Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL, which provide targeting of the protein complex. In addition, acetylation of this protein may play a role in regulating of DNA replication and cell cycle progression.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins: A family of proteins that were originally identified in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE as being essential for maintaining the structure of minichromosomes00. They form into a protein complex that has helicase activity and is involved in a variety of DNA-related functions including replication elongation, RNA transcription, chromatin remodeling, and genome stability.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Minichromosome Maintenance 1 Protein: A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role as a global regulator of yeast cell cycle control. It contains a 56 amino acid MADS-box domain within the N-terminal of the protein and is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 5: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. In addition, interaction of this protein with cyclin A results in its recruitment to CENTROSOMES where it may play a role in controlling centrosome reduplication.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 8: A minichromosome maintenance protein that forms a hexameric complex with MINICHROMSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 9. The MCM8-MCM9 helicase complex is involved in HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION REPAIR following the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 9: A minichromosome maintenance protein that forms a hexameric complex with MINICHROMSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 8. The MCM8-MCM9 helicase complex is involved in HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION REPAIR following the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Origin Recognition Complex: The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HMGB2 Protein: A 23-kDa HMG-box protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.HMGN Proteins: A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anoplura: An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Chromatin Assembly Factor-1: A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Breaks, Single-Stranded: Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.

*ORC2

"Human minichromosome maintenance proteins and human origin recognition complex 2 protein on chromatin". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (38 ... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ... This protein forms a core complex with ORC3, ORC4, and ORC5. It also interacts with CDC45L and MCM10, which are proteins known ... an origin-specific binding protein that associates with replication proteins, is required for mammalian DNA replication". ...

*Eukaryotic DNA replication

Cdc6 protein, Cdt1 protein, and minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7). Once the pre-RC is formed, activation of the ... Cdc6 requires ORC in order to associate with chromatin and is in turn required for the minichromosome maintenance proteins ( ... The nuclear localization of the minichromosome maintenance proteins is regulated in budding yeast cells. The Mcm proteins are ... which suggests that each Mcm protein has a unique and important function. Minichromosome maintenance proteins have been found ...

*MCM2

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in ... Fujita M, Yamada C, Tsurumi T, Hanaoka F, Matsuzawa K, Inagaki M (1998). "Cell cycle- and chromatin binding state-dependent ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (Sep 1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3 ...

*MCM3

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in ... This protein also interacts with, and thus is acetlyated by MCM3AP, a chromatin-associated acetyltransferase. The acetylation ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3 ... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ...

*MCM4

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential ... The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. ... Mini Chromosome Maintenance MCM4 has been shown to interact with: Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM2, MCM6, ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3 ...

*CDC45-related protein

Cdc45 is a member of the highly conserved multiprotein complex including Cdc6/Cdc18, the minichromosome maintenance proteins ( ... similar gene in Xenopus suggested that this protein play a pivotal role in the loading of DNA polymerase alpha onto chromatin. ... Kukimoto I, Igaki H, Kanda T (1999). "Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit of ... Kukimoto I, Igaki H, Kanda T (Nov 1999). "Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit ...

*MCM6

... is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of ... Holthoff HP, Baack M, Richter A, Ritzi M, Knippers R (1998). "Human protein MCM6 on HeLa cell chromatin". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ( ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3 ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (September 1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with ...

*MCM7

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential ... Fujita M, Kiyono T, Hayashi Y, Ishibashi M (1997). "In vivo interaction of human MCM heterohexameric complexes with chromatin. ... Kukimoto I, Igaki H, Kanda T (1999). "Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit of ... Kukimoto I, Igaki H, Kanda T (November 1999). "Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 ...

*MCM5

The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other ... Mini Chromosome Maintenance MCM5 has been shown to interact with: Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM2, MCM3, ... Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H (1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3 ... The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in ...

*MCM10

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in ... Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is ... The protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in ... This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by ...

*CDC6

Méndez J, Stillman B (2000). "Chromatin Association of Human Origin Recognition Complex, Cdc6, and Minichromosome Maintenance ... Cell division control protein 6 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... and Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins during the Cell Cycle: Assembly of Prereplication Complexes in Late Mitosis". Mol. Cell ... "Protein Phosphatase 2A Is Targeted to Cell Division Control Protein 6 by a Calcium-binding Regulatory Subunit". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*HIST3H3

1996). "Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (39): 24115-22. doi:10.1074/ ... 1999). "Gadd45, a p53-responsive stress protein, modifies DNA accessibility on damaged chromatin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (3): ... Histone H3.1t is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST3H3 gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are ... 1998). "Core histones and HIRIP3, a novel histone-binding protein, directly interact with WD repeat protein HIRA". Mol. Cell. ...

*Minichromosome maintenance

The Minichromosome Maintenance protein complex (MCM) is a DNA helicase essential for genomic DNA replication. Eukaryotic MCM ... Check date values in: ,date= (help) Cortez D, Glick G, Elledge SJ (July 2004). "Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct ... and Cdc45-dependent priming of the MCM complex on chromatin during S-phase in Xenopus egg extracts: possible activation of MCM ... "In sickness and in health: The many roles of the minichromosome maintenance proteins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...

*MCM8

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential ... "Involvement of human MCM8 in prereplication complex assembly by recruiting hcdc6 to chromatin". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (4): 1560-8 ... This protein contains the central domain that is conserved among the MCM proteins. This protein has been shown to co- ... The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be ...

*DNA re-replication

Cdt1 binding and the ATPase activity of ORC and Cdc6 facilitate the loading of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins 2- ... Once bound to chromatin the ORC recruits the AAA+ ATPase Cdc6 and the coiled-coil domain protein Cdt1. ... Replication initiation proteins are overexpressed in tissue samples from several types of human cancers and experimental ... The identification and characterization of the ORC, Cdc6, Cdt1, and the MCM complex proteins as the licensing factor gives ...

*Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase

After chromatin undergoes changes in telophase of mitosis, the hexameric protein complex of MCM proteins 2-7 forms part of the ... The Cdc7/Dbf4 complex adds a phosphate group to the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex allowing for the ... "CDC7 kinase phosphorylates serine residues adjacent to acidic amino acids in the minichromosome maintenance 2 protein". Proc. ... Because the two proteins, Cdc7 and Dbf4, must form a complex before activating the MCM complex, the regulation of one protein ...

*DNA replication factor CDT1

Cook JG, Chasse DA, Nevins JR (2004). "The regulated association of Cdt1 with minichromosome maintenance proteins and Cdc6 in ... Kulartz M, Knippers R (2004). "The replicative regulator protein geminin on chromatin in the HeLa cell cycle". J. Biol. Chem. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a key licensing factor which, along with the protein Cdc6, functions to license DNA by ... "Entrez Gene: CDT1 chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1". Wohlschlegel JA, Dwyer BT, Dhar SK, Cvetic C, Walter JC, ...

