A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Isolation and purification of rat mammary tumor peroxidase. (1/9384)

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors often contain high levels of the enzyme perioxidase, a putative marker of estrogen dependence. This enzyme can be effectively extracted with 0.5 M CaCl2, giving rise to a soluble peroxidase with a molecular weight of about 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. This is the same size as the estrogen-induced peroxidase of rat uterus but smaller than other mammalian peroxidases. Further purification of the rat mammary tumor peroxidase by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose provides a 640-fold purification of the enzyme.  (+info)

Involvement of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase in the Pax-6 gene regulation in neuroretina. (2/9384)

The quail Pax-6 gene is expressed from two promoters named P0 and P1. P0 promoter is under the control of a neuroretina-specific enhancer (EP). This enhancer activates the P0 promoter specifically in neuroretina cells and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. The EP enhancer binds efficiently, as revealed by southwestern experiments, to a 110 kDa protein present in neuroretina cells but not in Quail Embryos Cells and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium which do not express the P0-initiated mRNAs. To study the role of p110 in Pax-6 regulation, we have purified the p110 from neuroretina cells extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified protein, we have identified the p110 as the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Using bandshift experiments and footprinting studies, we present evidence that PARP is a component of protein complexes bound to the EP enhancer that increases the on rate of the protein complex formation to DNA. Using PARP inhibitors (3AB and 6.5 Hphe), we show that these products are able to inhibit EP enhancer activity in neuroretina cells. Finally, we demonstrate that these inhibitors are able to decrease the expression of the P0-initiated mRNA in the MC29-infected RPE cells which, in contrast to the RPE cells, accumulated the PARP in response to v-myc expression. Our results suggest that PARP is involved in the Pax-6 regulation.  (+info)

Comparison of the fibrin-binding activities in the N- and C-termini of fibronectin. (3/9384)

Fibronectin (Fn) binds to fibrin in clots by covalent and non-covalent interactions. The N- and C-termini of Fn each contain one non-covalent fibrin-binding site, which are composed of type 1 (F1) structural repeats. We have previously localized the N-terminal site to the fourth and fifth F1 repeats (4F1.5F1). In the current studies, using proteolytic and recombinant proteins representing both the N- and C-terminal fibrin-binding regions, we localized and characterized the C-terminal fibrin-binding site, compared the relative fibrin-binding activities of both sites and determined the contribution of each site to the fibrin-binding activity of intact Fn. By fibrin-affinity chromatography, a protein composed of the 10F1 repeat through to the C-terminus of Fn (10F1-COOH), expressed in COS-1 cells, and 10F1-12F1, produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, displayed fibrin-binding activity. However, since 10F1 and 10F1.11F1 were not active, the presence of 12F1 is required for fibrin binding. A proteolytic fragment of 14.4 kDa, beginning 14 residues N-terminal to 10F1, was isolated from the fibrin-affinity matrix. Radio-iodinated 14.4 kDa fibrin-binding peptide/protein (FBP) demonstrated a dose-dependent and saturable binding to fibrin-coated wells that was both competitively inhibited and reversed by unlabelled 14.4 kDa FBP. Comparison of the fibrin-binding affinities of proteolytic FBPs from the N-terminus (25.9 kDa FBP), the C-terminus (14.4 kDa) and intact Fn by ELISA yielded estimated Kd values of 216, 18 and 2.1 nM, respectively. The higher fibrin-binding affinity of the N-terminus was substantiated by the ability of both a recombinant 4F1.5F1 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to this site to maximally inhibit biotinylated Fn binding to fibrin by 80%, and by blocking the 90% inhibitory activity of a polyclonal anti-Fn, by absorption with the 25.9 kDa FBP. We propose that whereas the N-terminal site appears to contribute to most of the binding activity of native Fn to fibrin, the specific binding of the C-terminal site may strengthen this interaction.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an alpha-galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei. (4/9384)

A membrane-associated galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei was purified 34000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-hexanolamine-Sepharosetrade mark. Using SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the isolated enzyme ran as a relatively broad band with apparent molecular masses of 53 kDa and 52 kDa, indicative of glycosylation and the existence of two isoforms. N-Glycosylation of the enzyme was subsequently confirmed using Western blotting and either specific binding of concanavalin A or peptide-N4-(N-acetylglucosaminyl)asparagine amidase digestion. The de-N-glycosylated enzyme ran with apparent molecular masses of 51 kDa and 50 kDa, indicative of a single N-glycosylation site. The galactosyltransferase exhibited a pH optimum at 7.2 and had a pronounced requirement for Mn2+ ions (KM=2.5 mM) for its action. The transferase activity was independent of the concentration of Triton X-100. The enzyme was capable of transferring galactose from UDP-galactose to a variety of galactose-based acceptors in alpha-glycosidic linkages. The apparent KM values for UDP-galactose and for the preferred acceptor substrate N-acetyl-lactosamine are 46 microM and 4.5 mM respectively. From these results we would like to suggest that the galactosyltransferase functions in the processing of terminal N-acetyl-lactosamine structures of trypanosomal glycoproteins.  (+info)

Enrichment of enzyme activity on deformylation of 1-NFK-lysozyme. (5/9384)

