Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DEAE-Dextran: Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.DEAE-Cellulose: Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gluconacetobacter xylinus: A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.PolysaccharidesXylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Glycoside HydrolasesMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.DextrinsChemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)SepharoseOligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.PaperDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.TetrosesHydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 catalyzes a Bamberger rearrangement. (1/2418)

3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement.  (+info)

Separation and properties of two acetylacetoin reductases from Bacillus cereus YUF-4. (2/2418)

The separation and purification of two kinds of acetylacetoin reductases (AACRs) from Bacillus cereus YUF-4 were examined. NADPH-linked AACR (AACR I) and NADH-linked AACR (AACR II) were separated from each other by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The former was purified 3.4-fold with a yield of 10.0%, and the latter was purified 29-fold with a yield of 15.6%. The two enzymes differ from each other in some enzymic properties such as substrate specificity.  (+info)

Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. (3/2418)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 4.4.1.14] and ACC deaminase [EC 4.1.99.4], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of phosphoglycerate mutase from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AM1. (4/2418)

Phosphoglycerate mutase has been purified from methanol-grown Hyphomicrobium X and Pseudomonas AMI by acid precipitation, heat treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The purification attained using the Hyphomicrobium X extract was 72-fold, and using the Pseudomonas AMI extract, 140-fold. The enzyme purity, as shown by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 50% from Hyphomicrobium X and 40% from Pseudomonas AMI. The enzyme activity was associated with one band. The purified preparations did not contain detectable amounts of phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphopyruvate hydratase, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase or glycerate kinase activity. The molecular weight of the enzymic preparation was 32000 +/- 3000. The enzyme from both organisms was stable at low temperatures and, in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, could withstand exposure to high temperatures. The enzyme from Pseudomonas AMI has a broad pH optimum at 7-0 to 7-6 whilst the enzyme from Hyphomicrobium X has an optimal activity at pH 7-3. The cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid was required for maximum enzyme activity and high concentrations of 2-phosphoglyceric acid were inhibitory. The Km values for the Hyphomicrobium X enzyme were: 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-0 X 10(-3) M: 2-phosphoglyceric acid, 6-9 X 10(-4) M; 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, 8-0 X 10(-6) M; and for the Pseudomonas AMI ENzyme: 3-4 X 10(-3) M, 3-7 X 10(-4) M and 10 X 10(-6) M respectively. The equilibrium constant for the reaction was 11-3 +/- 2-5 in the direction of 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid and 0-09 +/- 0-02 in the reverse direction. The standard free energy for the reaction proceeding from 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 3-phosphoglyceric acid was -5-84 kJ mol(-1) and in the reverse direction +5-81 kJ mol(-1).  (+info)

The complete amino acid sequence of dog beta2-microglobulin. (5/2418)

Dog beta2-microglobulin was purified from the urine of dogs with potassium dichromate induced tubular damage. It was purified by sequential use of anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence of the dog protein with human, mouse, and rabbit beta2-microglobulin, indicated a high degree of similarity. The dog protein was very similar to human beta2-microglobulin in that it had a molecular weight of 11.8 kDa and contained two half-cystinyl residues. Dog and human beta2-microglobulin were demonstrably different at 24 of the 99 positions compared. The data supported the conclusion that the purified protein was dog beta2-microglobulin and that all four proteins from dog, human, mouse, and rabbit were closely related.  (+info)

Polar lipids of four Listeria species containing L-lysylcardiolipin, a novel lipid structure, and other unique phospholipids. (6/2418)

The membrane lipids of Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri were fractionated on DEAE-cellulose and purified by chromatography on silica gel and/or preparative TLC. The lipid structures were elucidated by chemical and chromatographic means. The polar lipid composition of the four listeria species was similar. Phospholipids predominated. They consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, L-lysylphosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin [bis(phosphatidyl)glycerol] and L-lysylcardiolipin. A phospholipid more polar than cardiolipin, possibly two L-lysyl derivatives of it, sn-glycero-1-phosphoglycolipid, its D-alanyl derivative, and polyprenol phosphate were also detected. Towards the end of exponential growth, the relative amounts of cardiolipin and L-lysylcardiolipin increased, approaching 47-78% lipid phosphorus with a ratio of L-lysylcardiolipin to cardiolipin of 0.25-1.6. As shown by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, cardiolipin and L-lysylcardiolipin consisted of five molecular species due to various fatty acid combinations. L-lysylcardiolipin has so far not been found in nature. It belongs to the recently discovered class of substituted cardiolipins. Its occurrence in the four listeria species tested shows that it is a characteristic lipid component of the L. monocytogenes line of descent. Further studies on the lipid pattern of members of the other descent line are required to decide whether lysylcardiolipin can serve as a genus-specific chemotaxonomic marker for listeriae.  (+info)

Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression of GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase from mung beans. (7/2418)

Substitution of the asparagine-linked GlcNAc by alpha1,3-linked fucose is a widespread feature of plant as well as of insect glycoproteins, which renders the N-glycan immunogenic. We have purified from mung bean seedlings the GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase (core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase) that is responsible for the synthesis of this linkage. The major isoform had an apparent mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric points ranging from 6. 8 to 8.2. From that protein, four tryptic peptides were isolated and sequenced. Based on an approach involving reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase cDNA was cloned from mung bean mRNA. The 2200-base pair cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1530 base pairs that encoded a 510-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 56.8 kDa. Analysis of cDNA derived from genomic DNA revealed the presence of three introns within the open reading frame. Remarkably, from the four exons, only exon II exhibited significant homology to animal and bacterial alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases which, though, are responsible for the biosynthesis of Lewis determinants. The recombinant fucosyltransferase was expressed in Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus vector. The enzyme acted on glycopeptides having the glycan structures GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6 )Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1 -4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn but not on, e.g. N-acetyllactosamine. The structure of the core alpha1,3-fucosylated product was verified by high performance liquid chromatography of the pyridylaminated glycan and by its insensitivity to N-glycosidase F as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.  (+info)

Steroid monooxygenase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous: sequencing of the genomic DNA, and hyperexpression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. (8/2418)

Steroid monooxygenase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous is a Baeyer-Villigerase catalyzing the insertion of an oxygen atom between the C(17)- and C(20)-carbons of progesterone to produce testosterone acetate. The 5.1-kbp-long BamHI DNA fragment containing the steroid monooxygenase gene, smo, was cloned from the chromosomal DNA and sequenced. The smo gene is 1,650 nucleotides long, starts with a TTG codon, and ends with a TGA codon. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that the enzyme protein consist of 549 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 60,133. Thus, the molecular mass of the holoenzyme is 60,919. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous (41.2% identity) to that of cyclohexanone monooxygenase of Acinetobacter sp. In the upstream of the smo gene, the genes of heat shock proteins, dnaK, grpE, and dnaJ, located on the complementary strand, and the DNA-inserts of pSMO and pD1, which contains the ksdD gene, were joined at the BamHI site of the dnaJ gene. The smo gene was modified at the initiation codon to ATG and ligated with an expression vector to construct a plasmid, pSMO-EX, and introduced into Escherichia coli cells. The transformed cells hyperexpressed the steroid monooxygenase as an active and soluble protein at more than 40 times the level in R. rhodochrous cells. Purification of the recombinant monooxygenase from the E. coli cells by simplified procedures yielded about 2.3 mg of enzyme protein/g wet cells. The purified recombinant steroid monooxygenase exhibited indistinguishable molecular and catalytic properties from those of the R. rhodochrous enzyme.  (+info)

