Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Indicators and Reagents
Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Reproducibility of Results
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sensitivity and Specificity
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Rats, Inbred Strains
Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Limit of Detection
Solid Phase Extraction
Anion Exchange Resins
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Globular domains of agrin are functional units that collaborate to induce acetylcholine receptor clustering. (1/422)Agrin, an extracellular matrix protein involved in neuromuscular junction formation, directs clustering of postsynaptic molecules, including acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This activity resides entirely in the C-terminal portion of the protein, which consists of three laminin-like globular domains (G-domains: G1, G2 and G3) and four EGF-like repeats. Additionally, alternate mRNA splicing yields G-domain variants G2(0,4) with 0- or 4-amino-acid inserts, and G3(0, 8,11,19) with 0-, 8-, 11- or 19-amino-acid inserts. In order to better understand the contributions of individual domains and alternate splicing to agrin activity, single G-domains and covalently linked pairs of G-domains were expressed as soluble proteins and their AChR clustering activity measured on cultured C2 myotubes. These analyses reveal the following: (1) While only G3(8) exhibits detectable activity by itself, all G-domains studied (G1, G2(0), G2(4), G3(0) and G3(8)) enhance G3(8) activity when physically linked to G3(8). This effect is most pronounced when G2(4) is linked to G3(8) and is independent of the order of the G-domains. (2) The deletion of EGF-like repeats enhances activity. (3) Increasing the physical separation between linked G1 and G3(8) domains produces a significant increase in activity; similar alterations to linked G2 and G3(8) domains are without effect. (4) Clusters induced by two concatenated G3(8) domains are significantly smaller than all other agrin forms studied. These data suggest that agrin G-domains are the functional units which interact independently of their specific organization to yield AChR clustering. G-domain synergism resulting in biological output could be due to physical interactions between G-domains or, alternatively, independent interactions of G-domains with cell surface receptors which require spatially localized coactivation for optimal signal transduction. (+info)
Pseudomonas ribosomal vaccines: preparation, properties, and immunogenicity. (2/422)The preparation, properties, and immunogenicity of ribosomal vaccines from Pseudomonas aeruginosa are described. These preparations, containing protein and RNA, were tested for immunogenicity by active immunization of mice and subsequent challenge with homologous, live bacteria. The results demonstrated that vaccines prepared from a majority of serotypes used were immunogenic, i.e., afforded 60 to 100% mouse protection against a challenge inoculum containing 8 to 50 50% lethal doses. In some cases vaccine doses as low as 1 microgram of RNA provided 100% mouse protection. Molecular sieve chromatography of a highly immunogenic ribosomal preparation on Sepharose 4B demonstrated the presence of two molecular weight fractions: (i) peak A, an excluded peak (thus having a molecular weight of at least 2 times 10(7)), and (ii) peak B, considerably retarded, with an elution position corresponding to a molecular weight of about 2.2 X 10(6), approximating that of typical 70S ribosomes. Both peaks A and B were immunogenic; however, the immunogenicity of peak A was greater (i.e., a smaller immunizing dose was required) than that of peak B. Peak A was shown to contain components of lipopolysaccharide in addition to protein and RNA (which comprised 80% of the dry weight of peak A). On the other hand, peak B was shown to be free of lipopolysaccharide, and 100% of its dry weight consisted of protein and RNA. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of linear polylactosamines containing one and two site-specifically positioned Lewis x determinants: WGA agarose chromatography in fractionation of mixtures generated by random, partial enzymatic alpha3-fucosylation of pure polylactosamines. (3/422)We report that isomeric monofucosylhexasaccharides, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc, and bifucosylhexasaccharides Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 (Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4( Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc can be isolated in pure form from reaction mixtures of the linear hexasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc with GDP-fucose and alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases of human milk. The pure isomers were characterized in several ways;1H-NMR spectroscopy, for instance, revealed distinct resonances associated with the Lewis x group [Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc] located at the proximal, middle, and distal positions of the polylactosamine chain. Chromatography on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was crucial in the separation process used; the isomers carrying the fucose at the reducing end GlcNAc possessed particularly low affinities for the lectin. Isomeric monofucosyl derivatives of the pentasaccharides GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4Gl cNAc and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4G lcN Ac and the tetrasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc were also obtained in pure form, implying that the methods used are widely applicable. The isomeric Lewis x glycans proved to be recognized in highly variable binding modes by polylactosamine-metabolizing enzymes, e.g., the midchain beta1,6-GlcNAc transferase (Leppanen et al., Biochemistry, 36, 13729-13735, 1997). (+info)