*Pre-replication complex

It is composed of a single origin recognition complex (ORC) protein, Cdc6, and a homohexamer of the mini chromosome maintenance ... In most eukaryotes it is composed of six ORC proteins (ORC1-6), Cdc6, Cdt1, and a heterohexamer of the six MCM proteins (MCM2-7 ... and dissociating ORC1-6 from chromatin via phosphorylation. Prevention of re-replication in S. pombe is slightly different; ... There is a stoichiometric excess of the MCM proteins over the ORC and Cdc6 proteins, indicating that there may be multiple MCM ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chromatin structure on the enzymatic and DNA binding functions of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and Dnmt3a in vitro. AU - Robertson, Andrea K.. AU - Geiman, Theresa M.. AU - Sankpal, Umesh Tanaji. AU - Hager, Gordon L.. AU - Robertson, Keith D.. PY - 2004/9/10. Y1 - 2004/9/10. N2 - DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the genome critical for numerous processes, including transcriptional repression and maintenance of chromatin structure. Recent studies have revealed connections between DNA methylation and other epigenetic modifications such as ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. It remains unclear, however, exactly how chromatin and epigenetic chromatin modifications affect the biological properties of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B). Using a highly purified system and the 5S rDNA gene as free DNA or assembled into a mononucleosome, we have compared ...
DNA is wrapped around a histone octamer to form the basic unit of chromatin structure. During embryogenesis, dynamic changes of chromatin structure and chromatin modification occur after fertilization; subsequently, the epigenetic information is inherited through many rounds of the cell cycle. Thus, chromatin is essential for the determination of cell identity. Two strategies are used to modulate a chromatin environment: the covalent modification of histone tails and energy-dependent chromatin remodeling. The acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation of histone tails can have profound effects on chromatin structure and transcription (Jenuwein and Allis, 2001). Chromatin remodeling reactions are catalyzed by large protein complexes that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the structure or positioning of nucleosomes (Becker and Hörz, 2002; Clapier and ...
Preparation of Chromatin Assembly Extracts from Preblastoderm Drosophila Embryos -- Analysis of Reconstituted Chromatin Using a Solid-Phase Approach -- In Vivo Chromatin Decondensation Assays: Molecular Genetic Analysis of Chromatin Unfolding Characteristics of Selected Proteins -- DNA Methyltransferase Probing of Chromatin Structure Within Populations and on Single Molecules -- Visualization of the Expression of HMGN Nucleosomal Binding Proteins in the Developing Mouse Embryo and in Adult Mouse Tissues -- Drug-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) Protocols: Cytogenetic Approaches in Mitotic Chromosome and Interphase Chromatin -- Analysis of DNA Topology in Yeast Chromatin -- Preparation and Analysis of Uniquely Positioned Mononucleosomes -- Monitoring DNA Breaks in Optically Highlighted Chromatin ...
One of the longest standing problems in DNA repair is how cells relax chromatin in order to make DNA lesions accessible for global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Since chromatin has to be relaxed for efficient lesion detection, the key question is whether chromatin relaxation precedes lesion detection or vice versa. Chromatin accessibility factors have been proposed but not yet identified. Here we show that p53 acts as a chromatin accessibility factor, mediating UV-induced global chromatin relaxation. Using localized subnuclear UV irradiation, we demonstrate that chromatin relaxation is extended over the whole nucleus and that this process requires p53. We show that the sequence for initiation of global NER is as follows: transcription-associated lesion detection; p53-mediated global chromatin relaxation; and global lesion detection. The tumour suppressor p53 is crucial ...
The THO complex is involved in transcription, genome stability, and messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation, but its precise molecular function remains enigmatic. Under heat shock conditions, THO mutants accumulate large protein-DNA complexes that alter the chromatin density of target genes (heavy chromatin), defining a specific biochemical facet of THO function and a powerful tool of analysis. Here, we show that heavy chromatin distribution is dictated by gene boundaries and that the gene promoter is necessary and sufficient to convey THO sensitivity in these conditions. Single-molecule fluorescence insitu hybridization measurements show that heavy chromatin formation correlates with an unusually high firing pace of the promoter with more than 20 transcription events per minute. Heavy chromatin formation closely follows the modulation of promoter firing and strongly correlates with ...
Loss of function of CDKN2A/B, also known as INK4/ARF [encoding p16INK4A, p15INK4B, and p14ARF (mouse p19Arf)], confers susceptibility to cancers, whereas its up-regulation during organismal aging provokes cellular senescence and tissue degenerative disorders. To better understand the transcriptional regulation of p16INK4A, a CRISPR screen targeting open, noncoding chromatin regions adjacent to p16INK4A was performed in a human p16INK4A-P2A-mCherry reporter cell line. We identified a repressive element located in the 3′ region adjacent to the ARF promoter that controls p16INK4A expression via long-distance chromatin interactions. Coinfection of lentiviral dCas9-KRAB with selected single-guide RNAs against the repressive element abrogated the ARF/p16INK4A chromatin contacts, thus reactivating p16INK4A expression. Genetic CRISPR screening identified candidate transcription factors inhibiting p16INK4A regulation, including ZNF217, which was confirmed to bind the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAME. T2 - Identification of chromatin accessibility from nucleosome occupancy and methylome sequencing. AU - Piao, Yongjun. AU - Lee, Seong Keon. AU - Lee, Eun Joon. AU - Robertson, Keith D. AU - Shi, Huidong. AU - Ryu, Keun Ho. AU - Choi, Jeong Hyeon. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Motivation: Chromatin accessibility plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene activation and silencing. Open chromatin regions allow regulatory elements such as transcription factors and polymerases to bind for gene expression while closed chromatin regions prevent the activity of transcriptional machinery. Recently, Methyltransferase Accessibility Protocol for individual templates-Bisulfite Genome Sequencing (MAPit-BGS) and nucleosome occupancy and methylome sequencing (NOMe-seq) have been developed for simultaneously profiling chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation on single molecules. Therefore, there is a ...
Numerous observations suggest that MCM association with chromatin is essential for DNA replication. The phenotype of mutations and the results of antibody injection and immunodepletion in yeasts, human cells, Xenopus, and Drosophila suggest a requirement for MCMs in DNA replication (for reviews see Tye, 1994; Chong et al., 1996). Importantly, work in Xenopus suggests that MCMs carry out their essential function when bound to chromatin; an MCM-containing complex can be experimentally induced to bind chromosomes and allow DNA replication in G2 nuclei that normally lack bound MCMs (Chong et al., 1995; Madine et al., 1995). Consistent with the idea that chromatin binding of MCMs is required for S phase, binding of MCMs to chromatin occurs before initiation of replication in mammalian cultured cells (Kimura et al., 1994) and in the Drosophila embryo (Su and OFarrell, 1997). We also found that MCM-chromosome association increased in response to ...
Here, we introduce the 3D Genome Browser, http://3dgenome.org , which allows users to conveniently explore both their own and over 300 publicly available chromatin interaction data of different types. We design a new binary data format for Hi-C data that reduces the file size by at least a magnitude and allows users to visualize chromatin interactions over millions of base pairs within seconds. Our browser provides multiple methods linking distal cis-regulatory elements with their potential target genes. Users can seamlessly integrate thousands of other omics data to gain a comprehensive view of both regulatory landscape and 3D genome structure.
article{7cc3097b-22b4-448a-9bce-4c18189ec61f, abstract = {BACKGROUND: The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) provides an objective assessment of sperm chromatin integrity, which is essential for normal sperm function. SCSA is valuable as a fertility marker in epidemiological studies and in the clinical situation. Little is known about the impact of testicular and post-testicular function on SCSA parameters. METHODS: Ejaculates from 278 military conscripts of median age 18.1 (range 18-21) years were included. Levels of reproductive hormones, the length of the CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene, sperm concentration, abstinence period and biochemical parameters of epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions were correlated to the SCSA parameters, DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and highly DNA stainable (HDS) cells. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between sperm concentration and DFI (r = -0.119, P = 0.049) and HDS (r = -0.513, P < 0.0001). DFI was ...
Two main chromatin assembly pathways ensure the proper transmission of chromatin organization and chromatin-based information throughout the cell cycle. A replication-dependent (RD) pathway that couples chromatin assembly to DNA synthesis and a replication-independent (RI) pathway. Whether these pathways contribute to the establishment of chromatin domains like heterochromatin or euchromatin by introducing modifications on histones or modulating chromatin structure remains unknown. Using Xenopus laevis egg extracts we monitored RD and RI chromatin assembly on single-stranded and double-stranded DNA templates. Even though RD assembly proceeded faster than RI assembly the histone content and saturation level with nucleosomes were similar. Despite these comparable topological features, the hydrodynamic behavior of both chromatin species in ...
Our data document spatial organisation of cell proliferation in normal oesophageal squamous epithelium and non-dysplastic Barretts mucosa, and disruption of this highly organised spatial arrangement in premalignant dysplasia. These disturbances are relevant to the identification of dysplasia in oesophageal squamous epithelium and Barretts mucosa, both of which are problematic in individuals and populations. Squamous oesophageal cancer is a target for screening in Far Eastern populations. Barretts oesophagus and Barretts cancer are relatively common in the West. Patients with Barretts oesophagus may be subjected to relatively frequent endoscopy and biopsy (for example, yearly). A sensitive and specific test for dysplasia might allow Barretts patients to be screened for dysplasia and divided into a cohort without dysplasia, at low risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, for whom less intensive follow up would be safe, and a higher risk group, with dysplasia, for whom more frequent endoscopic and ...
