A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.
Proteins involved in the assembly and disassembly of HISTONES into NUCLEOSOMES.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny mammalian cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.

Chromatin condensation is confined to the loop and involves an all-or-none structural change. (1/2103)

Using differential scanning calorimetry in combination with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we relate here the changes in the thermal profile of rat liver nuclei induced by very mild digestion of chromatin by endogenous nuclease with the chain length distribution of the DNA fragments. The enthalpy of the endotherm at 106 degrees C, which reflects the denaturation of the heterochromatic domains, decreases dramatically after the induction of a very small number of double-strand breaks per chromosome; the thermal transition disappears when the loops have undergone on average one DNA chain scission event. Quantitative analysis of the experimental data shows that the loop behaves like a topologically isolated domain. Also discussed is the process of heterochromatin formation, which occurs according to an all-or-none mechanism. In the presence of spermine, a strong condensation agent, only the loops that have undergone one break are able to refold, in confirmation of the extremely cooperative nature of the transition. Furthermore, our results suggest a relationship between the states that give rise to the endotherms at 90 degrees C and 106 degrees C and the morphologies referred to as class II and class III in a previous physicochemical study of the folding of chromatin fragments (Widom, 1986. J. Mol. Biol. 190:411-424) and support the view that the overall process of condensation follows a sequential (two-step) pathway.  (+info)

Proposed mechanism for sperm chromatin condensation/decondensation in the male rat. (2/2103)

Condensation of sperm chromatin occurs after spermatozoa have left the caput epididymis and are in transit to the cauda epididymis, during which time large numbers of disulfide bonds are formed. The formation of these disulfide bonds requires the repeated oxidation of the cofactor, NAD(P)H. To date, the means by which this oxidation is achieved has yet to be elucidated. Spermatozoa lose the bulk of their cytoplasm prior to leaving the testis; and, as a result, any shuttle systems for removing and transferring reducing equivalents into the mitochondria are unlikely to be operational. In an apparent preparation for the loss of cytoplasm, however, the following events occur during spermatogenesis. First, androgen-binding protein (ABP) is produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis; second, high affinity binding sites for ABP are inserted into the membrane surrounding the nucleus; and third, a nuclear location is acquired for the enzyme, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD). We propose that after the loss of cytoplasm, the nuclear region of spermatozoa is directly accessible to constituents contained in the lumen of the caput epididymis. As a consequence, luminal ABP attaches itself to the nuclear membrane via its binding sites, and is internalized. After internalization, ABP exerts its principle function, which is to bind to luminal 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), thereby ensuring its availability to the enzyme, 3alpha-HSD. In the conversion of 5alpha-DHT to 3alpha-androstanediol (3alpha-Diol), NAD(P)H is oxidized. Spermatozoa that reach the cauda epididymis have fully condensed chromatin. In addition, the nuclear region retains appreciable amounts of 5alpha-DHT and 3alpha-Diol, both bound to ABP. During fertilization, the bound 3alpha-Diol is converted back to 5alpha-DHT, reducing equivalents are transferred to NAD(P)+, and disulfide bonds are broken.IVF clinics report that spermatozoa with incompletely condensed chromatin have a low percentage of fertilization. If our proposed mechanism for chromatin condensation/decondensation is borne out by further research, IVF clinics might consider preincubating spermatozoa with 5alpha-DHT in order to increase the efficiency of fertilization.  (+info)

Expression of the Wdr9 gene and protein products during mouse development. (3/2103)

Human WDR9 has been mapped to chromosome 21, within one of the Down syndrome (DS) critical regions. Here, we study the expression pattern of the murine Wdr9 gene and its protein product. We show that Wdr9 is broadly expressed in the mouse embryo by means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Wdr9 expression levels are dynamic during embryonic development as revealed by Northern blot analysis. We further show that WDR9 is a nuclear protein associated with BRG1, a SWI/SNF complex component. We also demonstrate that a polyglutamine-containing region of the protein functions as a transcriptional activation domain. We propose that WDR9 is a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling through the action of two bromodomains and contacts to the SWI/SNF complex. These results may provide a molecular basis for the association of WDR9 with DS.  (+info)

Identification of SATB2 as the cleft palate gene on 2q32-q33. (4/2103)

Cytogenetic evidence, in the form of deletions and balanced translocations, points to the existence of a locus on 2q32-q33, for which haploinsufficiency results in isolated cleft palate (CPO). Here we show by high-resolution FISH mapping of two de novo CPO-associated translocations involving 2q32-q33 that one breakpoint interrupts the transcription unit of the gene encoding the DNA-binding protein SATB2 (formerly KIAA1034). The breakpoint in the other translocation is located 130 kb 3' to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal, within a conserved region of non-coding DNA. The SATB2 gene is transcribed in a telomeric to centromeric direction and lies in a gene-poor region of 2q32-q33; the nearest confirmed gene is 1.26 Mb centromeric to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal. SATB2-encoding transcripts are assembled from 11 exons that span 191 kb of genomic DNA. They encode a protein of 733 amino acids that has two CUT domains and a homeodomain and shows a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation, with only three amino acid substitutions between mouse and human. This protein belongs to the same family as SATB1, a nuclear matrix-attachment region binding protein implicated in transcriptional control and control of chromatin remodelling. There are also sequence similarities to the Drosophila protein DVE. Whole mount in situ hybridization to mouse embryos shows site- and stage-specific expression of SATB2 in the developing palate. Despite the strong evidence supporting an important role for SATB2 in palate development, mutation analysis of 70 unrelated patients with CPO did not reveal any coding region variants.  (+info)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 is essential and couples chromatin assembly to DNA replication in vivo. (5/2103)

De novo chromatin assembly maintains histone density on the daughter strands in the wake of the replication fork. The heterotrimer chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) couples DNA replication to histone deposition in vitro, but is not essential for yeast cell proliferation. Depletion of CAF-1 in human cell lines demonstrated that CAF-1 was required for efficient progression through S-phase. Cells lacking CAF-1 accumulated in early and mid S-phase and replicated DNA slowly. The checkpoint kinase Chk1, but not Chk2, was phosphorylated in response to CAF-1 depletion, consistent with a DNA replication defect. CAF-1-depleted cell extracts completely lacked DNA replication-coupled chromatin assembly activity, suggesting that CAF-1 is required for efficient S-phase progression in human cells. These results indicate that, in contrast to yeast, human CAF-1 is necessary for coupling chromatin assembly with DNA replication.  (+info)

Fission yeast Tup1-like repressors repress chromatin remodeling at the fbp1+ promoter and the ade6-M26 recombination hotspot. (6/2103)

Chromatin remodeling plays crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression and recombination. Transcription of the fission yeast fbp1(+) gene and recombination at the meiotic recombination hotspot ade6-M26 (M26) are both regulated by cAMP responsive element (CRE)-like sequences and the CREB/ATF-type transcription factor Atf1*Pcr1. The Tup11 and Tup12 proteins, the fission yeast counterparts of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tup1 corepressor, are involved in glucose repression of the fbp1(+) transcription. We have analyzed roles of the Tup1-like corepressors in chromatin regulation around the fbp1(+) promoter and the M26 hotspot. We found that the chromatin structure around two regulatory elements for fbp1(+) was remodeled under derepressed conditions in concert with the robust activation of fbp1(+) transcription. Strains with tup11delta tup12delta double deletions grown in repressed conditions exhibited the chromatin state associated with wild-type cells grown in derepressed conditions. Interestingly, deletion of rst2(+), encoding a transcription factor controlled by the cAMP-dependent kinase, alleviated the tup11delta tup12delta defects in chromatin regulation but not in transcription repression. The chromatin at the M26 site in mitotic cultures of a tup11delta tup12delta mutant resembled that of wild-type meiotic cells. These observations suggest that these fission yeast Tup1-like corepressors repress chromatin remodeling at CRE-related sequences and that Rst2 antagonizes this function.  (+info)

Methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 in ecdysone-dependent development of Drosophila. (7/2103)