IgA interaction with carboxy-terminal 43-kD fragment of fibronectin in IgA nephropathy. (4/422)IgA deposition in the glomerular mesangial matrix is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy, and circulating IgA-containing complex has been implicated in this process. Since fibronectin is known to be involved in the assembly of extracellular matrix, this study was conducted to investigate whether fibronectin and its fragments are present in sera of patients and are capable of binding IgA1. Sera from patients with IgA nephropathy were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography, and column eluate were analyzed for the presence of fibronectin using Western blot and a set of anti-fibronectin monoclonal antibodies. Native fibronectin was digested with cathepsin D to obtain fragments similar to those of serum fibronectin. The capacity of fibronectin to bind IgA was examined with a mixture of purified IgA1 and cathepsin D-digested fibronectin fragments. A 43-kD carboxy-terminal fragment of fibronectin was detected in samples derived from sera of patients with IgA nephropathy but not in healthy control subjects. A similar-sized fragment was generated by cathepsin D digestion of the native molecule and was shown to bind to IgA1 in vitro. Since the carboxy-terminal domain is known to be critical in assembling exogenous fibronectin into the extracellular matrix, the affinity to IgA1 to a fragment found in patients may have pathogenic potential to mediate extracellular IgA deposition in IgA nephropathy. (+info)
Chimeras of human extracellular and intracellular superoxide dismutases. Analysis of structure and function of the individual domains. (5/422)Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (hEC-SOD) is a secreted tetrameric protein involved in protection against oxygen free radicals. Since EC-SOD is too large a protein for structural determination by multi-dimensional NMR and attempts to crystallize the protein for X-ray structural determination have failed, the three-dimensional structure of hEC-SOD is unknown. By fusion protein techniques we have previously shown that an amphipathic alpha-helix in the N-terminal domain of hEC-SOD is essential for the tetramer interaction. However, the central domain, which is homologous to intracellular hCuZnSOD, has also been proposed to be involved in the tetramer formation. Despite great efforts, the production of recombinant hEC-SOD in prokaryotic systems or simple eukaryotes (such as yeast) has failed. This lack of success has greatly complicated large-scale production and genetic engineering of the protein. In the study reported here, we constructed two chimeras comprising the N- or the N- and C-terminal domains from hEC-SOD fused to hCuZnSOD, called FusNCZ and PseudoEC-SOD, respectively. We show that these proteins can be produced in large quantities in Escherichia coli, that they can be purified with high yields and that the characteristics of PseudoEC-SOD closely resemble those of hEC-SOD. Further, we extended our studies of the nature of the subunit interaction by investigating the involvement of the central domain. (+info)
Both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms regulate human telomerase template RNA levels. (6/422)The human telomerase RNA component (hTR) is present in normal somatic cells at lower levels than in cancer-derived cell lines. To understand the mechanisms regulating hTR levels in different cell types, we have compared the steady-state hTR levels in three groups of cells: (i) normal telomerase-negative human diploid cells; (ii) normal cells transfected with the human telomerase catalytic subunit, hTERT; and (iii) cells immortalized in vitro and cancer cells expressing their own endogenous hTERT. To account for the differences in steady-state hTR levels observed in these cell types, we compared the transcription rate and half-life of hTR in a subset of these cells. The half-life of hTR in telomerase-negative cells is about 5 days and is increased 1.6-fold in the presence of hTERT. The transcription rate of hTR is essentially unchanged in cells expressing exogenous hTERT, and the increased steady-state hTR level appears to be due to the increased half-life. However, the transcription rate of hTR is greatly increased in cells expressing endogenous hTERT, suggesting some overlap in transcriptional regulatory control. We conclude that the higher hTR level in cells expressing an endogenous telomerase can be a result of both increased transcription and a longer half-life and that the longer half-life might be partially a result of protection or stabilization by the telomerase catalytic subunit. The 4-week half-life of hTR in H1299 tumor cells is the longest half-life yet reported for any RNA. (+info)