Histones are responsible for packaging the genomes of almost all eukaryotes into fundamental repeating nucleosome units. The packaging must facilitate compaction into the cell nucleus but also enable dynamic access to the genome. A variety of mechanisms exist for targeting enzymes to undertake local opening of chromatin such as at active genes or for DNA repair. However, larger scale transitions in chromatin also occur where extended genome regions have altered chromatin organisation. This often involves abundant non-histone chromatin proteins that switch chromatin between states that are not well understood at the structural level. The contribution of highly basic non-histone chromatin proteins in vitro has been investigated using the HMGA2 protein implicated in human stem cell chromatin opening, and the ...
1. Li X-Y, Thomas S, Sabo PJ, Eisen MB, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Biggin MD. The role of chromatin accessibility in directing the widespread, overlapping patterns of Drosophila transcription factor binding. Genome Biol. 2011;12: R34. doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-r34 21473766. 2. Thurman RE, Rynes E, Humbert R, Vierstra J, Maurano MT, Haugen E, et al. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome. Nature. 2012;489: 75-82. doi: 10.1038/nature11232 22955617. 3. Klemm SL, Shipony Z, Greenleaf WJ. Chromatin accessibility and the regulatory epigenome. Nat Rev Genet. 2019;20: 207-220. doi: 10.1038/s41576-018-0089-8 30675018. 4. Wu J, Huang B, Chen H, Yin Q, Liu Y, Xiang Y, et al. The landscape of accessible chromatin in mammalian preimplantation embryos. Nature. 2016;534: 652-657. doi: 10.1038/nature18606 27309802. 5. Clark SJ, Argelaguet R, Kapourani C-A, Stubbs TM, Lee HJ, Alda-Catalinas C, et al. scNMT-seq enables joint profiling of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum testosterone level and semen indices in sulfur mustard exposed men. T2 - Comment on "sperm chromatin structure assay analysis of iranian mustard gas casualties: A long-term outlook". AU - Ghabili, Kamyar. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Golzari, Samad E J. AU - Ansarin, Khalil. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1159/000343522. DO - 10.1159/000343522. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:84867222501. VL - 6. JO - Current Urology. JF - Current Urology. SN - 1661-7649. IS - 2. ER - ...
ABSTRACT. The chromatin of Trypanosoma congolense was analyzed by electron microscopy. The chromatin is organized as nucleosome filaments but does not form a 30 nm fiber. There are five groups of histones, including a histone H1-like protein, which has a molecular weight within the range of the core histones, and is extremely hydrophilic. Weak histone-histone interaction, a typical feature of trypanosoma chromatin, was found. These results are similar to those for T. cruzi and T. b. brucei, but differ significantly from those for higher eukaryotes. The results confirm the model of trypanosome chromatin, and support the theory of their early separation from the other eukaryotes during the evolution. T. congolensis is an excellent model for chromatin research on trypanosomes, because it is easy to cultivate and its chromatin has, a relatively high stability, compared to that of other ...
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DNA repair in the eukaryotic cell disrupts local chromatin organization. To investigate whether the resetting of nucleosomal arrays can be linked to the repair process, we developed model systems, with both Xenopus egg extract and human cell extracts, to follow repair and chromatin assembly in parallel on circular DNA templates. Both systems were able to carry out nucleotide excision repair of DNA lesions. We observed that UV-dependent DNA synthesis occurs simultaneously with chromatin assembly, strongly indicating a mechanistic coupling between the two processes. A complementation assay established that chromatin assembly factor I (CAF1) is necessary for this repair associated chromatin formation.. ...
Even relatively minor errors in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis are associated with sperm DNA damage and infertility, yet little is known about the etiology. Mice with severe NPYq deletions are infertile due to severe sperm differentiation defects (Ward and Burgoyne, 2006; Yamauchi et al., 2009). We have recently observed that sperm from these mice presented abnormal chromatin packaging and DNA damage. Moreover, when these sperm were injected into the oocytes, a significant increase of oocyte arrest at pronuclei stage and of chromosome aberrations in the fertilized eggs were noted (Yamauchi et al., 2010). Here we provide evidence that the deficiency of NPYq encoded gene Sly is associated with sperm DNA damage and poor sperm chromatin condensation, and propose that SLY plays a role in spermatid-specific chromatin remodeling.. How can Sly/SLY be involved in sperm DNA damage phenotype? SLY protein has been shown to ...
Covalent modifications of histones and histone variants have great influence on chromatin structure, which is involved in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful tool for studying in vivo DNA-histone interactions. Strawberry is a model for Rosaceae and non-climacteric fruits, in which histone modifications have been implicated to affect fruit development and ripening. However, a validated ChIP method has not been reported in strawberry, probably due to its high levels of polysaccharides which affect the quality of prepared chromatin and the efficiency of immunoprecipitation. We describe a native chromatin immunoprecipitation (N-ChIP) protocol suitable for strawberry by optimizing the parameters for nuclei isolation, chromatin extraction, DNA fragmentation and validation analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results show that both the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alleviation of historic H1-mediated transcriptional repression and chromatin compaction by the acidic activation region in chromosomal protein HMG-14. AU - Ding, Hanfei. AU - Bustin, Michael. AU - Hansen, Ulla. PY - 1997/10/1. Y1 - 1997/10/1. N2 - Histone H1 promotes the generation of a condensed, transcriptionally inactive, higher-order chromatin structure. Consequently, historic H1 activity must be antagonized in order to convert chromatin to a transcriptionally competent, more extended structure. Using simian virus 40 minichromosomes as a model system, we now demonstrate that the nonhistoric chromosomal protein HMG-14, which is known to preferentially associate with active chromatin, completely alleviates historic H1-mediated inhibition of transcription by RNA polymerase II. HMG-14 also partially disrupts histone H1-dependent compaction of chromatin. Both ...
De novo chromatin assembly maintains histone density on the daughter strands in the wake of the replication fork. The heterotrimer chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) couples DNA replication to histone deposition in vitro, but is not essential for yeast cell proliferation. Depletion of CAF-1 in human cell lines demonstrated that CAF-1 was required for efficient progression through S-phase. Cells lacking CAF-1 accumulated in early and mid S-phase and replicated DNA slowly. The checkpoint kinase Chk1, but not Chk2, was phosphorylated in response to CAF-1 depletion, consistent with a DNA replication defect. CAF-1-depleted cell extracts completely lacked DNA replication-coupled chromatin assembly activity, suggesting that CAF-1 is required for efficient S-phase progression in human cells. These results indicate that, in contrast to yeast, human CAF-1 is necessary for coupling chromatin assembly with DNA replication.. ...
Eukaryotic cells license each DNA replication origin during G1 phase by assembling a prereplication complex that contains a Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance proteins 2-7) double hexamer. During S phase, each Mcm2-7 hexamer forms the core of a replicative DNA helicase. However, the mechanisms of origin licensing and helicase activation are poorly understood. The helicase loaders ORC-Cdc6 function to recruit a single Cdt1-Mcm2-7 heptamer to replication origins prior to Cdt1 release and ORC-Cdc6-Mcm2-7 complex formation, but how the second Mcm2-7 hexamer is recruited to promote double-hexamer formation is not well understood. Here, structural evidence for intermediates consisting of an ORC-Cdc6-Mcm2-7 complex and an ORC-Cdc6-Mcm2-7-Mcm2-7 complex are reported, which together provide new insights into DNA licensing. Detailed structural analysis of the loaded Mcm2-7 double-hexamer complex demonstrates that the two hexamers are interlocked and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. AU - Buck, M. J.. AU - Raaijmakers, L. M.. AU - Ramakrishnan, S.. AU - Wang, D.. AU - Valiyaparambil, S.. AU - Liu, S.. AU - Nowak, N. J.. AU - Pili, Roberto. PY - 2014/10/9. Y1 - 2014/10/9. N2 - Recent studies have demonstrated that in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) several chromatin remodeling enzymes are genetically inactivated. Although, growing evidence in cancer models has demonstrated the importance of epigenetic changes, currently only changes in DNA methylation can be accurately determined from clinical samples. To address this limitation, we have applied formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIREs) combined with next-generation sequencing (FAIRE-seq) to identify specific changes in chromatin accessibility in clinical samples of ccRCC. We modified the FAIRE procedure to allow us to examine ...
Current models suggest that tissue-specific genes are arranged in discrete, independently controlled segments of chromatin referred to as regulatory domains. Transition from a closed to open chromatin structure may be an important step in the regulation of gene expression. To determine whether the human alpha-globin cluster, like the beta-globin cluster, lies within a discrete, erythroid-specific domain, we have examined the long-range genomic organization and chromatin structure around this region. The alpha genes lie adjacent to at least four widely expressed genes. The major alpha-globin regulatory element lies 40 kb away from the cluster within an intron of one of these genes. Therefore, unlike the beta cluster, cis-acting sequences controlling alpha gene expression are dispersed within a region of chromatin that is open in both erythroid and nonerythroid cells. This implies a difference in the hierarchical control of alpha- and ...
1 year ago - Compiled by Staff Tags: North America, Sorghum Late last week, Chromatin acquired Kirkland Seed Inc., a forage sorghum seed supplier based in Vega, Texas.. "Our business is based on quality seed production, combined with outstanding customer service and relationships," says Lester Kirkland who manages the company. "I am pleased to be joining the Chromatin team, and I look forward to introducing Chromatins full lineup of high performance grain and forage sorghum products to our customers.". The Kirkland Seed grower network and production facilities add operating capacity to Chromatins sorghum infrastructure.. "The addition of this site optimizes our inventory processing capabilities," says Ken Thompson, Chromatins director of plant operations. "With this addition, Chromatin will immediately achieve important efficiencies throughout our network.". According to Daphne Preuss, ...
