications, and both can be ... Finally, in contrast to dialysis, gel filtration chromatography allows the contaminating material to be removed in a relatively ...
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Use Of Silica Gel In Flash ChromatographyUse Of Silica Gel In Flash Chromatography

... flash chromatography is highly popular. Flash chromatography is also known as ... Among all the chromatography methods being used to separate different components of any given mixture, ... Use of Silica Gel in Flash Chromatography column-chromatography.com Flash chromatography is also known as "medium pressure ... Use Of Silica Gel In Flash Chromatography Among all the chromatography methods being used to separate different components of ...
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BANGKAI Thin Layer Chromatography Silica Gel SIO2 - QINGDAO BANGKAI HI-TECH MATERIALS CO.,LTD - ecplaza.netBANGKAI Thin Layer Chromatography Silica Gel SIO2 - QINGDAO BANGKAI HI-TECH MATERIALS CO.,LTD - ecplaza.net

Thin layer chromatography silica gel is a white powder particle, the main ingredient is SiO2. It features uniform particle size ... BANGKAI Thin layer chromatography silica gel Properties: ... BANGKAI Thin Layer Chromatography Silica Gel SIO2. Payment. L/C ...
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SiliaFlash - Irregular Silica Gels for ChromatographySiliaFlash - Irregular Silica Gels for Chromatography

Chromatography * Quick Overview Of Column Chromatography * Reversed-Phase Chromatography: General Introduction For Improved ... SiliaSphere - Spherical Silica Gels * SiliaSphere - for Analytical Chromatography * Bare Silica * 60 Å Bare Spherical Silica ... SiliaFlash® - Irregular Silica Gels for Chromatography. With pore diameters ranging from 30 to 300 Ångström (Å) and particle ... Our silica gels are ideal for preparative chromatography, from laboratory to pilot-plant processes and production scale. In ...
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An Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography | RTIAn Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography | RTI

An Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography. ... An Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography. Phytochemistry, 8, 1025. ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/examination-hexane-extract-flue-cured-tobacco-involving-gel-permeation-chromatography

Gel permeation chromatography - WikipediaGel permeation chromatography - Wikipedia

Helmut, D. Gel Chromatography, Gel Filtration, Gel Permeation, Molecular Sieves: A Laboratory Handbook; Springer-Verlag, 1969. ... Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a type of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), that separates analytes on the basis of ... Gel permeation chromatography is conducted almost exclusively in chromatography columns. The experimental design is not much ... Commercial gels like PLgel, Sephadex, Bio-Gel (cross-linked polyacrylamide), agarose gel and Styragel are often used based on ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gel_permeation_chromatography

Silica Gel Chromatography | AdsorbentsSilica Gel Chromatography | Adsorbents

... with the use of solid adsorbent silica gel powder for organic chemist to purify solvents. Get free samples. ... Aluminium Oxide Chromatography. Column Chromatography. Flash Chromatography. Thin Layer Chromatography. Silica Gel Powder. ... Silica gel column chromatography depends on the activity of the silica gel as an adsorbent and polarity of the mixture. With ... Silica gel for the separation is used in different methods of chromatography. They include analytical, preparative, process and ...
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GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument from Pickering Laboratories, Inc. | SelectScienceGPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument from Pickering Laboratories, Inc. | SelectScience

Read independent reviews on GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument from Pickering Laboratories, Inc. on ... GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument. GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument by ... GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument. Manufacturer Pickering Laboratories, Inc.. Be the first to review ...
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A volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides | Biochemical Society TransactionsA volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides | Biochemical Society Transactions

A volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides. G. BRENT IRVINE, CHRISTOPHER SHAW ... A volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/14/2/445

High Sensitivity Gel Permeation Chromatography for Agrochemical AnalysisHigh Sensitivity Gel Permeation Chromatography for Agrochemical Analysis

... Application Note Oct 11, 2017 ... In 2015 Syngenta decided to purchase an OMNISEC Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) system from Malvern Instruments. Here, Dr ...
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DIFFUSIONAL PHENOMENA IN FLOWING POLYMER SOLUTIONS.  I.  THEORY OF RESOLUTION DISPERSION IN GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY.DIFFUSIONAL PHENOMENA IN FLOWING POLYMER SOLUTIONS. I. THEORY OF RESOLUTION DISPERSION IN GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY.