Occurrence of P-flavin binding protein in Vibrio fischeri and properties of the protein. (7/422)In previous studies involving Photobacterium species we proposed that (i) P-flavin is the product of luciferase, (ii) the physiological function of the lux operon is not to produce light but to produce FP(390) (luxF protein), including its prosthetic group, P-flavin, and (iii) FP(390) reactivates oxidatively inactivated cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase similar to flavodoxin but at relatively high ionic strength. It seems difficult to extend this idea to all luminous bacteria because the luxF gene is not present in the lux operon in Vibrio or Xenorhabdus. But we predicted that a luciferase fragment which binds P-flavin should function like FP(390) in these species. In this study, we isolated P-flavin binding protein from Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744. The obtained protein was a modified luciferase as expected, in which the beta-subunit was intact but about 25 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of the alpha-subunit were deleted and the prosthetic group was the fully reduced P-flavin. These results strongly support that the physiological function of the lux operon is as described above even in luminous bacteria other than Photobacterium species. We propose that chromophore B reported by Tu and Hastings [Tu, S.-C. and Hastings, J.W. (1975) Biochemistry 14, 1975-1980] is the reduced P-flavin. (+info)
Bovine liver phosphoamidase as a protein histidine/lysine phosphatase. (8/422)A 13-kDa phosphoamidase was isolated as a single band on SDS-PAGE from bovine liver. Its Stokes' radius, sedimentation coefficient, molecular mass, and optimal pH were estimated to be 1.6 nm, 1.8 s, 13 kDa, and 6.5, respectively. The enzyme released P(i) from 3-phosphohistidine, 6-phospholysine, and amidophosphate at rates of 0.9, 0.6, and 2.6 micromol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, it did not dephosphorylate phosphocreatine, N(omega)-phosphoarginine, imidodiphosphate, or O-phosphorylated compounds including inorganic pyrophosphate. It also dephosphorylated succinic thiokinase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase autophosphorylated at His residues, indicating that it works as a protein histidine phosphatase. A thiol reagent, 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide, depressed the activity by half, while a thiol compound, 2-mercaptoethanol, protected the enzyme from heat-inactivation. Five millimolar divalent cations, such as Mg2+ and Mn2+, and 5 mM EDTA, had no effect on the activity. (+info)
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
Types of experimental neoplasms include:
* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.
The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.
The condition is caused by mutations in the genes that code for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, such as the LDL receptor gene or the apoB100 gene. These mutations lead to a deficiency of functional LDL receptors on the surface of liver cells, which results in reduced clearance of LDL cholesterol from the blood and increased levels of LDL-C.
The main symptom of hyperlipoproteinemia type III is very high levels of LDL-C (>500 mg/dL) and low levels of HDL-C (<20 mg/dL). Other signs and symptoms may include xanthomas (fatty deposits in the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the cornea of the eye), and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Treatment for hyperlipoproteinemia type III typically involves a combination of dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and medications, such as statins or other lipid-lowering drugs, to lower LDL-C levels. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Hyperlipoproteinemia type III is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. It is important to identify and treat individuals with this condition early to prevent or delay the development of cardiovascular disease.
Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.
Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.
In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.
It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.
See also: Cancer, Tumor
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1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
There are several types of hyperlipidemia, including:
1. High cholesterol: This is the most common type of hyperlipidemia and is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol.
2. High triglycerides: This type of hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that is used for energy.
3. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can contribute to hyperlipidemia.
Symptoms of hyperlipidemia may include xanthomas (fatty deposits on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the iris of the eye), and tendon xanthomas (tender lumps under the skin). However, many people with hyperlipidemia have no symptoms at all.
Hyperlipidemia can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hyperlipidemia typically involves dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing physical activity. Medications such as statins, fibric acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants may also be prescribed to lower cholesterol levels.
In severe cases of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can occur, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat hyperlipidemia early on to prevent these complications.
Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.