A fraction of rat-liver chromatin that is transcriptionally active in vivo has been purified 6- to 7-fold over whole chromatin. This was accomplished by selectively shearing chromatin with DNase II followed by fractionating the released portion on the basis of its solubility properties in 2 mM MgCl2. The resulting soluble material comprises 11% of the total chromatin DNA and is impoverished in histone and enriched in nonhistone protein. Compared with unsheared chromatin, this minor fraction exhibits marked differences in chromosomal protein species. DNA renaturation studies indicate that this fraction is composed of a specific subset of whole genomal DNA sequences. Furthermore, DNA·RNA hybridization experiments suggest that almost 60% of the nonrepetitious DNA sequences of this minor fraction could code for cellular RNA. ...
DNase I hypersensitive site assay is perhaps the most widely used assay for detection of changes in chromatin structure. Studies of many spatially or temporally regulated genes, such as P-globin, have revealed the correlation of formation of DNase I hypersensitive sites with the status of transcription (22). This assay has also been used extensively in analyses of chromatin structure in injected Xenopus oocytes (24). Although the mechanism for the formation of DNase I hypersensitive sites is still not fully understood, the detection of DNase I hypersensitive sites are widely interpreted as results of chromatin remodeling induced by the binding of transcription factors.. 1. Inject 15-20 oocytes with DNA and with or without mRNA encoding TR/RXR (100 ng/ pL, 27.6 nL/oocyte) and treated with or without 50 nM T3. Incubate the oocytes overnight at 18°C incubator.. 2. Collect healthy oocytes and wash the oocytes once with 500 pL of MBSH buffer.. 3. To 15-20 ...
Complete information for MCM6 gene (Protein Coding), Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Not all available origins of replication fire during a normal S-phase. But when replication is perturbed, otherwise dormant origins go to work, Woodward et al. show on page 673.. Cells initially respond to slowed replication by turning on the ATR-dependent checkpoint, which prevents other origins from firing and thus getting into trouble too. But if the cell decides it is time to recover from that checkpoint, the mechanism discovered by Woodward et al. may ensure that there are enough origins to get the job done.. The excess supply of origins arises from an excess of sites that have the minichromosome maintenance protein complexes, Mcm2-7. These complexes are loaded onto chromatin before S-phase and are required to license replication origins for use. However, the number of complexes loaded is much higher than the number normally used.. Working in Xenopus egg extract, Woodward et al. found that replication speed, origin spacing, and the ...
MCM Proteins Are Associated with RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme: MCMs are a family of proteins related to ATP-dependent helicases that bind to origin recognition
MCM6 antibody (minichromosome maintenance complex component 6) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-MCM6 pAb (GTX54353) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
MCM-41 consists of a hexagonal array of long, unconnected cylindrical pores with diameters that can be tailored within the range 1.6-10nm. As a porous silica nano-material, MCM-41 is thought to have a special thermal conductivity and is a promising porous substrate for mesoporous composites with high or low thermal conductivity. The Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations of thermal conductivity of MCM-41 are performed in this paper. FB potential equation and procedure of annealing are employed to get the structure of MCM-41. The Green-Kubo method is used to calculate the thermal conductivity of MCM-41. At the same time, the kinetic method is used to predict the thermal conductivity of MCM-41 for comparison. It turns out that the shell thermal conductivities of MCM-41 distribute within a reasonable range and increases linearly as porosity decreases, approaching the thermal conductivity of aerogels.. Copyright © 2010 by ASME ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
DNA replication is a tightly regulated multistep process that requires the sequential action of several protein complexes that select DNA replication origins, recruit on these origins the DNA replication fork helicase that once activated, unwinds and duplicates the DNA. These events must be tightly coupled to cell cycle progression to ensure that DNA replication occurs once and only once per cell cycle.. DNA replication is thus temporally separated into two steps that are controlled by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK) activity. The first step, which occurs in mitosis and during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, when Cdk activity is low, involves the loading of a double hexameric Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance 2-7) complex on the chromatin as part of the prereplicative complex (pre-RC) (Evrin et al. 2009; Remus et al. 2009; Gambus et al. 2011; Deegan and Diffley 2016). Pre-RC formation requires several loading factors including the hexameric ...
The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain. This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. ...
Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system. Gammaherpesviruses, which include the human viruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, establish latent infections in lymphocytes. Infection of this dynamic host-cell population requires that the viruses have appropriate strategies for enabling the viral genome to persist while these cells go through rounds of mitosis, but at the same time must avoid detection by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The majority of gammaherpesviruses studied have been found to encode a specific protein that is critical for maintenance of the viral genome within latently infected cells. This protein is termed the genome maintenance protein ...
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In eukaryotes, initiation of DNA replication requires the assembly of a multiprotein prereplicative complex (pre-RC) at the origins. We recently reported that a WD repeat-containing protein, origin recognition complex (ORC)-associated (ORCA/LRWD1), plays a crucial role in stabilizing ORC to chromati …
Genomic DNA replication is essential for the transmission of genetic information; during this process, minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, the cellular replicative helicase, unwinds duplex DNA to enable DNA synthesis by polymerases. Eukaryotic DNA replication is a tightly regulated process and the recruitment of MCM to the replication origin and its activation require the participations of the GINS complex and more than ten additional DNA replication factors. My thesis project focuses on the structural studies of the GINS complex, as well as a MCM functional homolog, Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LTag) helicase.; The crystal structure of the full-length human GINS hetero-tetramer was determined in order to further understand the functional role of GINS. The four subunits each has a major domain composed of an α-helical bundle-like structure. With the exception of Psf1, other subunits each has a small domain containing a three-stranded β-sheet core. Each ...
Background: Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer with a variable clinical course even in patients with thin melanomas and localized disease. Despite increasing insights into melanoma biology, no prognostic biomarkers have yet been incorporated into clinical protocols. Reduced expression of the RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate with tumour progression and poor prognosis in melanoma and several other cancer forms. In ovarian cancer, an inverse association was found between expression of RBM3 and the minichromosome maintenance 3 (MCM3) gene and protein. In melanoma, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical validation has uncovered MCM3 as a putative prognostic biomarker. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of MCM3 expression with clinical outcome and RBM3 expression in a prospective, population-based cohort of melanoma.. Methods: Immunohistochemical MCM3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption equilibrium of polar/non-polar mixtures on MCM-41. T2 - Experiments and Monte Carlo simulation. AU - Yun., J. H.. AU - He, Y.. AU - Otero, M.. AU - Düren, T.. AU - Seaton, N. A.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - We have studied the adsorption of mixtures of polar and non-polar gases in MCM-41. MCM-41 is a suitable model on which to test our understanding of adsorption at the molecular level, and to evaluate methods for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption of mixtures of methane, ethane and carbon dioxide (and the corresponding pure gases) was studied using experiment, grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation, and ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). Both GCMC and IAST work very well for the adsorption of the methane/ethane mixture in MCM-41. IAST gives good predictions for ethane/carbon dioxide mixture adsorption equilibrium at low and moderate pressures, and exhibits some deviations at relatively high pressures.. AB - We ...
The binary distribution of Mcm2‐7 across the genome prompted us to investigate genomic features that may be associated with the broad regions of high or low Mcm2‐7 levels along the chromosome. The Mcm2‐7 localization pattern relative to annotated genomic features suggested that Mcm2‐7 may be displaced by actively transcribed genes (Fig 5A). To quantitatively assess the Mcm2‐7 distribution relative to transcription units, we generated histograms of Mcm2‐7 enrichment for transcribed and non‐transcribed genes (Fig 5B) and found a bimodal pattern of Mcm2‐7 enrichment. Specifically, active genes had no or very little Mcm2‐7 signal, whereas inactive or non‐transcribed genes exhibited an elevated Mcm2‐7 signal (P , 1.02 × 10−257; t = 40.16). We also considered that the bimodal distribution of Mcm2‐7 enrichment between active and inactive genes might be due to the activation of early origins that are enriched near actively transcribed genes. However, we found that the bimodal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 6 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with the tumorsuppressor protein RB1/RB. Alternatively spliced transcript variants ...
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomal DNA replication during S-phase is initiated from defined origins that are constitutively bound by an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex, termed the origin recognition complex (ORC) [1]. ORC is composed of six subunits (Orc1p-6p) that are essential for viability. Its central role is in the initiation of DNA replication, serving as a scaffold for the recruitment of critical initiator proteins such as Cdc6p and Mcm2p-7p that assemble into a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) in G1 phase (reviewed in [2]). An important determinant of origin firing in S-phase is the binding of key initiation factors such as Cdc45p to autonomous replicating sequences (ARSs) just prior to origin firing [3] and melting of the duplex DNA [4]. Whereas ORC remains bound to ARS sequences throughout S phase, Cdc45p and other initiation factors such as the minichromosome maintenance ...
