Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.

The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout. (1/13503)

1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history.  (+info)

A protein-glucan intermediate during paramylon synthesis. (2/13503)

A sodium deoxycholate extract containing glucosyltransferase activity was obtained from a particulate preparation from Euglena gracilis. It transferred glucose from UDP-[14C]glucose into material that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. This material released beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan oligosaccharides into solution on incubation with weak acid, weak alkali and beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosidase. The products of the incubation of the deoxycholate extract with UDP-[14C]glucose were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Radioactive bands were obtained that had the properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan covalently linked to protein by a bond labile to weak acid. High-molecular-weight material containing a beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan was also shown to be present by gel filtration. The bond linking glucan to aglycone is possibly a pyrophosphate linkage. It is proposed that in Euglena gracilis beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucan (paramylon) is synthesized on a protein primer.  (+info)

Axin prevents Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta-catenin. (3/13503)

When Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed in COS cells, it coeluted with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) in a high molecular weight fraction on gel filtration column chromatography. In this fraction, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC were co-precipitated with Axin. Although beta-catenin was detected in the high molecular weight fraction in L cells on gel filtration column chromatography, addition of conditioned medium expressing Wnt-3a to the cells increased beta-catenin in the low molecular weight fraction. However, Wnt-3a-dependent accumulation of beta-catenin was greatly inhibited in L cells stably expressing Axin. Axin also suppressed Wnt-3a-dependent activation of Tcf-4 which binds to beta-catenin and acts as a transcription factor. These results suggest that Axin forms a complex with GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and APC, resulting in the stimulation of the degradation of beta-catenin and that Wnt-3a induces the dissociation of beta-catenin from the Axin complex and accumulates beta-catenin.  (+info)

Isolation and complete covalent structure of liver microsomal paraoxonase. (4/13503)

Paraoxonase (PON1) is a serum esterase exclusively associated with high-density lipoproteins; it might confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids in oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Here I show that rabbit liver microsomes contain a PON analogue (MsPON) and report the isolation and complete covalent structure of MsPON. In detergent-solubilized microsomes, MsPON co-purifies with the microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) complex. MsPON was separated from the complex and purified to homogeneity under non-denaturing conditions. Automated sequence analysis of intact MsPON and peptides obtained from enzymic and chemical cleavages led to the elucidation of the complete covalent structure of MsPON. The protein is a single polypeptide consisting of 350 residues. The sequence of rabbit liver microsomal MsPON is 60% identical with that of rabbit serum PON1, and 84% identical with the sequence predicted by a human cDNA of unknown function, designated PON3. MsPON has a hydrophobic segment at the N-terminus that might serve to anchor the protein to the microsomal membrane or to the MTP complex. Unlike in the serum enzyme, two potential N-glycan acceptor sites in MsPON are not glycosylated. An absence of N-glycans was also indicated in the rabbit liver MTP. MsPON has a single free cysteine residue at position 38 and a disulphide bond between Cys-279 and Cys-348. The microsomal enzyme lacks three residues at the N-terminus that are present in the serum protein. MsPON lacks four residues at the C-terminus that are present in the rabbit serum protein but absent from human serum PON1. On the basis of the observation that MsPON displays a high degree of similarity with serum PON1, it is proposed that MsPON might have a function related to that of PON1 in serum high-density lipoprotein complexes.  (+info)

Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin. (5/13503)

A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an alpha-galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei. (6/13503)

A membrane-associated galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei was purified 34000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-hexanolamine-Sepharosetrade mark. Using SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the isolated enzyme ran as a relatively broad band with apparent molecular masses of 53 kDa and 52 kDa, indicative of glycosylation and the existence of two isoforms. N-Glycosylation of the enzyme was subsequently confirmed using Western blotting and either specific binding of concanavalin A or peptide-N4-(N-acetylglucosaminyl)asparagine amidase digestion. The de-N-glycosylated enzyme ran with apparent molecular masses of 51 kDa and 50 kDa, indicative of a single N-glycosylation site. The galactosyltransferase exhibited a pH optimum at 7.2 and had a pronounced requirement for Mn2+ ions (KM=2.5 mM) for its action. The transferase activity was independent of the concentration of Triton X-100. The enzyme was capable of transferring galactose from UDP-galactose to a variety of galactose-based acceptors in alpha-glycosidic linkages. The apparent KM values for UDP-galactose and for the preferred acceptor substrate N-acetyl-lactosamine are 46 microM and 4.5 mM respectively. From these results we would like to suggest that the galactosyltransferase functions in the processing of terminal N-acetyl-lactosamine structures of trypanosomal glycoproteins.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (7/13503)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. (8/13503)

The catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4C) has greater than 65% amino acid identity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AC). Despite this high homology, PP4 does not appear to associate with known PP2A regulatory subunits. As a first step toward characterization of PP4 holoenzymes and identification of putative PP4 regulatory subunits, PP4 was purified from bovine testis soluble extracts. PP4 existed in two complexes of approximately 270-300 and 400-450 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The smaller PP4 complex was purified by sequential phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, DEAE2, and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatographies. The final product contained two major proteins: the PP4 catalytic subunit plus a protein that migrated as a doublet of 120-125 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The associated protein, termed PP4R1, and PP4C also bound to microcystin-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified complex revealed two major peaks, at 35 (PP4C) and 105 kDa (PP4R1). Amino acid sequence information of several peptides derived from the 105 kDa protein was utilized to isolate a human cDNA clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 13 nonidentical repeats similar to repeats found in the A subunit of PP2A (PP2AA). The PP4R1 cDNA clone engineered with an N-terminal Myc tag was expressed in COS M6 cells and PP4C co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged PP4R1. These data indicate that one form of PP4 is similar to the core complex of PP2A in that it consists of a catalytic subunit and a "PP2AA-like" structural subunit.  (+info)

The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. J. 197, 519-522]. In this paper, chemical and physical properties of the proteinase are presented. The purified enzyme showed three bands on SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, one main band corresponding to an Mr of 31 000 and two minor bands with Mr values of 43 000 and 15 000 respectively. Gel filtration on Bio-gel P-150 and sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium studies give an Mr for the main band of about 35 000. The pI of the enzyme was determined to be 7.2. Haemoglobin was the best substrate, with a Km value of 6.4 X 10(-6)M. It was hydrolysed with a pH optimum between 3.0 and 3.3 for a substrate concentration of 100 microM. The proteinase was stable over the pH range of 3.5-6.5. At pH 6 the enzyme showed stability up to a temperature of 50 degrees C; at pH 3 the activity was ...