There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.
People with hyperlipoproteinemia type V often have a history of low birth weight and growth retardation, and may experience a range of health problems including fatigue, muscle weakness, and liver disease. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated gene - one from each parent - to develop the condition.
Treatment for hyperlipoproteinemia type V typically involves a combination of dietary changes and medication. Dietary recommendations may include avoiding foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing intake of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts and vegetable oils. Medications may include drugs that raise HDL levels or lower LDL levels, such as niacin or statins. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
In summary, hyperlipoproteinemia type V is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins in the body, leading to extremely low levels of LDL cholesterol and high levels of HDL cholesterol. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and medication, and may include liver transplantation in severe cases.
There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:
1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.
Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:
* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss
If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope
Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer
Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.
Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.
The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.
The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area
CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.
Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer
Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.
The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, such as ACY1 and APOB100. These mutations lead to a deficiency in the breakdown and transport of lipids in the body, resulting in the accumulation of chylomicrons and other lipoproteins in the blood.
Symptoms of hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV can include abdominal pain, fatigue, and joint pain, as well as an increased risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary modifications, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and medications to lower lipid levels. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV is a rare disorder, and the prevalence is not well-defined. However, it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 100,000 individuals worldwide. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis.
In summary, hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins in the body, leading to elevated levels of chylomicrons and other lipoproteins in the blood, as well as low levels of HDL. The condition can cause a range of symptoms and is typically treated with dietary modifications and medications.
Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:
1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.
Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
The most common types of hemoglobinopathies include:
1. Sickle cell disease: This is caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. It results in the production of sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause anemia, infections, and other complications.
2. Thalassemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin and can result in anemia, fatigue, and other complications.
3. Hemophilia A: This is caused by a defect in the F8 gene that codes for coagulation factor VIII, which is essential for blood clotting. It can cause bleeding episodes, especially in males.
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: This is caused by a point mutation in the G6PD gene that codes for an enzyme involved in red blood cell production. It can cause hemolytic anemia, especially in individuals who consume certain foods or medications.
5. Hereditary spherocytosis: This is caused by point mutations in the ANK1 or SPTA1 genes that code for proteins involved in red blood cell membrane structure. It can cause hemolytic anemia and other complications.
Hemoglobinopathies can be diagnosed through genetic testing, such as DNA sequencing or molecular genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder but may include blood transfusions, medications, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.
There are several types of paraproteinemias, including:
1. Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of immunoglobulins.
2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS): This is a condition in which there is an abnormal increase in the level of immunoglobulins in the blood, but the cause cannot be determined.
3. Waldenström macroglobulinemia: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow and leads to an overproduction of immunoglobulins.
4. Primary amyloidosis: This is a condition in which abnormal proteins called amyloids accumulate in the organs, leading to damage and dysfunction.
5. Secondary amyloidosis: This is a condition in which abnormal proteins called amyloids accumulate in the organs due to another underlying condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus.
The symptoms of paraproteinemias can vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, infections, kidney damage, and bone pain. Treatment options for paraproteinemias depend on the specific type of disorder and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or medications to reduce protein production.
Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:
1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)
The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)
The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.
The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:
1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.
Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.
There are several types of von Willebrand diseases, ranging from mild to severe, including:
1. Type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD): This is the most common type, caused by a deficiency or abnormality in the VWF gene. People with this condition may experience mild to moderate bleeding, particularly after injury or surgery.
2. Type 2 von Willebrand disease: This type is caused by a defective VWF protein that is produced in excess. It is characterized by more severe bleeding episodes and a higher risk of spontaneous bleeding.
3. Type 3 von Willebrand disease: This is the most severe form, characterized by very low levels of functional VWF and severe bleeding episodes, often starting in infancy or childhood.
4. Platelet type von Willebrand disease: This is a rare form caused by a defect in the platelets' ability to bind to VWF. It is characterized by a lack of platelet aggregation and mild bleeding.
Symptoms of von Willebrand diseases can include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites, and joint pain or swelling. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment may include desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of VWF, and/or platelet transfusions in severe cases.
