Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SepharoseSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 18.104.22.168.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.PolysaccharidesRadioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Glycoside HydrolasesCentrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.EstersTritiumDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.GlucosidesBlood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.GlucosamineTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.FucoseRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (1/4718)Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay. (+info)
Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (2/4718)The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme. (+info)
EGF precursor mRNA and membrane-associated EGF precursor protein in rat exorbital lacrimal gland. (3/4718)This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. EGF precursor gene transcription was demonstrated first by RT-PCR analysis of lacrimal gland RNA using a set of specific primers and second by Northern blot analysis of rat lacrimal gland mRNA. A rabbit polyclonal antibody (rEGF2) directed against rat submaxillary gland EGF was used to detect EGF-containing proteins by RIA. Results indicate that the rat lacrimal gland does not contain detectable soluble and mature EGF but that the EGF immunoreactivity is associated with the membrane-enriched fraction. Analysis of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by gel filtration shows that membrane-associated EGF immunoreactivity was present as a high-molecular-mass protein. Moreover, as shown by Western blot analysis, a specific anti-rat EGF precursor antibody (ppEGF1) can immunoprecipitate a 152-kDa EGF-containing protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time both EGF precursor gene transcription and EGF precursor protein expression in a lacrimal tissue, i.e., the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. The demonstration that EGF appears to be stored only as its full-length membrane precursor may provide important information to study the regulation of its secretory process. (+info)
Partitioning of triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues in gel bead-immobilized liposomes: chromatographic measurement of their membrane partition coefficients. (4/4718)Unilamellar liposomes of small or large size, SUVs and LUVs, respectively, were stably immobilized in the highly hydrophilic Sepharose 4B or Sephacryl S-1000 gel beads as a membrane stationary phase for immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC). Lipophilic cations of triphenylmethylphosphonium and tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) have been used as probes of the membrane potential of cells. Interaction of TPP+ and triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues with the immobilized liposomal membranes was shown by their elution profiles on both zonal and frontal ILC. Retardation of the lipophilic cations on the liposome gel bed was increased as the hydrophobicity of the cations increased, indicating the partitioning of lipophilic cations into the hydrocarbon region of the membranes. The cations did not retard on the Sepharose or Sephacryl gel bed without liposomes, confirming that the cations only interact with the immobilized liposomes. Effects of the solute concentration, flow rate, and gel-matrix substance on the ILC were studied. The stationary phase volume of the liposomal membranes was calculated from the volume of a phospholipid molecule and the amount of the immobilized phospholipid, which allowed us to determine the membrane partition coefficient (KLM) for the lipophilic cations distributed between the aqueous mobile and membrane stationary phases. The values of KLM were generally increased with the hydrophobicity of the solutes increased, and were higher for the SUVs than for the LUVs. The ILC method described here can be applied to measure membrane partition coefficients for other lipophilic solutes (e.g., drugs). (+info)
Isolation of DNA fragments associated with methylated CpG islands in human adenocarcinomas of the lung using a methylated DNA binding column and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. (5/4718)We have constructed a library of DNA fragments heavily methylated in human adenocarcinomas of the lung to permit the comprehensive isolation of methylated CpG islands in cancer. Heavily methylated genomic DNA fragments from tumors of nine male patients were enriched using a methylated DNA binding column and used for construction of the library. From this library, DNA fragments having properties of CpG islands were isolated on the basis of their reduced rate of strand dissociation during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Approximately 1,000 clones, corresponding to 0.3% of the library were analyzed, and nine DNA fragments were identified as being associated with CpG islands that were methylated in tumor DNA. One CpG island was methylated specifically in tumor DNA, whereas the remaining eight CpG islands were methylated both in normal and tumor DNA derived from the same patients. Our results suggest that the number of CpG islands methylated specifically in tumors is not large. The library, which contains DNA fragments from methylated CpG islands comprehensively, is expected to be valuable when elucidating epigenetic processes involved in carcinogenesis. (+info)
Deamidation of alpha-A crystallin from nuclei of cataractous and normal human lenses. (6/4718)PURPOSE: To quantitate the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 of alpha-A crystallin in the nucleus from human cataractous and normal lenses. METHODS: Reverse phase chromatography was used to prepare alpha-A crystallin from total proteins of the nucleus from cataractous and age-matched normal human lenses. Synthetic peptides were made corresponding to the expected amidated and deamidated tryptic fragments containing asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6. The peptides were used to identify and quantitate amidated and deamidated forms of tryptic fragments from alpha-A crystallin eluting from a reverse phase column. RESULTS: Significant amounts of deamidation of asparagine-101 and glutamine-50, but not glutamine-6, were present in alpha-A crystallin from nuclear sections of both cataractous and age-matched normal lenses. Quantitative analysis of tryptic peptides containing these residues indicated no statistical difference in deamidation in cataractous versus normal lenses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 for alpha-A crystallin, purified from the nucleus of cataractous versus age-matched normal lenses. These results strongly suggest that deamidation of these residues does not play a role in the biogenesis of human nuclear cataract. (+info)
Purification and properties of bovine pituitary follitropin. (7/4718)A reproducible procedure was developed for the purification of follitropin from frozen bovine pituitary glands. The method involved precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and acetone, followed by ion-exchange column chromatography on CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. A specific radioligand-receptor assay for follitropin was used to locate the activity in eluates after column chromatography and gel filtration. The potency of the highly purified bovine follitropin as measured by Steelman-Pohley bioassay was 164 times that of NIH-FSH-S1 standard preparation. They yield of bovine follitropin was 2.9 mg/kg of frozen pituitary glands. Electrophoretically, bovine follitropin was more acidic in nature and migrated further towards the anode than lutropin and thyrotropin. The elution volume of bovine follitropin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 was very similar to that of bovine lutropin. The amino acid composition of bovine follitropin was similar to that of sheep and human follitropin, being rich in lysine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid and half-cystine. (+info)
The selective isolation of the uterine oestradiol-receptor complex by binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose. The mediation of an essential activator in the transformation of cytosol receptor. (8/4718)The [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex was selectively isolated from rat uterus cytosol by column chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Optimal conditions are described for the binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose, which is shown to be similar to its binding to DNA-cellulose. The cytosol complex has an apparent mol. wt. of 50,000-60,000 in high salt concentrations, as determined by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. This corresponds to the 4S cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor. In binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose the receptor is transformed into a form with an apparent mol.wt. of 100,000-120,000, corresponding to the 5S nuclear receptor complex. This transformation mimics the conversion in vivo of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor into the nuclear form. The binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose as a 5S nuclear form is unequivocally demonstrated to require the mediation of an activating present in the cytosol. The requirement for an activating factor is discussed in relation to reports that nuclear binding of the oestradiol-receptor complex is not dictated solely by the availability of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor. (+info)
Proteomics/Protein Separations - Chromatography/Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) - Wikibooks, open books for an...
Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography is a separation technique that uses the properties of hydrophobicity to separate proteins from one another. In this type of chromatography, hydrophobic groups such as phenyl, octyl, or butyl, are attached to the stationary column. Proteins that pass through the column that have hydrophobic amino acid side chains on their surfaces are able to interact with and bind to the hydrophobic groups on the column. HIC separations are often designed using the opposite conditions of those used in ion exchange chromatography. In this separation, a buffer with a high ionic strength, usually ammonium sulfate, is initially applied to the column. The salt in the buffer reduces the solvation of sample solutes thus as solvation decreases, hydrophobic regions that become exposed are adsorbed by the medium. ...
In this eBook devoted to Practical Copolymer Analysis using GPC/SEC and Related Techniques, experts discuss how several GPC/SEC methods may improve copolymer sample characterization. Learn about dual-detection methods, polymer liquid adsorption chromatography, 2D chromatography, and more ...
A convenient method is described for two-dimensional amino acid chromatography on micro scale chromatograms of 5 × 5 cm. Despite the short migration paths, excellent separation is obtained. The time of development is short and the technical procedure very simple. Extension to other classes of compounds is possible. show less ...
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The Intrada Amino Acid column has been shown to be a viable solution for the analysis of amino acids by LC-MS without derivatization.
Ted to concentration and fractionation on a Sephadex LH-20 column (2.8 6 33 cm | IDH Inhibitor idhinhibitor.com
Ted to concentration and fractionation on a Sephadex LH-20 column (2.8 6 33 cm) using 80 methanol as an eluent. The relevant fractions were pooled and
Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC or SEC-HPLC) is an analytical technique that separates dissolved macromolecules by size based on their elution from columns
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) products, including GFC & GPC columns.