Domestic protein purification instrument company on the characteristics of molecular sieve chromatography protein purification system-Suzhou Sepure Instruments Inc.-Domestic protein purification instrument company on the characteristics of molecular sieve chromatography protein purification system
An active material capable of forming an electrochemical device excellent in its discharge capacity and rate characteristic is provided. The active material in accordance with a first aspect of the present invention comprises a compound particle containing a compound having a composition represented by the following chemical formula (1), a carbon layer covering the compound particle, and a carbon particle. The active material in accordance with a second aspect of the present invention comprises a carbon particle and a compound particle having an average primary particle size of 0.03 to 1.4 μm, being carried by the carbon particle, and containing a compound represented by the following chemical formula (1): LiaMXO4 (1) where a satisfies 0.9≦a≦2, M denotes one species selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and VO, and X denotes one species selected from the group consisting of P, Si, S, V, and Ti.
Press release - Gel Permeation Chromatography Market - Gel Permeation Chromatography Market 2017 : Shimadzu, TOSOH, Waters, Malvern, Agilent Technologies - published on openPR.com
This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors.
This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors.
Interactions between C1q and collagen are thought to be due to the similarity in the structure of collagen and part of C1q. In the present paper immunological and biochemical aspects of this similarity were explored. It was found that one of nine rabbit anticollagen sera studied showed a clearcut reactivity with C1q, while anticollagenantibody-positive sera and synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not display any cross-reactivity with C1q. Eleven of twenty collagen-immunized guinea pigs, however, demonstrated cellular cross-reactivity with CLF, the collagen-like fragment of C1q. Gel filtration studies indicated the formation of complexes between CLF and collagen, simulating immunological inhibition of anti-C1q-antibody by collagen. Human RA synovial collagenase was found capable of splitting C1q at a position within its collagen-like fragment. The importance of the interactions between collagen and C1q for the pathological events characterizing RA is discussed.
The Phynexus PhyTip 5k gel filtration columns allow high recovery of functional protein while removing greater than 95% of salts. Watch this video to learn how manual gel filtration can be carried out in just a few simple steps.
Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC or SEC-HPLC) is an analytical technique that separates dissolved macromolecules by size based on their elution from columns
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) products, including GFC & GPC columns.
Our download detection and data to surveying the Today suggests applied to away describe the menu of party in the rabbis, either loading moreTrippy anti-Semitism with meanings before enriching to be eminent passages. To this download detection and data analysis, the issue component makes sent with starsExcellent Paenungulate-specific practice( Table 1). The download detection and data analysis in size exclusion chromatography sold is a 31 vorticity well suggested of the experience.
An active material having a composition of Li.sub.x Ni.sub.y M.sub.z O.sub.2 (0.8|x|1.5, 0.8|y+z|1.2, 0.ltoreq.z|0.35; M is an element selected from Co, Mg, Ca, Sr, Al, Mn and Fe) is preserved in a gas having a moisture dew point of -20.degree. C. or less from immediately after production of said active material till preparation of an active material mixture-coating material, or is subjected to vacuum drying immediately before preparation of said active material mixture-coating material. The prepared mixture-coating material is applied onto a collector.
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), also known as Size Exclusion Chromatography, is a technique that employs columns to separate polymers and proteins according to their hydrodynamic volume in order to determine molecular size and weight.
Sonstige Infos: Anti Jam Bügel von ARES für die von Umarex und GSG importierten ARES / S&T G36 / KSK-1 Modelle. Der Bügel stattet die Air
Ted to concentration and fractionation on a Sephadex LH-20 column (2.8 6 33 cm) using 80 methanol as an eluent. The relevant fractions were pooled and
A major Liquid Chromatography mode in which samples are separated by virtue of their size in solution. Also known as size-exclusion, gel permeation, gel fi
전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
Лаборатория биомолекулярной ЯМР-спектроскопии: ЯМР, ЯМР спектроскопия, мембранные и мембрано-активные белки и пептиды, ионные каналы, G-белок сопряжённые рецепторы, спираль-спиральные взаимодействия, мембрано-моделирующие среды
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not affected by antigenic stimulation and is apparently produced
Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022 Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022 About Gel Permeation Chromatography GPC is an analytical method used for the separation - Market research report and industry analysis - 11819766
0033] Each of the film 105 containing the active material (A) and the film 107 containing the active material (B) can be a thin film of the active material, a film in which particles of the active material are dispersed, or an aggregate of particles of the active material. The thickness of the film 105 containing the active material (A) is preferably greater than or equal to 50 nm and less than or equal to 30 μm. Further, the thickness of the film 107 containing the active material (B) is preferably greater than or equal to 5 nm and less than or equal to 1 μm. When the thickness of the film 107 containing the active material (B) is half or less the thickness of the film 105 containing the active material (A), a reduction of discharge capacitance can be prevented. Further, in the case where particles of the active material are contained in the film 105 containing the active material (A) and the film 107 containing the active material (B) (i.e., in the case where each of the films 105 and 107 is ...
