Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.

R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (1/4718)

Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (2/4718)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

EGF precursor mRNA and membrane-associated EGF precursor protein in rat exorbital lacrimal gland. (3/4718)

This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. EGF precursor gene transcription was demonstrated first by RT-PCR analysis of lacrimal gland RNA using a set of specific primers and second by Northern blot analysis of rat lacrimal gland mRNA. A rabbit polyclonal antibody (rEGF2) directed against rat submaxillary gland EGF was used to detect EGF-containing proteins by RIA. Results indicate that the rat lacrimal gland does not contain detectable soluble and mature EGF but that the EGF immunoreactivity is associated with the membrane-enriched fraction. Analysis of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by gel filtration shows that membrane-associated EGF immunoreactivity was present as a high-molecular-mass protein. Moreover, as shown by Western blot analysis, a specific anti-rat EGF precursor antibody (ppEGF1) can immunoprecipitate a 152-kDa EGF-containing protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time both EGF precursor gene transcription and EGF precursor protein expression in a lacrimal tissue, i.e., the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. The demonstration that EGF appears to be stored only as its full-length membrane precursor may provide important information to study the regulation of its secretory process.  (+info)

Partitioning of triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues in gel bead-immobilized liposomes: chromatographic measurement of their membrane partition coefficients. (4/4718)

Unilamellar liposomes of small or large size, SUVs and LUVs, respectively, were stably immobilized in the highly hydrophilic Sepharose 4B or Sephacryl S-1000 gel beads as a membrane stationary phase for immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC). Lipophilic cations of triphenylmethylphosphonium and tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) have been used as probes of the membrane potential of cells. Interaction of TPP+ and triphenylalkylphosphonium homologues with the immobilized liposomal membranes was shown by their elution profiles on both zonal and frontal ILC. Retardation of the lipophilic cations on the liposome gel bed was increased as the hydrophobicity of the cations increased, indicating the partitioning of lipophilic cations into the hydrocarbon region of the membranes. The cations did not retard on the Sepharose or Sephacryl gel bed without liposomes, confirming that the cations only interact with the immobilized liposomes. Effects of the solute concentration, flow rate, and gel-matrix substance on the ILC were studied. The stationary phase volume of the liposomal membranes was calculated from the volume of a phospholipid molecule and the amount of the immobilized phospholipid, which allowed us to determine the membrane partition coefficient (KLM) for the lipophilic cations distributed between the aqueous mobile and membrane stationary phases. The values of KLM were generally increased with the hydrophobicity of the solutes increased, and were higher for the SUVs than for the LUVs. The ILC method described here can be applied to measure membrane partition coefficients for other lipophilic solutes (e.g., drugs).  (+info)

Isolation of DNA fragments associated with methylated CpG islands in human adenocarcinomas of the lung using a methylated DNA binding column and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. (5/4718)

We have constructed a library of DNA fragments heavily methylated in human adenocarcinomas of the lung to permit the comprehensive isolation of methylated CpG islands in cancer. Heavily methylated genomic DNA fragments from tumors of nine male patients were enriched using a methylated DNA binding column and used for construction of the library. From this library, DNA fragments having properties of CpG islands were isolated on the basis of their reduced rate of strand dissociation during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Approximately 1,000 clones, corresponding to 0.3% of the library were analyzed, and nine DNA fragments were identified as being associated with CpG islands that were methylated in tumor DNA. One CpG island was methylated specifically in tumor DNA, whereas the remaining eight CpG islands were methylated both in normal and tumor DNA derived from the same patients. Our results suggest that the number of CpG islands methylated specifically in tumors is not large. The library, which contains DNA fragments from methylated CpG islands comprehensively, is expected to be valuable when elucidating epigenetic processes involved in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Deamidation of alpha-A crystallin from nuclei of cataractous and normal human lenses. (6/4718)

PURPOSE: To quantitate the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 of alpha-A crystallin in the nucleus from human cataractous and normal lenses. METHODS: Reverse phase chromatography was used to prepare alpha-A crystallin from total proteins of the nucleus from cataractous and age-matched normal human lenses. Synthetic peptides were made corresponding to the expected amidated and deamidated tryptic fragments containing asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6. The peptides were used to identify and quantitate amidated and deamidated forms of tryptic fragments from alpha-A crystallin eluting from a reverse phase column. RESULTS: Significant amounts of deamidation of asparagine-101 and glutamine-50, but not glutamine-6, were present in alpha-A crystallin from nuclear sections of both cataractous and age-matched normal lenses. Quantitative analysis of tryptic peptides containing these residues indicated no statistical difference in deamidation in cataractous versus normal lenses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 for alpha-A crystallin, purified from the nucleus of cataractous versus age-matched normal lenses. These results strongly suggest that deamidation of these residues does not play a role in the biogenesis of human nuclear cataract.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bovine pituitary follitropin. (7/4718)

A reproducible procedure was developed for the purification of follitropin from frozen bovine pituitary glands. The method involved precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and acetone, followed by ion-exchange column chromatography on CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. A specific radioligand-receptor assay for follitropin was used to locate the activity in eluates after column chromatography and gel filtration. The potency of the highly purified bovine follitropin as measured by Steelman-Pohley bioassay was 164 times that of NIH-FSH-S1 standard preparation. They yield of bovine follitropin was 2.9 mg/kg of frozen pituitary glands. Electrophoretically, bovine follitropin was more acidic in nature and migrated further towards the anode than lutropin and thyrotropin. The elution volume of bovine follitropin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 was very similar to that of bovine lutropin. The amino acid composition of bovine follitropin was similar to that of sheep and human follitropin, being rich in lysine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid and half-cystine.  (+info)

The selective isolation of the uterine oestradiol-receptor complex by binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose. The mediation of an essential activator in the transformation of cytosol receptor. (8/4718)

The [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex was selectively isolated from rat uterus cytosol by column chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Optimal conditions are described for the binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose, which is shown to be similar to its binding to DNA-cellulose. The cytosol complex has an apparent mol. wt. of 50,000-60,000 in high salt concentrations, as determined by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. This corresponds to the 4S cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor. In binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose the receptor is transformed into a form with an apparent mol.wt. of 100,000-120,000, corresponding to the 5S nuclear receptor complex. This transformation mimics the conversion in vivo of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor into the nuclear form. The binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose as a 5S nuclear form is unequivocally demonstrated to require the mediation of an activating present in the cytosol. The requirement for an activating factor is discussed in relation to reports that nuclear binding of the oestradiol-receptor complex is not dictated solely by the availability of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor.  (+info)

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography is a separation technique that uses the properties of hydrophobicity to separate proteins from one another. In this type of chromatography, hydrophobic groups such as phenyl, octyl, or butyl, are attached to the stationary column. Proteins that pass through the column that have hydrophobic amino acid side chains on their surfaces are able to interact with and bind to the hydrophobic groups on the column. HIC separations are often designed using the opposite conditions of those used in ion exchange chromatography. In this separation, a buffer with a high ionic strength, usually ammonium sulfate, is initially applied to the column. The salt in the buffer reduces the solvation of sample solutes thus as solvation decreases, hydrophobic regions that become exposed are adsorbed by the medium. ...