Steroid hormones fulfil important functions in animal development. In Drosophila, ecdysone triggers moulting and metamorphosis through its effects on gene expression. Ecdysone works by binding to a nuclear receptor, EcR, which heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor homologue Ultraspiracle. Both partners are required for binding to ligand or DNA. Like most DNA-binding transcription factors, nuclear receptors activate or repress gene expression by recruiting co-regulators, some of which function as chromatin-modifying complexes. For example, p160 class coactivators associate with histone acetyltransferases and arginine histone methyltransferases. The Trithorax-related gene of Drosophila encodes the SET domain protein TRR. Here we report that TRR is a histone methyltransferases capable of trimethylating lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3-K4). trr acts upstream of hedgehog (hh) in progression of the morphogenetic furrow, and is required for retinal differentiation. Mutations in trr interact in eye development with EcR, and EcR and TRR can be co-immunoprecipitated on ecdysone treatment. TRR, EcR and trimethylated H3-K4 are detected at the ecdysone-inducible promoters of hh and BR-C in cultured cells, and H3-K4 trimethylation at these promoters is decreased in embryos lacking a functional copy of trr. We propose that TRR functions as a coactivator of EcR by altering the chromatin structure at ecdysone-responsive promoters.  (+info)

Retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion to PML affects its transcriptional and chromatin-remodeling properties. (8/2103)

PML-RAR is an oncogenic transcription factor forming in acute promyelocytic leukemias (APL) because of a chromosomal translocation. Without its ligand, retinoic acid (RA), PML-RAR functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor, abnormally associating with the corepressor-histone deacetylase complex and blocking hematopoietic differentiation. In the presence of pharmacological concentrations of RA, PML-RAR activates transcription and stimulates differentiation. Even though it has been suggested that chromatin alteration is important for APL onset, the PML-RAR effect on chromatin of target promoters has not been investigated. Taking advantage of the Xenopus oocyte system, we compared the wild-type transcription factor RARalpha with PML-RAR as both transcriptional regulators and chromatin structure modifiers. Without RA, we found that PML-RAR is a more potent transcriptional repressor that does not require the cofactor RXR and produces a closed chromatin configuration. Surprisingly, repression by PML-RAR occurs through a further pathway that is independent of nucleosome deposition and histone deacetylation. In the presence of RA, PML-RAR is a less efficient transcriptional activator that is unable to modify the DNA nucleoprotein structure. We propose that PML-RAR, aside from its ability to recruit aberrant quantities of histone deacetylase complexes, has acquired additional repressive mechanisms and lost important activating functions; the comprehension of these mechanisms might reveal novel targets for antileukemic intervention.  (+info)