Grafting of a novel gold(III) complex on nanoporous MCM-41 and evaluation of its toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yousef Fazaeli1,2, Mostafa M Amini1, Hamed Ashourion3, Homayoun Heydari2, Abbas Majdabadi2, Amir Reza Jalilian2, Shamsozoha Abolmaali2,31Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, 2Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Moazzen Boulevard, Rajaee Shahr, Karaj, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of New Technologies and Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, IranAbstract: The goal of this research was to investigate the potential of newly synthesized gold complex trichloro(2,4,6-trimethylpyridine)Au(III) as an anticancer agent. The gold(III) complex was synthesized and grafted on nanoporous silica, MCM-41, to produce [email protected] (AuCl3 grafted on pyridine-functionalized MCM-41). The toxicity of trichloro(2,4,6-trimethylpyridine)Au(III) and [email protected] in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as a model system) was
In eukaryotic cells, firing of DNA replication origins normally does not recur until after M phase. This characteristic is thought to be due to the properties of initiation proteins like Orc, Cdc6, and Mcms. Using formaldehyde cross-linking, we show that Cdc6p and Mcm7p associate specifically with replication origins during G1 but not during G2 in S. cerevisiae. Mcm7ps association with origins depends on Cdc6p. Ectopic expression of Cdc6p enables it to associate with origins during G2, but this fails to recruit Mcm7p. Our data suggest that the loading of Mcm proteins onto origins is regulated by two mechanisms: first, by Cdc6p occupancy, and second, by S- and M-CDKs, whose activity during S, G2, and M phases prevents Mcm loading.
The recently discovered mesoporous aluminosilicate MCM-41 consists of hexagonal arrays of nanometer-sized cylindrical pores. It is shown that this material can be synthesized by cooperative condensation of silicate and cylindrical cationic micelles. Careful control of the surfactant-water content and the rate of condensation of silica at high alkalinity resulted in hollow tubules 0.3 to 3 micrometers in diameter. The wall of the tubules consisted of coaxial cylindrical pores, nanometers in size, that are characteristic of those of MCM-41. The formation of this higher order structure may take place through a liquid crystal phase transformation mechanism involving an anisotropic membrane-to-tubule phase change. The hierarchical organization of this "tubules-within-a-tubule" particle texture is similar to that of the frustules of marine diatoms.. ...
Investigation of carbon dioxide adsorption by nitrogen-doped carbons synthesized from cubic MCM-48 mesoporous silica - MCM-48;nitrogen-doped carbons;CO2 adsorption;thermal gravimetric analysis method;
The exact duplication of a genome once per cell division is required of every proliferating cell. To achieve this goal, eukaryotes adopt a strategy that limits every replication origin to a single initiation event within a narrow window of the cell cycle by temporally separating the assembly of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) from the initiation of DNA synthesis. A key component of the pre-RC is the hexameric MCM complex, which is also the presumed helicase of the growing forks. An elaborate mechanism recruits the MCM complex to replication origins, and a regulatory chain reaction converts the poised, but inactive, MCM complex into an enzymatically active helicase. A growing list of proteins, including Mcm10 and Cdt1, are involved in the recruitment process. Two protein kinases, the Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase (DDK) and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), trigger a chain reaction that results in the phosphorylation of the MCM complex and finally in the initiation ...
There are many significant differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication. One such difference is the complexity of the replication process of eukaryotic cells in comparison to the...
To prevent re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle, the licensing of replication origins by Mcm2-7 is prevented during S and G2 phases. Animal cells achieve this by cell-cycle-regulated proteolysis of the essential licensing factor Cdt1 and inhibition of Cdt1 by geminin. Here we investigate the consequences of ablating geminin in synchronised human U2OS cells. Following geminin loss, cells complete an apparently normal S phase, but a proportion arrest at the G2-M boundary. When Cdt1 accumulates in these cells, DNA re-replicates, suggesting that the key role of geminin is to prevent re-licensing in G2. If cell cycle checkpoints are inhibited in cells lacking geminin, cells progress through mitosis and less re-replication occurs. Checkpoint kinases thereby amplify re-replication into an all-or-nothing response by delaying geminin-depleted cells in G2. Deep DNA sequencing revealed no preferential re-replication of specific genomic regions after geminin depletion. This is consistent with the ...
As shown in Figure 122, the subnanometric Pt species are finely dispersed in the MCM-22 crystallites. The size of the Pt species and their location in the crystallites was determined with the help of aberration-corrected electron microscopy. The Pt atoms and clusters are located both in the surface "cups" of MCM-22 and within the zeolite framework. In particular, a large proportion of the subnanometric Pt species are located in the internal space of the structure.. A [email protected] sample has been studied at beamline BM23 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine the local environment of Pt and to estimate the coordination number of Pt species. The Fourier transform of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of [email protected] and the Pt and PtO2 reference are shown in Figure 123a. Considering the first shell, the [email protected] spectrum is dominated by a peak centred around 2.65 Å with a smaller contribution at 2.08 Å (both distances are not phase corrected). Comparing with ...
B138 Background: Treatment of breast cancer cells with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors results in chromatin decondensation and the sensitization of cancer cells to DNA damaging agents such as topoisomerase II inhibitors. We previously reported that the HDAC inhibitors induced chromatin decondensation through the down-regulation of heterochromatin maintenance proteins such as heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), structural maintenance of chromatin proteins (SMC) 1-5 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Here we report the role of HDAC2 in the expression of heterochromatin maintenance proteins, chromatin decondensation and DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibition. Methods: HDAC2 was selectively depleted using siRNA ...
A so-called licensing protein (Cdc10-dependent transcript 1, 546 aa) that binds to the origin of DNA replication and facilitates the binding of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (Mcms). The Drosophila homologue is Double-parked (Dup). Once replication has been initiated at the end of G1, Cdt1 is exported out of the nucleus and degraded. See geminin. ...
Functionalization of MCM-41 via the reaction of its surface silanols with proper agents yielded aminated and phosphinated materials, which were characterized and used to immobilize rhodium complex. These rhodium complex materials exhibited excellent performance in the hydrogenation of arenes under mild reaction conditions of 45°C and 1 atm. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V ...
The esterification of glycerol with lauric and oleic acids (1 : 1 molar ratio) has been carried out by using hybrid MCM-41 materials containing simultaneously alkyl (methyl or propyl) and sulfonic acid groups as catalysts. It has been found that for each fatty acid the catalyst activity is affected by the concentration of methyl groups, and maximum activity per sulfonic acid group is achieved by tuning the methyl/sulfonic acid ratio. A monolaurin yield of 63% is obtained with the most active catalyst, whereas for oleic acid the maximum monoolein yield was 45%. Reduction of the average pore size (determined by N2 adsorption) from 14 to below 10 Å has a detrimental influence on the catalyst activity for both acids ...
實驗結果顯示,二氧化矽奈米顆粒結構具有較大的熱通量,其因具有良好的表面親水濕潤性,在一大氣壓及過熱度為20 oC時,SiO2-S結構的最大熱通量為677 kW/cm2,是平板結構的2.4倍。在負壓及過熱度為30 oC時,SiO2-S結構熱通量為2391 kW/cm2是平板結構的4倍。最大熱通量及最小蒸發熱阻依序為SiO2-S、SiO2-L、MCM-41、TEOS及平板結構。因此奈米顆粒沉積層結構具有良好的熱傳性能,但MCM-41顆粒的熱性能較差於SiO2-S及SiO2-L顆粒,是因為顆粒本身較難以沉積於加熱表面上方所導致 ...
MCM3 is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication.…
0020]Referring now to FIGS. 8 and 9, a nucleus augmentation implant 60 may be used to supplement the function of an existing nucleus pulposus or replace all or a portion of the nucleus pulposus. Thus, the implant 60 may fill all or a portion of the disc space 20 within the annulus 22. The implant 60 comprises three regions, a central region 62, middle region 63, and a peripheral region 64. The implant has a top face 65, a bottom face 66, and a side wall 67. Each region 62, 63, 64 has a different modulus of elasticity. For example, central region 62 may have a lower modulus of elasticity than regions 63, 64 and middle region 63 may have a lower modulus of elasticity than region 64. The resulting implant 60 has a softer center and a stiffer peripheral area. In alternative embodiments, the inverse may be true with the center stiffer than the peripheral area. In this embodiment, the central region 62 is encased within the middle region 63 and the middle region 63 encased within the peripheral region ...
An artificial interbody spinal implant adapted for placement across an intervertebral space formed across the height of a disc space between two adjacent vertebral bodies is disclosed. The implant has an asymmetrical leading end adapted to sit upon the more peripheral areas, such as the apophyseal rim and the apophyseal rim area, of the vertebral end plate region of the vertebral bodies without protruding therefrom. The asymmetrical leading end allows for the safe use of an implant of maximum length for the implantation space into which it is installed. The implant can also include an asymmetric trailing end adapted to sit upon the more peripheral areas of the vertebral end plate region of the vertebral bodies.
An artificial interbody spinal implant adapted for placement across an intervertebral space formed across the height of a disc space between two adjacent vertebral bodies is disclosed. The implant has an asymmetrical leading end adapted to sit upon the more peripheral areas, such as the apophyseal rim and the apophyseal rim area, of the vertebral end plate region of the vertebral bodies without protruding therefrom. The asymmetrical leading end allows for the safe use of an implant of maximum length for the implantation space into which it is installed. The implant can also include an asymmetric trailing end adapted to sit upon the more peripheral areas of the vertebral end plate region of the vertebral bodies.