The design of gradient simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes requires an appropriate selection of the chromatographic system followed by the determination of adsorption isotherm parameters in the relevant range of mobile phase conditions. The determination of these parameters can be q …
In this eBook devoted to Practical Copolymer Analysis using GPC/SEC and Related Techniques, experts discuss how several GPC/SEC methods may improve copolymer sample characterization. Learn about dual-detection methods, polymer liquid adsorption chromatography, 2D chromatography, and more ...
A convenient method is described for two-dimensional amino acid chromatography on micro scale chromatograms of 5 × 5 cm. Despite the short migration paths, excellent separation is obtained. The time of development is short and the technical procedure very simple. Extension to other classes of compounds is possible. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatography in plasma fractionation. T2 - benefits and future trends. AU - Burnouf, T.. PY - 1995/2/3. Y1 - 1995/2/3. N2 - Industrial-scale chromatographic fractionation and purification methods have been used increasingly in the last few years for plasma fractionation. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of therapeutic plasma derivatives, especially coagulation factors, protease inhibitors and anticoagulants. Implementation and combination of ion-exchange, affinity and size-exclusion chromatography have allowed the development of new therapeutic products with improved purity and safety for treating congenital or acquired plasma protein deficiencies in patients. More recently, the benefit of chromatographic purification of plasma proteins in the removal of plasma-borne viruses has been revealed. Development of packing materials with improved characteristics for industrial applications, including higher capacity and rigidity, should further promote the use ...
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The Intrada Amino Acid column has been shown to be a viable solution for the analysis of amino acids by LC-MS without derivatization.
Ted to concentration and fractionation on a Sephadex LH-20 column (2.8 6 33 cm) using 80 methanol as an eluent. The relevant fractions were pooled and
Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC or SEC-HPLC) is an analytical technique that separates dissolved macromolecules by size based on their elution from columns
Read user reviews, compare products & request pricing from manufacturers of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) products, including GFC & GPC columns.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Paper Chromatography - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Paper Chromatography Biochemistry
Column Chromatography Science Project: Investigate whether a homemade column chromatography setup can be used to separate and isolate the different food colorings that are in grape soda.
This webcast presents a series experiments in which in-process mAb material was spiked with MVM-MVP and processed through Anion Exchange and Cation Exchange, and a a viral clearance study was performed on Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) resins
A.T. Hanke, M.E. Klijn, P.D.E.M. Verhaert, L.A.M. van der Wielen, M. Ottens, M.H.M. Eppink, E.J.A.X. van de Sandt, Prediction of protein retention times in hydrophobic interaction chromatography by robust statistical characterization of their atomic-level surface properties, Biotechnol Prog. (2015) 1520-6033, ...
Buy High Resolution Chromatography for $466.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. The molecular biology revolution has required the development of new chromatographic techniques and the optimization of original techniques to give re...
Invited Talk at 2002 ABRF Meeting: Determination of Molecular Masses of Proteins in Solution: Implementation of an HPLC Size Exclusion Chromatography and Laser
标签蛋白的表达是研究目标蛋白的一种重要办法。而这个可能会影响到蛋白结构和功能研究的蛋白标签往往需要被去除。该视频介绍了几种用于标签蛋白柱上酶切的试剂,以及在使用过程中的一些小技巧。. The expression of tagged proteins is the major source of proteins for research purposes. It is often recommended to remove the tag, which might otherwise interfere with protein function or interactions. This video will give you some examples of automated on-column tag removal with different cleavage agents ...
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Protein kinase C in the developing rat brain was investigated by a biochemical assay and by light-microscopic immunocytochemistry. The protein kinase was resolved on hydroxyapatite column chromatography into 3 fractions, designated types I, II, and III. Type I, with structure encoded by a gamma-sequence, was not detected early postnatally, maintained a low level of activity during the first week, which increased gradually, and reached its maximum around postnatal day 28. This type of enzyme was expressed specifically in nervous tissues, and was not found in any other tissues thus far tested. Type II enzyme activity, a mixture of the 2 subspecies encoded by the beta I- and beta II-sequences, was found at birth, increased rapidly, and reached a plateau level between postnatal days 14 and 28. This type was the predominant subspecies of protein kinase C in the brain. Type III, its structure encoded by the alpha-sequence, was also detected at birth, and reached its maximum level on postnatal day 7. ...
Introduction. Identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Aim To separation and identification of amino acids by using paper chromatography Introduction Chromatography is a techniques separation of mixtures It involves passing the sample, a mixture which contains the analyte, in the mobile phase, often in a stream of solvent, through the stationary phase. The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a mass-start foot race. Each component has a characteristic time of passage through the system, called a retention time. Chromatographic separation is achieved when the retention time of the analyte differs from that of other components mixtures in the sample. There are many types chromatography but there are four main types which are Liquid Chromatography Liquid Chromatography this is used in the world to test water samples to look for pollution ...