Chromatin remodelling factor Isw1A complexed with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Computer model showing the structure of yeast chromatin remodelling factor Isw1A , i. e. the imitation switch proteins 1 (del_ATPase, dark blue) and 3 (green) complexed with two DNA (yellow, magenta, cyan, orange). From yeast. - Stock Image C035/8413
BACKGROUND: ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are responsible for establishing and maintaining the positions of nucleosomes. Chromatin remodellers are targeted to chromatin by transcription factors and non-coding RNA to remodel the chromatin into functional states. However, the influence of chromatin remodelling on shaping the functional epigenome is not well understood. Moreover, chromatin remodellers have not been extensively explored as a collective group across two-dimensional and three-dimensional epigenomic layers. RESULTS: Here, we have integrated the genome-wide binding profiles of eight chromatin remodellers together with DNA methylation, nucleosome positioning, histone modification and Hi-C chromosomal contacts to reveal that chromatin remodellers can be stratified into two functional groups. Group 1 (BRG1, SNF2H, CHD3 and CHD4) has a clear preference for binding at actively marked chromatin and Group 2 (BRM, INO80, SNF2L and CHD1) for repressively marked chromatin. We find
This data adds to the increasing evidence implicating the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex in tumour development and the association of p16INK4a with chromatin remodelling highlights potentially new functions that may be important in melanoma predisposition and chemoresistance.
The chromatin remodeling complexes alter chromatin structures. They remodel nucleosomes in ATP-dependent manner and have essential roles in DNA damage repair, recombination, replication and transcriptional control. Increasing evidences indicate that subunits of chromatin remodelers are mutated and/or deregulated in a number of human cancers, and how they influence the cancer gene expression program during cancer initiation and progression is becomming clearer. Therefore, chromatin remodeling complexes arose as promising new targets for the treatment of human cancers. In this review, chromatin remodeling complexes, their epigenetic reader domains and available inhibitors are described. The insights into the misregulated chromatin remodelers pathways in human malignancies and the novel approach targeting deregulated chromatin remodelers to improve chemotherapy efficiency are discussed. ...
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Lysine methylation of histones is recognized as an important component of an epigenetic indexing system demarcating transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains. Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) marks transcription start sites of virtually all active genes. Recently, we reported that the WD40-repeat protein WDR5 is important for global levels of H3K4me3 and control of HOX gene expression. Here we show that a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of nucleosome remodelling factor (NURF), an ISWI-containing ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, mediates a direct preferential association with H3K4me3 tails. Depletion of H3K4me3 causes partial release of the NURF subunit, BPTF (bromodomain and PHD finger transcription factor), from chromatin and defective recruitment of the associated ATPase, SNF2L (also known as ISWI and SMARCA1), to the HOXC8 promoter. Loss of BPTF in Xenopus embryos mimics WDR5 loss-of-function phenotypes, and compromises spatial control of Hox gene expression.
Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs) have gained attention for their roles as structural components of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. These remodelers can move nucleosomes along the DNA, evict them from chromatin, and exchange histone variants to alter chromatin states locally. Chromatin-remodeling facilitates DNA-templated processes such as transcription regulation, DNA replication, and repair. Consistent with a role for ARPs in shaping chromatin structure, recent genetic studies show that they affect developmental and cell-type specific transcriptional programming. Here, we focus on recent results that suggest a specific contribution of ARPs to long-range interactions in the nucleus, and review evidence indicating that some ARPs may act independently of chromatin-remodeling machines.. ...
Improved treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) remains elusive because of the limited understanding of its underlying biological mechanisms. It is likely that stress-induced maladaptive transcriptional regulation in limbic neural circuits contributes to the development of MDD, possibly through epigenetic factors that regulate chromatin structure. We establish that persistent upregulation of the ACF (ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor) ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, occurring in the nucleus accumbens of stress-susceptible mice and depressed humans, is necessary for stress-induced depressive-like behaviors. We found that altered ACF binding after chronic stress was correlated with altered nucleosome positioning, particularly around the transcription start sites of affected genes. These alterations in ACF binding and nucleosome positioning were associated with repressed expression of genes implicated in susceptibility to stress. Together, our findings ...
Crystallographic Studies of Large Complexes: From the Yeast Chromatin. Remodeling Factor ISW1a to the Entire Nucleosome-Traversing. Transcription Machinery. Kazuhiro Yamada, PhD. Senior Scientist/Over-assistant. Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics. ETH Zurich. Monday, October 1, 2012. 4 p.m. , Caspary Auditorium. Refreshments 3:45 p.m.. Recommended Readings:. Yen, K.; Vinayachandran, V.; Batta, K.; et al. 2012. Genome-wide Nucleosome Specificity and Directionality of Chromatin Remodelers. CELL 149(7):1461-1473 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.036. Richmond, Timothy J. 2012. Nucleosome recognition and spacing by chromatin remodelling factor ISW1a. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 40: 347-350 DOI: 10.1042/BST20110748 Please request from Markus Library.. De Cian, A; Praly, E; Ding, F; et al. 2012. ATP-Independent Cooperative Binding of Yeast Isw1a to Bare and Nucleosomal DNA. PLOS ONE 7(2): e31845 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031845. Sharma, A.; Jenkins, K. R.; Heroux, A.; et al. 2011. Crystal ...
Author: Archacki, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-05; Open Access; Title: Genetic analysis of functional redundancy of BRM ATPase and ATSWI3C subunits of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein.. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Histone, DNA modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelling factors are major area to concentrate.. Relevant Conferences: Nucleic Acids Conferences , Biochemistry Conferences. 2ndInternational Conference on Transcriptomics, September 12-14, 2016 Philadelphia ...
One of the first ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes was first identified and characterized more than a decade ago. Since then, the number of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and the variety of roles they play in nuclear processes have become dizzying. Some of the processes include transcription, replication, repair, recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion. The SWI/SNF-related ATP-dependent remodelers are divided into a number of subfamilies, all related by the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase at their catalytic core. In nearly every species where researchers have looked for them, one or more members of each subfamily have been identified. Here I have investigated the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI. I have shown that Xenopus ISWI has a critical function in developing neural tissue. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows ISWI localized in neural tissue including the eye and developing neural tube. Injection of antisense ISWI RNA, morpholino oligonucleotides or ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Adult stem cell function: Both regulators of intracellular signalling (e.g. Spry1) and chromatin remodelling factors are important for normal adult stem cell function. We are investigating the roles of these factors in adult stem cells in the muscle (in collaboration with Dr. Andrew Brack (Harvard) and brain. Supported by the BBSRC Researchers: Kieran Jones, Nemanja Saric ...
Several chromatin-remodelling proteins are implicated in the efficient repair of DNA damage in mammalian cells, including BRG1, CHD1L/ALC1, CHD4, INO80 and ISWI proteins ACF1 and SNF2H (Ahel et al., 2009; Kashiwaba et al., 2010; Lan et al., 2010; Larsen et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2010; Nakamura et al., 2011; Park et al., 2009; Park et al., 2006; Polo et al., 2010; Sánchez-Molina et al., 2011; Smeenk et al., 2010). Most of the chromatin-remodelling proteins are recruited to DNA breaks in a γH2AX-dependent manner and function to modulate chromatin structure and modifications in order to facilitate the access to either DNA or chromatin of factors involved in DNA damage signalling and repair. The function of chromatin remodellers in supporting DNA repair is often conserved from yeast to mammalian cells, indicating that chromatin reorganization during DNA repair is vital for maintenance of genome stability.. LSH has been extensively studied as a protein that promotes DNA methylation and silencing of ...
Nucleosomal DNA is arranged in a higher-order structure that presents a barrier to most cellular processes involving protein DNA interactions. The cellular machinery involved in sister chromatid cohesion, the cohesin complex, also requires access to the nucleosomal DNA to perform its function in chr …
Mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are large, multi-subunit molecular machines that play vital roles in regulating genomi...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mihoko Tame.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Developmental Biology Seminar Series series.. ...
El Centro Nacional de Biotecnología es un centro estratégico del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas con un objetivo mixto académico y de transferencia de tecnología en el área de la Biotecnología.
ATPase subunit of imitation-switch (ISWI) class chromatin remodelers; ATPase; forms a complex with Ioc3p (Isw1a), and a complex with Ioc2p and Ioc4p (Isw1b); Isw1a and Isw1b have partially overlapping and distinct roles, Isw1a involved in repression of transcription initiation and Isw1b involved in regulation of transcription elongation; Isw1b recruited to open reading frames by H3K36 methylation and acts with Chd1p to prevent trans-histone exchange over coding regions ...
KOYAMA Hirofumi , NAGAO Taka-aki , INAI Tomomi , MIYAHARA Kohji , HAYASIDA Yasufumi , SHIRAHIGE Katsuhiko , TSUCHIYA Eiko Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 68(4), 909-919, 2004-04-23 J-STAGE References (45) ...
ISW1-N小鼠多克隆抗体(ab43434)可与酿酒酵母样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Yes, its in the Teachings of the Buddha. Chapter 5 of the Abhidhamma Sangaha shows that there are 16 worlds for Rūpāvacara Brahmas and 4 worlds of Arūpāvacara Brahmas ...
मनोजवम् मारुततुल्यवेगम् जितेन्द्रियम् बुद्धिमताम् वरिष्ठम्। वातात्मजम् वानरयूथमुख्यम् श्रीरामदूतम् शरणम् प्रपद्ये॥ Manojavam Marutatulyavegam Jitendriyam
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