The formamide linkage of an inactive lysozyme derivative (1-NFK-lysozyme), formed by selective ozonization of tryptophan 62 in hen egg-white lysozyme [EC] was hydrolyzed with dilute acid faster in the frozen state at about --10 degrees than at 20 degrees. On hydrolysis of 1-NFK-lysozyme the low lytic activity increased to approximately 80% of that of native lysozyme. It is suggested that the binding ability associated with kynurenine 62 in the lysozyme derivative formed by this hydrolysis may be responsible for increase in enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Hydrophobic interaction of human, mouse, and rabbit interferons with immobilized hydrocarbons. (6/9384)

Interferons of human, mouse, and rabbit origin bind to straight chain hydrocarbons immobilized on agarose. The hydrophobic nature of binding is established by the following observations: (a) a positive correlation between the length of hydrocarbon ligand and the strength of interaction; (b) a stronger interaction with hydrocarbon ligands terminated with apolar rather than polar head groups; (c) a lack of dependence of binding on ionic strength and pH of the solvent; (d) a reversal of binding by ethylene glycol, a hydrophobic solute; (e) an increasing eluting efficacy of tetraalkylammonium ions with the length of their alkyl substituents. The hydrophobic interactions of human interferon underlie the efficiency of two-step chromatographic procedures. For example, human embryo kidney interferon can be purified about 3,600-fold by sequential chromatography on (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) octyl-agarose. Another two-step procedure: (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) L-tryptophan-agarose, gives about 10,000-fold purification. The overall recovery of interferon in both cases in close to 90%.  (+info)

Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (7/9384)

The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed.  (+info)

Purification of two dexamethasone-binding proteins from rat-liver cytosol. (8/9384)

Two dexamethasone-binding proteins have been purified from rat liver cytosol. The main purification steps are: precipitation by protamine sulphate, affinity chromatography on CH-Sepharose 4B to which 11-deoxycorticosterone is linked through a disulfide bond and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Two binding components elute from the DEAE-cellulose column at 0.12 M and 0.2 M NaCl, respectively. By means of dodecylsulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it was demonstrated that both components are composed predominantly of a single polypeptide with molecular weights of about 45 000 and 90 000. Antibodies to the two polypeptides have been elicited in rabbits. The antibodies to the 45 000-Mr polypeptide cross react with the 90 000-Mr component. Likewise the antibodies to the 90 000-Mr protein precipitate the 45 000-Mr polypeptide. Either of the two antibody preparations immunoprecipitates the major part (approximately 70%) of the dexamethasone-binding activity of the cytosol.  (+info)

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Neuroblastoma is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development and growth of nerve cells. The cancerous cells are often sensitive to chemotherapy, but they can be difficult to remove surgically because they are deeply embedded in the nervous system.

There are several different types of neuroblastoma, including:

1. Infantile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children under the age of one and is often more aggressive than other types of the cancer.
2. Juvenile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children between the ages of one and five and tends to be less aggressive than infantile neuroblastoma.
3. Adult neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in adults and is rare.
4. Metastatic neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or liver.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Bone pain
* Swelling in the abdomen or neck
* Constipation
* Increased heart rate

Diagnosis of neuroblastoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI scans, and biopsies to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment for neuroblastoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for neuroblastoma varies depending on the type of cancer, the age of the child, and the stage of the disease. In general, the younger the child and the more aggressive the treatment, the better the prognosis.

The most common types of hemoglobinopathies include:

1. Sickle cell disease: This is caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. It results in the production of sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause anemia, infections, and other complications.
2. Thalassemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin and can result in anemia, fatigue, and other complications.
3. Hemophilia A: This is caused by a defect in the F8 gene that codes for coagulation factor VIII, which is essential for blood clotting. It can cause bleeding episodes, especially in males.
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: This is caused by a point mutation in the G6PD gene that codes for an enzyme involved in red blood cell production. It can cause hemolytic anemia, especially in individuals who consume certain foods or medications.
5. Hereditary spherocytosis: This is caused by point mutations in the ANK1 or SPTA1 genes that code for proteins involved in red blood cell membrane structure. It can cause hemolytic anemia and other complications.

Hemoglobinopathies can be diagnosed through genetic testing, such as DNA sequencing or molecular genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder but may include blood transfusions, medications, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.

Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:

1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Weak affinity chromatography (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity screening in drug development. WAC is ... Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ... galactosidase is accomplished by affinity chromatography using p-aminobenyl-1-thio-β-D-galactopyranosyl agarose as the affinity ... By using affinity chromatography, one can separate proteins that bind to a certain fragment from proteins that do not bind that ...
... is one of the Affinity chromatography techniques used for protein purification of a complex ... Lower, Christopher R.; Pearson, James C. (1984). "Affinity chromatography on immobilized dyes". Methods in Enzymology. 104: 97- ... McGettrick, Anne; Worrall, Margaret (2004). Dye-Ligand Affinity Chromatography. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 244. Totowa ... "Triazine-dye affinity chromatography". Biochem Soc Trans. 9 (4): 290-3. doi:10.1042/bst0090290. PMID 7262447. (CS1: long volume ...
However, liquid chromatography techniques exist that do utilize affinity chromatography properties. Immobilized metal affinity ... Affinity chromatography Aqueous normal-phase chromatography Binding selectivity Chiral analysis Chromatofocusing Chromatography ... "An overview of affinity chromatography". In Bailon P, Ehrlich GK, Fung WJ, Berthold W (eds.). Affinity Chromatography. Methods ... Affinity chromatography often utilizes a biomolecule's affinity for a metal (Zn, Cu, Fe, etc.). Columns are often manually ...
"Affinity Chromatography". Sigma-Aldrich. Archived from the original on 2016-05-07. "HiTrap Heparin HP". GE Healthcare Life ... Heparin has been used as a chromatography resin, acting as both an affinity ligand and an ion exchanger. Its polyanionic ... Segura MM, Kamen A, Garnier A (2008). "Purification of retrovirus particles using heparin affinity chromatography". Gene ... "A novel purification strategy for retrovirus gene therapy vectors using heparin affinity chromatography". Biotechnology and ...
However, methods like affinity chromatography and affinity selection-mass spectrometry are workhorses of the pharmaceutical ... "Affinity chromatography: A review of trends and developments over the past 50 years". Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical ... Affinity chromatography emerged in the 1950s as a rarely used method used to purify enzymes; it has since seen mainstream use ... Affinity selection is followed by the removal of unbound small molecules via ultrafiltration or size-exclusion chromatography, ...
Affinity Chromatography (PDF). Vol. 1: Antibodies (AF ed.). GE Healthcare. 2016. p. 48. "A Pathogen's Swiss Army Knife". Small ... Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins". FEBS Letters. 28 (1 ... Continuous chromatography, more precisely periodic counter-current chromatography, enormously increases the productivity of the ... Protein A can bind with strong affinity to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin of certain species as shown in the below table. In ...
1975). "Metal chelate affinity chromatography, a new approach to protein fractionation". Nature. 258 (5536): 598-599. Bibcode: ... This is the immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography announced in 1975. Subsequent studies have revealed that among amino ... Porath, J. (1992). "Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography". Protein Expr. Purif. 3 (4): 263-281. doi:10.1016/1046-5928( ... Journal of Chromatography A. 864 (2): 247-256. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)01008-0. PMID 10669292. Ni - NTA affinity column( ...
"Affimer® reagents facilitate affinity chromatography purification". www.drugtargetreview.com. Retrieved 2018-10-22. Kyle HF, ... These affinity reagents have been optimized to increase their stability, make them tolerant to a range of temperatures and pH, ... Affimer molecules are small proteins that bind to target proteins with affinity in the nanomolar range. These engineered non- ... Weckman NE, McRae C, Ko Ferrigno P, Seshia AA (October 2016). "Comparison of the specificity and affinity of surface ...
Purification of this endopeptidase by affinity chromatography". J. Biol. Chem. 251 (23): 7593-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17) ...
... (or ion-exchange chromatography) separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion ... This type of chromatography is further subdivided into cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ... Cation exchange chromatography is used when the desired molecules to separate are cations and anion exchange chromatography is ...
Affinity-based capillary electrophoresis, also known as capillary electroaffinity chromatography (CEC), involves the binding of ... The proteins that do not have affinity for the affinity probes pass through the affinity-trap gel, and proteins with affinity ... Some of the methods are similar to affinity chromatography by use of immobilized ligands. Currently, there is ongoing research ... Phosphate affinity electrophoresis utilizes an affinity probe which consists of a molecule that binds specifically to divalent ...
All of these were detected through affinity chromatography. Ortholog space for TMTC4 spans a large portion of evolutionary time ...
Further purification using affinity chromatography with immobilised glycoproteins. Affinity was increased by glycoprotein- ... The toxin binds to cell-surface polysaccharide receptors with a high affinity (Ka in the range of 107-108/M). When the toxin ... and effectuates a modification at this site resulting in lower affinity of EF2 on that site. The ribosomes are sensitized to ...
An additional approach for further purification uses affinity chromatography. Recombinant T3SS proteins that carry a protein ... the lysate is passed through a column coated with particles with high affinity to the tag (in the case of histidine tags: ...
Burgess RR, Watson JD (June 2017). "Gentle antibody-mimetic affinity chromatography with polyol-responsive nanoCLAMPs". Protein ... This property has been shown to be useful for purifying functional proteins and protein complexes by affinity purification. ... In the medical field of immunology, nanoCLAMP (CLostridal Antibody Mimetic Proteins) affinity reagents are recombinant 15 kD ... Thompson NE, Aronson DB, Burgess RR (1990). "Purification of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II by immunoaffinity chromatography. ...
Söderström M, Morgenstern R, Hammarström S (1995). "Protein-protein interaction affinity chromatography of leukotriene C4 ...