The effect of low dose heparin therapy on fibrinogen survival in patients with cirrhosis was studied in six patients. Survival of 1-125 radiolabeled fibrinogen was measured using both autologous and homologous material. Average fibrinogen half-life before heparin therapy was 52 hours and after 3000 units of intravenous heparin every 6 hours was 101.8 hours. Median survival before heparin therapy was 56 hours and after therapy was 91 hours. In every instance fibrinogen survival was improved by heparin administration. These data indicate that low dose heparin improves fibrinogen survival in cirrhosis and suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a primary process in the defibrination syndrome associated with cirrhosis. ...
15-3 Cap Structure Purified cap by DEAE chromatography; digested with enzymes to figure structure  -phosphate of NTP remains only in first nucleotide in RNA -Cap is 5-terminus of RNA -Cap is m 7 G, 7- methylguanosine, -Linkage is triphosphate -Charge on cap area is ~ -5 Fig. 1 vaccinia virus 3H methyl from S-AdoMet; 32P-GTP label RNA); KOH to digest RNA Fig. 2 shows me7-G
Methods:Purification included: extraction of the enzyme, the precipitation of the enzyme by ammonium sulphate, dialysis, ionic exchange chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose (Diethylaminoethyl-Cellulose), and gel filtration by using Sephacryl S-200. Equal amounts of purified lipase solution were mixed with PBS (Phosphate buffer sodium) solutions of different pH (4,5,... until 10) and incubated in a water bath at 37 oC for 30 minutes, then the lipase activity was estimated. The purified lipase was incubated at different degrees of temperature (5, 15, ...until 85 oC) for 30 minutes. The molecular weight was determined by gel filtration chromatography ...
Chondrex provides various types and species of collagen for general use such as for immunizing animals, tissue engineering, cell culture, and antibody assays. These collagen products are highly purified by repetitive salt precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography to remove contaminants such as proteoglycans and pepsin, which are more antigenic than collagen.. Immunization Grade Type I Collagen. ...
Soluble extracts prepared from bovine thymus contain an angiotensin-I-phosphorylating activity that is activated several-fold by high concentrations of NaCl. Fractionation of this protein-tyrosine kinase activity by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose yields a major diffuse peak of activity. The enzymes responsible for this activity are found at much higher levels in extracts from bovine thymus than from bovine spleen. The peak of activity from the DEAE-cellulose column can be further separated into two major peaks by chromatography on heparin-agarose. The second peak to elute from the heparin-agarose column was previously purified through several chromatographic steps to yield a 40 kDa protein-tyrosine kinase (p40). We have now partially purified the early-eluting peak of kinase activity by chromatography on columns of butyl-agarose, protamine-agarose and Sephacryl S200. The enzyme was identified following covalent modification with 5′-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA) by reactivity with ...
1. Monoamine oxidase from rat and human liver was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. The enzyme activity was extracted from mitochondrial preparations by Triton X-100. The enzyme was purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Sepharose 6B, spheroidal hydroxyapatite, and finally chromatography on diazo-coupled tyramine-Sepharose. 3. Distinct differences occur in the chromatographic behaviour of the two enzymes on both DEAE-cellulose and spheroidal hydroxyapatite. 4. It is unlikely that the purification of the enzymes on tyramine-Sepharose is due to affinity chromatography and reasons for this are discussed. 5. The purified enzymes did not oxidize-5-hydroxytryptamine and the relative activities of the enzymes with benzylamine were increased approx. 1.25-fold compared with the enzyme activities of mitochondrial preparations. 6. Immunotitration of enzyme activity in ...
Exopolysaccharide of Lachnum YM130 (LEP) was purified by diethylaminoethyl cellulose 52 and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 1.31 × 106 Da, which was consisted of mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3.8:1.0. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by methylation analysis, FT-IR analysis, and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a galactomannan with a backbone, composed of 1,2-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,2,6-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,3,4-linked-α-D-Manp, and 1,3-linked-β-D-Galp, which was substituted at O-2, O-3, O-4, and O-6 by branches ...