Excellgen Brahma-related Gene 1 protein, wild type, BRG1, SMARCA4 [RP-22] - Product Name Brahma-related Gene 1, BRG1, SMARCA4 Size 5,000 U Description The wild type human brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) encodes a protein of 1,647 amino acids that contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription regulation (1-3). BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes
One of the longest standing problems in DNA repair is how cells relax chromatin in order to make DNA lesions accessible for global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Since chromatin has to be relaxed for efficient lesion detection, the key question is whether chromatin relaxation precedes lesion detection or vice versa. Chromatin accessibility factors have been proposed but not yet identified. Here we show that p53 acts as a chromatin accessibility factor, mediating UV-induced global chromatin relaxation. Using localized subnuclear UV irradiation, we demonstrate that chromatin relaxation is extended over the whole nucleus and that this process requires p53. We show that the sequence for initiation of global NER is as follows: transcription-associated lesion detection; p53-mediated global chromatin relaxation; and global lesion detection. The tumour suppressor p53 is crucial for genomic stability, a role partially explained by its pro-apoptotic capacity. We demonstrate here that p53 is also a ...
Beijing, China - Chromatin remodeling proteins (chromatin remodelers) are essential and powerful regulators for critical DNA-templated cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, gene transcription/repression, and DNA damage repair. These molecular and genetic processes are important for a wide spectrum of cellular functions, including cell cycle, death, differentiation, pluripotency, and genome integrity. Recently, many scientific reports have shown that chromatin remodeling proteins could be promising new targets for the treatment of human malignancy.. This is a hot and exciting research topic for cancer researchers, and our article provides an updated understanding on the functions and mechanisms of chromatin remodelers in human cancers, says Dr. Chun Zhang, the principle investigator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital and Capital Medical University of China.. Chromatin remodeling is an energy-driven process in which chromatin remodelers use ...
Core component of the BAF (hSWI/SNF) complex. This ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, in cellular antiviral activities and inhibition of tumor formation. The BAF complex is able to create a stable, altered form of chromatin that constrains fewer negative supercoils than normal. This change in supercoiling would be due to the conversion of up to one-half of the nucleosomes on polynucleosomal arrays into asymmetric structures, termed altosomes, each composed of 2 histones octamers. Stimulates in vitro the remodeling activity of SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A. Involved in activation of CSF1 promoter. Belongs to the neural progenitors-specific chromatin remodeling complex (npBAF complex) and the neuron-specific chromatin remodeling complex (nBAF complex). During neural development a switch from a stem/progenitor to a postmitotic chromatin remodeling mechanism occurs as neurons exit the cell cycle and become committed to their adult state. The
ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes (remodelers) modulate gene transcription by regulating the accessibility of highly packaged genomic DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms involved at the nucleosomal level in this process remain controversial. Here, we monitor the real-time activity of single ySWI/SNF or RSC complexes on single, stretched nucleosomal templates under tensions above 1 pN forces. We find that these remodelers can translocate along DNA at rates of approximately 13 bp/s and generate forces up to approximately 12 pN, producing DNA loops of a broad range of sizes (20-1200 bp, average approximately 100 bp) in a nucleosome-dependent manner. This nucleosome-specific activity differs significantly from that on bare DNA observed under low tensions and suggests a nucleosome-remodeling mechanism through intranucleosomal DNA loop formation. Such loop formation may provide a molecular basis for the biological functions of remodelers.
CHD8 (Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA binding protein 8) is a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) subfamily of enzymes, which also belongs to the SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers ...
The DDT has been named after the better characterised DNA-binding homeobox- containing proteins and the Different Transcription and chromatin remodelling factors in which it is found. It is a domain of about 60 amino acids which is exclusively associated with nuclear domains like AT-Hook, PHD finger, methyl-CpG-binding domain, bromodomain and DNA-binding homeodomain.. The DDT domain is characterised by a number of conserved aromatic and charged residues and is predicted to consist of three alpha helices. A DNA-binding function for the DDT domain has been proposed [ (PUBMED:11246006) ]. ...
MS Thesis: EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF WILLIAMS SYNDROME TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (WSTF) IN THE NEURAL DEVELOPMENT OF XENOPUS LAEVIS Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers. Twenty different ISWI complexes have been identified so far in yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus and mammals. Three ISWI-containing complexes, WICH, ACF and CHRAC, have been characterized in Xenopus. Loss of ISWI function in Xenopus embryos results in severe defects in neural and eye development, including loss of retinal differentiation and formation of cataracts. We have begun to dissect the contributions of individual ISWI-dependent complexes to development, by using in situ hybridization and antisense morpholino knockdowns against subunits unique to different ISWI-containing complexes. Here I have investigated the WICH complex in Xenopus and have targeted the WSTF subunit. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows WSTF localized in the neural tissue including eye, brain, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutant-IDH1-dependent chromatin state reprogramming, reversibility, and persistence. AU - Turcan, Sevin. AU - Makarov, Vladimir. AU - Taranda, Julian. AU - Wang, Yuxiang. AU - Fabius, Armida W.M.. AU - Wu, Wei. AU - Zheng, Yupeng. AU - El-Amine, Nour. AU - Haddock, Sara. AU - Nanjangud, Gouri. AU - Lekaye, H. Carl. AU - Brennan, Cameron. AU - Cross, Justin. AU - Huse, Jason T.. AU - Kelleher, Neil L.. AU - Osten, Pavel. AU - Thompson, Craig B.. AU - Chan, Timothy A.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the members of the Chan and Thompson laboratories for helpful discussions. This work was supported in part by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01 CA177828) (T.A.C. and C.B.T.), the MSKCC Brain Tumor Center (S.T. and T.A.C.), the Sontag Foundation (T.A.C.), the PaineWebber Chair Endowment (T.A.C.), NIH T32 grant 5T32CA160001 (S.T.), the MSKCC Society (T.A.C.), the NIH (R01 MH096946) (P.O.), and NIH Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA008748 (G.N.). This research was carried ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Estrogen receptor α (ER) is a member of the family of nuclear receptors and functions as a transcriptional factor to induce gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences upon hormone treatment. It regulates cell growth, development and metabolic homeostasis in multi-cellular organisms. Estrogen-mediated transcription has been intensively studied genome-wide as well as on a small number of specific endogenous target promoters. However, the exact mechanism by which ER coordinates the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription remains elusive. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms of the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex by Fli-I, and recruitment of Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase.; Fli-I can bind directly to both ER and BAF53, an actin-related component of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that Fli-I may recruit SWI/SNF to ER target genes via interaction with BAF53. Depletion of endogenous Fli-I or BAF53 ...
Activation of HO in yeast involves recruitment of transcription factors in two waves. The first is triggered by inactivation of Cdk1 at the end of mitosis, which promotes import into the nucleus of the Swi5 transcription factor. Swi5 recruits the Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complex, which then facilitates recruitment of the SAGA histone acetylase, which in turn permits the binding of the SBF transcription factor. We show here that SBF then recruits the SRB/mediator complex and that this process occurs in the absence of Cdk1 activity. The second wave is triggered by reactivation of Cdk1, which leads to recruitment of PolII, TFIIB, and TFIIH. RNA polymerase is, therefore, recruited to HO in two steps and not as a holoenzyme. A similar sequence of events occurs at other SBF-regulated promoters, such as CLN1, CLN2, and PCL1.
ARID1A is a member of the SWI/SNF family, whose members have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. It possesses at least two conserved domains that could be important for its function. First, it has an ARID domain, which is a DNA-binding domain that can specifically bind an AT-rich DNA sequence known to be recognized by a SWI/SNF complex at the beta-globin locus. Second, the C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene confers specificity to the SWI/SNF complex and may recruit the complex to its targets through either protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions. Two transcript variants encoding ...
Abstract: Gene-gene interactions shape complex phenotypes and modify the effects of mutations during development and disease. The effects of statistical gene-gene interactions on phenotypes have been used to assign genes to functional modules. However, directional, epistatic interactions, which reflect regulatory relationships between genes, have been challenging to map at large-scale. Here, we used combinatorial RNA interference and automated single-cell phenotyping to generate a large genetic interaction map for 21 phenotypic features of Drosophila cells. We devised a method that combines genetic interactions on multiple phenotypes to reveal directional relationships. This network reconstructed the sequence of protein activities in mitosis. Moreover, it revealed that the Ras pathway interacts with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, an interaction that we show is conserved in human cancer cells. Our study presents a powerful approach for reconstructing directional regulatory networks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of SMARCA4 (BRG1) protein expression as determined by immunohistochemistry in small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type distinguishes these tumours from their mimics. AU - Clarke, B.A.. AU - Witkowski, L.. AU - Ton Nu, T.N.. AU - Shaw, P.A.. AU - Gilks, C.B.. AU - Huntsman, D.. AU - Karnezis, A.N.. AU - Sebire, N.. AU - Lamovec, J.. AU - Roth, L.M.. AU - Stewart, Colin. AU - Hasselblatt, M.. AU - Foulkes, W.D.. AU - Mccluggage, W.G.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 John Wiley & Sons LtdAims: Molecular investigation of small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT) has revealed that it is a monogenetic tumour characterized by alteration of SMARCA4 (BRG1), encoding a member of the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complex. A large majority of cases show loss of expression of the corresponding SMARCA4/BRG1 protein. Furthermore, three cases of SCCOHT with retained SMARCA4 protein expression showed loss of SMARCB1/INI1 ...