Söderström M, Morgenstern R, Hammarström S (1995). "Protein-protein interaction affinity chromatography of leukotriene C4 ...
... periodic counter-current processes can be applied to any affinity type chromatography. In conventional affinity chromatography ... Periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) is a method for running affinity chromatography in a quasi-continuous manner. ... A novel cyclic process for protein A affinity chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 1389: 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.chroma. ... Periodic counter-current chromatography puts this problem aside by utilizing more than one column. PCC processes can be run ...
Purification by tandem affinity chromatography of uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase". Biochemistry. 19 (20): 4699-706. doi: ... Union enthalpy and enthropy from the latter correspond to high-affinity ligands. Properties such as lipophilicity, solubility, ... Nonetheless, crystallographic analyses and the lack of S. cerevisiae enzyme affinity to substrate analogues where the ...
Examples of operations include affinity, size exclusion, reversed phase chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, ... Affinity chromatography often isolates and purifies in a single step. Fermentation (biochemistry) Separation process Unit ...
This mode of action makes them useful for affinity chromatography to separate thiol-containing compounds from complex mixtures ... "Separation of Newly-Synthesized RNA by Organomercurial Agarose Affinity Chromatography". J. Biochem. 81 (5): 1247-1252. PMID ...
These interactions were detected by high throughput affinity capture chromatography. C12orf66 is a highly conserved protein ...
2009). "Production and Purification of Streptokinase by Protected Affinity Chromatography". Avicenna Journal of Medical ...
Riggs worked on isolating the lac repressor by affinity chromatography. Walter Gilbert and Benno Müller-Hill were the first to ...
Nickel affinity chromatography may also be employed for heterotetramer purification. Multiple copies of a polypeptide encoded ... Ion-exchange chromatography is useful for isolating specific heterotetrameric protein assemblies, allowing purification of ... affinity of the typical class I-peptide-TCR interaction. MHC class II tetramers can also be made, although these are more ...
Identification of two binding proteins obtained by Ca2(+)-dependent affinity chromatography". European Journal of Biochemistry ... Chung CY, Erickson HP (July 1994). "Cell surface annexin II is a high affinity receptor for the alternatively spliced segment ...
Kawata S, Trzaskos JM, Gaylor JL (March 1986). "Affinity chromatography of microsomal enzymes on immobilized detergent- ...
Affinity chromatography verified interaction between Protein Kinase D2 (PRKD2) and c2orf80. The protein PRKD2 can bind to ...
"Purification of almond emulsin alpha-L-fucosidase I by affinity chromatography". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 194 (2): 394-8. doi: ...
Wulff, G.; Dederichs, R.; Grotstollen, R.; Jupe, C. (1982). "Affinity Chromatography and Related Techniques -Theoretical ... Moreover, chromatography techniques such as HPLC and TLC can make use of MIPs as packing materials and stationary phases for ... He later used this imprinted silica method in further applications such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance ... One application of molecular imprinting technology is in affinity-based separations for biomedical, environmental, and food ...
... phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography ...
... affinity chromatography and some properties as a metallo-neutral proteinase". Agric. Biol. Chem. 39: 1123-1128. doi:10.1271/ ... Development of a new substrate, inhibitors, and an affinity ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (8): 3482-6. PMID ...
In ion-exchange chromatography the selectivity coefficient is defined in a slightly different way Solvent extraction is used to ... Binding Affinity Functional selectivity The constant used here are association constants. Dissociation constants are used in ... This is particularly true in gas-liquid chromatography where column lengths up to 60 m are possible, providing a very large ... Ahrland, S.; Chatt, J.; Davies, N.R. (1958). "The relative affinities of ligand atoms for acceptor molecules and ions". Quart. ...
It is also the source of concanavalin A, a lectin used in biotechnology applications, such as lectin affinity chromatography. ...
... with 11-fold lower affinity to NET than to DAT, while the S enantiomer has no such effect. While not prescribed as a ... "Determination of carphedon in human urine by solid-phase microextraction using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen- ...
Immobilization using affinity relies on the specificity of an enzyme to couple an affinity ligand to an enzyme to form a ... Most commonly, a combination of chromatography steps is employed for separation. The purified enzymes are either sold in pure ... The complex is introduced into a support matrix for which the ligand has high binding affinity, and the enzyme is immobilized ... The selected enzyme defines the required operational properties, such as pH, temperature, activity, and substrate affinity. The ...
The binding site for the first two calcium atoms show a 20 times greater affinity for calcium than the third site. However, ... Masuda H, Takenaka Y, Shikamoto Y, Kagawa M, Mizuno H, Tsuji FI (2003). "Chromatography of isoforms of recombinant apoaequorin ...
"The blood-to-plasma ratio and predicted GABAA-binding affinity of designer benzodiazepines". Forensic Toxicology. doi:10.1007/ ... and nifoxipam by nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry for drug testing purposes". Analytical and ...
For instance, there is a measurable affinity of angelicin towards human serum albumin (19.10 × 104 mol−1L−1) which has one non- ... technique is air drying the aerial parts and ground roots of plant followed by n-hexane extraction and column chromatography ...
... phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography ...
Glucans from carbohydrate chromatography matrices can also lead to false positives. Since 2003, a synthetic substitute for the ... This method is sometimes used in the purification of albumins (details follow). Ligands of known affinity to endotoxins can be ... Cation exchange chromatography has been shown to effectively purify β-interferon. (Dembinski, et al.) Because the molecular ... Example of using anion exchange chromatography to purify albumin: 2% of the endotoxin does not bind to the column. However, ...