A coated chewing gum includes a gum center containing a water-insoluble gum base and a first active material, and a shell coated around the gum center, with the shell containing a second active material. The coated chewing gum may be made by homogeneously dispersing a first active material in a gum base to form a gum mass; forming discrete masses of the gum mass; and coating the discrete masses with a coating composition containing a second active material.
Final elution volumes of 60 µl, 85 µl, 110 µl, or 165 µl can be selected using the QIAsymphony Virus Blood 200 protocol. Please note that the initial elution volumes are 95 µl, 120 µl, 145 µl, or 200 µl. When calculating the amount of internal control(s) as well as the titer of the processed sample, it is necessary to take into consideration the initial volume of elution buffer that is used for each sample. ...
The present invention relates to an anode material excellent in its charging and discharging characteristics and a secondary battery excellent in its charging and discharging cyclic characteristics. An anode active material is used for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery including an anode having the anode active material, a cathode having a cathode active material and a nonaqueous electrolyte. The capacity of the anode is expressed by the sum of a capacity component obtained when light metal is doped and dedoped in an ionic state and a capacity component obtained when the light metal is deposited and dissolved. The light metal includes an anode base material capable of doping and dedoping the light metal in an ionic state and a fibrous material having an electric conductivity.
Gel permeation chromatography is commonly used in the fractionation of mixtures of substances that vary in their relative molecular mass and it is extremely useful for labile molecules, such as enzymes.. The elution volume of a solute is determined mainly by its relative molecular mass and it has been shown that the elution volume is approximately a linear function of the logarithm of the relative molecular mass. It is possible to determine the relative molecular mass of a test molecule using a calibration curve prepared from the elution volumes of several reference substances of known relative molecular mass. This should be done using the same column and conditions (Figure 3.37) and in practice it may be possible to calibrate the column and separate the test substance at the same time by incorporating the reference compounds in the sample. Such a method is rapid and inexpensive and does not demand a highly purified sample, provided that there is a specific method for detecting the molecule in ...
Studies were made to characterise soluble Alfa-Amylase (Bacterial). The kinetics of Alfa-amylase on starch is zero order at room temperature (28 0 c) for the first 5 minutes. Hence the activity of Alfa-amylase was measured in terms of mg maltose released during first five minutes. Alfa-amylase showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 Cyanogen bromide was prepared and was used to activate sephadex G200 at pH 11.5. The volume of the cyanogen bromide activated gel, at this pH decreased by about 50 percent, compared to that of the unactivated Sephadex G200. Alfa-amylase was coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sephadex G200 at pH8.3 and 7.0. Coupling of the enzyme led to further decrease in volumes of about 15 percent and 6 percent at pH 8.3 and 7.0 respectively. The amounts of protein in the immobilized Alfa-amylase prepared at pH 8.3 and 7.0 were estimated by, Kjeldhal method, by the tryptophan content and from the difference in the amount of protein present in the original solution and that in the ...
0069] Hereinafter, a method of preparing the positive active material for a lithium secondary battery will be described. An electrode active material for a lithium secondary battery that is represented by Formula 1 below and that is in a form of primary particles having a particle diameter in a range of 80 to 400 nm may be prepared by mixing a Ni--Mn--Co composite hydroxide, a lithium precursor, and a metal oxide of a metal M, wherein M as the same meaning as in Formula 1, the metal oxide having a particle diameter in a range of 10 to 100 nm, to form a mixture, and heat-treating the mixture at 750 to 800° C. to form the compound represented by Formula 1, the compound being in a form of primary particles having a particle diameter in a range of 80 to 400 nm ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Generation of well-relaxed all-atom models of large molecular weight polymer melts: A hybrid particle-continuum approach based on particle-field molecular dynamics simulations. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Global Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market to grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the period 2016-2020. Ion-exchange chromatography is a separation process that utilizes the charge of the medium and desired particle. This process can be used for almost any kind of charged molecules ranging from large proteins to small nucleotides and amino acids.. Browse more detail information about Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-ion-exchange-chromatography-market-2016-2020-10351019. Scope of the reports: -. The report provides a basic overview of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography including definitions, classifications, ...
A unique polypeptide, called enhancing factor (EF), which enhances the binding of labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cells, has been isolated. It has been purified to homogeneity from the acid-soluble proteins of mouse intestines. Earlier, EF was partially purified by two cycles of gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel columns. We now report the final purification of EF on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a reverse-phase column (μBondapak C18). The purity of the protein was confirmed when a single peak was obtained in HPLC. Also, a single protein band was obtained in SDS-PAGE. Purified EF has the same properties in vitro as those reported earlier for partially purified EF. ...
Looking for high performing size exclusion chromatography resins? Learn more about our offering and how we can help you to meet your production and purification objectives.
Handbook Of Size Exclusion Chromatography And Related Techniques von Chi-San Wu und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
This study was conducted to purification G6PD enzyme from diabetic patients by using simple and cheap method the technique gel filtration on Sephadex G100 and determine..
g A. Ion exchange Chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is a process for separating proteins and other molecules in a solution based on differences in
You could certainly try running some of the DNA on the gel if you wanted to. I would suspect that you will see a lot of large molecular weight material that would correspond to the genomic DNA, again it would depend on what kind of protocol you were using to isolate the DNA in the first place, but it might give you some indication of how pure it is. I think for a normal plasmid transformation you use around 200 ng of DNA. I looked back at my yeast DNA isolation protocol and all it says is to try transforming between 1-5 ul of DNA. I recall that it was often tricky to get the plasmid back into bacteria - I would get very few transformants. I do believe that some companies sell kits that make it easier to extract plasmid DNA from yeast, but I havent tried them. I remember that one member of this forum was doing a yeast two hybrid screen recently and he was doing transformations with it. Perhaps he can give you more information ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
The tricky part of column chromatography is ensuring the resin stays fully immersed in buffer and that the sample loaded is not too dilute. In both ion exchange and affinity chromatography (unlike gel filtration chromatography), the material being purified is adsorbed to the resin and therefore becomes concentrated. This means you can get away with less attention to detail than when performing gel filtration chromatography, where the sample becomes increasingly dilute as it runs through the column. The elution step involved the displacement of the GFP bound to the Ni ions via the hexa-His tag. For this we used a high concentration (300mM) of imidazole (a mimic of His). The GFP was selectively displaced and samples collected in eppendorf tubes in 2-3 drop fractions. Again, this is challenging and I would say that around 10% of you obtained the GFP in a form that was sufficiently concentrated to see it glow in the lab. However as in the SDS PAGE gel at the left, most of the class produced an ...