Comparison of Individual Computer Aided Design/Manufactured (CAD/CAM) - Based Implants Consisting on Hydroxylapatite and...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Column Chromatography Science Project: Investigate whether a homemade column chromatography setup can be used to separate and isolate the different food colorings that are in grape soda.
This webcast presents a series experiments in which in-process mAb material was spiked with MVM-MVP and processed through Anion Exchange and Cation Exchange, and a a viral clearance study was performed on Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) resins
A.T. Hanke, M.E. Klijn, P.D.E.M. Verhaert, L.A.M. van der Wielen, M. Ottens, M.H.M. Eppink, E.J.A.X. van de Sandt, Prediction of protein retention times in hydrophobic interaction chromatography by robust statistical characterization of their atomic-level surface properties, Biotechnol Prog. (2015) 1520-6033, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2219 ...
Buy High Resolution Chromatography for $466.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. The molecular biology revolution has required the development of new chromatographic techniques and the optimization of original techniques to give re...
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Protein kinase C in the developing rat brain was investigated by a biochemical assay and by light-microscopic immunocytochemistry. The protein kinase was resolved on hydroxyapatite column chromatography into 3 fractions, designated types I, II, and III. Type I, with structure encoded by a gamma-sequence, was not detected early postnatally, maintained a low level of activity during the first week, which increased gradually, and reached its maximum around postnatal day 28. This type of enzyme was expressed specifically in nervous tissues, and was not found in any other tissues thus far tested. Type II enzyme activity, a mixture of the 2 subspecies encoded by the beta I- and beta II-sequences, was found at birth, increased rapidly, and reached a plateau level between postnatal days 14 and 28. This type was the predominant subspecies of protein kinase C in the brain. Type III, its structure encoded by the alpha-sequence, was also detected at birth, and reached its maximum level on postnatal day 7. ...
Identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography - A-Level Science - Marked by Teachers.com
Introduction. Identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Aim To separation and identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Introduction Chromatography is a techniques separation of mixtures It involves passing the sample, a mixture which contains the analyte, in the mobile phase, often in a stream of solvent, through the stationary phase. The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a mass-start foot race. Each component has a characteristic time of passage through the system, called a retention time. Chromatographic separation is achieved when the retention time of the analyte differs from that of other components mixtures in the sample. There are many types chromatography but there are four main types which are Liquid Chromatography Liquid Chromatography this is used in the world to test water samples to look for pollution ...
[96 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Affinity Chromatography Columns Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Affinity Chromatography Columns market...
Omnifit Chromatography Column Replacement Endpieces: Fixed Fixed endpiece; Bore size: 10mm; Operating pressure: 600 psi Omnifit...
Omnifit Chromatography Column Replacement Endpieces: Fixed Fixed endpiece; Bore size: 10mm; Operating pressure: 600 psi Omnifit Chromatography Column Replacement...
hai dear bloggers, i m here with my blog titled as COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY from team PHARMA WARRIORS . COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY column chromatography is a technique in which a column of stationary phase is used.based upon the stationary phase nature,this column chromatography is further divided into 2 types.they are if a
Chromatography is a critical operational step in many pharmaceutical downstream processes. In this course, you will learn chromatography fundamentals, design, operations, key mechanisms, and performance testing. Laboratory exercises will provide hands-on experience in both Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions chromatography including equipment setup, column conditioning, performance testing and column operation. In addition, use of automation software and column packing will be demonstrated.
Principles and Practice of Chromatography - Peak Dispersion in a Chromatographic Column | The Resistance to Mass Transfer in...
Dispersion due to resistance to mass transfer in the stationary phase is exactly analogous to that in the mobile phase. Solute molecules close to the interface will leave the stationary phase and enter the mobile phase before those that have diffused further into the stationary phase and have a longer distance to diffuse back. Thus, as those molecules that were close to the surface will be swept along in the moving phase, they will be dispersed from those molecules still diffusing to the surface. The dispersion resulting from the resistance to mass transfer in the stationary phase is depicted in figure 23. Molecules 1 and 2 (the two closest to the surface) will enter the mobile phase and begin moving along the column. Their movement will continue while molecules 3 and 4 diffuse to the interface at which time they will enter the mobile phase and start following molecules 1 and 2 down the column. ...
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Global Prepacked Chromatography Columns Market: Burgeoning Demand for Therapeutics Monoclonal Antibodies Drives Uptake, says TMR
Prepacked Chromatography Columns Market was US$1.74 bn in 2016 and is poised to reach US$3.34 bn by 2024, expand at a CAGR of 8.4% therein
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Global Prepacked Chromatography Columns Market 2017-2022 focuses On Top Companies, Research Methodology, Drivers and...
The report evaluates the figures of the global Prepacked Chromatography Columns Market and presents reliable forecasts as to the markets growth prospects
Tartaric, Malic & Lactic acid chromatography papers. Replacement for Chromatography Kit (PCKV). Sold by Presque Isle Wine Cellars in North East, PA, experts in wine making and winemaking supplies, and now brewing supplies.
Definition of Paper chromatography with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
The core houses the inner frit, through which the eluent percolates and exits at the base of the column to a detector and hence to a fraction collector. The outer frit constitutes the column inlet, and consequently the sample has initially an extremely large area of stationary phase with which to interact. This renders the loading capacity of the radial flow column also very high. It is interesting to note, that as the solute progress radially through the stationary phase bed towards the center, the effective cross-sectional area of the column will become smaller. Consequently, the plate volume of the column will decrease (see Plate Theory and Extensions ) as the solute moves to the center which will result in the solute being concentrated. However, as the solute bands progressively decrease in concentration due to normal dispersion processes (see Dispersion in Chromatography Columns ), this counteracts the concentration effect from reduced bed cross-section and prevents the column packing from ...
Hi, I have sequential numbers below in column A of excel. M66.211 M66.212 M66.213 M66.214 M66.215 M66.216 M66.217 M66.218 M66.219 M66.811 M66.812 M66.
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An improved method for qualitative analysis of mixtures containing chloride, chlorite, chlorate, and perchlorate has been developed. This method utilizes paper partition chromatography and differential spray reagents for location of the separated spots. (Author)(*CHLORATES
Patent US5569608 - Quantitative detection of analytes on immunochromatographic strips - Google Patents
A method for determining the concentration of analyte in a test fluid by immunochromatography techniques which involves quantitatively determining the signals from captured analyte/labeled binding partner complex by an instrument, e.g. reflectance spectrometer. In a preferred embodiment, a reflectance reading is determined for the captured complex and uncomplexed labeled binding partner which is captured in a separate zone of the immunochromatographic strip and the ratio of these reflectances is used to provide additional quantitation to the assay method.
Patent US5569608 - Quantitative detection of analytes on immunochromatographic strips - Google Patents
A method for determining the concentration of analyte in a test fluid by immunochromatography techniques which involves quantitatively determining the signals from captured analyte/labeled binding partner complex by an instrument, e.g. reflectance spectrometer. In a preferred embodiment, a reflectance reading is determined for the captured complex and uncomplexed labeled binding partner which is captured in a separate zone of the immunochromatographic strip and the ratio of these reflectances is used to provide additional quantitation to the assay method.
Part of the Technology Updates series, this fact sheet describes PATHs work to develop a rapid, easy-to-read, low-cost test for Chagas disease.. Corporate author(s): PATH. Publication date: July 2013. ...
Brevet US4435504 - Immunochromatographic assay with support having bound 'MIP' and second enzyme - Google Brevets
Chromatographic immunoassay employing a specific binding pair member and a label conjugate which delineates a border whose distance from one end of the chromatograph relates to the amount of analyte present. By combining the label conjugate and sample in a solution and immunochromatographing the solution, or employing a combination of enzymes, one enzyme being the label and the other enzyme affixed to the chromatographic support, the position of the border defined by the label can be related to the amount of analyte in the sample solution. Preferably, an immunochromatograph is employed having both a specific binding pair member and an enzyme affixed to the support. A sample is chromatographed and the amount of analyte is determined by (1) contacting the chromatograph with a second enzyme conjugated with a specific binding pair member which binds to the chromatograph in proportion to the amount of analyte bound to the chromatograph, or (2) including the second enzyme conjugate with said sample, resulting
Novel compounds are produced by the fermentation of a nutrient medium with the previously undescribed microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis. They may be isolated by solvent extraction and chromatographic fractionation techniques. The compounds, which are described generically as C-076 have significant parasiticidal activity. The compounds may be included in compositions for the oral or parenteral administration to animals for the prevention and cure of parasitic infections.