Techniques available to measure blood concentrations include thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography with or ... In the case of alcohol and barbiturates, not only do they have an additive effect but they also increase the binding affinity ...
... has high affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor, moderate affinity for the α1 receptor, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5- ... Badr JM (January 2013). "A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine ... HT1F, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2 receptors, and weak affinity for the 5-HT1E, 5-HT2A, 5-HT5A, 5-HT7, and dopamine D3 receptors. It ... "Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility ...
Pi3 has an 18-fold less affinity for Kv1.3 and 800-fold less affinity for voltage-gated, rapidly inactivating K+ channels in ... The venom can be fractionated by gel filtration chromatography and the sub-fractions can be further separated by HPLC reverse- ... The affinity of the Pi3 for shaker B voltage- gated potassium channels was found to be low with a dissociation constant of 140 ... The variation in the primary structure of Pi3, the single amino acid Glu7 has been attributed to the difference in affinity ...
The slope of the line is equal to the negative reciprocal of the affinity constant (K). The intercept of the line with the X ... Smith SM (2011). "Strategies for the purification of membrane proteins". Protein Chromatography. Methods in Molecular Biology. ... A Scatchard plot (Rosenthal plot) can be used to show radioligand affinity. In this type of plot, the ratio of Bound/Free ... This sample plot indicates that the radioligand binds with a single affinity. If the ligand were to have bound to multiple ...
... affinities to the receptor. As a result, they have a shorter duration of action compared to sulfonylureas, and require higher ... Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 877 (29): 3695-700. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Determination of metformin in human plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry". ... in surface and pore water by high-resolution sampling-direct injection-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass ...
... affinity chromatography, and aggregation using DTT, though these methods are more time-consuming and less efficient when ... C4 plants use the enzyme PEP carboxylase initially, which has a higher affinity for CO2. The process first makes a 4-carbon ... Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 861 (1): 29-39. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Affinity as well as efficacy (and thus also potency) are much higher than for nicotine. The paralytic property of epibatidine ... Journal of Chromatography A; 896: 229-238, 2000. Damaj, M.I.; et al. (1994). "Pharmacological effects of epibatidine optical ... Epibatidine also binds to the α3/β4 subtype and to a much lesser extent α7 receptors (affinity 300-fold less than for α4/β2) ... Low doses of epibatidine will only affect the nAChRs, due to a higher affinity to nAChRs than to mAChRs. Higher doses, however ...
By running an affinity chromatography, B-Galactosidase can be isolated and tested by reacting collected samples with ONPG and ...
Yokomizo T, Kato K, Hagiya H, Izumi T, Shimizu T (April 2001). "Hydroxyeicosanoids bind to and activate the low affinity ... Biomedical Chromatography. 27 (4): 422-32. doi:10.1002/bmc.2809. PMC 3552117. PMID 23037960. Chilton-Lopez, Surette ME, Swan DD ...
... phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography ...
... reductase purified by biospecific affinity chromatography". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 251 (17): 5337-5344. doi:10.1016/ ... reductase purified by biospecific affinity chromatography". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 251 (17): 5337-5344. doi:10.1016/ ...
Demain said that he and Phaff "apparently were the first in the world to carry out affinity chromatography, using a pectic acid ...
In liquid chromatography, the eluent is the liquid solvent; in gas chromatography, it is the carrier gas. The eluate is the ... Based on an adsorbent's composition, it can have varying affinities to "hold" onto other molecules-forming a thin film on the ... Chromatography Desorption Gradient elution in high performance liquid chromatography Leaching "IUPAC Gold Book: eluent". ... In a liquid chromatography experiment, for example, an analyte is generally adsorbed, or "bound to", an adsorbent in a liquid ...
Boron has a strong affinity for oxygen and a duly extensive borate chemistry. The oxide B2O3 is polymeric in structure, weakly ... Ion Chromatography, John Wiley & Sons, New York, ISBN 3-527-61325-0 Gary S 2013, 'Poisoned Alloy' the Metal of the Future', ... It has the highest electron affinity Its electronegativity of 2.54 is highest among the metals and exceeds that of some ...
2002). Bioassay guided fractionation and chromatography identified stromatoxin as the functional component. The full sequence ... with affinity (IC50) of 12.7 nM, 21.4 nM, 7.2 nM and 1.2 nM, respectively. No activity on Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 has been observed ( ...
Many have been useful because they bind selectively to either the CB1 or CB2 receptors, whereas THC has a similar affinity for ... while liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is most often used for confirmation and quantitation. There are commercially ... They have been designed to be similar to THC, the natural cannabinoid with the strongest binding affinity to the CB1 receptor, ... These synthetic analogs often have greater binding affinity and greater potency to the CB1 receptors. There are several ...
... purified by affinity chromatography; Synonyms: Tumor protein 63, p63, Chronic ulcerative stomatitis protein, CUSP, Keratinocyte ... Affinity purified. Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium ...
Affinity chromatography for the capture of a biopharmaceutical, when available, is generally preferred because of its ...
Temperature is an important condition for affinity chromatography separation, and the affinity intensity usually decreases with ... In affinity chromatography, a buffer solution with different pH values is usually used as the mobile phase. The buffer system ... Showing you about affinity chromatography. Published by News Editor on November 25, 2022. November 25, 2022. ... Affinity chromatography is based on the inherent specific interactions of biomolecules for highly selective sample separation. ...