In summary, von Willebrand diseases are a group of bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies or abnormalities in the von Willebrand factor. They can result in mild to severe bleeding episodes and may be classified into different types based on their severity and symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several types of poisoning, including:
1. Acute poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a large amount of a poisonous substance over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a small amount of a poisonous substance over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Occupational poisoning: This occurs when a worker is exposed to a poisonous substance in the course of their work. Examples include exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury.
4. Environmental poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a poisonous substance in their environment, such as through contaminated water or soil.
5. Food poisoning: This occurs when a person eats food that has been contaminated with a poisonous substance, such as bacteria or viruses. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison and the severity of the exposure. Some common treatments include activated charcoal to absorb the poison, medications to counteract the effects of the poison, and supportive care such as fluids and oxygen. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding poisoning. This includes proper storage and disposal of household chemicals, using protective gear when working with hazardous substances, and avoiding exposure to known poisons such as certain plants and animals. Education and awareness are also important in preventing poisoning, such as understanding the symptoms of poisoning and seeking medical attention immediately if suspected.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.
There are several types of necrosis, including:
1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.
The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.
Treatment for uremia typically involves dialysis or kidney transplantation to remove excess urea from the blood and restore normal kidney function. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, anemia, or electrolyte imbalances.
The term "uremia" is derived from the Greek words "oura," meaning "urea," and "emia," meaning "in the blood." It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe a condition caused by excess urea in the blood. Today, it remains an important diagnostic term in nephrology and is often used interchangeably with the term "uremic syndrome."
There are several subtypes of carcinoma, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in glandular cells, which produce fluids or mucus. Examples include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in squamous cells, which are found on the surface layers of skin and mucous membranes. Examples include head and neck cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in the deepest layer of skin, called the basal layer. It is the most common type of skin cancer and tends to grow slowly.
4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. Examples include lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body.
The signs and symptoms of carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* A lump or mass
* Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the color or texture of the skin
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Abnormal bleeding
The diagnosis of carcinoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
In conclusion, carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in epithelial cells and can occur in various parts of the body. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes.
1. American Cancer Society. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:
1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The term "Sarcoma 180" was coined by a German surgeon named Otto Kunkel in the early 20th century. He described this type of cancer as a highly malignant tumor that grows slowly but is resistant to treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
The exact cause of Sarcoma 180 is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. The disease typically affects middle-aged adults and is more common in men than women.
The symptoms of Sarcoma 180 can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected area. If left untreated, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body and be fatal.
Treatment for Sarcoma 180 usually involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In some cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. The prognosis for this disease is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 50%.
In summary, Sarcoma 180 is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects connective tissue and has a poor prognosis. It is important for medical professionals to be aware of this condition and its symptoms in order to provide proper diagnosis and treatment.
The most common form of xanthomatosis is called familial hypercholesterolemia, which is caused by a deficiency of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in the body. This results in high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the skin, eyes, and other tissues.
Other forms of xanthomatosis include:
* Familial apo A-1 deficiency: This is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1), a protein that plays a critical role in the transportation of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.
* familial hyperlipidemia: This is a group of rare genetic disorders that are characterized by high levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
* Chylomicronemia: This is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in the blood.
The symptoms of xanthomatosis vary depending on the specific form of the condition and the organs affected. They may include:
* Yellowish deposits (xanthomas) on the skin, particularly on the elbows, knees, and buttocks
* Deposits in the eyes (corneal arcus)
* Fatty liver disease
* High levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
Treatment for xanthomatosis typically involves managing the underlying genetic disorder, which may involve dietary changes, medication, or other therapies. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.
In summary, xanthomatosis is a group of rare genetic disorders that are characterized by deposits of lipids in the skin and other organs. The symptoms and treatment vary depending on the specific form of the condition.