POLYSTYRENE:62,,GRADIENT INTERACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY:56,,ANIONICPOLYMERIZATION:54,,SEPARATION:46,,LIQUIDCHROMATOGRAPHY:38,,SIZEEXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY:34,,BEHAVIOR:34,,POLYMERS:32,,BLOCKCOPOLYMERS:28,,POLYISOPRENE:24,,DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS:24,,HPLC:22,,MOLECULARWEIGHT DISTRIBUTION:20,,THINFILMS:18,,PERFORMANCE LIQUIDCHROMATOGRAPHY:18,,SYNTHETICPOLYMERS:18,,MACROMOLECULES:18,,REVERSEDPHASE:16,,RETENTION BEHAVIOR:16,,MOLECULARWEIGHT:14,,block copolymer:14,,MORPHOLOGY:12,,CRITICAL ADSORPTION POINT:12,,BLOCKCOPOLYMER:12,,MELTS:12,,COPOLYMERS:12,,DIBLOCK COPOLYMER:12,,LIGHTSCATTERING:10,,DEPENDENCE:10,,ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY:10,,COMPLEX POLYMERS:10,,polystyrene:10,,temperature gradient interaction chromatography:10,,ETHYLENEOXIDE:10,,GELPERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY:10,,ELUTION:10,,FRACTIONATION:10,,AIR/WATER INTERFACE:10,,XRAYSCATTERING:10,,POLYMERIZATION:10,,POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION:10,,MONOLAYERS:10,,AIRWATERINTERFACE:8,,PROBE DIFFUSION:8,,DYNAMICS:8,,MIXTURES:8,,AROMATIC ...
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For Bulk inquiry Contact us. Request a quote today!! ImmunoTest™ HIV-1 p24 For Serum, Plasma, Tissue Culture Medium ImmunoDX Strictly for non-human research and diagnostics Catalog# IT-200 Intended Use: ImmunoTest™ HIV-1p24 test is an in vitro, semiquantitative immunochromatographic assay for the detection of p24 co
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a vertical glass tube used in column chromatography; a mixture is poured in the top and washed through a stationary substance where components of the mixture are adsorbed selectively to form colored bands. ...
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Its interaction with DNA was studied using a combination of S(1) nuclease hydrolysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Prognostic value of elevated white blood cell count sildenafil sandoz 100 mg in hypertension. The findings provide the first direct evidence suggesting that the functional ...
Exp 2 Lab Report - Rachel Golub CHM 102 Experiment 2 Paper Chromatography Lab Report INTRODUCTION In this experiment I will be...
View Notes - Exp 2 Lab Report from CHM 102 at Rhode Island. Rachel Golub CHM 102 Experiment 2: Paper Chromatography 09-27-06 Lab Report INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, I will be using a variety
Paper chromatography is one of the easiest methods of chromatography. It is a method of planar chromatography (stationary phase is in form of a plane).
PLATE 32 FIG. 3. Portion of astronomical ceiling (Sen-n-mut). (his, xiv (1930), PI. 1^9.) Jupiter, Sirius, and Orion are shown in three successive columns starting from the left. The three conspicuous stars almost in a vertical line seem to be S, e, and Orionis. The Egg near the centre may represent the Pleiades and the V-shaped group between Orion and the Egg the Hyades. Above is part of the dekan list ...
After ten years of continuously expanding Chromedia, we decided - after ample user tests - to say good bye to Topic Circle navigation and welcome Topic Lines. Each Topic Line will open up subtopics and articles. Now you can navigate through all of Chromedias content - including our growing number of videos - on your computer, tablet or mobile ...
BIA Separations is the leading developer and manufacturer of CIM® (Convective Interaction Media) monolithic chromatographic columns for production, purification, and analytics of large biomolecules.
[121 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Chromatography Instruments Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Chromatography Instruments Revenue,...
Over the past 10 years Upfront has worked with a range of industrial partners to isolate valuable protein fractions, Upfront Chromatography, Tel +45 3927 3763
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Please note that in this PDF only the phase description and the corresponding article numbers for the different phases are displayed. For a complete column in your desired dimension, please take a look at the Order Information for our columns ...
Please note that in this PDF only the phase description and the corresponding article numbers for the different phases are displayed. To order bulk material in your desired dimension and quantity, please take a look at the order information for our phases. ...
Im working with a document I was given. There are currently 4 columns with cells of a certain size. When I try to insert a new column, it comes in
More on: Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: A randomized...
Almsherqi, Z.A., Mclachlan, C.S., Sharef, S.M. (2006-07). More on: Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: A randomized crossover trial . Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 4 (7) : 1638-1639. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.01926. ...
Higher value products demand for chromatographic techniques. The techniques are used for. concentration, de salting and purification of protein preparation. When choosing a chromatographic. technique, a number of factors need to be put into consideration. These factors may include iso-. electric point, biological affinity, hydro-phobicity and molecular weight in proteins. Each of the above. properties can be exploited by different specific chromatographic methods. The following are the. chromatographic parameters that need to be considered; recovery, capacity and resolving power.. The following are different types of chromatography used in downstream processing. Adsorption chromatography. Affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography. Ion exchange chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography. Distillation. Ion exchange chromatography. In adsorption chromatography, separation is done according to affinity of protein or any other. material. Affinity ...
Immunochromatographic detection of the group B streptococcus antigen from enrichment cultures. - Semantic Scholar
Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends GBS screening for all pregnant women during the 35th to 37th weeks of gestation. Although GBS screening has been performed mainly by the culture-based method, it takes several days to obtain a reliable result. In this study, we developed a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of GBS-specific surface immunogenic protein in 15 min using an overnight enrichment culture. The ICT was prepared using two anti-Sip monoclonal antibodies. This ICT was able to detect recombinant Sip levels of 0.5 ng/ml, or about 10(6) CFU/ml of GBS cells, in tests with 9 GBS strains of different serotypes. The cross-reactivity test using 26 species of microorganism showed no detectable false-positive result. Reactivity of the ICT with 229 GBS strains showed one false-negative result that was attributable to the production of truncated Sip. Among 260
To make an inexpensive chromatographic column and perform chromatography with it, column walls and a column end with a port are molded integrally from plastic. A closure is integrally molded with a port as well. One type of closure includes part of a snap-on fastener integrally molded to it to cooperate with corresponding parts molded integrally with the column walls and another type of closure is welded to the tubular walls. In the preferred embodiment the welding is spin welding. The end and closure have channels molded into them radiating from a port and opening toward packing material such as silica beads or porous polymeric plugs. Filters and secondary seals may be located at the ends to prevent leakage of packing material.
IMSEAR at HELLIS: Studies on immobilization of alfa- amylase to cyanogen bromide activated sephadex g 200
Studies were made to characterise soluble Alfa-Amylase (Bacterial). The kinetics of Alfa-amylase on starch is zero order at room temperature (28 0 c) for the first 5 minutes. Hence the activity of Alfa-amylase was measured in terms of mg maltose released during first five minutes. Alfa-amylase showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 Cyanogen bromide was prepared and was used to activate sephadex G200 at pH 11.5. The volume of the cyanogen bromide activated gel, at this pH decreased by about 50 percent, compared to that of the unactivated Sephadex G200. Alfa-amylase was coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sephadex G200 at pH8.3 and 7.0. Coupling of the enzyme led to further decrease in volumes of about 15 percent and 6 percent at pH 8.3 and 7.0 respectively. The amounts of protein in the immobilized Alfa-amylase prepared at pH 8.3 and 7.0 were estimated by, Kjeldhal method, by the tryptophan content and from the difference in the amount of protein present in the original solution and that in the ...
Workstations with automated liquid handling modules are used for high throughput parallel protein purification. Different chromatographic systems are available for large, analytical and micro-scale purification of proteins and macromolecular complexes using a variety of prepacked columns and chromatography media. The flow rates are flexible in the range 0.001 ml/min to 10ml/min depending on the pump and column specificities. Samples are loaded manually on the column using a syringe or automatically using a loading pump. Proteins are detected as they are eluted from the column by their UV absorption at multiple wavelengths in the range 190-700 nm. Samples are collected in microplates or in a variety of test tube sizes. Fixed volume fractionation or automatic peak fractionation is possible.. ...