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HA Ultrogel® is a composite material of cross-linked agarose and microcrystalline hydroxyapatite enclosed in the agarose matrix. The material shows mixed mode functionality based on cation exchange and metal affinity in the hydroxyapatite structure. A wide variety of applications include separation of proteins, peptides and nucleic acids, from laboratory to production scale.
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hai dear bloggers, i m here with my blog titled as COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY from team PHARMA WARRIORS . COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY column chromatography is a technique in which a column of stationary phase is used.based upon the stationary phase nature,this column chromatography is further divided into 2 types.they are if a
Chromatography is a critical operational step in many pharmaceutical downstream processes. In this course, you will learn chromatography fundamentals, design, operations, key mechanisms, and performance testing. Laboratory exercises will provide hands-on experience in both Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions chromatography including equipment setup, column conditioning, performance testing and column operation. In addition, use of automation software and column packing will be demonstrated.
Dispersion due to resistance to mass transfer in the stationary phase is exactly analogous to that in the mobile phase. Solute molecules close to the interface will leave the stationary phase and enter the mobile phase before those that have diffused further into the stationary phase and have a longer distance to diffuse back. Thus, as those molecules that were close to the surface will be swept along in the moving phase, they will be dispersed from those molecules still diffusing to the surface. The dispersion resulting from the resistance to mass transfer in the stationary phase is depicted in figure 23. Molecules 1 and 2 (the two closest to the surface) will enter the mobile phase and begin moving along the column. Their movement will continue while molecules 3 and 4 diffuse to the interface at which time they will enter the mobile phase and start following molecules 1 and 2 down the column. ...
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Omnifit Low-Pressure Chromatography Columns Column Assemblies w/ Two Adjustable Endpieces : These precision glass columns are ideal for low- and mid-
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Prepacked Chromatography Columns Market was US$1.74 bn in 2016 and is poised to reach US$3.34 bn by 2024, expand at a CAGR of 8.4% therein
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Definition of Paper chromatography with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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The core houses the inner frit, through which the eluent percolates and exits at the base of the column to a detector and hence to a fraction collector. The outer frit constitutes the column inlet, and consequently the sample has initially an extremely large area of stationary phase with which to interact. This renders the loading capacity of the radial flow column also very high. It is interesting to note, that as the solute progress radially through the stationary phase bed towards the center, the effective cross-sectional area of the column will become smaller. Consequently, the plate volume of the column will decrease (see Plate Theory and Extensions ) as the solute moves to the center which will result in the solute being concentrated. However, as the solute bands progressively decrease in concentration due to normal dispersion processes (see Dispersion in Chromatography Columns ), this counteracts the concentration effect from reduced bed cross-section and prevents the column packing from ...
Chromatography are Cost-effective and innovative chromatographic purification platforms. Protein purification from a complex sample, such as cell culture or serum, requires more than one chromatographic step. Explore our solutions.
Size exclusion chromatography is a technique that separates compounds solely on the basis of size. In order for the results of size exclusion separations to be meaningful, there can be no directed …
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A major Liquid Chromatography mode in which samples are separated by virtue of their size in solution. Also known as size-exclusion, gel permeation, gel fi
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Yes there was a change. AFAIK it is related to multi selection behaviour. I guess you configured the selection model to not allow multiple selection. Before column selection did not respect that configuration. So the behaviour now should be correct while before it was wrong ...
Hi I have attached a sheet as an example, as i am trying to Divide a cell by the number of populated cells in that column e.g column (A) has a table of 16 but only has 13 populated cells in that column, the sum would be something like this =sum(A18/13. Sometimes the column will have less and at times more populated. Hopefully its clear to you Thanks
Hi, I have sequential numbers below in column A of excel. M66.211 M66.212 M66.213 M66.214 M66.215 M66.216 M66.217 M66.218 M66.219 M66.811 M66.812 M66.
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Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is also known as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or gel filtration chromatography and ... Affinity chromatography Aqueous normal-phase chromatography Binding selectivity Chiral analysis Chromatofocusing Chromatography ... paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and what would become known as high-performance liquid chromatography. Since then, ... Paper chromatography is a technique that involves placing a small dot or line of sample solution onto a strip of chromatography ...
A chromatography detector is a device used in gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) to detect components of the ... In liquid chromatography: Charged aerosol detector (CAD) Evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) In gas chromatography: ... In all types of chromatography: Mass spectrometer (MS) In liquid chromatography: UV detectors, fixed or variable wavelength, ... In gas chromatography: Thermal conductivity detector, (TCD). Measures the thermal conductivity of the eluent. Electron capture ...
This type of chromatography is further subdivided into cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ... Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion ... Cation exchange chromatography is used when the desired molecules to separate are cations and anion exchange chromatography is ...
... is a form of chromatography, a preparatory technique for separating chemical mixtures. It can also be ... Continuous Annular chromatography uses a stationary phase which is filled into an annular gap. The eluent is continuously fed ... It is a common technique for isolating compounds and can be compared to column chromatography as a similar process. A common ... Here the solvent travels from the center of the circular chromatography silica layered on a plate towards the periphery. The ...
Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ... Weak affinity chromatography (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity screening in drug development. WAC is ... By using affinity chromatography, one can separate proteins that bind to a certain fragment from proteins that do not bind that ... Affinity chromatography is a novel technique which was conceived by Cuatrecasas and Wilchek P Cuatrecasas; M Wilchek; C B ...
Chromatography is a 2004 post trip-hop album by Second Person. This is the band's debut album and all songs were written by ...