The Solution: Aptamer-Mediated Affinity Chromatography (AMAC). Aptamer-mediated affinity chromatography (AMAC) enables the ... Proteins are often expressed with fusion-tags (e.g. His tags, FLAG tags, protein fusions, etc) for affinity purification and to ... In addition to these benefits, AMAC does not rely on affinity/solubility tags and therefore offers a simpler workflow for ... AMAC addresses these issues through the rapid development of bespoke, high affinity and specific purification reagents, and pre ...
Multi-lectin Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveal Differential Glycoform Levels between Prostate ... lectin affinity chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Specific lectins (AAL, PHA-L and PHA-E) ...
Simplifying the synthesis of SIgA: Combination of dIgA and rhSC using affinity chromatography. Methods. 2014 Jan 1;65(1):127- ... keywords = "Affinity chromatography, Antibody, IgA, Mucosal IgA, Secretory IgA",. author = "Brian Moldt and Karen Saye- ... Simplifying the synthesis of SIgA : Combination of dIgA and rhSC using affinity chromatography. In: Methods. 2014 ; Vol. 65, No ... Simplifying the synthesis of SIgA: Combination of dIgA and rhSC using affinity chromatography. / Moldt, Brian; Saye-Francisco, ...
Affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation.. Taipoxin affinity columns were generated and used as described (Schlimgen et ... For taipoxin chromatographies, the amount of each NP was measured with 125I-labeled secondary antibodies (Fig. 4J). Loss of NPR ... G, Chromatography of solubilized wild-type brains on taipoxin columns greatly enriches NP1, NP2, and NPR. H, Similar ... J, Quantification of the loss of NP1, NP2, and NPR by taipoxin chromatography in select single, double, and triple KO mice. Ab ...
... convenient as the His6 tag can serve a second function in purification of enzymes by immobilized metal affinity chromatography ... The cellulolytic enzymes contain a dockerin domain that binds to the cohesin modules with high affinity (KD~10−9-10−12 M) in ... Non-covalent affinity tags are the most widely used method for localizing foreign enzyme(s) to the scaffold. These include ... The sizable library of RNA aptamers that bind to protein domains, mostly with moderate affinities (KD-mM-µM), has been critical ...
Purification of unique α subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) by affinity chromatography with immobilized ... title = "Purification of unique α subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) by affinity chromatography with ... Purification of unique α subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) by affinity chromatography with immobilized ... T1 - Purification of unique α subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) by affinity chromatography with ...
Bioaffinity chromatography. In: Hage DS, Cazes J, editors. Handbook of affinity chromatography. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; ... Protein A/G is known to bind to the constant region of both goat and swine IgG with comparable affinity (35-37). ...
Bagley, P. J. and J. Selhub (1997). "Analysis of folates using combined affinity and ion-pair chromatography." Methods Enzymol ... The revised affinity/HPLC system consisted of two affinity columns, containing immobilized folate binding protein (FBP), that ... Folic acid and 5MeTHF concentrations were determined using the affinity/HPLC method with electrochemical (coulometric) ... An aliquot (0.9ml) of the supernatant fraction was injected onto the affinity/HPLC system. ...
Chromatography, Affinity [‎1]‎. Chromatography, Gas [‎1]‎. Chromium [‎2]‎. Chromium Compounds [‎2]‎. Chromium hexavalent ion [‎ ...
a, Size-exclusion chromatography of total protein extracts from Col-0; P35S- FM-SE transgenic plants shows the FM-SE enrichment ... SE complexes were isolated from Col-0; P35S-FM-SE transgenic plants by two-step affinity purification, and analysed by mass ... f, The binding affinity (apparent Kd) of CHR2-dsDNA was calculated from EMSA image quantification with s.d. from three ... 10 Effect of CHR2 mutations on binding affinity to nucleic acids, Microprocessor cleavage efficiency of pri-miRNA, and rescue ...
Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEX) * Affinity Chromatography * Mixed-Mode Chromatography * Hydrophobic Interaction ... Process Chromatography (2). pH Stability: 1 to 12 (short term), 4 to 10 (long term) Pack Volume: 5 L Pack Volume: 25 mL Reset ...
Antigen affinity chromatography. Storage buffer:. PBS with 0.2% BSA. Contains:. 0.09% sodium azide ...
2011), affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and capillary electrochromatography (Cheng and Huang 2004; Babu ... Immobilized metal affinity membrane. 94.6. 15.4. Nie et al. 2008. Precipitation, ion exchange chromatography. -. 3.3. Devakate ... Affinity-based reverse micelle system. 185.6. 12.32. Kumar et al. 2011. Chromatography. High speed counter-current ... Nie H, Li S, Zhou Y, Chen T, He Z, Su S, Zhang H, Xue Y, Zhu L. Purification of bromelain using immobilized metal affinity ...
Purification Purified by affinity chromatography.. Storage Aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.. ...
In-vitro studies a. Affinity chromatography  It is based on highly specific interactions between an immobilized ligand and its ... a donor (having more electron affinity) and an acceptor (more electronegative). b. Salt bridges  Salt bridges are formed ...
Low-pressure process chromatography could not have developed without immense efforts to resolve scale-up issues in both column ... Its isolation by affinity chromatography and its use as an immunosorbent for isolation of immunoglobulins. FEBS Lett. 1972;28(1 ... Affinity chromatography: from textile dyes to synthetic ligands by design. BioPharm Int. 2004;17(7): 34-42 and 17(8):60-66. ... Process affinity chromatography using Protein A adsorbents has received much attention with the introduction of new products ...
Purification Affinity chromatography. Storage buffer proprietary buffer, pH 7.4-7.8, with 30% glycerol, 0.5% BSA. ...
The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography. Concentration 0.5 mg/ml Storage & Handling The antibody solution should ...
Purity: Purified by affinity chromatography with protein G Applications: Anti-hPD1-Pem-hIgG1 binds and blocks ligand activation ... It has been produced in CHO cells and purified by affinity chromatography. ... Human IgG1 is the most abundant immunoglobin present in serum and binds with high affinity to the Fc receptor on phagocytic ...
... affinity chromatography using immobilized antibodies was employed. The chemical data on the 3 components fractionated with ...