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Coupled to agarose beads3
- The antibody to rabbit IgG was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose beads. (abcam.com)
- The antibody was purified from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography using antigens coupled to agarose beads. (jacksonimmuno.com)
- This product was prepared from monospecific antiserum by immunoaffinity chromatography using Human IgG coupled to agarose beads followed by solid phase adsorption(s) to remove any unwanted reactivities. (novusbio.com)
- 15. Affinity chromatography of rat alpha-fetoprotein on estradiol-agarose columns. (nih.gov)
- 20. [Affinity chromatography of mouse and rat alpha-fetoproteins on immobilized diethylstilbestrol]. (nih.gov)
- One method to selectively capture a target component from a mixture is the use of protein-based affinity ligands in affinity chromatography. (wur.nl)
- A serine protease was purified from poultry organic dust by benzamidine-agarose affinity chromatography. (cdc.gov)
- Cost restrictions kept affinity chromatography in the laboratory until the production of MAbs made efficient immunoaffinity indispensable in high purity coagulation factor production in the 1980s. (biopharminternational.com)
- Axén's 9 introduction of cyanogen bromide activation in 1967 allowed the development of affinity chromatography, the invention of which was attributed to Cuatrecasas et al. (biopharminternational.com)
- Product Description Anti-c-Myc Tag (9E10) Affinity Gel consists of anti-c-myc monoclonal antibody (clone 9E10), covalently immobilized onto 6% high density glyoxal agarose beads. (biolegend.com)
- Reagent Anti-c-Myc Agarose Affinity Gel is supplied as a 50% suspension in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide. (biolegend.com)
- Storage/Stability Anti-c-Myc Agarose Affinity Gel should be stored between 2°C and 8°C for maximum stability. (biolegend.com)
- Thoroughly suspend the resin by gentle inversion until the Anti-c-Myc-Agarose Affinity Gel is a uniform suspension of gel beads. (biolegend.com)
- Peptide affinity chromatography demonstrated that soybean lipoxygenase V specifically bound to synthetic peptides E5b and P1 immobilized to agarose. (nih.gov)
- BiP was purified by affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, and both endoplasmin and calreticulin were purified by affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose. (kent.ac.uk)
- For these experiments the ligand is immobilized onto commercially available agarose beads. (wur.nl)
- Another point of investigation is the immobilization of ligands to a support, such as agarose or cellulose beads. (wur.nl)
- Other agarose manufacturing technologies require a screening step to filter out beads that are too large or too small to be used in process. (purolite.com)
- Praesto chromatography resins contain the only uniform agarose beads on the market. (purolite.com)
- Typically, a GC column consists of a column filled with beads that have been cross-linked agarose. (buzrush.com)
- 400 µg protein yield) underwent phosphopeptide enrichment using magnetic Fe 3+ NTA agarose beads before being TMT labeled and fractionated by capillary liquid chromatography (LC). (nih.gov)
- Whole IgG antibodies are isolated as intact molecules from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography. (jacksonimmuno.com)
- Mouse IgG Agarose is suitable for immunoprecipitation and Immunoaffinity purifications. (gbiosciences.com)
- Factor IX Strasbourg 2 was purified from plasma by DEAE Sepharose chromatography and immunoaffinity and relative to normal factor IX, binding of calcium to the mutant protein was clearly reduced in calcium lactate agarose gel. (nih.gov)
- Immobilized Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) is prepared by covalently linking WGA to the 6% cross-linked agarose. (gbiosciences.com)
- The TOP antigen was solubilized and purified by antibody-agarose column chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS}-polyacrylamide gel elec- trophoresis. (nih.gov)
- The process of chromatography is based on the concept of capillary action. (buzrush.com)
- Each of the other five complexes has been purified by subunit exchange chromatography using Go alpha-agarose as the chromatographic matrix. (caltech.edu)
- Binding Specificity Mouse monoclonal antibody 9E10 recognizes the c-myc epitope N-EQKLSEEDL-C and is purified through Protein G chromatography. (biolegend.com)
- The introduction of cellulose ion exchangers by Peterson and Sobers in 1956,5 cross-linked dextrans (Sephadex) by Porath and Flodin in 1959,6 and polyacrylamide (1961) and agarose (1964) by Hjertén,7-8 initiated a revolution in protein chromatography. (biopharminternational.com)
- The formation of suprafiber makes agarose gels sturdy even at low gel concentration, making agarose gel easy to handle, compared to starch or polyacrylamide gels [5,6] . (conductscience.com)