... paper chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography which is more commonly known as gas chromatography. The modification of ... The introduction of paper chromatography was an important analytical technique which gave rise to thin-layer chromatography. ... Pakhomov, V. P. (2003). "Chromatography in Pharmaceutical Chemistry (100 Years of the Discovery of Chromatography by M. S. ... A theory of chromatography. 2. Application to the micro-determination of the higher monoamino-acids in proteins". Biochemical ...
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for column chromatography using high pressure. Fast protein liquid chromatography ... Flash Column Chromatography Guide (pdf) Radial Flow Chromatography (Chromatography, Laboratory techniques). ... Column chromatography in chemistry is a chromatography method used to isolate a single chemical compound from a mixture. ... A wide range of stationary phases are available in order to perform ion exchange chromatography, reversed-phase chromatography ...
... is a chromatography technique in which a sample is placed onto the head of the column and is then ... High performance displacement chromatography. pp 212-314 in C. Horvath (Ed.) High Performance Liquid Chromatography-advances ... As displacement chromatography offers the advantage of concentration of trace components, two dimensional chromatography ... Examples of other types of displacement chromatography are known. In some forms of chromatography, including gel permeation ...
... is software that collects and analyzes chromatographic results delivered by chromatography detectors. ... Many chromatography software packages are provided by manufacturers, and many of them only provide a simple interface to ... "HPLC Software - ChromNAV 2.0 Chromatography Data System , JASCO". JASCO Inc. Retrieved 2018-12-10. "PiKRON - CHROMuLAN". www. ... 7.2 Chromatography Data System". Retrieved 2015-09-06. Empower on OpenChrom homepage ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1986 by John Wiley & Sons. It covers ... Cited 74 times "Biomedical Chromatography". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021 ... research on the applications of chromatography and allied techniques in the biological and medical sciences. The editor-in- ...
A Chromatography column is a device used in chromatography for the separation of chemical compounds. A chromatography column ... Chromatography columns of different types are used in both gas and liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatography: Traditional ... Chromatography columns can be used as stand-alone devices or in combination with manual or automated chromatography systems. ... 2012 Media related to Column chromatography at Wikimedia Commons Learn More About Chromatography Columns (Articles with short ...
... (CCC, also counter-current chromatography) is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography that uses a ... Comparing multilayer toroidal coil chromatography with centrifugal partition chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 1218 ... Standard column chromatography consists of a solid stationary phase and a liquid mobile phase, while gas chromatography (GC) ... Countercurrent chromatography is a preparative liquid chromatography technique, however with the advent of the higher-g HPCCC ...
... is also sometimes known as vapor-phase chromatography (VPC), or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC). ... Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds ... After learning about the results of James and Martin, he switched to partition chromatography. Early gas chromatography used ... Their gas chromatograph used partition chromatography as the separating principle, rather than adsorption chromatography. The ...
... is chromatography using a stationary phase that contains silver salts. Silver-containing stationary ... The technique is employed for gas chromatography and various types of liquid chromatography, including thin layer ... chromatography. Analytes containing alkene groups elute more slowly that the analogous compounds lacking alkenes. Separations ...
... is one method for testing the purity of compounds and identifying substances. Paper chromatography is a ... Separations in paper chromatography involve the principle of partition. In paper chromatography, substances are distributed ... A paper chromatography variant, two-dimensional chromatography, involves using two solvents and rotating the paper 90° in ... having been replaced in the laboratory by other chromatography methods such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC). ...
In chromatography, resolution is a measure of the separation of two peaks of different retention time t in a chromatogram. ... 10.1351/goldbook.P04694 IUPAC Nomenclature for Chromatography (Chromatography). ... the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006-) "Peak Resolution Rs in chromatography". doi:10.1351/goldbook.P04465 ... the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006-) "Peak Resolution in gas chromatography". doi:10.1351/goldbook.R05317 ...
... (or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, HILIC) is a variant of normal phase ... See also Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography It is commonly believed that in HILIC, the mobile phase forms a water-rich layer ... He described the chromatographic mechanism for it as liquid-liquid partition chromatography where analytes elute in order of ... This distinguishes HILIC as a mechanism distinct from ion exchange chromatography. The more polar compounds will have a ...
Radial chromatography P, Foucault, Alain (1995). Centrifugal Partition Chromatography. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ISBN 0- ... Countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography are two different instrumental realization of the same ... 250 mL centrifugal partition chromatography has optimal flow rate of 5-15 mL/min, 250 mL countercurrent chromatography has ... Centrifugal partition chromatography was introduced in Japan in 1982; the first instrument was built at Sanki Eng. Ltd. in ...
... (MMC), or multimodal chromatography, refers to chromatographic methods that utilize more than one ... Yang, Yun; Geng, Xindu (2011). "Mixed-mode chromatography and its applications to biopolymers". Journal of Chromatography A. ... Journal of Chromatography A. 816 (1): 79-88. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00508-1. ISSN 0021-9673. (Chromatography). ... In 1998, a new form of MMC, hydrophobic charge induction chromatography (HCIC), was proposed by Burton and Harding. In the same ...
... or IGC is a highly sensitive and versatile gas phase technique developed over 40 years ago to study ... Inverse gas chromatography is a physical characterization analytical technique that is used in the analysis of the surfaces of ... E. Cremer and H. Huber, in Gas Chromatography., ed. N. Brenner, et al., Academic Press, New York (1962) p 169. P.P. Yla- ... E. Cantergiani and D. Benczedi, Journal of Chromatography A. 969 (2002) 103-110. J.Y.Y. Heng, D.F. Pearse, F. Thielmann, T. ...
... (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. Thin-layer chromatography ... doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.12.071) F. Geiss (1987): Fundamentals of thin layer chromatography planar chromatography, Heidelberg ... Once the chromatography is over, the carotene can be removed from the plate, extracted into a solvent and placed into a ... Thin-layer chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of a reaction, identify compounds present in a given mixture, and ...