... in Gel Permeation Chromatography (G. P. C.). Three possible sources of dispersion are considered; these are: the packed columns ... in Gel Permeation Chromatography (G. P. C.). Three possible sources of dispersion are considered; these are: the packed columns ...
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Open tubular liquid chromatography using a sol-gel derived stationary phase | SpringerLinkOpen tubular liquid chromatography using a sol-gel derived stationary phase | SpringerLink

... was fabricated by the sol-gel process and coated onto the inner walls of fused silica capillaries. The coating was used as... ... Column liquid chromatography Open tubular columns Sol-gel coatings Laser-induced fluorescence detection ... The coating was used as the stationary phase for reversed-phase open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC). The sol-gel process ... Solute selectivity of the sol-gel derived stationary phase was found to be similar to the selectivity of HPLC monomeric-type ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02292997

Silica Gel Chromatography | Method of High Purity GradeSilica Gel Chromatography | Method of High Purity Grade

... manufacturer of silica gel 200-400, 230-400 mesh for chemical synthesis. ... Using silica gel is the basis chemistry method of chromatography, ... The starting phase of chromatography is analytical chromatography with little amount of silica gel mesh 60-120 size by using ... Preparative Chromatography: Focus on the latest chromatography technologies such as preparative and process chromatography to ...
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Global Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Market (Detectors and Systems) Insights, Opportunity, Analysis, Market Shares...Global Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Market (Detectors and Systems) Insights, Opportunity, Analysis, Market Shares...

... the Global Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Market 2017 is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... 4.3 China Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 4.4 China Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ... 6.3 Japan Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 6.4 Japan Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ... 8.3 India Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 8.4 India Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ...
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Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to characterize...Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to characterize...

Article Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to ... Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to characterize ... Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography (GPC) were ... were found for Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/three-dimensional-excitation-emission-matrix-fluorescence-spectroscopy-and-gel-permeating-chromatogr-170699

Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods - UQ...Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods - UQ...

Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods. Ho K.K.Y ... GH circulates in part bound to a high affinity binding protein (GHBP). Gel chromatography is the established method for ... Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods ... Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 76 2: 302- ...
more infohttps://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:336162

SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland - Glantreo IrelandSOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland - Glantreo Ireland

SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography. SOLAS™ MonoDense™ is a proprietary process for the industries first monodense fully ... Patel et al., 2015, Gone in Seconds: Praxis, Performance, and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with ... thereby leading to more efficient and effective chromatography. Additionally, the Glantreo particles represent a media that is ... and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with Superficially Porous Particles, Analytical Chemistry, 27 May ...
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SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland Glantreo IrelandSOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland Glantreo Ireland

SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography. SOLAS™ MonoDense™ is a proprietary process for the industries first monodense fully ... Patel et al., 2015, Gone in Seconds: Praxis, Performance, and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with ... thereby leading to more efficient and effective chromatography. Additionally, the Glantreo particles represent a media that is ... and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with Superficially Porous Particles, Analytical Chemistry, 27 May ...
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SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland - Glantreo IrelandSOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography - Glantreo Ireland - Glantreo Ireland

SOLAS™ silica gel for Chromatography. SOLAS™ MonoDense™ is a proprietary process for the industries first monodense fully ... Patel et al., 2015, Gone in Seconds: Praxis, Performance, and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with ... thereby leading to more efficient and effective chromatography. Additionally, the Glantreo particles represent a media that is ... and Peculiarities of Ultrafast Chiral Liquid Chromatography with Superficially Porous Particles, Analytical Chemistry, 27 May ...
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Liquid Chromatography - The Structure of Silica Gel 3 :: Chromatography OnlineLiquid Chromatography - The Structure of Silica Gel 3 :: Chromatography Online

Liquid Chromatography - The Structure of Silica Gel 3. Silica gel adsorbs relatively large quantities of water which was ...
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Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography: Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel Filtration Chromatography, 2nd Edition - Book -...Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography: Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel Filtration Chromatography, 2nd Edition - Book -...

Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography: Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel Filtration Chromatography, 2nd Edition. Skip to ... It provides an unparalleled, integrated, up-to-date treatment of gel permeation and gel filtration chromatography. With its ... The Second Edition of Modern Size-Exclusion Chromatography offers a complete guide to the theories, methods, and applications ... Practical aspects of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multidetector and multidimensional SEC technologies for polymer ...
more infohttp://www.separationsnow.com/ic/details/book/978-0-471201-72-4/Modern-Size-Exclusion-Liquid-Chromatography-Practice-of-Gel-Permeation-and-Gel-F.html
  • Other desirable properties of the gel forming agent are the absence of ionizing groups and, in a given solvent, low affinity for the substances to be separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suitable for affinity chromatography of various cAMP-responsive proteins, especially those which tolerate modification of the ribose 2'-hydroxy group, such as the exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) and certain phosphodiesterases. (biolog.de)
  • Normally all affinity gels are supplied in pre-packed columns. (biolog.de)
  • Commercial gels like PLgel, Sephadex, Bio-Gel (cross-linked polyacrylamide), agarose gel and Styragel are often used based on different separation requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high surface area of the coating, characteristic of materials fabricated by the sol-gel process, resulted in capillary columns with a stronger retention than those prepared by a conventional procedure. (springer.com)
  • Ho K.K.Y., Valiontis E., Waters M.J. and Rajkovic I.A. (1993) Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods. (edu.au)