A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Educational institutions.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.

Chromatin condensation is confined to the loop and involves an all-or-none structural change. (1/2103)

Using differential scanning calorimetry in combination with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we relate here the changes in the thermal profile of rat liver nuclei induced by very mild digestion of chromatin by endogenous nuclease with the chain length distribution of the DNA fragments. The enthalpy of the endotherm at 106 degrees C, which reflects the denaturation of the heterochromatic domains, decreases dramatically after the induction of a very small number of double-strand breaks per chromosome; the thermal transition disappears when the loops have undergone on average one DNA chain scission event. Quantitative analysis of the experimental data shows that the loop behaves like a topologically isolated domain. Also discussed is the process of heterochromatin formation, which occurs according to an all-or-none mechanism. In the presence of spermine, a strong condensation agent, only the loops that have undergone one break are able to refold, in confirmation of the extremely cooperative nature of the transition. Furthermore, our results suggest a relationship between the states that give rise to the endotherms at 90 degrees C and 106 degrees C and the morphologies referred to as class II and class III in a previous physicochemical study of the folding of chromatin fragments (Widom, 1986. J. Mol. Biol. 190:411-424) and support the view that the overall process of condensation follows a sequential (two-step) pathway.  (+info)

Proposed mechanism for sperm chromatin condensation/decondensation in the male rat. (2/2103)

Condensation of sperm chromatin occurs after spermatozoa have left the caput epididymis and are in transit to the cauda epididymis, during which time large numbers of disulfide bonds are formed. The formation of these disulfide bonds requires the repeated oxidation of the cofactor, NAD(P)H. To date, the means by which this oxidation is achieved has yet to be elucidated. Spermatozoa lose the bulk of their cytoplasm prior to leaving the testis; and, as a result, any shuttle systems for removing and transferring reducing equivalents into the mitochondria are unlikely to be operational. In an apparent preparation for the loss of cytoplasm, however, the following events occur during spermatogenesis. First, androgen-binding protein (ABP) is produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis; second, high affinity binding sites for ABP are inserted into the membrane surrounding the nucleus; and third, a nuclear location is acquired for the enzyme, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD). We propose that after the loss of cytoplasm, the nuclear region of spermatozoa is directly accessible to constituents contained in the lumen of the caput epididymis. As a consequence, luminal ABP attaches itself to the nuclear membrane via its binding sites, and is internalized. After internalization, ABP exerts its principle function, which is to bind to luminal 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), thereby ensuring its availability to the enzyme, 3alpha-HSD. In the conversion of 5alpha-DHT to 3alpha-androstanediol (3alpha-Diol), NAD(P)H is oxidized. Spermatozoa that reach the cauda epididymis have fully condensed chromatin. In addition, the nuclear region retains appreciable amounts of 5alpha-DHT and 3alpha-Diol, both bound to ABP. During fertilization, the bound 3alpha-Diol is converted back to 5alpha-DHT, reducing equivalents are transferred to NAD(P)+, and disulfide bonds are broken.IVF clinics report that spermatozoa with incompletely condensed chromatin have a low percentage of fertilization. If our proposed mechanism for chromatin condensation/decondensation is borne out by further research, IVF clinics might consider preincubating spermatozoa with 5alpha-DHT in order to increase the efficiency of fertilization.  (+info)

Expression of the Wdr9 gene and protein products during mouse development. (3/2103)

Human WDR9 has been mapped to chromosome 21, within one of the Down syndrome (DS) critical regions. Here, we study the expression pattern of the murine Wdr9 gene and its protein product. We show that Wdr9 is broadly expressed in the mouse embryo by means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Wdr9 expression levels are dynamic during embryonic development as revealed by Northern blot analysis. We further show that WDR9 is a nuclear protein associated with BRG1, a SWI/SNF complex component. We also demonstrate that a polyglutamine-containing region of the protein functions as a transcriptional activation domain. We propose that WDR9 is a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling through the action of two bromodomains and contacts to the SWI/SNF complex. These results may provide a molecular basis for the association of WDR9 with DS.  (+info)

Identification of SATB2 as the cleft palate gene on 2q32-q33. (4/2103)

Cytogenetic evidence, in the form of deletions and balanced translocations, points to the existence of a locus on 2q32-q33, for which haploinsufficiency results in isolated cleft palate (CPO). Here we show by high-resolution FISH mapping of two de novo CPO-associated translocations involving 2q32-q33 that one breakpoint interrupts the transcription unit of the gene encoding the DNA-binding protein SATB2 (formerly KIAA1034). The breakpoint in the other translocation is located 130 kb 3' to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal, within a conserved region of non-coding DNA. The SATB2 gene is transcribed in a telomeric to centromeric direction and lies in a gene-poor region of 2q32-q33; the nearest confirmed gene is 1.26 Mb centromeric to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal. SATB2-encoding transcripts are assembled from 11 exons that span 191 kb of genomic DNA. They encode a protein of 733 amino acids that has two CUT domains and a homeodomain and shows a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation, with only three amino acid substitutions between mouse and human. This protein belongs to the same family as SATB1, a nuclear matrix-attachment region binding protein implicated in transcriptional control and control of chromatin remodelling. There are also sequence similarities to the Drosophila protein DVE. Whole mount in situ hybridization to mouse embryos shows site- and stage-specific expression of SATB2 in the developing palate. Despite the strong evidence supporting an important role for SATB2 in palate development, mutation analysis of 70 unrelated patients with CPO did not reveal any coding region variants.  (+info)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 is essential and couples chromatin assembly to DNA replication in vivo. (5/2103)