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Chromatography is a practical technique used to separate and identify the components in a mixture.. Chromatography involves a mixture being dissolved in a mobile phase (which could be a liquid or a gas) that is then passed through an immobile stationary phase (which is usually a solid).. The phases are chosen so that components in the mixture have differing interactions in each phase; the balance of these two factors determines the rate of movement of a component which is recorded as either an Rf value or a retention time and used in a components identification.. Examples of types of chromatography include: thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography and gas chromatography.. First of all lets look at gas-liquid chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatography is a microscale chromatographic technique that can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.. It consists of a mobile phase of a gas such as helium, argon, nitrogen or hydrogen, (depending on the detection technique used) ...
Thin layer chromatography, or TLC, is a method for analyzing mixtures by separating the. must not touch the filter paper;...PIGMENT SEPARATION USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY. 4.0 DISCUSSION. because it was a real toxic solvent therefore the spraying was one by the lab.The chromatography paper was obtained, a line 1 cm from the base of the paper was drawn straight across the paper,.Place a piece of filter paper into the beaker, as demonstrated by the image below. TLC CHROMATOGRAPHY LAB.There are many different types of chromatography besides the paper chromatography ...
The impurity of radioiodinated triolein: Commercially supplied radioiodinated triolein has been shown by thin-layer chromatography and silicic acid column chrom
Number and proportion of selenocucleosides in the transfer RNA of escherichia-coli - [email protected]
tRNA isolated from escherichia-coli grown in a medium containing [75Se] sodium selenosulfate was converted to nucleosides and analysed for selenonucleosides on a phosphocellulose column. Upon chromatography of the nucleosides on phosphocellulose column, the radioactivity resolved into three peaks. The first peak consisted of free selenium and traces of undigested nucleotides. The second peak was identified as 4-selenouridine by co-chromatographing with an authentic sample of 4-selenouridine. The identity of the third peak was not established. The second and third peaks represented 93% and 7% of the selenium present in nucleosides respectively.. ...
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Complexity of dissolved organic matter in the molecular size dimension: insights from coupled size exclusion chromatography...
This paper investigates the relationship between apparent size distribution and molecular complexity of dissolved organic matter from the natural environment. We used a high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method coupled to UV-Vis diode array detection (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass Challenges in analysis of complex natural mixtures
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Parasitologists United Journal - Heat shock proteins and parasitic diseases: Part 1: Helminths : Download PDF
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The column is held in the upright position and as already mentioned above, the bottom is sealed with glass wool or other such supports and the outlet is closed. Now, the mobile phase is added into the column so that 1/3rd is filled with it. Next, the stationary phase in the form of slurry i.e., degassed gel or adsorbent or resin is gently poured in the column. The slurry is added such that the 3/4th of the column is full. The outlet is now opened and the column is stabilized by adding the mobile phase. Note that a nylon disk is placed on the top of the column so as to prevent the disturbance of the column by the addition of the mobile phase or by the addition of the sample ...
Immunochromatographic tests for antigen and antibody detection against infectious diseases. VIRapid® allows for a rapid detection with visual or automatic reading in just a few minutes. All necessary reagents are included in the kit and each device includes a product control line ...
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Scan Doc0034 - 28 Chapter One Chemical Foundations Figure 1.1 3 Paper chromatography of ink(a A dot of the mixture to be...
View Notes - Scan_Doc0034 from CHEM 2301 at South Texas College. 28 Chapter One Chemical Foundations Figure 1 .1 3 Paper chromatography of ink. (a) A dot of the mixture to be separated is placed at
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a term sometimes used to denote methods of purification of substances by affinity chromatography in which a specific contaminant in a sample interacts with and is selectively retained by the adsorbent, especially as opposed to positive chromatography.. [...] ...
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for fraction collection from a chromatographic system. One or more substances of interest from a sample are collected in high concentration with high efficiency.
Spectrum Chromatography manufactures a full line of instruments for liquid chromatography. These include the CF-2 fraction collector, peristaltic pumps, UV monitor.
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Preparative Chromatography for Separation of Proteins addresses a wide range of modeling, techniques, strategies, and case studies of industrial separation of proteins and peptides ...
Preparative Chromatography for Separation of Proteins addresses a wide range of modeling, techniques, strategies, and case studies of industrial separation of proteins and peptides ...
ABSTRACT Separation and identification of components of a mixture was determined by using Chromatography. The components of a mixture have different
Chromatography products and services progress steadily according to need and available technology, neither of which stand still. A number of new products and services have recently joined the market.
Measure 1cm from bottom of strip and draw a line across Draw a cross in the centre of this line Attach a pin to the top of the chromatography paper, and p
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title:Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Students of Anand. Author:Supekar Shilpa N, Patel Harshid L. Keywords:Australia Antigen, HBsAg, Hepatitis B Virus, Prevalence. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most common infection in the world with significant & serious public health implications. The disease may lead to late complications like chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis & hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study is aimed to know the prevalence of this serious infection among the young students of college in Anand. Material & Methods: HBsAg is the first serological marker in acute HBV infection and is detected 2 - 4 weeks before alanine aminotransferase level become abnormal and 3 - 5 weeks befor symptoms of Jaundice. This study is conducted among the young students from whom blood samples were collected. Serum was separated and assayed by Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay - INSTACHK HEPATITIS (One Step HBsAg Test) ...
Creative BioMart Enlarged Its Chromatography Offerings for Scientific Study | Best Business Newspaper
Creative BioMart, a world leading biotech company focused on supplying quality protein products including recombinant proteins, native proteins, GMP proteins, etc. and custom protein services, is pleased to enlarge its chromatography offerings to better serve scientists in the field of life sciences.. Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Commonly used chromatography techniques include: gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and affinity chromatography.. Upon this update, Creative BioMart now contains all types of chromatography at all scales of matrix including: cross-linked agarose, cross-linked cellulose, dextran, methacrylic and polystyrene. Customers can choose from affinity chromatography, antibody affinity chromatography to gel filtration chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, ...
Cytochrome c552 was purified to near homogenity and partially characterized from Halobacterium salinarium JWS mutant, devoid of carotenoid pigments. The purification involved the extraction of membranes with 1% Triton X-100, followed by butylagarose, DEAE-Sepharose CL6B and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. The fold of purification was 16. The purified cytochrome showed maximum absorption at 552 nm. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was found to be 14.1 kD ...
A reusable liquid chromatographic column consists of three parts, a column body with an integral outlet port molded on one end, a sealing insert with an inlet port, and a perforated cap providing downward force to compress the sealing insert into the column body. A wedge-like seal is employed to seal the connection between the sealing insert and the column body. Two filters on both ends of the column body are used to prevent escape of packing materials from the column chamber under pressure. Hand tightening is adequate to seal the connection by screwing the perforated cap onto the column body. The column is reusable due to its simple disassembling and reassembling processes. It is also disposable due to its inexpensive fabricating materials and manufacturing process.
Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by |i|Vibrio cholerae|/i| infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC) with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10 ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, |i|lt|/i| gene-positive enterotoxigenic |i|Escherichia coli|/i| (ETEC) was examined by CT-IC. The false-positive signals were observed in 3 out
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Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/ion-exchange-chromatography-columns-market/. Geographically, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market has been segmented on the ...
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Affinity chromatography. Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures, based on a highly ... Specific uses of affinity chromatography include antibody affinity, Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and ... Wilchek, M. (1972). "Purification of the heme peptide of cytochrome c by affinity chromatography". Anal. Biochem. 49 (2): 572- ... 1987 Wolf Prize in Medicine, jointly with Pedro Cuatrecasas, "for the invention and development of affinity chromatography and ...
Chromatography. Chromatographic methods of removing viruses are great for purifying the protein and are also effective ... Chromatography. These extraction processes are considered "traditional processes" because they do not chemically affect the ...
SPE and chromatography. SPE is not a method of chromatography, except in the broadest, simplest sense. It is an ... Hennion, Marie-Claire (1999). "Solid-phase extraction: method development, sorbents, and coupling with liquid chromatography". ... Journal of Chromatography A. 856 (1-2): 3-54. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00832-8. ISSN 0021-9673. PMID 10526783.. .mw-parser- ... with aims separate from chromatography, and so has a unique niche in modern chemical science. ...
FTIR as detector in chromatography. The speed of FTIR allows spectra to be obtained from compounds as they are separated ... Liquid chromatography fractions are more difficult because of the solvent present. One notable exception is to measure chain ... However this technique is little used compared to GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) which is more sensitive. The GC- ... branching as a function of molecular size in polyethylene using gel permeation chromatography, which is possible using ...