A cells ability to control replication of its DNA is fundamental to its normal development or transformation into a cancerous state. DNA replication is also a crucial step in the cell cycle, and recent improvements in our understanding of cell cycle control have promoted a fresh surge of interest in the subject. In this volume, the complexities of eukaryotic DNA replication are reviewed by leaders in this rapidly advancing field.
Component of the origin recognition complex (ORC) that binds origins of replication. DNA-binding is ATP-dependent. The specific DNA sequences that define origins of replication have not been identified yet. ORC is required to assemble the pre-replication complex necessary to initiate DNA replication (By similarity).
The point I am trying to make is that while a dedicated MCM capability is required for dedicated mine hunting and clearance against all possible threats, a limited capability would be extremely useful for any platform that finds itself in the threat environment without an Avenger, MH-53E, or LCS with MCM mission package. Recent history has suggested a limited capability that would allow a ship to navigate itself out of a mine field could have prevented multiple ship losses. And that limited capability was proven in the recently conducted LCS MCM Mission Package TECHEVAL (completed in late FY15). There were certainly technical issues uncovered that I believe are being worked, but there is an opportunity to greatly expand deployment options with a limited but useful capability. The LCS mission package capabilities were intended to be a come as you are party, with capabilities developed under separate program of records and then integrated on the LCS. The airborne MCM capabilities for the LCS MCM ...
Prins condensation of β-pinene with paraformaldehyde was carried out over MCM-22, delaminated ITQ-2 and silica pillared MCM-36. The mesopore-containing MCM-36 and ITQ-2 catalysts exhibit higher conversion of β-pinene due to more exposed acid sites. Lewis acid sites are responsible for Prins condensation while Brønsted acid sites favor the isomerization of pinene. The Brønsted acid sites can be removed mostly by ion-exchanging the zeolites with sodium cations. Thus, NaMWW zeolites had a higher selectivity towards Nopol. Of these, NaITQ-2 showed the highest activity and selectivity, and is a stable and reusable catalyst for production of Nopol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Several samples of mesoporous silica were prepared via sol-gel chemistry in the presence of CTAB as template with variation of stirring intensity and aging time, ratios of CTAB/SiO2 and NH4OH/H2O in synthesis mixture. Effects of aging temperature, hydrothermal treatment and ter-Butanol addition to the synthesis mixture on the textural properties of obtained samples were also studied. Results of XRD, SEM, and N2 adsorption isotherm analyses shows particle size and morphology of mesoporous silica are influenced by synthesis conditions; although no significant change of pore size (
Journal of Catalysts is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles related to all aspects of catalysts.
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Novel composite materials of vanadium-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates anchored on amine-functionalized Ce-MCM-41 (POM/APTES-CeM) are successfully synthesized and fully characterized by FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, SEM, TEM, EDX, and XPS. The catalytic activities of these new catalysts ar
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Supported gold nanoparticles are very effective catalysts for the selective oxidation of glycerol which represents an important bio-derived feedstock. In this paper we report that the acid/base properties, especially the acid site density, of these catalysts are the key factor in tuning the selectivity. A range of supported AuPt catalysts have been prepared by sol immobilization using acidic (H-mordenite, SiO2, MCM-41, and sulfated ZrO2) and basic (NiO and MgO) oxides as supports. In particular, using MCM-41 as the support, a high selectivity to glyceraldehyde, an important labile intermediate, was found.. ...
Various carbonaceous deposits are formed during the course of methane dehydro-aromatization (MDA) under non-oxidative conditions on Mo/MCM-22 catalysts. These carbon species were investigated by various temperature-programmed techniques such as TPH and TPCO2, combining with TPO and TGA results in order to reveal their chemical nature and determine their amounts. The TPO profiles recorded from coked Mo/MCM-22 catalysts show two temperature peaks: one at about 756 K and the other at about 876 K. The coke amounts related to these two peaks were determined on the basis of the corresponding corrected and deconvoluted TPO profiles, combining with the TGA profiles concerned ...
The above vision statement has been arrived at by closely observing the current trends of urbanisation witnessed by the state and the nature of economic activity likely to emerge in the state. Provision of 100% basic infrastructure is critical in the light of the widening gaps in the levels and efficiency of service delivery in the state. The existing urban areas including both Municipal Corporations and Municipalities do not fully suffice the current norms for urban service levels. Also the intra urban centre disparities are wide with the core city areas being serviced better than the peripheral areas. Also, in general, there is a wide disparity between infrastructure standards in Municipal corporations when compared to municipalities. With the levels of urbanisation anticipated to reach levels of 55% by 2020, it is critical to ensure that the urban infrastructure machinery is well geared to service the large urban population.. In addition to development of all the urban centres of the state, ...
Wednesday last, the first Wednesday in April, was National Walking Day, and nothing special was done to celebrate. Mrs. Phactor can walk to work as well, but its more complicated for her. Its about three times farther, and her business and activities make for lots of appointments here and there, so there are practical reasons for driving. Three of TPPs colleagues lives about 3 blocks closer to campus and one doesnt even own a car unless her ancient VW rabbit was buried in her back yard after it quit for good. Another one walks, the third drives. A grocery is within walking distance in the opposite direction, and TPP often walks to get just an item or two. But our Mercan habit of buying food for several days produces a load to heavy to carry very far, so that remains a problem even if a cart were used. Unfortunately shopping in general moved from neighorhoods and urban centers to you-must-drive peripheral areas starting 5-6 decades ago, and only now is there some little tendency to shift ...
DUP is related to a number of demographic, premorbid and healthcare factors. These findings suggest that future information campaigns should focus on increasing the awareness of early signs of psychosis not only among mental health professionals but also other professionals in contact with adolescents such as the police. It may also be useful to consider how to target information campaigns towards persons living in peripheral areas ...
DUP is related to a number of demographic, premorbid and healthcare factors. These findings suggest that future information campaigns should focus on increasing the awareness of early signs of psychosis not only among mental health professionals but also other professionals in contact with adolescents such as the police. It may also be useful to consider how to target information campaigns towards persons living in peripheral areas ...
nak dijadikan cerita..mak si A ni mcm tak bagi lar si A ni nak balik rumah si B.."amboi..negeri X tak balik tp negeri Y boleh pulak balik!"...si A gelak kambing jela bla dgr mcm tu.tak ambik hati pun dgn ape yg mak dye ckp.then mak si A ni sambung lagi "kalau nak balik rumah org tu pandai2 lar jaga diri.tak boleh nak buat mcm rumah sendiri,bangun tengah hari..."..si A hanya jawab hmmm je..time tu si A dah sentap.bukan sbb ape yg mak dye ckp tp sbb mak dye pnye intonasi..mmg gler2 mcm tak bagi balik rumah si B..lepas tu talian tu dimatikan.si A masuk bilik n buat ape yg perlu then g lepak bilik si C merangkap bilik si B jgk..si B ajak layan muvie..si A pun ikut jela tp sebenarnya time tu si A dok pikirkan pasal mak dye..si A rasa mcm mak dye tak adil sbb dlm sibling dye,dye sorg je yg tak pernah balik rumah kawan lagi.org lain ok je,boleh je tp bila sampai time dye terus jadi mcm tadi..si A rasa mcm dye di-anak tiri-kan..at last si A ni tido dgn perasaan yg sgt terkilan.. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant MCM2. Recombinant protein corresponding to human MCM2. (MAB10806) - Products - Abnova
Human MCM7 full-length ORF ( AAH09398, 1 a.a. - 389 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00004176-P01) - Products - Abnova
Possible ATPase (PubMed:15653697) involved in DNA replication, may facilitate loading of CDC45 onto pre-replication complexes (PubMed:20065034).
MCM10兔多克隆抗体(ab3733)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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2003: Highly Efficient "Tight Fit" Immobilization of .alpha.-Chymotrypsin in Mesoporous MCM-41: A Novel Approach Using Precursor Immobilization and ...
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Why do the bods in MCM Div still insist they have a career profile for people, when for the last 5/6 years, its been bums on seats.
Mcm301 Assignment 2 Solution & Discussion Fall 2017 Due Date 27 Nov 2017 IntroductionQ. No.1.Suppose you are invited by an XYZ College to deliver a sp…
I bought 6 of these a few months back for ~\\\ each after MCMs discounts and was wondering if anybody else has tried playing with them. As is menti
No other gin tastes like Hendricks because no other gin is made like Hendricks. Discover the distilling process behind behind our curious tiny-batch gin.
Infinitely better than any other Sloe Gin out there.Unlike the bulk of Sloe Gins out there today, Plymouth Sloe Gin is made from a excellent gin base and fresh sloe berries. - Read the full review ...
Bercakap mengenai bulan puasa ni, sy x lah memasak sgt setakat ni.. Beli di bazaar je.. tp bila g bazaar, tgk mcm x best je..maka niat di hati nak masak lah utk berbuka.. tp mcm x sempat.. sbb sy kul 6 baru sampai umah.. waktu berbuka lak around 7.30pm kan.. huhu ...
To say gin is having a moment would underestimate its popularity, and they can be as varied as they are delicious: fruity, floral, spicy or herbal. Whatever your preference, theres a gin for you - but tonic is another story. Find out more about how tonic is made and how to match it to your gin.
Keegan McAuliffe MCB 432: Computing in Molecular Biology The following is my final presentation for MCB 432: detailing the process our group undertook to deter…
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Association of Fission Yeast Orp1 and Mcm6 Proteins with Chromosomal Replication Origins | Molecular and Cellular BiologyAssociation of Fission Yeast Orp1 and Mcm6 Proteins with Chromosomal Replication Origins | Molecular and Cellular Biology