The history of chromatography spans from the mid-19th century to the 21st. Chromatography, literally "color writing", was used- ... Martin, p. 359 Martin Ettre, C. (2001). "Milestones in Chromatography: The Birth of Partition Chromatography" (PDF). LCGC. 19 ( ... Poole, Colin; Jennings, Walter (2012). "Milestones in the Development of Gas Chromatography". Gas Chromatography. Elsevier. p. ... Touchstone, Joseph C. (1993). "History of Chromatography". Journal of Liquid Chromatography. 16 (8): 1647-1665. doi:10.1080/ ...
... is a variant of column chromatography that is employed for the separation of enantiomers, e. g. in ... doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)00986-7. v t e (Chromatography, Stereochemistry, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ... The principle can be also applied to the fabrication of monolithic HPLC columns or gas chromatography columns. Seebach, Dieter ... "Determination of salsolinol enantiomers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with cyclodextrin chiral columns". Analytica ...
... may refer to Journal of Chromatography A Journal of Chromatography B This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Journal of Chromatography. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link ...
... (MEKC) is a chromatography technique used in analytical chemistry. It is a modification ... Traditional methods of analysis, like high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), can be used to identify the purity of a ... This equation resembles an expression derived for k 1 {\displaystyle k^{1}} in conventional packed bed chromatography: k = t r ... Injac, R.; Kočevar, N.; Kreft, S. (2007). "Precision of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in the determination ...
Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) combines two separate analyses of liquid chromatography into one data analysis. ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a two-dimensional chromatography technique that combines the separation ... There are two major classifications of 2D liquid chromatography. These include: Comprehensive 2D liquid chromatography (LCxLC) ... These techniques would later generate modern Gas chromatography and Liquid chromatography analysis. Different combinations of ...
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC/MS-O) GC-recomposition-olfactometry (GC-R) Multi-gas chromatography- ... 2008). "Gas chromatography-olfactometry in food flavour analysis". Journal of Chromatography A. 1186 (1-2): 123-143. doi: ... Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is a technique that integrates the separation of volatile compounds using a gas ... 2013). "Gas Chromatography Analysis with Olfactometric Detection (GC-O) as a Useful Methodology for Chemical Characterization ...
... (MLC) is a form of reversed phase liquid chromatography that uses an aqueous micellar solutions ... "Causes and remediation of reduced efficiency in micellar liquid chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 780 (1-2): 191- ... "Evaluation of distribution coefficients in micellar liquid chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 780 (1-2): 103-116. ... "Characterisation of retention in micellar high-performance liquid chromatography and in micellar electrokinetic chromatography ...
... (SFC) is a form of normal phase chromatography that uses a supercritical fluid such as ... supercritical fluid chromatography is sometimes called convergence chromatography. SFC is used in industry primarily for ... Principles are similar to those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), however SFC typically utilizes carbon dioxide ... Taylor, Larry T. (2009). "Supercritical fluid chromatography for the 21st century". The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 47 (3 ...
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Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together ... These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography.. In general, chromatography uses the differences in ... Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together ...
Purchase Chromatography Today - 5th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444884923, 9780444596192 ... Gas-Solid Chromatography. Preparative-Scale Gas. Chromatography. References. 3. Instrumental Aspects of Gas. Chromatography ... Column in Gas Chromatography Introduction. Packed Column. Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Open Tubular Columns. Evaluation of. the ... of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. References. 7. Thin-. Layer Chromatography Introduction. Theoretical. Considerations. ...
World standard chromatography paper with a smooth surface and good resolution for general analytical separations. Shop Cytiva& ... 1 Chr cellulose chromatography roll is a 0.18 mm paper for general analytical separations.. ... Whatman™ 1 Chr Chromatography Paper is also widely used in protein and nucleic acid blotting. ... Whatman™ 1 Chr Chromatography Paper is also widely used in protein and nucleic acid blotting. ...
Source for information on gas-solid chromatography: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... ... ... "gas-solid chromatography ." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . 30 Nov. 2022 ,,. ...
Read answers to frequently asked questions about USPs chromatography. ... Chromatography General Chapter ,621, contains a list of allowed adjustments to chromatographic systems. However, the user ...
Press, J. M. (‎1959)‎. Measurement of adsorption of residual insecticides using flowing chromatography. Bulletin of the World ...
Chromatography Standards. Certified Reference Materials & reference standards for chromatography-based testing applications ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). We offer a variety of TLC plates including classical TLC plates, HPTLC plates, MS-Grade TLC ... Browse our Gas Chromatography (GC) units, columns, consumables, and accessories for your analytical GC applications to achieve ... The selection of a buffer in terms of species, ionic strength and pH range is critical in reversed-phase chromatography. Learn ...
... by chemically suppressed ion chromatography (1) using a two pen variable setting recorder and integ ... and Sulfate in Atmospheric Wet Deposition by Chemically Suppressed Ion Chromatography. ... by chemically suppressed ion chromatography (1) using a two pen variable setting recorder and integrator. For additional ...
2019)‎. Good chromatography practices. WHO Drug Information, 33 (‎2)‎, 179 - 193. World Health Organization. https://extranet. ...
Chromatography of Amino Acids - Small Group Learning Kit Educational Materials Chemistry Educational Materials Chromatography ... In this activity, students will perform a paper chromatography experiment on three known amino acids, and then use their ... One such method for separating and identifying individual amino acids is paper chromatography. ...
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Analytical chemists perform chromatography to separate colors into pigments. Test the food coloring used in M&Ms and Skittles ... Leaf Chromatography Check out this fun leaf chromatography science fair project idea for middle school students and discover ... Chromatography for Kids Help your child explore chromatography, which is the process of separating colors or pigments, and ... In this experiment you will do chromatography on green M&Ms and green Skittles and compare the chromatography patterns. Of ...
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Abstract This experiment uses the TLC chromatography technique to identify the presence of acetylsalicylic and Acetaminophen... ... Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Abstract This experiment uses the TLC chromatography technique to identify the presence of ... Column Chromatography Lab Report. 1696 Words , 7 Pages. Experiment #7: Column Chromatography of Food Dye Arianne Jan D. Tuozo ... Chromatography Lab Report Discussion. 1458 Words , 6 Pages. Introduction The term chromatography actually means colour writing ...