Gas chromatography-combustion-IRMS. The gas chromatography-combustion-IRMS is a way to detect any variations in the ...
... (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. References. *^ O. David Sparkman; Zelda Penton; Fulton G. Kitson (17 May ... Niessen, W. M. A. (2001). Current practice of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0- ... The first on-line coupling of gas chromatography to a mass spectrometer was reported in 1959. The development of ...
Paper chromatography. Reversed-phase chromatography. Size-exclusion chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography. Two-dimensional ... Affinity chromatography. Column chromatography. Displacement chromatography. Electrochromatography. Gas chromatography. High- ... performance liquid chromatography. Capillary electrochromatography. Ion chromatography. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography ... chromatography. Van Deemter equation. Chapter 3. Fundamental Spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy. Rayleigh scattering. ...
In liquid chromatography, the eluent is the liquid solvent; in gas chromatography, it is the carrier gas. ... In a liquid chromatography experiment, for example, an analyte is generally adsorbed, or "bound to", an adsorbent in a liquid ... For instance, a mixture of amino acids may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Under a particular set of conditions, ... Brown, Phillis (2001). Advances in chromatography. CRC Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-8247-0509-2. .. ...
2007). "Human exhaled air analytics: Biomarkers of diseases". Biomedical Chromatography. 21 (6): 553-566. doi:10.1002/bmc.835. ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1026 (1-2): 9-18. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.069. PMID 14870711.. ... Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (3): 540-566. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.117. PMID 19019381.. ... of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass ...
Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry". Biomedical Chromatography ...
Biomedical Chromatography. 12 (6): 350-356. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0801(199811/12)12:6,350::AID-BMC761,3.0.CO;2-B.. ...
Biomedical Chromatography. 27: 1690-1700. doi:10.1002/bmc.2981.. ...
Journal of Chromatography B. 831 (1-2): 110-5. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.11.050. PMID 16377264.. ... chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography- ...
Finger, Andreas; Kuhr, Susanne; Engelhardt, Ulrich (1992). "Chromatography of tea constituents". Journal of Chromatography. 624 ... "Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): The HbA1c result is calculated as a ratio to total hemoglobin by using a ... "Glycated Hemoglobin in Uremic Patients as Measured by Affinity and Ion-Exchange Chromatography" (PDF). clinchem.com. Retrieved ... Huisman TH, Martis EA, Dozy A (1958). "Chromatography of hemoglobin types on carboxymethylcellulose". J. Lab. Clin. Med. 52 (2 ... Boronate affinity chromatography. In the United States, HbA1c testing laboratories are certified by the National ...
For example, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-mass ... Chromatography, electrophoresis and Field Flow Fractionation are representative of this field. Hybrid techniques. ... Bartle, Keith D.; Myers, Peter (2002). "History of gas chromatography". TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 21 (9-10): 547. ... Most often the other technique is some form of chromatography. Hyphenated techniques are widely used in chemistry and ...
Determination of Dithionite (S2O42−) and Hydroxymethanesulphinate (HOCH2SO2−; Rongalite) by Ion-Pair Chromatography". Journal ...
Shpak AV, Appolonova SA, Semenov VA (2005). "Validation of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass ... Appolonova, Svetlana S.; Shpak, Alexey V.; Semenov, Vitaliy (2004). "Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap ... it has been shown that presence of amphetamine in prior studies was an artifact of gas chromatography method. More recent ... but this was based on older literature that relied on gas chromatography as an analytical method. Subsequently, with the advent ...
Hager DA, Jin DJ, Burgess RR (August 1990). "Use of Mono Q high-resolution ion-exchange chromatography to obtain highly pure ...
Journal of Chromatography A. 315: 201-210. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)90737-X.. Quoted from a campaign site giving no details of ...
Journal of Chromatography B. 2006, 831 (1-2): 110-115. PMID 16377264. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.11.050.. ... chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography- ...
These fractions are separated using chromatography. Generally, the fullerenes are dissolved in hydrocarbon or halogenated ...
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 20 (16-17): 2857-2872. doi:10.1080/10826079708005597.. ...
... methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone studied in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry". Journal of ...
Journal of Chromatography A. 166 (2): 563. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)95641-3.. ...
Countercurrent chromatography, a chromatographic separations-science technique. *Cryogenic current comparator, electronic test ...
Japan Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) Industry Market Research Report 2017. India Supercritical Fluid Chromatography ( ... Global Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) Industry Market Research Report 2017. China Supercritical Fluid Chromatography ... United States Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) Industry Market Research Report 2017. News • Feb 27, 2017 01:54 GMT ... The Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) market analysis is provided for the United States markets including development ...
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography or even Thin Layer Chromatography. The present status and future perspectives for SFC ... Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) received an uneasy welcome, mainly because of the lack of commercially available ... In the present paper, the application to chromatography of the critical phenomena of compressed gases or overheated liquids as ... is not accepted by Pharmacopeia committees for the analysis of drugs and medical forms to the same extent as Gas Chromatography ...
... for both supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the present work, the ... Packed capillary columns in gas chromatography - a review, and a study on silica-based particles. Stepaschko, Jacob A. ... A review on the use of packed capillary columns in gas chromatography (GC) is presented. Several articles on the invention of ... A recently developed technique, solvating gas chromatography (SGC), which uses CO2 as the mobile phase combined with a high ...
Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromatography with ultra violet ... Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Ng M. Han, Choo Y. May, Ma A. Ngan, Chuah C. Hock ... Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromatography with ultra violet ...
Tuning Polymeric Chiral Surfactants for Enhanced Enantiomeric Recognition in Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography. by Tarus, ... and the application of polymeric surfactants in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Sodium undecenoyl-L-Leucinate (L ...
Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building ... Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building ...
Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of vitamin B6 with electrochemical detection. Authors: Yik, Y.F.. Lee, H.K. Li ... Journal of Chromatography A 585 (1) : 139-144. [email protected] Repository.. Abstract: A system for interfacing electrochemical ... Yik, Y.F.,Lee, H.K.,Li, S.F.Y.,Khoo, S.B. (1991-10-25). Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of vitamin B6 with ... detection with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is demonstrated. This system couples the separation column to a ...
Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (pSFC). As an environment-friendly approach to purification applications, pSFC ... Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (pSFC). As an environment-friendly approach to purification applications, pSFC ... In this application, Jasco applied Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) coupled with CAD to an analysis of biodiesel fuel. ... Sepiatec preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) technology. Sepiatec designs compact and very easy to use ...
Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) proved to be satisfactory for the separation of triazines, providing ... Determination of triazine herbicides in water by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography Carabias Martí 관련메뉴. ; nez, R ... Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) proved to be satisfactory for the separation of triazines, providing ... Journal of chromatography A v.733 no.1/2, 1996년, pp.349 - 360 ... reactions for the determination of amines by gas chromatography ...
A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique has been developed for enantioseparation of ... Chiral separation of vinpocetine using cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Chirality, 24 (3). pp. 252 ...
Advances in the use of cyclodextrins as chiral selectors in capillary electrokinetic chromatography: fundamentals and ... Capillary electrokinetic chromatography is generally recognized as a versatile and robust capillary electromigration technique ... Advances in the use of cyclodextrins as chiral selectors in capillary electrokinetic chromatography: fundamentals and ... Within the various chiral selectors that have been applied to enantioseparations in capillary electrokinetic chromatography, ...
REACT IR Several LC-MS Several GC-MS Several flash chromatography separation systems NMR facility Mass spectrometry facility ... CO2 reactor Surpercritical CO2 extractor Surpercritical CO2 phase monitor Investigator Supercritical fluid Chromatography ... Investigator Supercritical fluid Chromatography System. A series of high pressure reactors (Endeavour, HEL, Parr, Autoclave ...
Thin layer chromatography (TLC). Further information: Thin layer chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a ... Gas chromatography. Further information: Gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC), also sometimes known as gas-liquid ... Affinity chromatography. Further information: Affinity chromatography. Affinity chromatography is based on selective ... Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is also known as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or gel filtration chromatography and ...
Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ...
The principle of immunoaffinity or immunoadsorption chromatography is based on the highly specific interaction of an antigen ... with its antibody (1). Immunoaffinity chromatography is a specialized form... ... Immunoaffinity chromatography is a specialized form of affinity chromatography and, as such, utilizes an antibody or antibody ... Phillips, T. M. (1989). High-performance immunoaffinity chromatography. Adv. Chromatogr. 29, 133-173.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together ... These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography.. In general, chromatography uses the differences in ... Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together ...