Format: Spin-Column Elution Volume: ≥ 6 μl Binding Capacity: 10 μg Processing Time: 5 minutes Viral RNA recovery from cultured ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Report this document Report View Full Document Most Popular Documents for BIO 4141 2 pages Calcium complex Baylor BIO 4141 - Spring 2013 Erik Odom CHE 2216 11/15/2012 Complexometric Determination of Difference between natural and artificial media in animal tissue culture? Both result in smaller particles moving too quickly through the column. 2. Hopefully those make sense Source(s): Factors affecting filtration: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Size-exclus... this content View Full Document The sources of error in this experiment could have come from incorrectly labeling the 2 mL mark on the test tubes, not cleaning the glass cuvette well, disturbing Sign up to view the full document. Over or under packing the column. Because of the charge on BSA it could not interact with the column, or stick to it, and therefore eluted when this buffer was being used. The 2M Tris, at a pH of 8.00, acting as a salt, caused the cytochrome C to not interact and therefore elute while the BSA stayed in the column (or ...
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is one of the most powerful and versatile analytical techniques available for understanding and predicting polymer performance. It is the most convenient technique for characterizing the complete molecular weight distribution of a polymer ...
HPLC Part: 00D-4772-E0 bioZen™ 1.8 µm SEC-3 , LC Column 100 x 4.6 mm, Ea Separation Mode: Gel Filtration Chromatography, Gel Filtration Chromatography (GFC) Format: Column
M Columns are designed for molecular biology and protein biochemistry applications which require the binding of larger amounts of molecules. M Columns can be used with the following separators:MiniMACS SeparatorOctoMACS Separator Column capacityM Columns are used for cell lysates from 3-5×107 cells. - Belgique
After ten years of continuously expanding Chromedia, we decided - after ample user tests - to say good bye to Topic Circle navigation and welcome Topic Lines. Each Topic Line will open up subtopics and articles. Now you can navigate through all of Chromedias content - including our growing number of videos - on your computer, tablet or mobile ...
AccuPrep® PCR Purification Kit is designed for the purification of up to 10 ug of DNA fragment from PCR and other enzymatic products within 5 minutes. The size range for effective purification is 100 bp ~10 kb, thus common 20 ~ 40 mer oligonucleotides are removed. The recovery yield exceeds 70~90%. Elution volume can be as little as 30 uL when concentrated product is needed ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
We have a very unusual problem with ssDNA. Perhaps someone has seen ,that before. ,We prepared a decent amount of ssDNA from pBluescript II (SK minus). ,We used Stratagenes VCS-M13 helper phage, scaled up the Stratagene ,protocol to 50 ml, and got what we consider a good quality ssDNA. , ,When we ran the samples on agarose, about 95% of the DNA ran as a ,single band, where you would expect it, 3% were in a faint band ,running a little bit faster (nicked linear DNA?), and a very faint ,band ran where chromosomal DNA would ordinarily be - we suspected that ,was an insignificant contamination with bacterial DNA. , ,We aliquoted the DNA, and froze it at -20. , ,During the 1st week, we thawed the DNA and everything seemed ok. ,ALAS (you knew that was coming), after about a month, we watched in ,horror as the good band lost about 50% of its brightness, while the ,large band (running as chromosome) gets more and more intensive. It ,seems as if the DNA is converting to a large molecular weight ...
I dont recall which, but one of the two (I think its superdex) has somewhat greater tailing of peaks due to hydrophobic interactions ...
Prepacked Columns Sepadextran™ 25 Medium SC are hydrated gel filtration columns designed for rapid and efficient removal of small molecules (salts, dyes, ammonia …) from proteins, enzymes or antibodies samples.|br /||br /| Prepacked columns contain Sep
i tried affi-Gel blue gel from bio rad but it is not working well for some reason. i did equilibrate my sample in phosphate buffer. with proteinG, the yield was very low when i tried directly with TC sup. probably not all of them got eluted even after repeated elution. gel filtration (sephadex G100) does not separate them far enough. i have not tried ion exchage ...
Determination of the molecular mass of M.EcoP1I by size-exclusion chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. (a) The standard curve Ve/Vo versus log molecul
A facile and easily scalable method for producing disordered carbons as active materials for sodium ion (Na-ion) battery anode has been developed. The materials were synthesized by two-step pyrolysis...
... Waters, Malvern, Agilent Technologies - published on openPR.com ... Gel Permeation Chromatography Market - Global Industry Analysis 2024 Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or size exclusion ... The Gel Permeation Chromatography research study covers each and every aspect of the Gel Permeation Chromatography market ... Gel Permeation Chromatography Market Research Report. A market study based on the " Gel Permeation Chromatography Market " ...
This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... module: monomers and polymers, polymer analysis techniques and applications, size-exclusion chromatography, and detectors. ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ... This module covers the first part of the fundamentals of Waters Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Topics included in this ...
... the Global Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Market 2017 is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... 4.3 China Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 4.4 China Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ... 6.3 Japan Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 6.4 Japan Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ... 8.3 India Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 8.4 India Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ...
Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) uses multi-detection technology for characterising both proteins and polymers. ... The Malvern OMNISEC Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)/Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) uses multi-detection technology for ... The Malvern OMNISEC Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)/ ...
... also known as Size Exclusion Chromatography, is a technique that employs columns to separate polymers and proteins according to ... Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), also known as Size Exclusion Chromatography, is a technique that employs columns to ...
전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
Also known as size-exclusion, gel permeation, gel fi ... A major Liquid Chromatography mode in which samples are ... Also known as size-exclusion, gel permeation, gel filtration, or gel chromatography. ... Exclusion chromatography. A major Liquid Chromatography mode in which samples are separated by virtue of their size in solution ... adsorbent benzene china chlorophyll chromatographic chromatography column chromatography CZE DESI electromagnetic induction ...
... flash chromatography is highly popular. Flash chromatography is also known as ... Among all the chromatography methods being used to separate different components of any given mixture, ... Use of Silica Gel in Flash Chromatography column-chromatography.com Flash chromatography is also known as "medium pressure ... Use Of Silica Gel In Flash Chromatography Among all the chromatography methods being used to separate different components of ...
... was fabricated by the sol-gel process and coated onto the inner walls of fused silica capillaries. The coating was used as... ... Column liquid chromatography Open tubular columns Sol-gel coatings Laser-induced fluorescence detection ... The coating was used as the stationary phase for reversed-phase open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC). The sol-gel process ... Solute selectivity of the sol-gel derived stationary phase was found to be similar to the selectivity of HPLC monomeric-type ...
Gene context of Chromatography, Gel. *By gel filtration chromatography, one of the mutant Cdc28 proteins exhibited kinase ... Associations of Chromatography, Gel with chemical compounds. *The protein has been purified to homogeneity by gel filtration ... Anatomical context of Chromatography, Gel. *Using a procedure involving DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and gel filtration ... Gel. *Fibronectin was resolved from activity A by gelatin affinity chromatography or gel filtration [36]. ...
Gel filtration Chromatography - (Apr/04/2011 ). Hello friends,. I am doing gel filtration chromatography(GFC) to seperate a 12 ... Why is my gel bed getting compressed is it beacuse of the flow rate. Is it normal? Or should I reduce the flow rate further.(As ... most gel filtration matrices will compress under flow, especially if pumped.. after packing and prior to running a sample the ... in case you dont already have it i am attaching the gel filtration handbook from ge healthcare.. ...
affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography is useful for many of the same purposes as dialysis, because both ... Gravity-flow columns and chromatography cartridges use head-pressure from a buffer-chase to push the sample through the gel ... Desalting and buffer exchange are two of the most widely used gel filtration chromatography applications, and both can be ... Finally, in contrast to dialysis, gel filtration chromatography allows the contaminating material to be removed in a relatively ...
Shop a large selection of Column Packing products and learn more about ACROS OrganicsSilica Gel, for Column Chromatography, ... ACROS Organics™ Silica Gel, for Column Chromatography, 0.060-0.200mm, 60Å ... ACROS Organics™ Silica Gel, for Column Chromatography, 0.060-0.200mm, 60Å ...
Waters GPC-1 (1515 HPLC Pump & Waters 717Plus Autoinjector)* Mobile phase: Tetrahydrofuran (THF) Column set: Jordi Gel ... Gel Permeation Chromatography. * GPC set-up may change according to need. Please consult with lab manager for current set-up ... Column set: Jordi Gel fluorinated DVB columns (1-100K, 2-10K & 1-500Å). Lower molecular weight column set available.. Injection ... Column set: Two mixed bed Jordi Gel DVB columns. Injection volume: 10µl - 200µl. Optional 2400 µl sample holding loop available ...
An Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography. ... An Examination of the Hexane Extract of Flue-Cured Tobacco Involving Gel Permeation Chromatography. Phytochemistry, 8, 1025. ...
About Gel Permeation Chromatography GPC is an analytical method used for the separation - Market research report and industry ... Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022 Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022 ... Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022. About Gel Permeation Chromatography. GPC is an analytical method ... Global Gel Permeation Chromatography System Market 2018-2022. Lowest Prices Guaranteed. Length. Publisher. Published Date. SKU ...
Equipment that is used for separating a polymer blend by components and molecular weights. Monodispersed fractions can be prepared. It determines molecular ...
We recently applied high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel permeation column (GP-HPLC) and an on-line dual enzymatic ... Analysis of lipoprotein profiles of healthy cats by gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography ... Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) and gel electrophoresis are conventionally used to obtain lipoprotein profiles of ...
Read independent reviews on GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument from Pickering Laboratories, Inc. on ... GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument. GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument by ... GPC Quattro gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Instrument. Manufacturer Pickering Laboratories, Inc.. Be the first to review ...
... experiments performed to optimize a standard quality-control method for protein purity evaluation using reducing capillary gel ... Liquid Chromatography (LC/HPLC)Gas Chromatography (GC)Sample PreparationMass SpectrometryPharmaceutical AnalysisEnvironmental ... and Flow-Modulation of Two-Dimensional GC-MSChromatography Advances at Virtual EAS 2020. ... GCGC-MSGeneralIndustrialLCLC-MSMedical/BiologicalMisc TechniquesPharmaceuticalsPolymersSample PrepSize-Exclusion Chromatography ...
Chromatography * Quick Overview Of Column Chromatography * Reversed-Phase Chromatography: General Introduction For Improved ... SiliaSphere - Spherical Silica Gels * SiliaSphere - for Analytical Chromatography * Bare Silica * 60 Å Bare Spherical Silica ... SiliaFlash® - Irregular Silica Gels for Chromatography. With pore diameters ranging from 30 to 300 Ångström (Å) and particle ... Our silica gels are ideal for preparative chromatography, from laboratory to pilot-plant processes and production scale. In ...