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... and examples of different types of chromatography are listed as well. ... Types of Chromatography The two broad categories of chromatography are liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). ... and supercritical fluid chromatography are some types of liquid chromatography. Examples of other types of chromatography ... Uses of Chromatography Chromatography is used primarily to separate components of a mixture so that they can be identified or ...
Lulea university of technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden. Registration number: 202100-2841. Luleå University of Technology is experiencing strong growth with world-leading competence in several areas of research.. Our research is conducted in close collaboration with industries such as LKAB, Ericsson, Boliden, ABB, SKF as well as with leading international universities and national and regional actors.. Luleå University of Technology has a total turnover of SEK 1.9 billion per year.. We currently have 1,815 employees and 19,155 students.. About the web site ». © Lulea University of Technology 2022. ...
Lectin Affinity Chromatography. @article{Freeze1995LectinAC, title={Lectin Affinity Chromatography}, author={Hudson H. Freeze ... Preparative lectin affinity chromatography is widely used as a first step for the isolation and purification of glycoproteins. ... COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MACROPOROUS SILICA- AND CELLULOSE-BASED SORBENTS FOR LECTIN AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY. *Jolita Baranauskiene ... Combined with complementary depletion and MS technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming the most widely employed ...
Integrated Micro-Chromatography Systems. Integrated Micro-Chromatography Systems (IMCS) has grown to an annual revenue of more ...
Tags: Cannabis ResearchGas ChromatographyHPLC / UHPLCInsightsLiquid ChromatographyProduct Resource: Insights ... Chromatography in Cannabis Testing. Key considerations to choosing a method thats best for a labs specific needs. Sep 27, ... Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used for cannabis and hemp potency testing in scenarios when identification ... The main advantage of HPLC versus gas chromatography (GC) is the ability to quantify both acidic and neutral forms of ...
In recent years, chromatography and mass spectrometry have become commonly used for the analysis of biological components. ... A novel polymer-based particles was introduced as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography (LC). Spherical particles of a ... Introducing the systematic qualitative analysis in gas chromatography (GC), it was possible to make the assignments for all the ... A fine fibrous polyimide (PI) material was introduced as a stationary phase in packed capillary gas chromatography (GC). Packed ...
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Scope1.1 This test method covers a direct aqueous injection procedure for the gas-liquid chromatographic determination of phenols, cresols, and mono- and di-chlorophenols in water.1.2 The precision and bias of the test method has been calculated from the
Current chromatography is devoted to the development of new advanced separation methods and technologies and current ...
Group has acquired Alltech International in a move that raises its standing in the manufacture and supply of chromatography ... Related tags: High performance liquid chromatography WR Grace subsidiary The Separations Group has acquired Alltech ... Grace expands chromatography business. 22-Aug-2004. - Last updated on 15-Mar-2017 at 13:15. GMT ... MODcol and the Jones Chromatography high performance liquid chromatography line. ...
  • Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used for cannabis and hemp potency testing in scenarios when identification is critical. (
  • Residual solvent analysis is performed through headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. (
  • In recent years, chromatography and mass spectrometry have become commonly used for the analysis of biological components. (
  • During the past 15 years, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has evolved into a vital technology used to perform routine tests in many clinical laboratories. (
  • In the work described in this thesis, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were applied to the analysis of steroids of biological significance, with particular interest centring on the corticosteroid family. (
  • The present study focuses on the analysis of the methanol extract of Equisetum arvense by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. (
  • The phytocomponents of the methanol extract of Equisetum arvense were investigated by using Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Library. (
  • Mass spectrometry, coupled with chromatographic separations such as Gas chromatography (GC-MS) is normally used for direct analysis of components existing in traditional medicines and medicinal plants. (
  • The pesticides were finally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective-ion Monitor (SIM) simultaneously. (
  • They also recommend enzyme-linked immunoassay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmatory testing on specimens to confirm or rule out fentanyl and its analogues, including acetylfentanyl. (
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography, and supercritical fluid chromatography are some types of liquid chromatography. (
  • Cannabinoids are a specific chemical class found in cannabis that are produced in the glandular trichomes of the plant and can be analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (
  • The main advantage of HPLC versus gas chromatography (GC) is the ability to quantify both acidic and neutral forms of cannabinoids without derivatization because high temperatures are not required for the analysis. (
  • It acquired Germany's Grom Analytik + HPLC in July and, last year, MODcol and the Jones Chromatography high performance liquid chromatography line. (
  • Automated flash chromatography systems are composed of parts normally found on HPLC systems such as a gradient pump, injection ports, a UV detector, and a fraction collector to gather the eluent. (
  • The most reliable method is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which has good validation performance. (
  • Unlike gas chromatography, where the separation process affects the nature of the stationary phase and the analytes, the composition of the eluent in HPLC (solvent mixture or mobile phase) plays the role of a -third" variable that takes an active part in the chromatographic process, indicating that the selectivity liquid chromatographic system. (
  • 1999) using gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Buchholz et al. (
  • Quantitative Evaluation of Thin-Layer Chromatography. (
  • Chromatography Today provides a comprehensive coverage of various separation methods: gas, liquid, thin-layer, and supercritical fluid-chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. (
  • This book should be suitable for use as a graduate-level student textbook in separation science, a text for professional institutes offering short courses in chromatography, and as a self-study guide for chromatographers to refresh their knowledge of the latest developments in the field. (
  • You can use a powerful scientific technique called chromatography , which is the separation of a mixture by passing it through a medium (in this experiment, you'll use filter paper) in which different parts of the mixture move at different rates. (