Chemistry , Chromatography. C614 , 20942 , Jacobson. Theoretical and practical aspects of chromatographic methods of separation ... fundamentals of gas and liquid chromatography, related instrumentation, and selected applications. (May be given in alternate ...
... chromatography: Subsequent developments: A technique exhibiting great selectivity, affinity chromatography, was first described ... In chromatography: Retention mechanism. Affinity chromatography exploits this feature by binding a ligand with the desired ... In chromatography: Subsequent developments. A technique exhibiting great selectivity, affinity chromatography, was first ... interactive capability to a support such as a gel used in gel-filtration chromatography. The ligand retards a solute with the ...
... is used for water chemistry analysis. Ion chromatographs are able to measure concentrations of major anions ... Created by Monica Z. Bruckner, Montana State University What is Ion Chromatography? ... Ion Chromatography. Created by Monica Z. Bruckner, Montana State University. What is Ion Chromatography?. Ion chromatography is ... How Does Ion Chromatography Work?. Ion chromatography, a form of liquid chromatography, measures concentrations of ionic ...
As a chromatography consumable manufacturer and a contract manufacturing organization (CMO), Regis has an onsite team of ... If chiral separation by supercritical fluid chromatography is best, Regis will handle the project in its state of the art SFC ... This valuable addition to its core expertise in chiral chromatography provides a fast and effective advantage that can tackle ... RegisSEP™ Chiral Separation Service uses supercritical fluid chromatography, a method that uses carbon dioxide for a faster and ...
The present communication deals with the application of paper partition chromatography to the identification of natural ... APART from an early attempt by other authors1-3 to adapt a method of paper chromatography for the examination of natural ... APART from an early attempt by other authors1-3 to adapt a method of paper chromatography for the examination of natural ... The present communication deals with the application of paper partition chromatography to the identification of natural ...
Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: supports composed of membrane lipids. Anal. Biochem. 176: 36-47.PubMedCrossRef ... Chae WG., Luo C., Rhee D.M., Lombardo C.R., Low P., Pidgeon C. (1991) Immobilized Artificial Membrane Chromatography. In: ... Immobilized Artificial Membrane Chromatography. Initial Studies Using Monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine as a Detergent for ... Use of high-performance size exclusion chromatography to determine the extent of detergent solubilization of human erythrocyte ...
... chromatography: Development chromatography: In terms of operation, in development chromatography the mobile phase flow is ... In chromatography: Development chromatography. In terms of operation, in development chromatography the mobile phase flow is ... In elution chromatography successive samples of the effluent are collected in tubes held in a mechanically driven rotating tray ... In chromatography: Sample recovery. Sample recovery from development chromatograms has been described-that is, detection ...
... the different pigments present in a leaf are separated using paper chromatography. ... This experiment works very well providing care is taken over preparing the spot on the chromatography paper. It should be as ... d On a strip of chromatography paper, draw a pencil line 3 cm from the bottom.. ... i Avoid moving the beaker in any way once the chromatography has started.. ...
Find current solutions to practical chromatographic separations and learn how to optimize chromatography processes for the best ... conference focusing on the most cutting-edge areas of preparative and process chromatography. ... Preparative and Process Chromatography. Most recognized international conference in the world for the presentation and ... Keynote Session on Industrial Case Studies in Protein Chromatography - Co-chairs: A. Hunter, T. Pabst (MedImmune) ...
High-performance liSupercritical-fluid chromatoSeparationMassElectrokineticCapillary columnsTechniqueThin layer chromatoExchange chromatographyThermo ScientificChemistryTypes of chromatographyPigmentsCompoundsProcess ChromatographyImmobilized metal affinity chromatographyMethodsAffinity chromatography mediaSearchMass spectrometry-basedHydrophobic interaction chForm of chromatography2019ApparatusLaboratoryAntibodiesCation chromatographyPlanar chromatographyMembrane chromatographyImmunoaffinity ChromatographyLigandWebinarSupercriticalSeparatesMoleculesAdsorptionPhasesLCMSMixtureAdvancesApproachesPrinciplesDETECTORSResinTechniquesCelluloseConsumablesColumnPaper
- SFC is not accepted by Pharmacopeia committees for the analysis of drugs and medical forms to the same extent as Gas Chromatography, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography or even Thin Layer Chromatography. (scirp.org)
- The technique used to pack these columns has been developed from a similar technology, which have been used for packing of columns, achieving very good separations, for both supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (uio.no)
- In the current study, we isolated oligosaccharides having high molecular masses (MW ∼ 3800) from the milk samples of bearded and hooded seals and analyzed their structures by off-line normal-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (NP-HPLC-MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) by combination with sequential exoglycosidase digestion. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography , 2 , 15-24. (scirp.org)
- Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials. (lu.se)
- Hall, BJ , Parikh, AR & Brodbelt, JS 1999, ' Aqueous phase hexylchloroformate derivatization and solid phase microextraction: Determination of benzoylecgonine in urine by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry ', Journal of Forensic Sciences , vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 527-534. (elsevier.com)
- A recently developed technique, solvating gas chromatography (SGC), which uses CO2 as the mobile phase combined with a high inlet pressure, has received specific focus. (uio.no)
- A somewhat different approach is the set of techniques known as "planar" or "thin layer" chromatography (TLC), in which no column is used at all. (encyclopedia.com)
- There are also terms like "Retention factor value" meaning the distance run by a component spot, divided by the distance run by the solvent in thin layer chromatography. (bartleby.com)
- The TLC SpotON is a semi-automated device used to apply samples on Thin Layer Chromatography plates. (environmental-expert.com)
- It has been largely replaced by thin layer chromatography , but is still a powerful teaching tool. (wikipedia.org)
- Thin layer chromatography (TLCC) is a common laboratory technique similar to paper chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
- Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is the separation of non-volatile materials. (coleparmer.com)
- One differentiates between column, paper and thin-layer chromatography depending on the arrangement of the stationary phase. (euronuclear.org)
- Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography ) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger. (wikipedia.org)
- Cation-exchange chromatography is used when the molecule of interest is positively charged. (wikipedia.org)
- Anion-exchange chromatography is when the stationary phase is positively charged and negatively charged molecules (meaning that pH for chromatography is greater than the pI) are loaded to be attracted to it. (wikipedia.org)
- Cation exchange chromatography is used when the desired molecules to separate are cations and anion exchange chromatography is used to separate anions. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, when cation exchange chromatography is used, cations will elute out last. (wikipedia.org)
- However, there are also disadvantages involved when performing ion-exchange chromatography, such as constant evolution with the technique which leads to the inconsistency from column to column. (wikipedia.org)
- Starting from 1947, Spedding and Powell used displacement ion-exchange chromatography for the separation of the rare earths. (wikipedia.org)
- The boom of Ion exchange chromatography primarily began between 1935-1950 during World War II and it was through the " Manhattan project " that applications and IC were significantly extended. (wikipedia.org)
- These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography. (medlineplus.gov)
- One of the most popular methods for separating proteins is ion exchange chromatography. (news-medical.net)
- If a negatively charged resin is used to capture positively charged molecules, the method is referred to as cation exchange chromatography. (news-medical.net)
- The opposite, in which the resin is positively charged and the target molecule is negatively charged, is called anion exchange chromatography. (news-medical.net)
- SP Sepharose Fast Flow is a sulphopropyl (SP) strong cation exchange chromatography resin for fast protein purification. (fishersci.com)
- This book presents a systematic and comprehensive review of the information on chromatographic processes that involve the formation of coordination compounds, aiming not only to demonstrate the achievements that have been made in the theory of praxis of chromatography, but also to point out, as far as possible, the future of potential of ligand exchange chromatography. (routledge.com)
- Chromatography technique developed substantially as a result of the work of Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge during the 1940s and 1950s, for which they won the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
- Ion chromatography is used for water chemistry analysis. (carleton.edu)
- This ion chromatography machine can analyze water chemistry. (carleton.edu)
- It is the first book to systemically cover the theoretical background, techniques, instrumentation, and practical applications of planar chromatography-mass spectrometry as a hyphenated tool of analytical chemistry. (routledge.com)
- Chromatography is much used in biochemistry and analytical chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
- New types of chromatography developed during the 1930s and 1940s made the technique useful for many separation processes . (wikipedia.org)
- For more information about other types of chromatography, please visit the National Sciences Digital Library Collection . (carleton.edu)
- The two basic types of chromatography make possible precise separation, analyses, or purification of substances from highly complex mixtures, the components of which can sometimes be collected individually or subjected to further 'downstream' processing. (news-medical.net)