65647-14-5 - DUKOQRXNBYNJED-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 5H-1,4-Benzodiazepin-5-one, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-1-phenyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. 14-3-3 proteins have the ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signaling proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and transmembrane receptors. More than 200 signaling proteins have been reported as 14-3-3 ligands. The name 14-3-3 refers to the particular elution and migration pattern of these proteins on DEAE-cellulose chromatography and starch-gel electrophoresis. The 14-3-3 proteins eluted in the 14th fraction of bovine brain homogenate and were found on positions 3.3 of subsequent electrophoresis by Moore and Perez (1967). Elevated amounts of 14-3-3 proteins are found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. There are seven genes that encode seven distinct 14-3-3 proteins in most mammals (See Human genes below) and 13-15 genes in many higher plants, though typically in fungi they are present only in pairs. Protists have at least one. ...
Guanine deaminase Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Guanine deaminase Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Hordeum vulgare CAB-3 protein: from barley; chlorophyl a-b-binding protein of the light-harvesting complex II; amino acid sequence given in first source
Werner, C.G., Godrey, V., Arnold, R.R., Featherstone, G.L., Bender, D., Schlossmann, Jens, Schiemann, M., Hofmann, F. and Pryzwansky, K.B. (2005) Neutrophil dysfunction in guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase I-deficient mice. Journal of Immunology 175, pp. 1919-1929 ...
1-(2-Diethylaminoethyl)-2-methyl-3-(2-methylphenyl)-2H-quinazolin-4-one;oxalic acid/ACM34963489 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Whatman 3MM Chr paper is the worlds most widely used blotting paper. This acceptance and usage reflect the high quality, purity, and consistency that are relied upon by researchers doing Southern, Northern, and Western transfers. 3MM Chr paper is now available in the most widely used sizes. A medium thickness paper (0.34 mm) is used extensively in electrophoresis for lifting of sequencing gels.. Read more ...
The immunoglobulin having reaginic activity was purified from sera of ragweed sensitive patients by salt precipitation, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose column chromatography, gel filtration and DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The γG- and γA-globulins remaining in the purified samples were absorbed with rabbit anti-γG- and anti-γA-antibodies which had been precipitated with goat antibody against rabbit γ-globulin. On a weight basis, reaginic activity of the final preparation was about 1000 times more active than the original sera and the most active fraction gave positive P-K reactions at a dilution of 1:80,000. Human serum proteins detected in the preparation were γE- and γD-globulins. The antibody against antigen E was detected in γE-globulin but not in other immunoglobulins. It was also found that the reaginic activity and γE-antibody in the preparations were precipitated by anti-γE-antibody. The results indicate that reaginic activity is associated with γE-globulin. ...
GE Healthcare HiTrap™ DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow IEX Columns Prepacked w/DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, weak anion; 5 x 1mL GE Healthcare HiTrap™ DEAE...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Global Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market to grow at a CAGR of 4.96% during the period 2016-2020. Ion-exchange chromatography is a separation process that utilizes the charge of the medium and desired particle. This process can be used for almost any kind of charged molecules ranging from large proteins to small nucleotides and amino acids.. Browse more detail information about Ion-Exchange Chromatography Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-ion-exchange-chromatography-market-2016-2020-10351019. Scope of the reports: -. The report provides a basic overview of the Ion-Exchange Chromatography including definitions, classifications, ...
Cell extracts, in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), catalyzed the conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol with dimethylsulfide as a product. The isomerization reaction would also proceed if 1,2,3,5-benzenetetrol was present rather than DMSO. To quantitate this activity, an assay was developed that followed the disappearance of 1,2,4-benzenetriol colorimetrically after incubation with sodium molybdate at neutral pH. The products of this reaction are resorcinol and 1,6-dihydroxyquinone. The enzyme(s) catalyzing this reaction was purified 5-fold from cells grown on gallate. The purification procedure involved fractionation with 40% acetone, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, concentration by ultrafiltration (molecular weight retention above 100,000), and hydroxylapatite chromatography. This preparation had a specific activity of 14.7 umol/min/mg protein and a pH optimum about 7.5. Activity was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. The mechanism ...
Abstract: In presence of adenosine (10(-7)-10(-6) M) content of nuclear 3H-hydrocortisone-receptor complexes was increased in rat thymus lymphocytes, while amount of these complexes was decreased in cytosol of these cells. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the 3H-hydrocortisone-receptor complexes demonstrated that adenosine 1.10(-6) M altered the ratio between active and non-active forms of the hormone-receptor complex. Adenosine appears to regulate transformation and translocation of the glucocorticoid-receptor complexes into the cell-target nuclei cAMP-dependent apparatus ...