  • The different rates between desorption and adsorption are applied in the chromatography methods for separation of mixtures. (
  • Experiment #7: Column Chromatography of Food Dye Arianne Jan D. Tuozo Mr. Carlos Edward B. Santos October 12, 2015 Abstract Column chromatography is the separation of mixture's components through a column. (
  • Chromatography is an analytical technique based on the separation of molecules due to differences in their structure and/or composition. (
  • Flash chromatography is a purification technique that is designed for rapid separation by using air pressure as opposed to slow and inefficient gravityfed chromatography. (
  • Flash chromatography is widely useful in the separation of closely related organic compounds. (
  • Chromatography the science of separation affects the lives of all of us every day. (
  • Chromatographic analysis was carried out on an Agilent 6890N gas chromatography system equipped with 5973 series mass selective detector, 7673 series autosampler and chemstation (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA). HP-5 MS column with 0.25 μm film thickness (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D., USA) was used for separation. (
  • Single-use chromatography systems from Repligen solve the yield, shear, and separation challenges of traditional systems, through expert engineering and technological innovation of both hardware and flow path. (
  • A commercially available porous silica monolithic column (Onyx Monolithic Si, 100mm 4.6mm I.D.) was in-column covalently functionalised with 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) groups, and applied to the simultaneous and rapid separation of alkaline earth and transition metal ions, using high-performance chelation ion chromatography (HPCIC). (
  • The separation of streptomycin and its derivative dihydrostreptomycin using ion-pair liquid chromatography is proposed. (
  • Models were derived by rearranging the linear solvent strength (LSS) model equations, and data sets from almost 100 different separation conditions were treated to illustrate effects for various types of solutes as separated by reversed phase (RP), ion-pair reversed phase (IP-RP), ion-exchange (IEX), hydrophobic interaction (HIC) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) chromatography . (
  • In this paper, an open-tubular capillary cell affinity chromatography (OT-CAC) method to enrich and separate target cells is described. (
  • The urine was worked-up by liquid-solid extraction, esterified with boron trifluoride-methanol, and analysed by capillary gas chromatography and selected-ion monitoring. (
  • 2019)‎. Good chromatography practices. (
  • The total market for flash chromatography was measured at around $150 million in 2019. (
  • These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography. (
  • Gas-Liquid Chromatography. (
  • 4 The Column in Liquid Chromatography Introduction. (
  • Retention Mechanisms in Liquid Chromatography. (
  • Development Strategies for Liquid Chromatography. (
  • Scale Liquid Chromatography. (
  • The two broad categories of chromatography are liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). (
  • Its products are used in high performance liquid, gas, and ion chromatography, as well as solid phase extraction technologies, for drug discovery and production. (
  • We are a developer and manufacturer of scientific instruments of superior quality for liquid chromatography (LC), liquid dosing and other laboratory tasks. (
  • Commonly used to separate, identify, and quantify the individual components of a mixture, liquid chromatography (LC) is a vital tool in the arsenal of analytical techniques used for research and development, as well as quality control across a wide range of industries. (
  • The method of high performance liquid chromatography to identify and quantify clozapine in tablets and biomaterial has been developed. (
  • Definitive diagnosis of Crigler-Najjar syndrome requires high-performance liquid chromatography of bile or a tissue enzyme assay of a liver biopsy sample. (
  • The heart of the SepTor ion exchange contactor comprises a unique liquid flow distribution concept (the multi-port distributor valve) which physically allows the use of truly counter-current ion exchange, chromatography or other adsorptions for the recovery / purification of pharma intermediates. (
  • Most of lipids in co-extractives were removed by liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography. (
  • Assays with 14 C-labeled substrates involved radiometric high-performance liquid chromatography. (
  • Studying effective column lengths in liquid chromatography of large biomolecules. (
  • Dr Green and his colleagues at Columbia looked at the gluten component using liquid chromatography. (
  • A thermosetting download Gas Adsorption Chromatography to the U. News and World Report lack of issues and basics, the Index would respond on & that need to all ll: How ultimately holds it care to need? (
  • Since you are especially bombed a download Gas Adsorption Chromatography for this polarity, this change will come based as an documentation to your new awareness. (
  • Principles of Quantitation in Column Chromatography. (
  • Before proceeding with the column chromatography itself, a proper solvent system must be chosen among the different solvents. (
  • Preparative lectin affinity chromatography is widely used as a first step for the isolation and purification of glycoproteins. (
  • Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective. (
  • Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered and various applications of affinity chromatography are summarized. (
  • Combined with complementary depletion and MS technologies, lectin affinity chromatography is becoming the most widely employed method of choice for biomarker discovery in cancer and other diseases. (
  • The SSGCID Protein Production Group at the University of Washington (UW-PPG) has developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol for the measurement of protein recovery from immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) which predicts successful purification of hexahistidine-tagged proteins. (
  • Open tubular capillaries coated with anti-CD4, anti-CD14, or anti-CD19 antibodies were used as affinity chromatography columns to separate target blood cells. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Reconstituted DNA-histone complex: hydroxyapatite chromatography & electron microscopy. (
  • Sinha M, Chaudhury AS, Sen A. Reconstituted DNA-histone complex: hydroxyapatite chromatography & electron microscopy. (
  • Purification of bovine bone morphogenetic protein by hydroxyapatite chromatography. (
  • Laboratory pilot SepTor unit for chromatography / ion exchange on a small / preparative scale (photo courtesy Xendo Manufacturing). (
  • Sartorius was the FTC-approved divestiture buyer in 2020, when the FTC required Danaher Corporation to divest assets as a condition of acquiring General Electric's biopharmaceutical business, which included chromatography assets. (
  • Browse our Gas Chromatography (GC) units, columns, consumables, and accessories for your analytical GC applications to achieve high performance, maximum productivity, and superior detection sensitivity. (
  • The use of high-quality standards, reagents, and chromatography consumables is a prerequisite for accurate and reliable testing and detection of terpenes in cannabis crops and cannabis-derived products. (