PubMed journal article: Brahma-related gene 1 ameliorates the neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Due to advances in molecular biology techniques, chromatin structure and function has re-emerged as a key research area in the investigation of gene regulation and expression. This indispensable new book provides the busy researcher with an overview of all the latest research in this important area. Topicality and breadth of coverage is assured by the contributions of an international group of over 30 leading scientists in this field. Contents list: Elements of chromatin structure: histones, nucleosomes, fibers; DNA structure: implications for chromatin structure and function; Replication and assembly; Promoter potentiation and activation: chromatin structure and transcriptional induction of heat shock genes; Initiation of expression: remodelling genes; Transcription on chromatin templates; Chromatin structure and epigenetic regulation in yeast; Epigenetic regulation in Drosophilia: a conspiracy of silence; Boundaries and domains; Epigenetic regulation in mammalian cells.Elgin, Sarah C. is the ...
FISH studies on several strongly transcribed chromosomal regions have shown a disposition for looping out from their respective chromosome territories (Mahy et al., 2002b; Volpi et al., 2000; Williams et al., 2002), suggesting a large-scale chromatin decondensation reminiscent of results obtained by targeting transcription factors to transgene arrays. In the first of these targeting studies chromatin decondensation was induced by the viral transcriptional VP16 acidic activation domain. Targeting was achieved within the context of large transgene arrays containing multiple-copy plasmid integrations; each plasmid carried direct repeats of 256 (Tumbar et al., 1999) or 96 (Tsukamoto et al., 2000) operator binding sites for fusion proteins between the lac or tet repressor and VP16. Despite the large opening activity observed, the biological relevance of these observations hinges on the actual physiological relevance of the experimental system. In particular, there are three obvious concerns.. First, ...
The Klose lab is interested in understanding how chromatin based and epigenetic processes contribute to regulation of gene expression.. To achieve this we use cutting edge biochemical, molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches in model stem cell and developmental systems.. Ultimately, our motivation is to understand how chromatin impinges on gene expression in normal cell biology as a way of informing therapeutic approaches to counteract its perturbation in cancer and other human diseases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin remodeling complex interacts with ADD1/SREBP1c to mediate insulin-dependent regulation of gene expression. AU - Lee, Yun Sok. AU - Sohn, Dong Hyun. AU - Han, Daehee. AU - Lee, Han Woong. AU - Seong, Rho Hyun. AU - Kim, Jae Bum. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Insulin plays a critical role in whole-body energy homeostasis by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. In fat and liver tissues, ADD1/SREBP1c is a key transcription factor to mediate insulin-dependent regulation of gene expression. Although transcriptional and proteolytic activation of ADD1/SREBP1c has been studied intensively, the mechanism by which insulin regulates expression of its target genes with ADD1/SREBP1c at the chromatin level is unclear. Here, we reveal that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors interact with the ADD1/SREBP1c and actively regulate insulin-dependent gene expression. Insulin enhanced recruitment of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors to its target gene promoters with concomitant ...
Transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression has been at the forefront of studies of innate immunity and is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. The growing evidence for involvement of chromatin in the regulation of gene expression in innate immune cells, has uncovered an evolutionarily conserved role of microbial sensing and chromatin remodeling. Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors trigger these signaling pathways leading to transcriptional expression of a set of genes involved in inflammation. Tightly regulated control of this gene expression is a paramount, and often foremost, goal of most biological endeavors. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress about the molecular mechanisms governing control of pro-inflammatory gene expression by an evolutionarily conserved novel nuclear protein Akirin2 in macrophages and its emergence as an essential link between NF-κB and chromatin remodelers for transcriptional
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Enter the text here that is the new abstract information for your application. The organization of the nucleus and the regulated folding of the genome plays ess...
Chromatin is a complex polymer molecule in eukaryotic cells, primarily consisting of DNA and histones. Many works have shown that the 3D folding of chromatin structure plays an important role in DNA expression. The recently proposed Chro- mosome Conformation Capture technologies, especially the Hi-C assays, provide us an opportunity to study how the 3D structures of the chromatin are organized. Based on the data from Hi-C experiments, many chromatin 3D structure modeling methods have been proposed. However, there is limited ground truth to validate these methods and no robust chromatin structure alignment algorithms to evaluate the performance of these methods. In our work, we first made a thorough literature review of 25 publicly available population Hi-C-based chromatin 3D structure modeling methods. Furthermore, to evaluate and to compare the performance of these methods, we proposed a novel data simulation method, which combined the population Hi-C data and single-cell Hi-C data without ad ...
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This protocol describes the chromatin preparation from fresh or frozen tissues. The isolated chromatin can be used for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using Diagenode&rsquo...
Single-cell chromatin accessibility sequencing from 13 mouse tissue types provides novel insights into regulatory dynamics and human disease states.
A number of years ago, inspired by the work of Dr. Bob Simpson [1], we developed a model system in yeast to study the events that occur when a gene is activated for transcription [2, 3]. This involves the purification from yeast cells of native plasmid ch
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We recommend using an alternative version SMARCA4 Polyclonal Antibody Background SNF2beta;/BRG1 is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which...
K. Balasubramanyam, R. A. Varier, M. Altaf, V. Swaminathan, N. B. Siddappa, U. Ranga and Kundu T.K., Curcumin, a novel p300/CBP specific inhibitor of acetyltransferase, represses the acetylation of histones/nonhistone proteins and HAT dependent chromatin transcription, J Biol Chem 279, 51163 - 51171 (2004 ...
c‐MYC and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex act as master regulators of transcription, and play a key role in human cancer. Although they are known to interact, the molecular details of their interaction are lacking. We have determined the structure of the RPT1 region of the INI1/hSNF5/BAF47/SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex that acts as a c‐MYC‐binding domain, and have localized the i ...
Recent years have seen major advances in elucidating the complexity of chromatin and its role as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression in eukaryotes. We now have a basic understanding of chromatin control and the enzymatic modifications that impart diverse regulatory cues to the functional activity of the genome. Most importantly, although research into chromatin has uncovered fascinating insights into the control of gene expression, it has also generated a large body of information that is being harnessed to develop new therapeutic modalities for treating cancer. Here, we discuss recent advances that support the contention that future generations of chromatin-modulating drugs will provide a significant group of new, mechanism-based therapeutics for cancer. ©2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foster SL, Hargreaves DC, Medzhitov R. Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature. 2007;447,972-8. Learn More ...
Learn more about the Chromatin Modification Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation, next-gen sequencing, and other approaches allow researchers to study chromatin structure and DNA-binding interactions to determine how they regulate gene expression.
With great resolution comes great sequencing requirements, and those trying some chromatin conformation should catch T2C: Targeted Chromatin Capture.
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BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and implicated in multiple functions through its interaction with different proteins, including the tumor suppressor protein pRb, serine-threonine kinase LKB1, and other transcrip
what is chromatin when it condesnses into chromosomes Chromatin is the same thing in metaphase than anyother point in the cell cycle, its DNA wrapp...
NEW TOOL: A new tool has been added to the Reports section on the side tool bar. This tool, Protein Group Counts, allows users to see the number of genes within all protein groups for any organism, or combination of organisms in the database.. UPDATE: The featured Chromatin Researcher Spotlight has been changed. Our new researcher is Professor Richard Amasino. His research statement is shown below. We have activated the archive section for the Chromatin Researcher Spotlight. Research statements for previous researchers can be accessed via the Archive link on the side tool bar ...
Chromatin UI - Icon Pack v1.4Requirements: 4.0+Overview: Chromatin UI is a new Material Design icon pack inspired by the grain effects from Google illustration. This icon pack is based on Nucleo UI but with three big difference : no long shadow, a grain effect end a vivid color.
Download|| Chromatin UI - Icon Pack v3.0 Apk | 40 MB | Resumable Links | Requires :Android 4.0.3 and up | Chromatin UI is a new Material Design icon
"The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 339 (1289 ... Ito T, Tyler JK, Bulger M, Kobayashi R, Kadonaga JT (1996). "ATP-facilitated chromatin assembly with a nucleoplasmin-like ...
"The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. ... nucleosome assembly, genome stability, ribosome biogenesis, DNA duplication and transcriptional regulation. During the assembly ... Rice P, Garduño R, Itoh T, Katagiri C, Ausio J (June 1995). "Nucleoplasmin-mediated decondensation of Mytilus sperm chromatin. ... Philpott A, Leno GH (May 1992). "Nucleoplasmin remodels sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts". Cell. 69 (5): 759-767. doi: ...
... chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G04.335.487.350 - phagocytosis MeSH G04.335.487.350.091 - autophagy MeSH G04.335. ... virus assembly MeSH G04.185.515.880.960 - virus shedding MeSH G04.185.515.910 - virulence MeSH G04.185.672.360 - eye color MeSH ...
... chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G05.195.830 - sos response (genetics) MeSH G05.200.760 - dna replication timing MeSH ... chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G05.315.125 - dosage compensation, genetic MeSH G05.315.125.970 - x chromosome ...