... coli lysate using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. ... the sera harvested from immunized rabbits using an affinity ...
The antibody to rabbit IgG was isolated by affinity chromatography using antigen coupled to agarose beads. ...
Whole blood samples in 90 participants analyzed by boronate affinity chromatography method on NGSP-certified Premier Hb9210 ... Cation-exchange column chromatography on an automated HPLC instrument (Variant II Turbo, Bio-Rad Laboratories).. ... HbA1c laboratory analysis methods were high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for studies 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9 through 12 ( ... high performance liquid chromatography; NHANES III, the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NIH, National ...
PURIFICATION: Antibody is purified by peptide affinity chromatography method.. *CLONALITY: Polyclonal. *PHYSICAL STATE: Liquid ...
ELISA, IHC, WB, Affinity chromatography , Print as PDF. BML-SA477-0025. 25 µl. 105.00 USD. ...
  • The companies will focus on identifying peptides applicable to the affinity chromatography process used in the purification of biopharmaceuticals. (biopharminternational.com)
  • JSR, a technology-focused materials supplier in Tokyo, Japan, announced that its JSR Life Sciences division is beginning a joint development program with PeptiDream, a Tokyo-based biopharmaceutical company, to identify peptides applicable to the affinity chromatography process used in the purification of biopharmaceuticals. (biopharminternational.com)
  • By using affinity chromatography, they achieved a significant degree of purification of these interferons, but due to an insufficient supply of starting material, a homogeneous preparation of neither interferon was obtained. (nih.gov)
  • His tags, FLAG tags, protein fusions, etc) for affinity purification and to aid solubility in commercially available plasmid vectors. (aptamergroup.com)
  • The purification of native proteins on an industrial scale relies on traditional ion exchange (IEX), hydrophobic interaction (HIC) or size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Although these techniques are relatively 'gentle', obtaining the desired level of purity requires many sequential and repeated purification steps. (aptamergroup.com)
  • Aptamer-mediated affinity chromatography (AMAC) enables the purification of proteins in a single step. (aptamergroup.com)
  • AMAC addresses these issues through the rapid development of bespoke, high affinity and specific purification reagents, and pre-determined, user-defined elution conditions. (aptamergroup.com)
  • A method of affinity purification of a regulatory protein that binds specific RNA sequences is described. (nih.gov)
  • Along the way, Anfinsen tried many purification methods and helped develop the powerful affinity chromatography technique. (nih.gov)
  • Purification Purified by affinity chromatography. (anobase.org)
  • Immuno-affinity depletion and multi-lectin chromatography (M-LAC) were integrated into an automated HPLC platform to remove high abundance protein and fractionate glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • We are very excited to start the development of a new affinity chromatography ligand jointly with JSR, and, together, contribute to the research, development, and production of antibody therapeutics and other modalities. (biopharminternational.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody was purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography. (fishersci.com)
  • The ligands fixed on the stationary phase of affinity chromatography include dye ligand, metal ion ligand, inclusion complex ligand, specific civilian group, charge transfer ligand and covalent ligand. (welch-us.com)
  • The inclusion complex ligand is formed by the special affinity force between the subject and the guest molecule. (welch-us.com)
  • The interaction between the general affinity ligand and the solute is usually not strong. (welch-us.com)
  • This invention permits separation of very hydrophilic organic compounds using countercurrent chromatography in which a ligand for the desired analytes is used to enhance the partitioning of polar species into the organic layer of an aqueous-organic solvent mixture. (nih.gov)
  • When a solution flows over it, the ligand binds to the specific molecule that has an "affinity" or natural bond with it. (nih.gov)
  • A new and highly advantageous method of purifying polar organic compounds using affinity countercurrent chromatography, has been created. (nih.gov)
  • He obtained two patents on chiral separation and affinity countercurrent chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • A proteomics platform combining depletion, multi-lectin affinity chromatography (M-LAC), and isoelectric focusing to study the breast cancer proteome. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, potential glycan changes were indicated by comparing proteins in control and cancer samples in terms of their affinity to the multi-lectin column (M-LAC) and the pI profiles in IEF separation. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, a proteomics platform including high abundance protein depletion, lectin affinity fractionation, IEF separation, and LC-MS analysis has been applied to discover breast cancer-associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Multi-lectin Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveal Differential Glycoform Levels between Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Sera. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we systematically interrogate the alterations in the circulating levels of hundreds of serum proteins and their glycoforms in PCa and BPH samples using multi- lectin affinity chromatography and quantitative mass spectrometry -based proteomics . (bvsalud.org)
  • 19. High-throughput analysis of lectin-oligosaccharide interactions by automated frontal affinity chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • Mass spectrometry scores for selected of the proteins purified by affinity chromatography using region A. (figshare.com)
  • The structure of triazine reactive dyes is close to the natural substrate of enzymes and can be used in affinity chromatography by binding to the active sites of enzyme active proteins. (welch-us.com)
  • In addition to these benefits, AMAC does not rely on affinity/solubility tags and therefore offers a simpler workflow for purifying 'native' proteins. (aptamergroup.com)
  • The broad spectrum of recombinant expression systems (many incorporating solubility and affinity tags), mean that these processes can be applied to many proteins with reasonable results. (aptamergroup.com)