  • The SepTor systems are currently in use in a large number of pharmaceutical industries for the recovery and/or purification of pharmaceutical intermediates through counter-current ion exchange or chromatography. (
  • In This Edition Chromatography - Optimising Viral Vector Purification Strategies with Multimodal Chromatography - Key UHPLC Characteristics Required for High throughput LC-MS - New Low Volu. (
  • 1 Chr cellulose chromatography roll is a 0.18 mm paper for general analytical separations. (
  • The DART-EVOQ does not require chromatography separations for applied markets analysis in food/beverage, forensics, industrial, security, environmental and pharmaceutical workflows. (
  • Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. (
  • Some fall into the troubleshooting category, others are more about system optimization, but all can have a real impact on the quality of chromatography achieved. (
  • Our extensive capabilities in chromatography range from small-scale GMP studies to large-scale, with up to one metre diameter columns. (
  • The columns segment is estimated to account for the largest share of the global gas chromatography market. (
  • The large share of this segment can primarily be attributed to factors such as improved gas chromatography columns for the petroleum industry. (
  • The large share of this segment can be attributed to increasing crude & shale oil production and improved gas chromatography columns for the petroleum industry. (
  • Flash chromatography columns are typically prepacked plastic cartridges with silica gel particle sizes between 40-60 mm. (
  • From innovative sample preparation, to cutting edge LC and GC columns, to reference standards and accessories, Restek is your first and best choice for chromatography. (
  • Instrumental Aspects of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. (
  • Jönsson, BA & Skarping, G 1991, ' Method for the biological monitoring of hexahydrophthalic anhydride by the determination of hexahydrophthalic acid in urine using gas chromatography and selected-ion monitoring ', Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 572, no. 1-2, pp. 117-131. (
  • Perform urine chromatography to exclude nutritional pellagra. (
  • In this article, the author discusses practical aspects of gas chromatography theory, samples and sample preparation, hardware (injectors, carrier gas, column/stationary phase, oven detector and recorder), quantitative analysis and validation. (
  • Figures show a schematic of a gas chromatograph and an example chromatogram illustrating gas chromatography analysis of menthol with decanol used as an internal standard. (
  • High-sensitivity analysis of these ionic contaminants, even when present at trace levels in pharmaceutical products, can be conducted using ion chromatography. (
  • DART enables novel PoN workflows that are challenging for conventional GC- and LC-mass specs because of the complexity, long analysis times and reduced robustness of front-end chromatography that is required for complex mixture analysis. (
  • Our selection of reference standards for ion chromatography includes certified reference material (CRMs) solutions of single- and multi- ions and carbohydrates for the accurate analysis. (
  • 1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in atmospheric wet deposition (rain, snow, sleet, and hail) by chemically suppressed ion chromatography (1) using a two pen variable setting recorder and integrator. (
  • This document specifies the method of determination of pesticide residues in natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by gas chromatography (GC), including Chinese materia medica (whole medicinal materials) and decoction pieces derived from plants. (
  • Measurement of organic vapors at sub-TLV concentrations using fast gas chromatography. (
  • In this activity, students will perform a paper chromatography experiment on three known amino acids, and then use their results to identify the components of an unknown amino acid mixture. (
  • Chromatography works because different substances in a mixture have different solubility . (
  • Chromatography is a group of laboratory techniques used to separate the components of a mixture by passing the mixture through a stationary phase. (
  • Chromatography is used primarily to separate components of a mixture so that they can be identified or collected. (
  • FlashPure flash chromatography cartridges offer high resolution and outstanding loading capacity. (
  • The results of a preliminary investigation concerning the application of high speed gas chromatography (GC) to the measurement of aromatic vapors of toluene (108883), benzene (71432), and xylene (1330207) in air at threshold limit value (TLV) and sub/TLV concentrations were reported. (
  • Counter-current ion exchange or chromatography results in high yield, high purity and high product concentrations, at the lowest operational cost when compared to the more conventional stationary bed operations for ion exchange and chromatography. (
  • In this experiment you will do chromatography on green M&Ms and green Skittles and compare the chromatography patterns. (
  • This experiment uses the TLC chromatography technique to identify the presence of acetylsalicylic and Acetaminophen in analgesic drugs (Tylenol and Anacin). (
  • Integrated Micro-Chromatography Systems (IMCS) has grown to an annual revenue of more than $5 million. (
  • SepTor Technologies is a world-wide leading supplier of the carousel type of simulated moving bed systems for continuous ion exchange and chromatography, under the tradename SepTor. (
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  • Whatman™ 1 Chr Chromatography Paper is also widely used in protein and nucleic acid blotting. (
  • One such method for separating and identifying individual amino acids is paper chromatography. (
  • You might have seen chromatography in action if you spilled water on a paper that just came out of an inkjet printer. (
  • In chromatography, the least soluble substances fall out of the filter paper column first, while the most soluble travel the farthest up the filter paper. (
  • Examples of other types of chromatography include ion-exchange, resin, and paper chromatography. (
  • Reproduce beautiful, multicolor art patterns using paper chromatography! (
  • Chromatography of the Lipide Bases on Paper Impregnated with Silicic Acid', Croatica Chemica Acta , 33(3), pp. 133-135. (
  • International in a move that raises its standing in the manufacture and supply of chromatography products even further. (
  • This article covers key considerations for choosing a method and chromatography instruments for your specific needs. (
  • Through our chromatography lab, Midwest Labs focuses on method development and analytical testing. (
  • The earliest report of flash chromatography was by Clark Still over 40 years ago, but development was still in its infancy, as the newfound method was laborious and held the risk of the glass column shattering. (
  • Gas chromatography accessories are available to help you with your chromatography applications. (
  • Our range of carbohydrate standards also includes their certified reference material (CRM) solutions for ion chromatography applications. (
  • Journal of Chromatography : B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications [electronic resource]. (
  • Sartobind ® S membrane adsorber units combine the advantages of convective media and ion exchange chromatography for rapid and easy contaminant removal or capture of virus and virus like particles. (
  • Journal of Chromatography A , 572 (1-2), 117-131. (
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