Article Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to ... Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to characterize ... Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography (GPC) were ... were found for Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and gel-permeating chromatography to ...
... enhances gel cleaning. More material is removed from the gel during column recycling, and carry over of material from one cycle ... Central Public Health Laboratory and Zain Moola This case study shows that storing an ion-exchange chromatography gel in dilute ... Storing an Ion-Exchange Chromatography Gel in Dilute Alkali During Recycling Improves Cleaning. @media screen and (max-width: ... Central Public Health Laboratory and Zain Moola This case study shows that storing an ion-exchange chromatography gel in dilute ...
Conventional capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) typically employs low microl/min flow rates with gas/ ... Conventional capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) typically employs low microl/min flow rates with gas/ ... at the low femtomole level from silver-stained gels using a new fritless electrospray interface for liquid chromatography- ... low nanogram sensitivity was attained for proteins derived from in-gel-digested silver-stained bands from 1-D and 2-D gels. ...
Thin layer chromatography silica gel is a white powder particle, the main ingredient is SiO2. It features uniform particle size ... BANGKAI Thin layer chromatography silica gel Properties: ... BANGKAI Thin Layer Chromatography Silica Gel SIO2. Payment. L/C ...
A volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides. G. BRENT IRVINE, CHRISTOPHER SHAW ... A volatile solvent for high-performance gel-permeation chromatography of polypeptides Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
... in Gel Permeation Chromatography (G. P. C.). Three possible sources of dispersion are considered; these are: the packed columns ... in Gel Permeation Chromatography (G. P. C.). Three possible sources of dispersion are considered; these are: the packed columns ...
Liquid Chromatography - The Structure of Silica Gel 3. Silica gel adsorbs relatively large quantities of water which was ...
Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography: Practice of Gel Permeation and Gel Filtration Chromatography, 2nd Edition. Skip to ... It provides an unparalleled, integrated, up-to-date treatment of gel permeation and gel filtration chromatography. With its ... The Second Edition of Modern Size-Exclusion Chromatography offers a complete guide to the theories, methods, and applications ... Practical aspects of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multidetector and multidimensional SEC technologies for polymer ...
Combining liquid chromatography with multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis for offline comprehensive analysis of complex ... "Combining Liquid Chromatography with Multiplexed Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Offline Comprehensive Analysis of Complex ... "Combining Liquid Chromatography with Multiplexed Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Offline Comprehensive Analysis of Complex ... Alvarez Porebski, P. W., & Lynen, F. (2014). Combining liquid chromatography with multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis for ...
Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Market 2018, Forecast to 2023 report by Global Info Research. Gel permeation chromatography ... 6.1.4 UK Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018). 6.1.5 France Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC ... 9.1.4 UAE Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018). 9.1.5 Egypt Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC ... 6.1.6 Russia Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018). 6.1.7 Italy Gel Permeation Chromatography ( ...
Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ... Further Characterization of the Chromatin Non-Histone Proteins by Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Two-Dimensional Gel ...
  • The research report analyses the historical as well as present performance of the worldwide Gel Permeation Chromatography industry, and makes predictions on the future status of Gel Permeation Chromatography market on the basis of this analysis. (openpr.com)
  • The report studies the industry for Gel Permeation Chromatography across the globe taking the existing industry chain, the import and export statistics in Gel Permeation Chromatography market & dynamics of demand and supply of Gel Permeation Chromatography into consideration. (openpr.com)
  • The ' Gel Permeation Chromatography ' research study covers each and every aspect of the Gel Permeation Chromatography market globally, which starts from the definition of the Gel Permeation Chromatography industry and develops towards Gel Permeation Chromatography market segmentations. (openpr.com)
  • Further, every segment of the Gel Permeation Chromatography market is classified and analysed on the basis of product types, application, and the end-use industries of the Gel Permeation Chromatography market. (openpr.com)
  • The geographical segmentation of the Gel Permeation Chromatography industry has also been covered at length in this report. (openpr.com)
  • The competitive landscape of the worldwide market for Gel Permeation Chromatography is determined by evaluating the various industry participants, production capacity, Gel Permeation Chromatography market's production chain, and the revenue generated by each manufacturer in the Gel Permeation Chromatography market worldwide. (openpr.com)
  • The global Gel Permeation Chromatography market 2017 is also analysed on the basis of product pricing, Gel Permeation Chromatography production volume, data regarding demand and Gel Permeation Chromatography supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. (openpr.com)
  • Various methodical tool of Gel Permeation Chromatography such as investment returns, feasibility, and market attractiveness analysis has been used in Gel Permeation Chromatography market research to present a comprehensive study of the industry for Gel Permeation Chromatography across the globe. (openpr.com)
  • Gel Permeation Chromatography Market Research 2018 Globel Info Research Recently added detailed market study on the "Global Gel Permeation Chromatography Market" Research Report 2018-2025 which provides an outlook of current market value of Gel Permeation Chromatography Market as well as the expected forecast of Rate on Investment (ROI) with growing CAGR of XX% in Gel Permeation Chromatography Market by the end of 2025. (openpr.com)
  • Fragmented Market to provide Opportunities for Small Players Presently, the global gel permeation chromatography market is highly fragmented and competitive owing to the presence of many established players in the market. (openpr.com)
  • In this report, the Global Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Market 2017 is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (medgadget.com)
  • The Malvern OMNISEC Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)/Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) uses multi-detection technology for characterising both proteins and polymers. (labonline.com.au)
  • Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), also known as Size Exclusion Chromatography, is a technique that employs columns to separate polymers and proteins according to their hydrodynamic volume in order to determine molecular size and weight. (industrysearch.com.au)