- He continued to work with chromatography in the first decade of the 20th century, primarily for the separation of plant pigments such as chlorophyll , carotenes , and xanthophylls . (wikipedia.org)
- In this experiment, the different pigments present in a leaf are separated using paper chromatography. (rsc.org)
- Students use chromatography to separate the pigments in a leaf. (rsc.org)
- In paper chromatography different pigments can be separated based on their solubility, or their ability to dissolve in water. (scientificamerican.com)
- If you want to see the hidden yellow and orange pigments in green leaves for yourself, you can use a simple but powerful technique called chromatography, which is the separation of a mixture by passing it through a medium (in our case, filter paper) through which different parts of the mixture will move at different rates. (education.com)
- Hi for biology we had to do a lab which we separated the plant pigments by chromatography of spinach. (physicsforums.com)
- Chromatography is used to study plant pigment by extracting pigments from the plant and then sorting them by their physical characteristics so they can be analyzed. (reference.com)
- Chromatography is useful in separating different types of plant pigments because they are very similar to one another and can be difficult to distinguish or physically separate otherwise. (reference.com)
- What factors play a role in separating pigments with paper chromatography? (reference.com)
- When using paper chromatography, the solubility of the pigments, how attractive the paper is and the size of the particles influence the separation of pigm. (reference.com)
- To apply the technique of paper chromatography as a method of separating individual plant pigments contained in plant tissue extracts containing pigment blends. (prezi.com)
- The pigments can be identified using paper chromatography method. (prezi.com)
- Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. (medlineplus.gov)
- Regis Technologies offers a chiral chromatography service for the separation and purification of chiral compounds. (prweb.com)
- Liquid chromatography allows for selective and highly sensitive detection of trace and molecular-species specific compounds. (intertek.com)
- Chromatography is a family of laboratory techniques for separating mixtures of chemicals into their individual compounds. (encyclopedia.com)
- The basic principle of chromatography is that different compounds will stick to a solid surface or dissolve in a film of liquid to different degrees. (encyclopedia.com)
- Because it usually does not alter the molecular structure of the compounds, chromatography can provide a non-destructive way to obtain pure chemicals from various sources. (encyclopedia.com)
- This book overviews the combination of planar chromatography, a relatively simple and cost-effective separation step for determining complex mixtures of compounds, with mass spectrometry, an efficient, highly instrumental, and relatively expensive technique that enables rapid identification of separated chemical species. (routledge.com)
- Chromatography has evolved over the years and become a method of choice for analysis, identification, and purification of a wide variety of compounds. (pitchengine.com)
- Column chromatography separates compounds using many chemical actions between the chemical being tested and the chromatography column (a rod with a blending of special chemicals). (wikipedia.org)
- The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). (scribd.com)
- Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), also known as "sniffing", is highly useful for establishing aroma profiles as it allows the discrimination of odor-active compounds in complex matrices [ 9 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The derivatization or chemical modification of polar compounds was originally necessary in other methodologies like gas chromatography (GC), because these compounds had to be sufficiently volatile in order to be analyzed. (aacc.org)
- Four days of exciting science, technology, and education at PREP 2019, the longest running, most recognized international scientific conference and exposition driving the field of Preparative and Process Chromatography, organized by expert scientists and engineers for the separation science practitioner. (archive.org)
- Join us for a dynamic and innovative program where world renowned speakers will address in-depth the latest scientific and technological advances, critical and emerging applications and processes, and challenges and solutions in all aspects of Preparative and Process Chromatography. (archive.org)
- During the exhibition, evaluate and compare the latest products, instruments, techniques and processes that are driving the pace of innovation in Preparative and Process chromatography. (archive.org)
- Transporting the metered liquid sample to the point where it is to be vaporized is a fundamental problem in process chromatography. (google.com)
- Discusses novel approaches to the preparative/process chromatography of complex carbohydrate and glycoconjugates. (valorebooks.com)
- For purification of histidine-tagged recombinant proteins by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). (fishersci.com)
- As a result of a systematic study, we propose the use of an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) in a microtip (Erdjument-Bromage, H. (nih.gov)
- At the start of the 1950s, Kraus and Nelson demonstrated the use of many analytical methods for metal ions dependent on their separation of their chloride, fluoride, nitrate or sulfate complexes by anion chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
- While ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography media are some of the most popular and commonly used options, there are dozens of other methods. (news-medical.net)
- Doping control analysis predominantly utilises chromatography and mass spectrometry-based approaches to detect prohibited substances and methods of doping. (brighttalk.com)
- Your primary role is to participate in the chromatography lab in support of the gas and petroleum hydrocarbon characterization team, develop analytical methods, mentor young scientists, and interact with proponents to solve their analytical and operational challenges through the available resources. (rigzone.com)
- This comprehensive collection of detailed affinity chromatography methods provides all the information necessary to use these powerful techniques successfully in the laboratory and in real world situations. (worldcat.org)
- Among all the chromatography methods being used to separate different components of any given mixture, flash chromatography is highly popular. (buzzfeed.com)
- Analytical techniques which may be considered include the various facets of chromatography, electrophoresis and related methods, affinity and immunoaffinity-based methodologies, hyphenated and other multi-dimensional techniques, and microanalytical approaches. (elsevier.com)
- The scope of the journal includes chromatography and related techniques, electromigration techniques (e.g. electrophoresis, electrochromatography), hyphenated and other multi-dimensional techniques, sample preparation , and detection methods such as mass spectrometry . (elsevier.com)
- Aiming to improve power and efficiency when other analytical methods are inadequate, Planar Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry encourages separation science practitioners in academia and industry to combine the two methods for enhanced results. (routledge.com)
- The first true chromatography is usually attributed to the Russian-Italian botanist Mikhail Tsvet.Tsvet applied his observations with filter paper extraction to the new methods of column fractionation that had been developed in the 1980s for separating the components of petroleum. (prezi.com)
- Current Chromatography encourages the publication of Thematic issues devoted to the development of new advanced separation methods and technologies as well as to the current progress in application of separation sciences for solution of general and more specific needs. (benthamscience.com)
- Visit the Chiral Applications page today to search hundreds of applications using normal and reverse phase chromatography. (prweb.com)
- The complexity of traditional chromatography options, as well as the high cost of the Protein A resin required, have driven the search for a more flexible, cost-effective, and convenient alternative. (genengnews.com)
- This form of chromatography works by air pressure driving the mixture, which is to be separated down the vertical glass column. (buzzfeed.com)
- For people seeking comprehensive coverage of bio-chromatography from process scale to analytics, a single, discounted registration fee will provide access to both the PREP 2019 and the ISPPP 2019 Conference on the separation, purification and characterization of biologically important molecules that will be held the same week in the same conference venue. (archive.org)
- 5 nor- To 024w SAMPLE VAPORIZER FOR GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY This invention relates to gas chromatography, and particularly to an apparatus used for introducing samples from a liquid stream into a gas chromatography column. (google.com)
- A further object is to provide novel apparatus for the transfer of a calibrated volume from a liquid process stream to a position in a carrier gas stream wherein the liquid is flash vaporized and flushed by the carrier gas stream into a gas chromatography column. (google.com)
- Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture . (wikipedia.org)
- Put our latest innovations in ion, gas and liquid chromatography to work in your laboratory. (thermofisher.com.au)
- Since its invention by the Russian botanist Mikhail S. Tsvet in 1901, chromatography has increasingly developed into an invaluable laboratory tool for the separation and identification of chemical components. (intechopen.com)
- Significant chapters are devoted to the contributions of affinity methodology in such areas as cell membrane receptors, quantitative properties of macromolecular interactions, microscale analytical and preparative applications of high performance affinity chromatography, antibodies as in vivo and in vitro diagnostic and therapeutic agents, and drug targeting. (elsevier.com)
- Downstream bioprocessing steps have long been a challenge to drug manufacturers, particularly the chromatography step for purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (genengnews.com)
- OSAKA, Japan--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Kaneka Corporation on 19/09/2012 (Osaka, Japan, President: Kimikazu Sugawara) announces the launch of KANEKA KanCapA, a new Protein A Chromatography Resin for the purification of therapeutic antibodies. (cnbc.com)