CAB-171-15NF can be used as coating material as the semi-permeable membrane for osmotic drug delivery. It has the lowest utyryl conent in the Cellulose Acetate Butyrate series.
Whatman™ Grade 1 Chr Cellulose Chromatography Paper Type: roll; L x W: 328 ft. x 0.39 in. (100m x 10mm) Whatman™ Grade 1 Chr Cellulose...
소각 X 선 산란 (SAXS)에 의한 단백질의 용액 구조의 결정은 단 분산 샘플을 필요로한다. 여기에서는, 샘플 준비 및 데이터 수집 간의 최소 지연을 보장하기 위해 두 가지 가능성을 제시 : 온라인 크기 배제 크로마토 그래피 (SEC) 및 ...
Bestemmelsen af ​​opløsningen struktur af et protein ved lille vinkel røntgenspredning (SAXS) kræver monodisperse prøver. Her...
전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
전화: 031-970-8747 팩스: 031-970-8757 주소: 10237 경기도 고양시 일산서구 덕이로 30-26 (덕이동) 양우씨네플렉스 3G-108호 ...
Лаборатория биомолекулярной ЯМР-спектроскопии: ЯМР, ЯМР спектроскопия, мембранные и мембрано-активные белки и пептиды, ионные каналы, G-белок сопряжённые рецепторы, спираль-спиральные взаимодействия, мембрано-моделирующие среды
Rats were immunized with crude Ascaris extracts together with Bordetella pertussis organisms and the homocytotropic antibody titers were estimated by homologous PCA. Rats injected with 1 mg of crude extract produced homocytotropic antibodies giving and average PCA titer of 1:80. A second injection of 100 µg of the extract given 6 days later, without B. pertussis vaccine, caused a considerable increase in the PCA titer. The crude extract was fractionated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and the fractions were tested in P-K type reactions. The homocytotropic antibodies produced in rats immunized with the crude extract demonstrated a tendency to react with the fractions displaying a negative charge at pH 8.. The capacity of rats to produce Hc antibodies to part of the antigenic components present in the crude extract but not against others was demonstrated when rats were immunized separately with isolated fractions.. ...
ಈ ಪುಟವನ್ನು ೧೫ ಸೆಪ್ಟೆಂಬರ್ ೨೦೧೩, ೨೦:೧೯ ರಂದು ಕೊನೆಯಾಗಿ ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ...
We investigated the expression of the alpha- and beta-subunits of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase in the BV-2 microglial cell line under different culture conditions. Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from BV-2 microglia cells was separated into its constituent isoenzymes on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose, and its activity was monitored with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphate substrates. Forms corresponding to the mouse isoenzymes A and B were present in the cells incubated in serum-supplemented medium as well as in serum-free medium. Lipopolysaccharide, a well-known activator of microglia in vitro, added to the BV-2 cells in serum-supplemented medium induced a decrease in the specific enzymatic activity determined with the 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine substrate. Lipopolysaccharide had no effect on hexosaminidase isoenzyme pattern of BV-2 cells in serum-supplemented medium. The level of ...
Moen, Line Victoria; Ramberg, Håkon Andre; Zhao, Sen; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Sveen, Anita; Berge, Viktor; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Tasken, Kristin Austlid & Skålhegg, Bjørn Steen (2017). Observed correlation between the expression levels of catalytic subunit, C?2, of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and prostate cancer aggressiveness. Urologic Oncology. ISSN 1078-1439. 35(3), s 111.e1- 111.e8 . doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.10.002 Vis sammendrag Background As an intracellular human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is facing multiple stressful stimuli inside the macrophage and the granuloma. Understanding Mtb responses to stress is essential to identify new virulence factors and pathways that play a role in the survival of the tubercle bacillus. The main goal of this study was to map the regulatory networks of differentially expressed (DE) transcripts in Mtb upon various forms of genotoxic stress. We exposed Mtb cells to oxidative (H2O2 or paraquat), nitrosative ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
DEAE can be used as a precursor for DEAE-cellulose resin, which is commonly used in ion exchange chromatography. DEAE can also ... "Experiments and model for the surface tension of DEAE-PZ and DEAE-MEA aqueous solutions". The Journal of Chemical ... Diethylethanolamine (DEAE) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H15NO. It is used as a precursor in the ...
... which shows a 7.5-fold increases in its activity after DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme-activity was inhibited ... 1990) with the help of membrane ultra filtration and C-75 gel chromatography. He purified enzyme with 70-fold increased ...
Alkaline phosphatase from E. coli can be purified using a DEAE-Cellulose matrix. A. phosphatase has a slight negative charge, ... Weak affinity chromatography[edit]. Weak affinity chromatography[28] (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity ... Boronate affinity chromatography[edit]. Boronate affinity chromatography consists of using boronic acid or boronates to elute ... Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ...
The name 14-3-3 refers to the particular elution and migration pattern of these proteins on DEAE-cellulose chromatography and ...