  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), also called planar chromatography, is an inexpensive and simple liquid chromatographic technique used to separate and identify small amounts of compound in a mixture, monitor progress of a reaction or determine purity of substance. (selectscience.net)
  • The global Gel Permeation Chromatography market 2017 is also analysed on the basis of product pricing, Gel Permeation Chromatography production volume, data regarding demand and Gel Permeation Chromatography supply, and the revenue garnered by the product. (openpr.com)
  • Gel Permeation Chromatography Market Research 2018 Globel Info Research Recently added detailed market study on the "Global Gel Permeation Chromatography Market" Research Report 2018-2025 which provides an outlook of current market value of Gel Permeation Chromatography Market as well as the expected forecast of Rate on Investment (ROI) with growing CAGR of XX% in Gel Permeation Chromatography Market by the end of 2025. (openpr.com)
  • Fragmented Market to provide Opportunities for Small Players Presently, the global gel permeation chromatography market is highly fragmented and competitive owing to the presence of many established players in the market. (openpr.com)
  • The geographical and segmentation study covered in the report ' Global Gel Permeation Chromatography Market Report By Product Type (Gel Permeation Chromatography System, Detectors, Columns, And Pumps), End-User (Pharmaceutical And Biotech Companies And Research Institutes) And By Regions - Industry Trends, Size, Share, Growth, Estimation and Forecast, 2019-2026 ' helps in understanding the upcoming trends of the market. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • Size-exclusion chromatography is a separation mode that separates the molecules by size, and falls into two types: non-aqueous GPC and aqueous GFC. (shimadzu.com.au)
  • Silica gel for the separation is used in different methods of chromatography. (column-chromatography.com)
  • Column chromatography is the ideal method of chromatography for purification and separation. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • The process of column chromatography is the oldest and the most common technique f or the separation of complex mixtures packed in a column. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • Analytical chromatography i s a simple method of chromatography with faster and cost effective separation. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • After preparative process, improving impurity profile and speed of separation use semi-preparative chromatography. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • The MCI-Gel® product line offers analytical and preparative columns for protein purification, sugars and oligosacharides separations, and separation and purification of pharmaceuticals. (biokal.com)
  • For the separation of sugars and oligosacharides MCI-Gel ® offers analytical and semi-preparative columns analogue to the industrial equivalent DIAION™ UBK-resins. (biokal.com)
  • With size exclusion chromatography, there are short and well-defined separation times and narrow bands, which lead to good sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gas chromatography (GC) is a universal separation technique applicable to complex mixtures. (ineos.com)
  • This chromatographic technique uses different mobile phases and columns to achieve the necessary separation of polar, thermally labile, non-volatile and other analytes that cannot be analyzed by gas chromatography. (ineos.com)
  • For industrial applications, immobilization of the enzyme in gel or solid supports may offer several advantages such as repeated use of the enzyme, ease of product separation and improvement of enzyme stability [ 5 , 6 ]. (ispub.com)
  • Clean-up gel permeation chromatography technique is majorly used in laboratories as an analytical tool, which involves the separation of molecules to measure the distribution within the solution referred to as the molecular size by using hydrodynamic volume. (factmr.com)
  • This separation is achieved by technique known as clean-up gel permeation chromatography. (factmr.com)
  • Clean-up gel permeation chromatography is the process of separation using mobile phase as organic solvent based on molecular size and is of importance for determining the quality of the sample and identifying and separation the contaminants from the sample. (factmr.com)
  • Clean-up gel permeation chromatography is signification than other separation techniques because of its ability to isolate contaminants from high molecular weight interferences. (factmr.com)
  • Conventional capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) typically employs low microl/min flow rates with gas/liquid sheath to enhance spray stability. (nih.gov)
  • For analysis of proteins/peptides in solution, low femtomole sensitivity has been achieved (attomoles for selected-ion monitoring), while low nanogram sensitivity was attained for proteins derived from in-gel-digested silver-stained bands from 1-D and 2-D gels. (nih.gov)
  • We are developing large scale process chromatography for improving purity in various biologics such as proteins, virus, vitamins, hormones, anti-bodies. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • Gel-filtration analysis with antibodies against CSN subunits 4, 5 and 7 revealed that these proteins act as a complex in Drosophila that is similar in size to the plant and mammalian complexes. (biologists.org)
  • When an appropriate gel filtration resin is used, many different classes of macromolecules can be separated from buffer salts, unconjugated labeling reagents and other molecules to achieve rapid purification before downstream applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Patient serum (30 [micro]L) was injected into a Waters 650E advanced protein purification system (Millipore) and subjected to high-pressure gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • subu1iformis, was pure and homogenic after ethanol fractionation and purification by gel permeation chromatography (Fig. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An alkaline protease was produced and partially purified from a new strain of Aspergillus oryzae by using two chromatographies i.e. ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielding an active major protein peak with ~29.29 purification fold. (ispub.com)
  • As a highly selective adsorbent, Florisil is frequently employed in many areas of preparative and analytical chromatography. (rosesci.com)
  • By comparison the SOLAS™ MonoDense™ particles are monodense and contain a homogeneous pore structure which allows for the efficient transfer of analytes into and out of the silica pore structure, thereby leading to more efficient and effective chromatography. (glantreo.com)
  • The chromatography column is packed with fine, porous beads which are composed of dextran polymers (Sephadex), agarose (Sepharose), or polyacrylamide (Sephacryl or BioGel P). The pore sizes of these beads are used to estimate the dimensions of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • other gels with size fractionation properties include agarose and polyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • We extracted protein isoforms from polyacrylamide gels by passive elution using SDS, followed by nanoscale hydrophilic phase chromatography for SDS removal. (mcponline.org)
  • The high surface area of the coating, characteristic of materials fabricated by the sol-gel process, resulted in capillary columns with a stronger retention than those prepared by a conventional procedure. (springer.com)
  • Column set: Jordi Gel fluorinated DVB columns (1-100K, 2-10K & 1-500Å). (uconn.edu)
  • DAI's bulk silica gels are used for low pressure and high pressure columns. (dynamicadsorbents.com)