"Role of the conserved Sir3-BAH domain in nucleosome binding and silent chromatin assembly". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1015-28. ... Once replication is complete, specific termination events lead to the disassembly of replisomes. As long as the entire genome ... Not surprisingly, several chromatin remodelers and chromatin-modifying enzymes have been found to associate with origins and ... These assembly loci constitute the start sites of DNA replication or replication origins. In the elongation phase, replisomes ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Lerner L, Henriksen MA, Zhang X, Darnell JE (October 2003). "STAT3-dependent enhanceosome assembly and disassembly: synergy ... Wallberg AE, Neely KE, Hassan AH, Gustafsson JA, Workman JL, Wright AP (March 2000). "Recruitment of the SWI-SNF chromatin ... "BAF60a mediates critical interactions between nuclear receptors and the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling complex for transactivation ... states of hsp70 and hsp90 during sequential steps in the process of glucocorticoid receptor.hsp90 heterocomplex assembly". The ...
In addition, TPX2 has been shown to be important in chromatin-dependent spindle assembly. Even with duplicated centrosomes, ... role in directly suppressing tubulin subunit off-rates at the microtubule tip during microtubule assembly and disassembly, ... It is one of the many spindle assembly factors that play a key role in inducing microtubule assembly and growth during M phase ... Gruss OJ, Vernos I (September 2004). "The mechanism of spindle assembly: functions of Ran and its target TPX2". The Journal of ...
NPC assembly is a very rapid process yet defined intermediate states occur which leads to the idea that this assembly occurs in ... This disassembly of the NPC peripheral groups is largely thought to be phosphate driven, as several of these nucleoporins are ... One possibility is that as a protein complex it binds to the chromatin. It is then inserted into the double membrane close to ... This prepore would form when several Nup complexes come together and bind to the chromatin. This would have the double membrane ...
"Assembly and disassembly of nucleosome core particles containing histone variants by human nucleosome assembly protein I". ... Chadwick BP, Willard HF (January 2001). "A novel chromatin protein, distantly related to histone H2A, is largely excluded from ... El Kharroubi A, Piras G, Zensen R, Martin MA (May 1998). "Transcriptional activation of the integrated chromatin-associated ... The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes ...
Motility and Shape Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems Motor function, regulation and diversity D. ... Chromatin and Chromosomes Karyotypes Translocations, inversions, deletions and duplications Aneuploidy and polyploidy Structure ... Assembly, Organization and Dynamics Small molecules Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and complex ... Viruses Genome replication and regulation Virus assembly Virus-host interactions H. Methods Restriction maps and PCR Nucleic ...
Broers JL, Ramaekers FC (2004). "Dynamics of nuclear lamina assembly and disassembly". Review. Symposia of the Society for ... They are located next to the transcriptionally active chromatin and are hypothesized to be the sites of active pre-mRNA ... In most cells, the disassembly of the nuclear envelope marks the end of the prophase of mitosis. However, this disassembly of ... Inhibition of lamin assembly itself is an inducer of apoptosis. The nuclear envelope acts as a barrier that prevents both DNA ...
Cdc48 is necessary for spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope assembly, and chromosome decondensation. Cdc48 modifies proteins ... "Nucleosomal regulation of chromatin composition and nuclear assembly revealed by histone depletion". Nature Structural & ... to trigger the spindle disassembly and nuclear envelope assembly) only after late anaphase. Cdc14-mediated dephosphorylation ... although the initiation of nuclear reassembly tends to precede that of spindle disassembly. Spindle disassembly is an ...
... for it is clear that it plays no essential part in the nuclear membrane assembly around chromatin. The presence of lamins in ... These different disassembly events are initiated by the cyclin B/Cdk1 protein kinase complex (MPF). Once this complex is ... Chromatin that interacts with lamina forms lamina-associated domains (LADs). The average length of human LADs is 0.1-10 MBp. ... It has been shown that lamin polypeptides have an affinity for binding chromatin through their α-helical (rod like) domains at ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
"The JmjC domain protein Epe1 prevents unregulated assembly and disassembly of heterochromatin". The EMBO Journal. 26 (22): 4670 ... "EPIGENETICS AND SPECIALIZED CHROMATIN". Allshire, Robin C; Gosden, John R; Cross, Sally H; Cranston, Gwen; Rout, Derek; ... insight into how transcription and resulting non-coding RNA might influence the assembly of specialised CENP-A chromatin and ... His research group at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms governing the assembly of ...
Chromatin greatly impedes transcription in eukaryotes. Assembly of large multi-protein preinitiation complex is required for ... it causes disassembly of elongation factors and/or an assembly of termination factors that cause conformational changes of the ... The eukaryotic genome is organized into a compact chromatin structure that allows only regulated access to DNA. The chromatin ... Pausing can influence chromatin structure at promoters to facilitate gene activity and lead to rapid or synchronous ...
Keller DM, Lu H (2003). "p53 serine 392 phosphorylation increases after UV through induction of the assembly of the CK2.hSPT16. ... LeRoy G, Orphanides G, Lane WS, Reinberg D (1998). "Requirement of RSF and FACT for transcription of chromatin templates in ... interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to effect nucleosome disassembly and transcription elongation. FACT is composed of ... Orphanides G, Wu WH, Lane WS, Hampsey M, Reinberg D (1999). "The chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT ...
Progression requires the disassembly of the MCC, which is found to be mediated by p31-Comet. This is through to occur in part ... Ma HT, Poon RY (February 2016). "TRIP13 Regulates Both the Activation and Inactivation of the Spindle-Assembly Checkpoint". ... San-Segundo PA, Roeder GS (April 1999). "Pch2 links chromatin silencing to meiotic checkpoint control". Cell. 97 (3): 313-24. ... including meiosis G2/Prophase and during the Spindle Assembly checkpoint (SAC). Evidence shows regulation to occur through the ...
Rapid assembly and disassembly of actin network enables cells to migrate (Cell migration). Actin is extremely abundant in most ... Actin takes part in the regulation of chromatin structure, interacting with RNA polymerase I, II and III. In Pol I ... Once the ring has been constructed the structure is maintained by a continual assembly and disassembly that, aided by the Arp2/ ... Assembly classically occurs in three steps. First, the "nucleation phase", in which two to three G-actin molecules slowly join ...
Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the ends of a microtubule. The microtubule can ... RAN-GTP associates with chromatin during mitosis to create a gradient that allows for local nucleation of microtubules near the ... However, the GTP bound to β-tubulin may be hydrolyzed to GDP shortly after assembly. The assembly properties of GDP-tubulin are ... which is the steady state concentration of dimers at which there is no longer any net assembly or disassembly at the end of the ...
... a role in cytoskeletal assembly". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (4): 893-903. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.4.893. PMC 2289706. PMID ... "Coupling of PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX to GIT1 promotes focal complex disassembly". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 ... which involves contracting the cortical actin ring and is followed by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. ... "Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST regulates focal adhesion disassembly, migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal ...
11,183,530-11,382,580 in the GRCh37 assembly, or 6:11,183,298-11,382,348 in the GRCh38 assembly. The gene is on the minus ... Pugacheva EN, Jablonski SA, Hartman TR, Henske EP, Golemis EA (2007). "HEF1-dependent Aurora A activation induces disassembly ... "The transcription factor PAX5 regulates its target genes by recruiting chromatin-modifying proteins in committed B cells". EMBO ...
Finally, phosphorylation by M cyclins (e.g., Clb1, 2, 3 and 4) in complex with Cdk1 leads to spindle assembly and sister ... This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). Given its ... "Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein". J. Biol. ...
2005). "Assembly and disassembly of nucleosome core particles containing histone variants by human nucleosome assembly protein ... 2002). "Dual roles of p300 in chromatin assembly and transcriptional activation in cooperation with nucleosome assembly protein ... Nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAP1L1 gene. This gene encodes a member of ... "Entrez Gene: NAP1L1 nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1". Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, et al. (1995). "Construction of a human ...
Part of the assembly process includes a compaction step, in which ULF tighten and assume a smaller diameter. The reasons for ... Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease ... During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by MPF, which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the nuclear envelope. Beaded ... Lee CH, Kim MS, Chung BM, Leahy DJ, Coulombe PA (June 2012). "Structural basis for heteromeric assembly and perinuclear ...
Disassembly of cilia requires the action of aurora kinase A. The current scientific understanding of primary cilia views them ... Johnson KA, Rosenbaum JL (December 1992). "Polarity of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 ( ... "A serotonergic axon-cilium synapse drives nuclear signaling to alter chromatin accessibility". Cell. 185 (18): 3390-3407.e18. ... Patel, MM; Tsiokas, L (1 November 2021). "Insights into the Regulation of Ciliary Disassembly". Cells. 10 (11): 2977. doi: ...
Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, ParB has the ability to bind not only to high-affinity parS sites ... Sanchez, A; Cattoni, DI; Walter, JC; Rech, J; Parmeggiani, A; Nollmann, M; Bouet, JY (2015). "Stochastic Self-Assembly of ParB ... "Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
The outcome of these studies strongly supports the notion that condensins play crucial roles in mitotic chromosome assembly and ... "Condensin-mediated remodeling of the mitotic chromatin landscape in fission yeast". Nat Genet. 49 (10): 1553-1557. doi:10.1038/ ... "Mutations in the chromosomal passenger complex and the condensin complex differentially affect synaptonemal complex disassembly ... Condensins also play important roles in chromosome assembly and segregation in meiosis. Genetic studies have been reported in S ...
... leading to the disassembly of the lamina and hence the envelope membranes into small vesicles.Electron and fluorescence ... a mesh of intermediate filaments which stabilizes the nuclear membrane as well as being involved in chromatin function. It is ... "Inner/Outer Nuclear Membrane Fusion in Nuclear Pore Assembly". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 21 (23): 4197-4211. doi:10.1091/ ...
The chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin. Cytokinesis, the pinching of the cell membrane in animal cells or the formation of ... Error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly favors chromosome segregation defects in human oocytes". Science. 348 (6239): ... and is marked by decondensation and lengthening of the chromosomes and the disassembly of the spindle. Nuclear envelopes re- ... "Self-organization of MTOCs replaces centrosome function during acentrosomal spindle assembly in live mouse oocytes". Cell. 130 ...