DEAE is an anion exchange matrix that is produced from a positive side group of diethylaminoethyl bound to cellulose or ... Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ...
DEAE is an anion exchange matrix that is produced from a positive side group of diethylaminoethyl bound to cellulose or ... Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based ... This type of chromatography is further subdivided into cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ...
DEAE-Sepharose, DEAE-650 and DEAE-Sephadex are commonly used in chromatography. DEAE-C is a weak anion exchanger. This exchange ... Diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-C) is a positively charged resin used in ion-exchange chromatography, a type of column ... DEAE-C beads have diethylaminoethyl chains covalently bound to oxygen atoms on the D-glucose subunits of cellulose. Size- ... DEAE-C is commonly commercially available as DE52 and DE53. These resins are prepared preswollen although cellulose exchangers ...
Its largest application is for the conversion of cellulose to cellulose acetate, which is a component of photographic film and ... Because of its use for the synthesis of heroin by the diacetylation of morphine, acetic anhydride is listed as a U.S. DEA List ... Taber, Douglass F., Column chromatography: Preparation of Acetyl Ferrocene, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, ... when the demand for acetic anhydride increased due to the production of cellulose acetate. ...
Using chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose, we measured biliary alkaline phosphatase (BALP; EC 3.1.3.1) ... Biliary alkaline phosphatase measured by mini-column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose: application to detection of ... Biliary alkaline phosphatase measured by mini-column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose: application to detection of ... Biliary alkaline phosphatase measured by mini-column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose: application to detection of ...
2.5.2. DEAE-Cellulose Column Chromatography. The pooled and concentrated fractions after molecular sieving through G-100 were ... Further purification was done by molecular sieving and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. 2.5.1. Molecular Sieving. Purification of ... Figure 2: Elution pattern of sperm immobilization factor from E. coli on DEAE cellulose column. ... These fractions were pooled, concentrated and applied to DEAE cellulose column. The results indicated that most of the SIF ...
B: Second DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. After loading, the 5-ml column was washed with 30 ml of 25 mmol/l Tris-acetate ... A: First DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. After sample loading, the 15-ml column was washed with 75 ml of binding buffer. ... The supernatant was passed through 0.4-μm filters and then chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose (DE-52, Whatman, 15-ml bed) ... and again chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose (5-ml column). KHK was eluted with a linear gradient of 25-200 mmol/l Tris-acetate ...
... including nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) and lignin, have shown potential as scaffolds for targeted drug delivery syste... ... Chromatography, Deae-cellulose. A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a ... Cellulose Sulfate (CS) Gel and HIV in Nigeria. This is a Phase 3, multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to ... Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species ...
Isocitrate lyase was isolated and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Toyopearl HW-65 ...
Chromatography, Affinity * Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose * Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid * Chromosome Mapping * Cloning ...
Isolation of four soybean trypsin inhibitors by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 15: 230-235. ... Chromatography of soybean whey proteins on diethylaminoethylcellulose. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81: 6265-6270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
A, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose open column. B, hydroxyapatite chromatography CHT5 column, FPLC. C, gel ... DEAE-cellulose (5 nmol/min); lane 5, hydroxyapatite (41 nmol/min); lane 6, gel filtration (82 nmol/min); lane 7, Mono Q ... D, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q 5/50 GL column, FPLC. Fractions were tested for lysoplasmalogenase activity (black ... experiment in which microsomes from seven rat livers were solubilized and purified using these four column chromatography steps ...
Alkaline phosphatase from E. coli can be purified using a DEAE-Cellulose matrix. A. phosphatase has a slight negative charge, ... Weak affinity chromatography[edit]. Weak affinity chromatography[28] (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity ... Boronate affinity chromatography[edit]. Boronate affinity chromatography consists of using boronic acid or boronates to elute ... Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ...
Purification of sea urchin sperm bindin by DEAE-cellulose chromatography VACQUIER V. D. ...