1998) Human minichromosome maintenance proteins and human origin recognition complex 2 protein on chromatin. J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... a Cdc6 protein that interacts with the ORC is required for Pre-RC formation (38). The minichromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins ... In contrast, the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins, SpMcm2p and SpMcm6p, encoded by thenda1 +/cdc19+ andmis5+ genes, ... Preparation of chromatin-enriched fractions.For separation of chromatin-enriched insoluble fractions from soluble proteins, the ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/19/10/7228?ijkey=861968f8af2f3d5018dd129be8298c1fbb74f947&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Subnuclear distribution of the largest subunit of the human origin recognition complex during the cell cycle | Journal of Cell...Subnuclear distribution of the largest subunit of the human origin recognition complex during the cell cycle | Journal of Cell...

... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis. Mol. Cell ... The amount of protein in the chromatin (P3) and soluble fractions (S1) was compared for each construct. The amount of P3 ... domain that Orc1 proteins share with Sir3p and other chromatin-associated proteins such as DNA methyl-transferases. ... 6D, although the wild-type Orc1p* was exclusively found in the chromatin (P3) fraction, half of the mutated protein was ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/117/22/5221

The complete genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 | PNASThe complete genome of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 | PNAS

2A). In eukarya, CDC6 and minichromosome maintenance proteins interact with ORC/origin complexes, and one another, to regulate ... Motility and Protein Translocation. *Chromatin and DNA-Binding Proteins. *DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle ... Chromatin and DNA-Binding Proteins. S. solfataricus and A. pernix, in contrast to euryarchaea (29), contain no proteins that ... Other proteins usually present in eukaryotic chromatin, including high-mobility group (32), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (33), ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/98/14/7835?ijkey=cb455e3301a0deef9cebd998bb9951c0dffe511e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Minichromosome maintenance protein elisa and antibodyMinichromosome maintenance protein elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Minichromosome maintenance protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... ELISA , Antibodies , Secondary Antibodies , Antigens , Biochemicals , cDNA Clones , Kits , Peptides , Rec Proteins , Protein ... May recruit the DNA polymerase alpha:primase complex to replication origins and is required to maintain it on chromatin ... Minichromosome maintenance protein MCM. Minichromosome maintenance protein MCM ELISA Kit. Minichromosome maintenance protein ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=minichromosome-maintenance-protein

Characterization of an archaeal family 4 uracil DNA glycosylase and its interaction with PCNA and chromatin proteins |...Characterization of an archaeal family 4 uracil DNA glycosylase and its interaction with PCNA and chromatin proteins |...

... minichromosome maintenance complex; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PIP, PCNA-interacting protein; RFC, replication ... Characterization of an archaeal family 4 uracil DNA glycosylase and its interaction with PCNA and chromatin proteins. Isabelle ... However, analysis of the effects of Sulfolobus chromatin proteins on UDG1 leads us to propose a mechanistic basis for coupling ... Characterization of an archaeal family 4 uracil DNA glycosylase and its interaction with PCNA and chromatin proteins ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/387/3/859

ORC2 - WikipediaORC2 - Wikipedia

"Human minichromosome maintenance proteins and human origin recognition complex 2 protein on chromatin". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (38 ... and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle: assembly of prereplication complexes in late mitosis". Mol. Cell ... This protein forms a core complex with ORC3, ORC4, and ORC5. It also interacts with CDC45L and MCM10, which are proteins known ... an origin-specific binding protein that associates with replication proteins, is required for mammalian DNA replication". ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ORC2

Eukaryotic DNA replication - WikipediaEukaryotic DNA replication - Wikipedia

Cdc6 protein, Cdt1 protein, and minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7). Once the pre-RC is formed, activation of the ... Cdc6 requires ORC in order to associate with chromatin and is in turn required for the minichromosome maintenance proteins ( ... The nuclear localization of the minichromosome maintenance proteins is regulated in budding yeast cells. The Mcm proteins are ... which suggests that each Mcm protein has a unique and important function. Minichromosome maintenance proteins have been found ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryotic_DNA_replication

Human CST suppresses origin licensing and promotes AND-1/Ctf4 chromatin association.  - PubMed - NCBIHuman CST suppresses origin licensing and promotes AND-1/Ctf4 chromatin association. - PubMed - NCBI

WDHD1 protein, human. *DNA Polymerase I. *Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins. Grant support. *P20 GM109091/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ ... Ponceau S stains total protein and was used as a loading control. Histone H3 was used as a control for chromatin fractionation ... Replication origins are licensed by loading of the minichromosome maintenance 2-7 (MCM) complex in G1 followed by replisome ... A) Representative images of pre-extracted HeLa cells used to measure chromatin-associated AND-1. DAPI: blue, AND-1: red. Scale ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Caiello+BP%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

MCM6 | SGDMCM6 | SGD

... for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein ... MiniChromosome Maintenance 4 Comparative Info. Integrated model organism details available at the Alliance of Genome Resources ... Protein involved in DNA replication; component of the Mcm2-7 hexameric helicase complex that binds chromatin as a part of the ... ATP-dependent DNA helicase component of the MCM mini-chromosome maintenance complex involved in initiation and regulation of ...
more infohttp://www.yeastgenome.org/locus/S000003169

IUCr) The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteinsIUCr) The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

The binding of Geminin to Cdt1 inhibits the loading of the mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM) onto chromatin and pre- ... Protein Chem. 70, 37-78. CrossRef PubMed CAS. Lygerou, Z. & Nurse, P. (2000). Science, 290, 2271-2273. PubMed CAS. Ma, L., ... purification of the less abundant protein practically ensures purification of the heterodimer. All proteins were further ... in which GemC1-HA was only able to co-precipitate a small fraction of the total Idas-GFP protein. However, we were unable to ...
more infohttp://journals.iucr.org/d/issues/2015/11/00/dw5145/index.html

Cancer Chemoprevention Research Interest Group | MoffittCancer Chemoprevention Research Interest Group | Moffitt

... and the Mini-Chromosome Maintenance (MCM) helicase. After this forms, other proteins are recruited, including Cdc45, Mcm10, ... but also to identify novel protein-protein interactions and key regulatory steps that might serve as useful targets for small ... how the DNA replication machinery and preRCs utilize chromatin remodeling complexes to gain access to the DNA substrate during ... The preRC is composed of multiple protein subunits that assemble in a stepwise and tightly regulated manner: Origin Recognition ...
more infohttps://moffitt.org/research-science/research-teams/cancer-chemoprevention-research-interest-group/

Checks and balances? DNA replication and the cell cycle in Plasmodium | SpringerLinkChecks and balances? DNA replication and the cell cycle in Plasmodium | SpringerLink

... and minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) [25, 26]. Components of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) are also present ... calcium-dependent protein kinase. ChIP. chromatin immuno-precipitation. CP. centriolar plaque. CRK. CDK-related kinase ... b Chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) of the proteins required before and during replication, such as members of the Origin ... Identification of an effector protein and gain-of-function mutants that activate Pfmrk, a malarial cyclin-dependent protein ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13071-018-2800-1

Cdc6 - NB200-581 | acris-antibodies.comCdc6 - NB200-581 | acris-antibodies.com

E2F protein). Immunoblots show that minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins are not associated with chromatin. Competence of ... Protein G purified. Buffer System:. 0.09% Sodium Azide. Purity:. Protein G purified. State:. Purified. ... Over 280,000 products but you cant find the right antibody for your protein or application?. Acris will do the search for you! ... G1 phase nuclei to replicate in vitro coincides with maximum CDC6 accumulation and MCM protein binding to chromatin in vivo. ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cdc6-nb200-581.htm

Gene Expression: Protein Interaction Systems Network Modeling Identifies Transformation-Associated Molecules and Pathways in...Gene Expression: Protein Interaction Systems Network Modeling Identifies Transformation-Associated Molecules and Pathways in...