This allows chromatin to separate from the nuclear lamina in order to be condensed. As apoptosis continues, cell structures ... During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by Mitosis-Promoting Factor (MPF), which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the ... Stuurman, Nico; Heins, Susanne; Aebi, Ueli (1998-01-01). "Nuclear Lamins: Their Structure, Assembly, and Interactions". Journal ... This allows chromatin to condense and the DNA to be replicated. After chromosome segregation, dephosphorylation of nuclear ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / chemistry * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ...
Chromatin assembly and disassembly‎ (14 F). *. Chromatin decondensation protein 1 (Crp1, Nlp)‎ (1 F) ... Premitotic-Assembly-of-Human-CENPs--T-and--W-Switches-Centromeric-Chromatin-to-a-Mitotic-State-pbio.1001082.s007.ogv 22 s, 767 ... Premitotic-Assembly-of-Human-CENPs--T-and--W-Switches-Centromeric-Chromatin-to-a-Mitotic-State-pbio.1001082.s008.ogv 33 s, 575 ... Premitotic-Assembly-of-Human-CENPs--T-and--W-Switches-Centromeric-Chromatin-to-a-Mitotic-State-pbio.1001082.s009.ogv 18 s, 625 ...
Categories: Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. Rajendran P, Williams DE, Ho E, Dashwood RH. 2011. Metabolism as a key to histone ... Chromatin. Myzak MC, W Dashwood M, Orner GA, Ho E, Dashwood RH. 2006. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and ... diindolylmethane decreases expression of AR-controlled DNA damage repair genes through repressive chromatin modifications and ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. 1. 2021. 619. 0.040. Why? Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. 1. 2019. 329. 0.040. Why? ...
GO:0006333 chromatin assembly or disassembly *GO:0000785 chromatin *GO:0003682 chromatin binding ...
chromatin assembly or disassembly [TAS. ] Molecular Function:. DNA binding [TAS. ] Sequence:. Sequence:. [PDR BLAST] [ProtParam ... Histone H2A, core histone protein required for chromatin assembly and chromosome function; one of two nearly identical subtypes ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly 18% * Internship and Residency 16% * Innate Immunity 14% ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 28% * Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences 27% ... Moreover, the mechanistic basis for Rb-mediated transcriptional repression has revealed its connection to global chromatin ... Moreover, the mechanistic basis for Rb-mediated transcriptional repression has revealed its connection to global chromatin ... Moreover, the mechanistic basis for Rb-mediated transcriptional repression has revealed its connection to global chromatin ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly G4.299.452.95 G4.400.95 G5.355.192.95 G5.213.95 G5.355.315.95 G5.308.95 Chromogranin A ... Virus Assembly G6.590.875.780.950 G6.920.925.950 G6.920.875.780.950 Virus Attachment G6.590.875.715 G6.920.868 G6.920.875.715 ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Actins Medicine & Life Sciences 72% ... are often identified as components of multi-protein chromatin-modifying enzyme complexes, such as chromatin remodeling and ... Heterocomplex formation by Arp4 and β-actin is involved in the integrity of the Brg1 chromatin remodeling complex. Journal of ... Heterocomplex formation by Arp4 and β-actin is involved in the integrity of the Brg1 chromatin remodeling complex. In: Journal ...
... chromatin assembly/disassembly and intracellular processes. Altogether, the study revealed extensive polygenic overlap between ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly 43% * Histone Acetyltransferases 39% * Histone Deacetylases 34% * Studies of Folic Acid- ... Investigation of Chromatin Remodeling and Akt-Dependnet mTOR/S6K Mediate Thrombin-Induced IL-8/CXCL8 in Lung Epithelial Cells. ...
The organization of chromatin directs the organized assembly of the transcription machinery. Biochemical reconstitution will be ... existence of these substructures and the histone chaperones that are likely to be involved in their assembly and disassembly ... Chromatin is generally thought to be composed of nucleosome particles containing 2 copies of each of the four core histones. ... to tease apart selected individual contributions of chromatin organization and activator/repressor binding towards assembly of ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 46% * Methylation Medicine & Life Sciences 36% ... It identifies changes in crucial components of chromatin remodeling and methylation machineries as early events in sporadic PD ... It identifies changes in crucial components of chromatin remodeling and methylation machineries as early events in sporadic PD ... It identifies changes in crucial components of chromatin remodeling and methylation machineries as early events in sporadic PD ...
... chromatin assembly or disassembly (cluster 30), mitochondrial electron transport (cluster 31) and fibroblast growth factor ...
Chromatin Assembly. Chromatin Disassemblies. Chromatin Disassembly. Chromatin Modeling. Chromatin Remodeling. Disassembly, ... Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly - Preferred Concept UI. M0439904. Scope note. The mechanisms effecting establishment, ... Chromatin Remodeling - Narrower Concept UI. M0439902. Scope note. The mechanisms involved with making the DNA in CHROMATIN more ... The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly 96% * Pathologic Processes 42% * GSK126 40% * Sucrose 38% ... Requisite Chromatin Remodeling for Myeloid and Erythroid Lineage Differentiation from Erythromyeloid Progenitors. Wu, J., ... Regenerating zebrafish fin epigenome is characterized by stable lineage-specific DNA methylation and dynamic chromatin ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly 96% * Centromere Protein A 36% * Single Molecule Imaging 28% ... Assembly of centromere chromatin for characterization by high-speed time-lapse atomic force microscopy. Stumme-Diers, M. P., ... Spontaneous self-assembly of amyloid β (1-40) into dimers. Hashemi, M., Zhang, Y., Lv, Z. & Lyubchenko, Y. L., 2019, In: ... Nano-Assembly of amyloid β peptide: Role of the hairpin fold. Maity, S., Hashemi, M. & Lyubchenko, Y. L., Dec 1 2017, In: ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly 15% * Zinc Fingers 14% * Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition 13% ...
... subcellular distribution and cell-cycle-dependent assembly/disassembly. J Cell Sci 116, 919-928. Crossref, Medline, Google ... In agreement with a previous study that directly compared chromatin-associated protein complexes by BioID and affinity ... Proteomic profiling of different satellite subpopulations together with probing satellite assembly and disassembly mechanisms ... Dammermann A, Merdes A (2002). Assembly of centrosomal proteins and microtubule organization depends on PCM-1. J Cell Biol 159 ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 99% * Adenosine Triphosphate Medicine & Life Sciences 66% ... Byeon, B, Wang, W, Barski, A, Ranallo, RT, Bao, K, Schones, DE, Zhao, K, Wu, C & Wu, WH 2013, The ATP-dependent chromatin ... The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme Fun30 represses transcription by sliding promoter-proximal nucleosomes. Journal ... The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme Fun30 represses transcription by sliding promoter-proximal nucleosomes. In: ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Chromatin Medicine & Life Sciences 75% ... T1 - Chromatin assembly and in vitro transcription analyses for evaluation of individual protein activities in multicomponent ... Chromatin assembly and in vitro transcription analyses for evaluation of individual protein activities in multicomponent ... Chromatin assembly and in vitro transcription analyses for evaluation of individual protein activities in multicomponent ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Medicine & Life Sciences 6% 完全なフィンガープリントを表示 ... a corepressor complex with chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation activity, which suppressed ENaCα and SGK1. These ... a corepressor complex with chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation activity, which suppressed ENaCα and SGK1. These ... a corepressor complex with chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation activity, which suppressed ENaCα and SGK1. These ...
chromatin assembly or disassembly [IMP]*fungal-type cell wall organization [IGI]. Gene Ontology Molecular Function. *ubiquitin- ... chromatin modification [IDA]*chromatin organization involved in regulation of transcription [IMP]*histone acetylation [IDA, IGI ... proposed to be involved in chromatin assembly ... a subunit of the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex, altering ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. Phanstiel, Douglas H., Kevin Van Bortle, Damek Spacek, Gaelen T. Hess, Muhammad Saad Shamim ... Chromatin. Phanstiel, Douglas H., Kevin Van Bortle, Damek Spacek, Gaelen T. Hess, Muhammad Saad Shamim, Ido Machol, Michael I. ...
chromatin organization. IEP. Enrichment. BP. GO:0006333. chromatin assembly or disassembly. IEP. Enrichment. ...
chromatin assembly or disassembly. GO:0006333. 60. 0.029. anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis. GO:0048646 ...
chromatin assembly or disassembly GO:0006333 Biological Process 0.0. - Sma3. proteolysis GO:0006508 Biological Process 0.0. - ...
  • The phytochemical 3,3'-diindolylmethane decreases expression of AR-controlled DNA damage repair genes through repressive chromatin modifications and is associated with DNA damage in prostate cancer cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Functional analyses indicated that the shared loci are linked to brain-expressed genes and involved in neurodevelopment, lipid metabolism, chromatin assembly/disassembly and intracellular processes. (uib.no)
  • The expression of 381 genes was directly and significantly proportional to the levels of such chromatin marks present near their transcription start site. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Our previous study indicates that BAF180-containing SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a co-activator for transcription factor HIF to induce HIF target genes. (elsevier.com)
  • The assembly also contains several hundred genes that are reproducibly eliminated from somatic cells during early development in lamprey. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sense and antisense transcription are associated with distinct chromatin architectures across genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We propose that nascent antisense and sense transcription have fundamentally distinct relationships with chromatin, and that both should be considered canonical features of eukaryotic genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. (cnrs.fr)
  • The α-globin enhancers now interact with the flanking chromatin, upregulating expression of genes within this extended sub-TAD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, it is now becoming clear that various partially assembled nucleosomes or subnucleosomes exist in vivo, and these structures may play critical roles in chromatin dynamics. (hhs.gov)
  • In eukaryotic cells, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors regulate chromatin structure by altering the assembly, disassembly, and rearrangement of nucleosomes on chromatin, thereby improving the local accessibility of transcription-related factors such as transcription factors to DNA. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In addition, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers regulate the position and composition of nucleosomes across the genome. (harvard.edu)