Products and reactants were isolated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and peaks were identified by TLC. Enzymatic ...
... phenol extraction followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Amino-acid specific tRNA, for example tRNAfMet, can be isolated ... reverse-phase chromatography, affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. These techniques are very useful for ... The resulting mixture was applied to a DEAE-cellulose column (1 ml), equilibrated with 50 mM NaOAc, pH 4.5, 10 mM MgCl2, at 4 C ... high-pressure or fast-pressure liquid chromatography, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, chemical extraction ...
Anion exchange chromatography on DEAE -Cellulose. The supernatant was diluted 10x with distilled water and loaded on a DEAE- ... anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; filtration on Sephacryl S200; anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose FF ... C) Chromatography of rTPL on Sephadex G100; the column was equilibrated in buffer B and the flow rate was 25 ml/h. The pooled ... A) Chromatography of rTPL on Sephacryl S200; the column (2.5 × 150 cm) was equilibrated with 25 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.2, ...
AFGPs were purified from B. saida and D. mawsoni plasma by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography (8). Purified AFGPs were ...
The antibody was dialyzed against phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) and purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. ... HbA1c was measured by an HPLC cation-exchange chromatography system (HA-8,121; Kyoto Daiichi, Kyoto, Japan). The intra-assay ... Cai J, Hurst HE: Identification and quantitation of N-(carboxymethyl)valine adduct in hemoglobin by gas chromatography/mass ... CMV-Hb-in circulating erythrocytes by gas chromatography. Our results for the CMV-Hb value of healthy subjects were similar to ...
The enzyme was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Thepurity of the protein was checked by ... high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The purified enzyme of molecularweight ~95 kDa exhibited specific activity of ...
The protein was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography by using a DEAE-cellulose column. ...
The sample obtained after absorption process was separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (the column 1.5 ... The peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory properties were separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. ... For the purification of ACE inhibitory peptides, potentially bioavailable ion exchange chromatography with DEAE-cellulose and ... Figure 1: Purification of ACE inhibitory peptides from pea globulins hydrolysates separation on DEAE-cellulose (a) and F8 ...
DEAE is an anion exchange matrix that is produced from a positive side group of diethylaminoethyl bound to cellulose or ... Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ...
The eluted antigens were separated from each other by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. On polyacrylamide gel ...
The flow through fraction was further enriched for IgM by chromatography over DEAE-cellulose (Sigma). The IgM-containing ... Each of the IgM preparations was purified by affinity chromatography over an Affi-Gel 10 Gel (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) column ... fraction was then purified by affinity chromatography for Abs specific either for peptide PS1CT3 or, as required, its analogues ... for the amino-terminal segment vs those directed against the remainder of the sequence by sequential affinity chromatography. ...
HEA was adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, and eluted with 300 mM NaCl and 50 mM NaCl, respectively. It was ... b) Ion exchange chromatography of D3 on a CM-cellulose column (. ). Arrows indicate elution of the column stepwise with 50 mM, ... Hemagglitinating activity in the fruiting body extract was adsorbed successively on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q- ... The crude extract was then applied to a column of DEAE-cellulose column (Sigma, ) which had been previously equilibrated with ...
DEAE cellulose chromatography showed 4 peaks in 17, 20, 26 and 30 fractions as given in Fig. 1. Among these, the 7 th fraction ... using DEAE column chromatography. . Minimal Ca2+ concentration required for the haemagglutination activity was 0.25M. Muscle ... extract was applied to the DEAE cellulose column. Protein was eluted by stepwise gradient buffer elution using different ... Figure 1: Purification of muscle proteins using DEAE ion exchange column chromatography. ...
CHROMATOGRAPHY. Hb X was isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. STRUCTURE STUDIES. The tryptic peptides were separated by ... Hb X moves slower than Hb S at alkaline pH (cellulose acetate). ...
CHROMATOGRAPHY. Hb X was isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. STRUCTURE STUDIES. Tryptic digestion; fingerprinting; amino ...
  • To ensure that the resin is protonated and positively charge, the chromatography should be performed at least 2 pH units below the pKa of the amine group, 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • All Cellufine MAX IEX media are based on 90 μm (average) highly cross-linked cellulose beads, which are surface-modified with dextran. (amsbio.com)