- Here, the effect of buffer conditions was studied on proteins with acidic, basic, and hydrophobic properties on Superdex 200 Increase 10/300 GL prepacked chromatography column. (drugdiscoveryonline.com)
- Agarose powder can be dissolved in an electrophoresis running buffer and heated. (conductscience.com)
- A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million. (nih.gov)
- The structure of agarose gel is developed during gelation, which influences the gel properties and the subsequent electrophoretic separation. (conductscience.com)
- In other words, gels with high agarose in their composition are more suitable for the electrophoretic separation of molecules possessing small molecular weight than gels with low agarose content, and vice versa . (conductscience.com)
- Chromatography is a laboratory separation technique that is used to study different mixtures. (buzrush.com)
- Chromatography uses the separation principle to analyze the components of mixtures. (buzrush.com)
- Chromatography varies by the type of separation method used. (buzrush.com)
- Agarose gel electrophoresis is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses agarose, a natural polysaccharide isolated from red seaweed agar, as a matrix to separate molecules or components based on their size. (conductscience.com)
- An analytical method using size exclusion chromatography was scaled up for insulin production in the 1970s, when ion exchange became a viable technology for the same application. (biopharminternational.com)
- It is perhaps the inherent simplicity of the method which has made chromatography not just an analytical tool par excellence but the central enabling technology in all biopharmaceutical downstream processing. (biopharminternational.com)
- The first supports, generally referred to as 'gels,' were largely unsuitable for use in process chromatography: one gram of dry Sephadex G-100 adsorbs 100 mL of water and has therefore only 1% dry substance and 6% agarose media and 94% water. (biopharminternational.com)
- For a horizontal gel system , agarose gels are cast in a casting tray, and the sample application wells are simultaneously molded at the top of the gel using a comb. (conductscience.com)
- Chromatography is a great way to differentiate different plant pigments. (buzrush.com)
- [3,6] The presence of these substitution groups and their composition determine the purity of the agarose, which also influences its melting and gelling temperature. (conductscience.com)
- The capacity for production of migration inhibitory factor was assessed by the agarose droplet cell migration inhibition assay, using peritoneal exudate cells and a CVB3(m) cell lysate or KCl extracted antigens from heart tissues of CVB3(m)-inoculated mice. (nih.gov)
- Then load sample mixture onto a clean chromatography column, allow the resin to settle and drain by gravity. (biolegend.com)
- Size exclusion chromatography should separate proteins only according to their hydrodynamic radius (size). (drugdiscoveryonline.com)
- Low-pressure process chromatography could not have developed without immense efforts to resolve scale-up issues in both column design and matrix stability. (biopharminternational.com)
- Transfer an appropriate aliquot of gel slurry into a clean chromatography column and allow the gel bed to drain by gravity. (biolegend.com)
- FPLC is more sensitive than conventional column chromatography. (buzrush.com)
- Process chromatography was first applied to the removal of low molecular weight solutes from whey by gel filtration about 50 years ago. (biopharminternational.com)
- The pores of the suprafibers contribute to the molecular sieving influence, which is dependent on the concentration of agarose. (conductscience.com)
- The higher the agarose concentration, the smaller is the pore, and the finer is the molecular sieve. (conductscience.com)
- PDI was purified by anionic ion exchange chromatography. (kent.ac.uk)
- Agarose is a type of natural polysaccharide isolated from red seaweed that is used to make a gel. (conductscience.com)
- This is one of the most time-consuming steps in agarose resin production. (purolite.com)
- The packed bed experiments are performed using an Äkta Purifier chromatography system (GE Healthcare, Figure 1). (wur.nl)
- For a vertical gel system, however, the heated agarose gel solution is poured in the space of a gel cassette, consisting of two glass plates clamped together with a spacer in between. (conductscience.com)
- Purolite is the leading the way in improving the security of supply of agarose-based resins as the first supplier to commission production facilities on multiple continents. (purolite.com)
- All Praesto ® chromatography resins are manufactured using our patented Jetting technology. (purolite.com)
- Following Tswett's experimentation with various adsorbents and mobile phases, researchers in the 1950s investigated protein chromatography on new matrices. (biopharminternational.com)