- Protein A chromatography resin is widely used in the production of therapeutic antibodies due to its high affinity and excellent selectivity for antibodies. (cnbc.com)
- Following it in 1980, was a similar method for cation chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
- Planar Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry focuses on a relatively new approach to chemical analysis in general, and to separation science in particular. (routledge.com)
- It also examines the high and as-yet unexploited potential of planar chromatography-mass spectrometry for analytical use in scientific investigations. (routledge.com)
- The book advocates growth in using planar chromatography-mass spectrometry in laboratories that have appropriate equipment but have not yet employed the techniques in combination. (routledge.com)
- Immunoaffinity chromatography is a specialized form of affinity chromatography and, as such, utilizes an antibody or antibody fragment as a ligand immobilized onto a solid support matrix in a manner that retains its binding capacity. (springer.com)
- High-performance immunoaffinity chromatography. (springer.com)
- Hage, D. S. (1998) Survey of recent advances in analytical applications of immunoaffinity chromatography. (springer.com)
- Katz, S. E. and Brady, M. S. (1990) High-performance immunoaffinity chromatography for drug residue analysis. (springer.com)
- Katz, S. E. and Siewierski, M. (1992) Drug residue analysis using immunoaffinity chromatography. (springer.com)
- VanGinkel, L. A. (1991) Immunoaffinity chromatography, its applicability and limitations in multi-residue analysis of anabolizing and doping agents. (springer.com)
- Jack, G. W. and Wade, H. E. (1987) Immunoaffinity chromatography of clinical products. (springer.com)
- Cutler P. (2004) Immunoaffinity Chromatography. (springer.com)
- Affinity chromatography exploits this feature by binding a ligand with the desired interactive capability to a support such as a gel used in gel-filtration chromatography. (britannica.com)
- Affinity chromatography is based on binding interactions between a protein and a ligand immobilized to a resin. (news-medical.net)
- The recombinantly produced chromatography ligand "Protein A" has enabled the era of antibody biopharmaceuticals by allowing all therapeutics of this type to be purified using the same approach to achieve more than 99 percent purity in a single step. (ecmconnection.com)
- It may be a liquid (LC and Capillary Electrochromatography (CEC)), a gas (GC), or a supercritical fluid (supercritical-fluid chromatography, SFC). (wikipedia.org)
- RegisSEP™ Chiral Separation Service uses supercritical fluid chromatography, a method that uses carbon dioxide for a faster and more cost-effective solution. (prweb.com)
- Regis's RegisSEP™ Chiral Separation Service uses supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). (prweb.com)
- If chiral separation by supercritical fluid chromatography is best, Regis' will handle the project in its state of the art SFC Purification Lab, which is part of a 30,000 square foot cGMP facility regularly inspected by the FDA. (prweb.com)
- Contact Regis or meet their team at SFC 2015 in Philadelphia July 22nd-24th for more information on Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and the RegisSEP Chiral Separation Service. (prweb.com)
- United States Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) Industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) market analysis is provided for the United States markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (Sfc) industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (mynewsdesk.com)
- the separation of mixtures into their constituents by preferential adsorption by a solid, as a column of silica (column chromatography) or a strip of filter paper (paper chromatography) or by a gel. (dictionary.com)
- In order to simulate the separation process in liquid chromatography the competitive adsorption isotherms need to be known. (diva-portal.org)
- Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes components to separate between two phases, one stationary (stationary phase), the other (the mobile phase) moving in a definite direction. (wikipedia.org)
- In the mid-1970s, interest in liquid mobile phases for column chromatography resurfaced when it was discovered that the efficiency of separation could be vastly improved by pumping the liquid through a short packed column under pressure, rather than allowing it to flow slowly down a vertical column by gravity alone. (encyclopedia.com)
- Peak Scientific are a world-renowned hydrogen generator and nitrogen generator supplier for the Gas Chromatography (GC) and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) markets. (environmental-expert.com)
- The Biomarkers Core lab uses both GC-MS (gas chromatography-MS) and LC-MS (liquid chromatography-MS), although recently we have been using more LCMS- based assays. (labmanager.com)
- Analytical chromatography is done normally with smaller amounts of material and is for establishing the presence or measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
- That certain colours and dyes are made up from a mixture of colours and these can be separated by using chromatography. (rsc.org)
- Chromatography (from the Greek words chroma , 'color,' and graphein , 'to write') is a method for the separation of a mixture. (news-medical.net)
- Chromatography works because different substances in a mixture have different degrees of solubility. (education.com)
- A chromatography detector is a device used in gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) to detect components of the mixture being eluted off the chromatography column. (wikipedia.org)
- Journal of Chromatography A welcomes the submission of research papers which report on studies concerning the development of new and significant advances in separation science. (elsevier.com)
- Also describes recent advances in column materials.Horvath, Csaba is the author of 'Chromatography in Biotechnology' with ISBN 9780841226692 and ISBN 0841226695. (valorebooks.com)
- Top-down and bottom-up approaches were used to validate the size of the global chromatography instruments market and estimate the size of other dependent submarkets. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Researchers found that the main principles of Tsvet's chromatography could be applied in many different ways, resulting in the different varieties of chromatography described below. (wikipedia.org)
- Ion chromatography, a form of liquid chromatography, measures concentrations of ionic species by separating them based on their interaction with a resin. (carleton.edu)
- Generally, the material used in chromatography media is a particle or resin packed into a column . (news-medical.net)
- However, Protein A resin is expensive, which means the costs associated with its use in chromatography can be very high. (genengnews.com)
- Chromatography includes a group of techniques that separate the various components in a complex solution. (scientificamerican.com)
- Perform advanced testing using gas chromatography techniques to characterize various oil and gas industrial samples in compliance with international standards where available. (rigzone.com)
- Biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are the prime users of chromatography techniques. (pitchengine.com)
- The growth of the overall chromatography instruments market can be attributed to the rising food safety concerns, increasing use of chromatography tests in the drug approval process, and growing popularity of hyphenated chromatography techniques. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The extent to which any particular component moves up the paper is dependent not only on its solubility in propanone but also on its attraction for the cellulose in the chromatography paper. (rsc.org)
- A wide range of materials have been used as a solid matrix material for affinity chromatography, including agarose, cellulose, dextran, polyacrylamide, and many more. (news-medical.net)
- Agilent Technologies has opened a $14.7m technology centerin Folsom, California to expand capabilities for chromatography consumables and hardware. (foodnavigator.com)
- In application, multicolumn chromatography allows for product breakthrough in the load zone of the first column, with the second column capturing any breakthrough. (genengnews.com)
- In chromatography, the least soluble substances fall out of the filter paper column first, while the most soluble one travel the furthest up the paper. (education.com)
- Automatic transfer of a sample directly from a liquid process stream into a gas chromatography column presents many problems, among which is achievement of flash vaporization of the liquid sample. (google.com)
- and thence into the gas chromatography column. (google.com)
- Gas chromatography is used to measure the retention times for gases injected onto a column packed with porous carbon adsorbents. (erskine.edu)
- The mixed substance to be tested is added in a small amount and is slowed by certain chemical or physical activity with the chemicals in the chromatography column. (wikipedia.org)
- The most common stationary phase for column chromatography is silica gel, followed by alumina . (wikipedia.org)
- It is column chromatography run under pressure to raise the speed of the process. (wikipedia.org)
- The mobile phase moves through the chromatography column (the stationary phase) where the sample interacts with the stationary phase and is separated. (wikipedia.org)
- APART from an early attempt by other authors 1-3 to adapt a method of paper chromatography for the examination of natural saponins, the potentialities in this field do not seem to have been investigated. (nature.com)
- d On a strip of chromatography paper, draw a pencil line 3 cm from the bottom. (rsc.org)
- This experiment works very well providing care is taken over preparing the spot on the chromatography paper. (rsc.org)
- These look the same on paper but have different chromatography results. (rsc.org)
- This same process can be put to good use as a technique called paper chromatography. (scientificamerican.com)
- For example, in paper chromatography water is the mobile phase and paper is the stationary phase. (scientificamerican.com)
- Also on our chromatography paper the results of our Rf values are not very close to others on the internet. (physicsforums.com)
- Paper chromatography is a technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are (or can be) coloured. (wikipedia.org)
- Double-way paper chromatography , also called 'two-dimensional chromatography', uses two solvents and rotates the paper 90° in between. (wikipedia.org)
- Paper chromatography is a useful technique in the separation and identification of different plant pigment. (prezi.com)