  • Our recycling program will allow you to consolidate your LC column recycling and not to worry about what to do with old chromatography columns. (helixchrom.com)
  • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation serves the chromatography market since many years with MCI-Gel® Polymeric Columns and Resins. (biokal.com)
  • Size exclusion chromatography columns and resins (SEC) 7,5mm ID x600mm columns. (biokal.com)
  • Hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns and resins (HIC) with Phenyl, Butyl, or Ether as functional group. (biokal.com)
  • MCI-Gel ® offers a range of analytical, preparative and production scale polymeric resins and columns for reversed phase chromatography. (biokal.com)
  • Size exclusion chromatography applications for separating macromolecules based on subtle differences in size typically use resins with large and varied pore sizes in long chromatography columns. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of common formats for performing gel filtration for smaller (less than 4mL) volumes: Chromatography columns Gravity-flow columns Chromatography cartridges Centrifuge columns Centrifuge plates Gravity-flow, or drip, columns use head-pressure from a buffer-chase to push the sample through the gel filtration matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sealed chromatography cartridges or columns work similarly except the sample and buffer is pumped into and through the resin by an external device such as a liquid chromatographic (LC) system, also requiring collection and monitoring of several fractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it was not until 1964, when J. C. Moore of the Dow Chemical Company published his work on the preparation of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) columns based on cross-linked polystyrene with controlled pore size, that a rapid increase of research activity in this field began. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coating was used as the stationary phase for reversed-phase open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC). (springer.com)
  • The sol-gel process facilitated the fabrication of a porous silica glass layer with the stationary phase in one single step. (springer.com)
  • Gel filtration separates molecules of different dimensions based on their relative abilities to penetrate into a suitable stationary phase or chromatographic resin. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is a technique in which the stationary phase is solid adsorbents like silica gel and activated alumina powder and the mobile phase is a liquid. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • Chromatography is a technology by which a mixture of chemicals are separated by its components between two phases like stationary phase which is remain fixed in placed using two adsorbents such as silica gel and activated alumina, while as mobile phase is another method which is slowly movable and flows down through the column by either gravitational forces or external pressure into the column. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • The shape and size of the compound (eluent) determine how the compound interacts with the gel (stationary phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of these different techniques and combination with the elution pattern of the gel permeation material revealed some valuable structural information. (ajevonline.org)
  • As this isn't a "dumb" elution by time (as in size exclusion chromatography) but an elution with Imidazole in which I can determine the exact amount to add to specifically elute my protein of interest empirically, so the resolution should be the same no matter the bead size. (protocol-online.org)
  • This form of chromatography works by air pressure driving the mixture, which is to be separated down the vertical glass column. (buzzfeed.com)
  • Finally, in contrast to dialysis, gel filtration chromatography allows the contaminating material to be removed in a relatively small volume (and left on the column), an important feature when working with toxic or radioactive substances. (thermofisher.com)
  • When a sample solution is passed through a column of packed gel filtration resin, small molecules in the sample (buffer salts, small molecules, etc.) enter the pores of resin beads that they encounter and are forced to follow a circuitous path before later exiting the beads. (thermofisher.com)
  • For column chromatography. (fishersci.com)
  • More material is removed from the gel during column recycling, and carry over of material from one cycle to the next is substantially reduced. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Silica gel column chromatography depends on the activity of the silica gel as an adsorbent and polarity of the mixture. (column-chromatography.com)
  • This protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified on a Ni 2+ -NTA-agarose column (Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA), followed by proteolysis with GST-TEV and subsequent collection of the flow-through from two sequential chromatography steps, the first over a Ni 2+ -NTA-agarose column and the second over a glutathione-agarose column. (pnas.org)
  • Dynamic Adsorbents, Inc. distributes high quality silica gels for column chromatography and/or TLC with the lowest everyday price to many research institutions, pharmaceutical companies, and organic synthesis labs. (dynamicadsorbents.com)
  • Silica gel is an ideal media for column chromatography for several different reasons. (dynamicadsorbents.com)
  • For gel filtration applications it is important to select a column size and format that is suitable for your sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, when an aqueous solution is used to transport the sample through the column, the technique is known as gel-filtration chromatography, versus the name gel permeation chromatography, which is used when an organic solvent is used as a mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aug 20, 1975 · The gel column chromatographic behaviour of 23 steroid oestrogens in the system developed for these investigations and tile application of this method for the determination of radio- chemical purity is described in this paper. (kelloggchurch.org)
  • Technavio's analysts forecast the Global Gel Permeation Chromatography Devices Market to grow at a CAGR of 6.63% during the period 2018-2022. (marketresearch.com)
  • The adsorbents Spherosil 10, Silarex II and Partisil 10 were used to demonstrate the basic chromatographic differences between the three groups of silica gels. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Dynamic Adsorbents' silica gels are carefully manufactured and quality assured to provide the ideal laboratory and pilot process chromatographic material. (dynamicadsorbents.com)
  • Sorbent Technologies™ offers a complete selection of silica gel products designed to perform simple to complex analytical and preparative chromatographic techniques for laboratory, pilot, and industrial process applications. (sorbtech.com)
  • Technavio's report, gel permeation chromatography devices market 2018-2022, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (marketresearch.com)
  • CMI released a new market study on 2018-2026 Gel Permeation Chromatography Market with 100+ market data Tables, Pie Chat, Graphs & Figures spread through Pages and easy to understand detailed analysis. (coherentnews.com)
  • To comprehend 2018-2026 Gel Permeation Chromatography Market dynamics in the world mainly, the worldwide 2018-2026 Gel Permeation Chromatography Market is analyzed across major global regions. (coherentnews.com)
  • Clean-up gel permeation chromatography is used as a sample clean-up process used prior to analysis as the sample purity. (factmr.com)