  • At gene promoters, this multi-layered regulation gives rise to a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) flanked by positionally stable nucleosomes enriched in the histone variant H2A.Z. Due to their role in establishing and maintaining this stereotypical promoter chromatin structure, remodelers have been a topic of intense research in the past two decades. (harvard.edu)
  • This necessary step is harnessed by different remodelers to yield a number of remodeling outcomes, among which are the repositioning and disassembly of nucleosomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Although nuclear actin and Arps (actin-related proteins) are often identified as components of multi-protein chromatin-modifying enzyme complexes, such as chromatin remodeling and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, their molecular functions still remain largely elusive. (elsevier.com)
  • In the smallest repeating unit of the packaged genetic material, or chromatin, ~150 DNA base pairs wrap around a core of histone proteins, forming the nucleosome. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-κB and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as IκB-ζ, which forms a complex with the NF-κB p50 subunit. (cnrs.fr)
  • Through a combination of reverse genetics and biochemistry, we discovered that in C. elegans Akirin has conserved its role of bridging chromatin-remodellers and transcription factors, but that the identity of its functional partners is different since it forms a physical complex with NuRD proteins and the POU-class transcription factor CEH-18. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The mammalian SWI/SNF complexes mediate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling processes that are critical for differentiation and proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigated the role of human Arp4 (BAF53, also known as actin-like protein 6A) in Brg1-containing chromatin remodeling complexes. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, how ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler complexes recognize DNA features and sequence-specific organizing factors, will be addressed. (hhs.gov)
  • Furumatsu, T & Asahara, H 2013, Chromatin assembly and in vitro transcription analyses for evaluation of individual protein activities in multicomponent transcriptional complexes . (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis of various chromatin remodeling complexes (CRC) will help us better understand their specific biological functions and mechanisms. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This reaction relies on the conserved ATPase that underlies nucleosome repositioning and disassembly by other complexes, making SWR1 a prime target to address the functional diversification of remodelers. (harvard.edu)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression requires the coordinated action of transcription factors, chromatin remodelling complexes and RNA polymerase. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Eukaryotic DNA and core histones form the fundamental repeating units of chromatin. (elsevier.com)
  • Upon aldosterone-MR binding, CASZ1b interacted with MR and formed a protein complex with nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (Mi-2/NuRD), a corepressor complex with chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation activity, which suppressed ENaCα and SGK1. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the mechanistic basis for Rb-mediated transcriptional repression has revealed its connection to global chromatin remodeling. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our methods offer a useful system for analyzing the additional effect of a third component in a transcriptional complex on chromatin structure. (elsevier.com)
  • The nature of transcription factor binding sites in the vicinity of these differentially methylated regions suggest that these age-associated methylation changes reflect modulation of two biological mechanisms: the polycomb repressive complex 2, a protein complex that trimethylates histone H3 on lysine 27, and the transcriptional repressor CCCTC-binding factor or CTCF , both of which are regulators of chromatin architecture. (transhumanist.ru)
  • By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to IκB-ζ, transcriptional coactivator for NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection. (cnrs.fr)
  • The polybromo-1 (PBRM1) gene coding for the BAF180 protein, a component of the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, is inactivated in 40% ccRCCs, the function and mechanism of BAF180 mutation is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • The conserved nuclear protein Akirin plays a central role in immune gene expression in insects and mammals, linking the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex with the transcription factor NFκB. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Together with neuronal apoptosis, lymphocyte activation and mitochondrial dysfunction, already found in previous analysis of PD blood and post-mortem brains, we unveiled transcriptome changes enriched in biological terms related to epigenetic modifications including chromatin remodeling and methylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Epigenetic regulation, including structural changes of chromatin, histone modification, and DNA methylation, strictly controls the pattern of gene expression and silencing. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromatin remodeling factor is an important component of epigenetic regulation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Chromatin is generally thought to be composed of nucleosome particles containing 2 copies of each of the four core histones. (hhs.gov)
  • Therefore, satellites are now accepted as the "third component" of the vertebrate centrosome/cilium complex, which profoundly changes the way we think about the assembly, maintenance, and remodeling of the complex at the cellular and organismal levels. (molbiolcell.org)
  • Structural basis for ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by the INO80 complex. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The group of Carl Wu (NCI/NIH and Janelia Farm) has been the main contributor to the biochemical dissection of the assembly of this ~1 MDa complex. (harvard.edu)
  • We then describe the progress in the identification of the satellite interactome, which have paved the way to a molecular understanding of their mechanism of action and assembly mechanisms. (molbiolcell.org)
  • However, the CRC composed of multi-subunits is usually of high molecular mass and inevitably has structural changes when it plays a chromatin remodeling role in the cell, so it is relatively difficult to analyze the 3D structure of CRC. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Rather than acting solely as a barrier to chromatin modification, CTCF-cohesin boundaries in this sub-TAD delimit the region of chromatin to which enhancers have access and within which they interact with receptive promoters. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIPseq) for histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27ac was performed on monocytes of nine healthy controls and 14 patients with SSc. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Background: The conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme Fun30 regulates heterochromatin silencing and DNA repair. (elsevier.com)
  • It identifies changes in crucial components of chromatin remodeling and methylation machineries as early events in sporadic PD suggesting epigenetics as target for therapeutic intervention. (elsevier.com)
  • Tissue-specific CTCF-cohesin-mediated chromatin architecture delimits enhancer interactions and function in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as model system to understand genomic mechanisms by which chromatin organization is established. (hhs.gov)
  • The mechanisms involved with making the DNA in CHROMATIN more or less accessible to transcription machinery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Significance: The function of Fun30 is expanded to regulation of transcription and chromatin remodeling by nucleosome sliding. (elsevier.com)
  • The organization of chromatin directs the organized assembly of the transcription machinery. (hhs.gov)
  • Biochemical reconstitution will be used to tease apart selected individual contributions of chromatin organization and activator/repressor binding towards assembly of the transcription machinery on a genomic scale. (hhs.gov)
  • These cellular assemblies can be observed and perturbed, and this has yielded invaluable insights into their modes of organization and their dynamic properties. (rupress.org)
  • We searched for chromatin contacts and boundaries and the locations of super-enhancers that are involved in cell specific differentiation. (transhumanist.ru)
  • We demonstrate that SIRT6 functions as a chromatin regulator safeguarding the balance between pluripotency and differentiation through Tet-mediated production of 5hmC. (mpg.de)
  • Cell-type-specific effects of genetic variation on chromatin accessibility during human neuronal differentiation. (ucla.edu)
  • To enable more informed analyses, we developed a new assembly of the lamprey germline genome that integrates several complementary data sets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of this highly contiguous (chromosome-scale) assembly shows that both chromosomal and whole-genome duplications have played significant roles in the evolution of ancestral vertebrate and lamprey genomes, including chromosomes that carry the six lamprey HOX clusters. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As transcription influences chromatin structure, we took a genome-wide approach to assess which chromatin features are associated with nascent antisense transcription, and contrast these with features associated with nascent sense transcription. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We describe a distinct chromatin architecture at the promoter and gene body specifically associated with antisense transcription, marked by reduced H2B ubiquitination, H3K36 and H3K79 trimethylation and increased levels of H3 acetylation, chromatin remodelling enzymes, histone chaperones and histone turnover. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, Akirin2 and IκB-ζ recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of IκB-ζ and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. (cnrs.fr)
  • Three-dimensional chromatin architecture and gene-gene interactions impact gene expression. (transhumanist.ru)
  • It is likely that Rb suppresses tumor formation by virtue of its multiple biological activities, and a theme throughout its multiple cellular functions is its central role in controlling activities that involve chromatin remodeling. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we describe an experimental approach to investigate the function of each component on reconstructed chromatin in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Previously we demonstrated that the DNA-binding transcription factor Sox9, HAT coactivator p300, and other regulatory factors (Smad3/4) cooperatively activate Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent studies have revealed that histone acetylation plays a crucial role in relaxing chromatin structure for initiation of transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • The Dynamic Landscape of Open Chromatin during Human Cortical Neurogenesis. (ucla.edu)