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated interaction of c-myc with the prereplicative minichromosome maintenance complex MCM2- ... and SMARCA2 proteins in ovarian cancer (28). However, most SeOvCa proteins remain to be evaluated in HPR, and their association ... Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with microarray analysis was performed as described earlier (11) using the ... SeOvCa protein interactions. We scanned the Human Protein Atlas (HPR, 38) for SeOvCa protein expression and identified positive ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/12/4809

SIRT1 Deacetylates TopBP1 and Modulates Intra-S-Phase Checkpoint and DNA Replication Origin FiringSIRT1 Deacetylates TopBP1 and Modulates Intra-S-Phase Checkpoint and DNA Replication Origin Firing

This could be related to our finding that SIRT1 interacts with three mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM), i.e. MCM3, 5, ... Protein MCM10 homolog. MCM10. 6. 3. 5. 5. Q7L590. MCM10 HUMAN. Double-strand break repair protein 11A. MRE11A. 3. 2. 12. 8. ... Together with origin recognition complex proteins (ORC1-6), cell division cycle 6 (CDC6), and chromatin licensing and DNA ... Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 3. SMC3. 1. 1. 3. 2. 5. 3. Q9UQE7. SMC3 HUMAN. ...
more infohttp://www.ijbs.com/v10p1193.htm

Faculty Research Page | Department of Molecular & Cell BiologyFaculty Research Page | Department of Molecular & Cell Biology

The program of activation is poorly understood in metazoans and is epigenetic where proteins that control chromatin access ... Bell SD, Botchan MR. The minichromosome maintenance replicative helicase. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Nov 1;5(11): ... Beall EL, Manak JR, Zhou S, Bell M, Lipsick JS, Botchan MR. Role for a Drosophila Myb-containing protein complex in site- ... Beall et al (Nature 2002) first showed that a Myb protein-complex was a key factor in regulating site-specific DNA replication ...
more infohttp://mcb.berkeley.edu/faculty/BMB/botchanm.html

Human centromere chromatin protein hMis12, essential for equal segregation, is independent of CENP-A loading pathway  | Journal...Human centromere chromatin protein hMis12, essential for equal segregation, is independent of CENP-A loading pathway | Journal...

The arrows indicate the requirement of functional kinetochore protein for proper localization of the downward proteins. In S. ... construction of a series of artificial mini-chromosomes showed that functional centromeres could be in the range of ∼200 bp, ... RNAi of hMis12 and CENP-A may lead to a deficiency in kinetochore-spindle attachment and also in the activation and maintenance ... Human centromere chromatin protein hMis12, essential for equal segregation, is independent of CENP-A loading pathway Gohta ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jcb/article/160/1/25/33125/Human-centromere-chromatin-protein-hMis12

Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Associated with Cell Cycle Transitions in Growing Organs of Arabidopsis |...Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Associated with Cell Cycle Transitions in Growing Organs of Arabidopsis |...

... and an minichromosome maintenance (MCM) gene (G1 phase). The remaining genes encompass the PINHEAD/ZWILLE gene; 3 high mobility ... a Rac GTP-binding protein; 2 electron transport genes; a ribosomal protein; 7 genes with a transport function; and a total of ... Based on recent work on Medicago truncatula and maize, the cell cycle switch CCS52a and WEE1 proteins, respectively, were ... group and one SCARECROW family transcription factor; 2 chromatin remodeling genes (topoisomerase2 [TOP2] and methyltransferase1 ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/138/2/734?ijkey=726416eed8943c9cb7162a9548953185aa6c7c43&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Coordination of DNA Replication and Histone Synthesis During S Phase | SpringerLinkCoordination of DNA Replication and Histone Synthesis During S Phase | SpringerLink

Holland L, Gauthier L, Bell-Rogers P, Yankulov K. Distinct parts of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 associate with histone ... Conversely, the availability of histone proteins and their chaperones that help package the newly replicated DNA into chromatin ... Alabert C, Groth A. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13(3):153-67.PubMedCrossRef ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin-assembly factors that act during DNA replication function in the maintenance of genome ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-24696-3_11

RNAi-Based Suppressor Screens Reveal Genetic Interactions Between the CRL2LRR-1 E3-Ligase and the DNA Replication Machinery in...RNAi-Based Suppressor Screens Reveal Genetic Interactions Between the CRL2LRR-1 E3-Ligase and the DNA Replication Machinery in...

... minichromosome maintenance 2-7) complex on the chromatin as part of the prereplicative complex (pre-RC) (Evrin et al. 2009; ... BRCT domains mediate protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and are heavily represented among proteins involved in the ... Protein extracts and immunoprecipitation. For immunoprecipitation of SLD-5 fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP::SLD-5 ... During metaphase, GFP::CDC-7 was excluded from the chromatin but started to accumulate on the chromatin in anaphase (Figure 5G ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/6/10/3431

Temporally distinct transcriptional regulation of myocyte dedifferentiation and Myofiber growth during muscle regeneration |...Temporally distinct transcriptional regulation of myocyte dedifferentiation and Myofiber growth during muscle regeneration |...

... minichromosome maintenance 10 replication initiation factor (mcm10); integrin, alpha 6a (itga6a); myelocytomatosis oncogene ... orchestration of genes and pathways involved in the regulation of chromatin modifications, protein degradation, RNA processing ... These findings indicate that the cells are preparing to synthesize a new set of proteins that, in conjunction with broad ... At the same time, protein degradation [ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process (GO:0006511) and lysosome organization (GO ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-4236-y

CDC45L & CDKN1A Protein Protein Interaction Antibody Pair - (DI0092) - Products - AbnovaCDC45L & CDKN1A Protein Protein Interaction Antibody Pair - (DI0092) - Products - Abnova

... one against the CDC45L protein, and the other against the CDKN1A protein for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See ... This protein protein interaction antibody pair set comes with two antibodies to detect the protein-protein interaction, ... Cdc45 is a member of the highly conserved multiprotein complex including Cdc6/Cdc18, the minichromosome maintenance proteins ( ... similar gene in Xenopus suggested that this protein play a pivotal role in the loading of DNA polymerase alpha onto chromatin. ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=DI0092

Deregulation of cyclin E in human cells interferes with prereplication complex assembly | JCBDeregulation of cyclin E in human cells interferes with prereplication complex assembly | JCB

Human minichromosome maintenance proteins and human origin recognition complex 2 protein on chromatin. J. Biol. Chem. 273:24543 ... Chromatin association of human origin recognition complex, cdc6, and minichromosome maintenance proteins during the cell cycle ... Because minichromosome maintenance complex proteins are thought to function as a heterohexamer, loading of Mcm2-, Mcm4-, and ... Phosphorylation of MCM4 by cdc2 protein kinase inhibits the activity of the minichromosome maintenance complex. Proc. Natl. ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/165/6/789

Kyushu University [Masatoshi  Fujita (Professor) Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Health Care...Kyushu University [Masatoshi Fujita (Professor) Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Health Care...

... binding protein that promotes mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) loading through its histone chaperone activity. GRWD1 acts as a ... Cdt1-binding protein GRWD1 is a novel histone-binding protein that facilitates MCM loading through its influence on chromatin ... interacting proteins using a proteomics approach and showed that GRWD1 interacts with various proteins involved in ... We focused on the ribosomal protein ribosomal protein L23 (RPL23), which positively regulates nucleolar stress responses ...
more infohttp://hyoka.ofc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/search/details/K003693/english.html

Analysis of mutant origin recognition complex with reduced ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro | Biochemical JournalAnalysis of mutant origin recognition complex with reduced ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro | Biochemical Journal

... mini-chromosome maintenance complex of proteins) and slowed the progression of S phase. In vitro, purified ORC-1R [ORC with ... In eukaryotes, ORC (origin recognition complex), a six-protein complex, is the most likely initiator of chromosomal DNA ... chromatin immunoprecipitation; 5-FOA, 5-fluoro-orotic acid; HIS3, imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase gene; LEU2, β- ... mini-chromosome maintenance complex of proteins; ORC, origin recognition complex; pre-RC, pre-replicative complex; Orc1p, ORC ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/413/3/535
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Immunostaining of spread nuclei showed SpMcm6p to be localized at discrete foci on chromatin during the G 1 and S phases. (asm.org)
  • One-third of the encoded proteins have no detectable homologs in other sequenced genomes. (pnas.org)
  • Different transfer systems are used for the uptake of inorganic and organic solutes, and a wealth of intracellular and extracellular proteases, sugar, and sulfur metabolizing enzymes are encoded, as well as enzymes of the central metabolic pathways and motility proteins. (pnas.org)
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