  • Binding affinity of both proteins to human CCL5 and CXCL8 chemokine was examined by ELISA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Folic acid and 5MeTHF concentrations were determined using the affinity/HPLC method with electrochemical (coulometric) detection method Which was developed by us at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University (Bagley et al. (cdc.gov)
  • An aliquot (0.9ml) of the supernatant fraction was injected onto the affinity/HPLC system. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel G protein α subunits were purified from rat brain by an affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits (Pang, I.-H., and Sternweis, P.C. (1989) Proc. (unthsc.edu)
  • The program will be based off of PeptiDream's proprietary drug discovery platform, Peptide Discovery Platform System (PDPS), and JSR's knowledge of affinity separation technology. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Affinity chromatography is based on the inherent specific interactions of biomolecules for highly selective sample separation. (welch-us.com)
  • The spacer arm plays a more important role in the separation of large molecular affinity stationary phase with small molecules as ligands. (welch-us.com)
  • The spacer arm with hydrophobicity may have non-specific interactions with ligands or samples and interfere with affinity separation. (welch-us.com)
  • In this article, Anfinsen, et al, reported the use of affinity chromatography to purify human leukocyte and fibroblast interferons. (nih.gov)
  • By 1966, Anfinsen and his colleagues had isolated the Staphylococcus aureus RNase through the use of affinity chromatography, an innovative laboratory technique first developed in 1951 by Dan Hampston Campbell, a professor of immunology at the California Institute of Technology. (nih.gov)
  • Affinity chromatography enabled Anfinsen to put a bacterium into a chemical solution that selectively captures molecular particles and spreads them out across a medium so that they can be easily examined, in analogy to the colors of a spectrum. (nih.gov)
  • This ambitious book attempted to show the scientific and disciplinary affinities between molecular genetics and protein chemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Elution under pre-determined conditions removes the need for harsh, denaturing reagents often required with other affinity ligands such as antibodies. (aptamergroup.com)
  • Second, affinity chromatography using immobilized antibodies was employed. (cdc.gov)
  • In affinity chromatography, a buffer solution with different pH values is usually used as the mobile phase. (welch-us.com)
  • This allows one affinity column to be loaded with the sample and subsequently washed with a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer, while the second is eluted into the analytical column with an acetonitrile gradient at acid pH and into the electrochemical detector. (cdc.gov)
  • Affinity chromatographic stationary phase can be divided into special type and general type depending on the interaction between ligands and samples. (welch-us.com)
  • Affinity ligands can be either directly coupled to the matrix or indirectly connected via spacer arms. (welch-us.com)
  • An automated multilectin affinity chromatography (M-LAC) platform was utilized for glycoprotein enrichment followed by nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. (nih.gov)
  • We show that SIgA2 b12 binds to the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein with similar apparent affinity to that of monomeric and dimeric forms of IgA2 b12 and neutralizes HIV-1 isolates with similar potency. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 12. Frontal affinity chromatography: sugar-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we combined dIgA2 b12 and CHO-expressed rhSC via column chromatography to produce SIgA2 b12 that remains fully intact upon elution with 0.1. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In the lab with Sephedex column for affinity chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • PeptiDream's platform will enable us to develop the advanced materials, specifically next generation chromatography resins, needed to produce the biopharmaceuticals and therapies of the future. (biopharminternational.com)
  • The specific affinity between metal ions and biomolecules in chelates can be used to separate or purify biomolecules. (welch-us.com)
  • The range of SUP now covers the majority of the bioprocess range from bioreactors, storage and mixing bags, filter cartridges, chromatography modules and crossflow cassettes. (ddw-online.com)
  • Read more about the developing world and affinity chromatography in a recent article from Bioprocess Technology Group Managing Director Frank Riske in the Journal of Biotechnology and Bioprocessing. (bdo.com)
  • Analysis of folates using combined affinity and ion-pair chromatography. (cdc.gov)
  • Immuno-affinity depletion and multi-lectin chromatography (M-LAC) were integrated into an automated HPLC platform to remove high abundance protein and fractionate glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, a proteomics platform including high abundance protein depletion, lectin affinity fractionation, IEF separation, and LC-MS analysis has been applied to discover breast cancer-associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This ambitious book attempted to show the scientific and disciplinary affinities between molecular genetics and protein chemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Affinity chromatography enabled Anfinsen to put a bacterium into a chemical solution that selectively captures molecular particles and spreads them out across a medium so that they can be easily examined, in analogy to the colors of a spectrum. (nih.gov)
  • To set up a method convenient for detection of HS-GGT isoenzyme, we established a method of datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-sepharose affinity chromatography to detect HS-GGT in serum, and further investigate its diagnostic value in 154 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and benign liver diseases and 21 healthy subjects. (medscape.com)
  • Using DSA-sepharose affinity chromatography is a simple method with similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity compared with other methods for detection of HS-GGT. (medscape.com)
  • A new and highly advantageous method of purifying polar organic compounds using affinity countercurrent chromatography, has been created. (nih.gov)