De novo chromatin assembly maintains histone density on the daughter strands in the wake of the replication fork. The heterotrimer chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) couples DNA replication to histone deposition in vitro, but is not essential for yeast cell proliferation. Depletion of CAF-1 in human cell lines demonstrated that CAF-1 was required for efficient progression through S-phase. Cells lacking CAF-1 accumulated in early and mid S-phase and replicated DNA slowly. The checkpoint kinase Chk1, but not Chk2, was phosphorylated in response to CAF-1 depletion, consistent with a DNA replication defect. CAF-1-depleted cell extracts completely lacked DNA replication-coupled chromatin assembly activity, suggesting that CAF-1 is required for efficient S-phase progression in human cells. These results indicate that, in contrast to yeast, human CAF-1 is necessary for coupling chromatin assembly with DNA replication.  (+info)

Fission yeast Tup1-like repressors repress chromatin remodeling at the fbp1+ promoter and the ade6-M26 recombination hotspot. (6/2103)

Chromatin remodeling plays crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression and recombination. Transcription of the fission yeast fbp1(+) gene and recombination at the meiotic recombination hotspot ade6-M26 (M26) are both regulated by cAMP responsive element (CRE)-like sequences and the CREB/ATF-type transcription factor Atf1*Pcr1. The Tup11 and Tup12 proteins, the fission yeast counterparts of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tup1 corepressor, are involved in glucose repression of the fbp1(+) transcription. We have analyzed roles of the Tup1-like corepressors in chromatin regulation around the fbp1(+) promoter and the M26 hotspot. We found that the chromatin structure around two regulatory elements for fbp1(+) was remodeled under derepressed conditions in concert with the robust activation of fbp1(+) transcription. Strains with tup11delta tup12delta double deletions grown in repressed conditions exhibited the chromatin state associated with wild-type cells grown in derepressed conditions. Interestingly, deletion of rst2(+), encoding a transcription factor controlled by the cAMP-dependent kinase, alleviated the tup11delta tup12delta defects in chromatin regulation but not in transcription repression. The chromatin at the M26 site in mitotic cultures of a tup11delta tup12delta mutant resembled that of wild-type meiotic cells. These observations suggest that these fission yeast Tup1-like corepressors repress chromatin remodeling at CRE-related sequences and that Rst2 antagonizes this function.  (+info)

Methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 in ecdysone-dependent development of Drosophila. (7/2103)

Steroid hormones fulfil important functions in animal development. In Drosophila, ecdysone triggers moulting and metamorphosis through its effects on gene expression. Ecdysone works by binding to a nuclear receptor, EcR, which heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor homologue Ultraspiracle. Both partners are required for binding to ligand or DNA. Like most DNA-binding transcription factors, nuclear receptors activate or repress gene expression by recruiting co-regulators, some of which function as chromatin-modifying complexes. For example, p160 class coactivators associate with histone acetyltransferases and arginine histone methyltransferases. The Trithorax-related gene of Drosophila encodes the SET domain protein TRR. Here we report that TRR is a histone methyltransferases capable of trimethylating lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3-K4). trr acts upstream of hedgehog (hh) in progression of the morphogenetic furrow, and is required for retinal differentiation. Mutations in trr interact in eye development with EcR, and EcR and TRR can be co-immunoprecipitated on ecdysone treatment. TRR, EcR and trimethylated H3-K4 are detected at the ecdysone-inducible promoters of hh and BR-C in cultured cells, and H3-K4 trimethylation at these promoters is decreased in embryos lacking a functional copy of trr. We propose that TRR functions as a coactivator of EcR by altering the chromatin structure at ecdysone-responsive promoters.  (+info)

Retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion to PML affects its transcriptional and chromatin-remodeling properties. (8/2103)

PML-RAR is an oncogenic transcription factor forming in acute promyelocytic leukemias (APL) because of a chromosomal translocation. Without its ligand, retinoic acid (RA), PML-RAR functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor, abnormally associating with the corepressor-histone deacetylase complex and blocking hematopoietic differentiation. In the presence of pharmacological concentrations of RA, PML-RAR activates transcription and stimulates differentiation. Even though it has been suggested that chromatin alteration is important for APL onset, the PML-RAR effect on chromatin of target promoters has not been investigated. Taking advantage of the Xenopus oocyte system, we compared the wild-type transcription factor RARalpha with PML-RAR as both transcriptional regulators and chromatin structure modifiers. Without RA, we found that PML-RAR is a more potent transcriptional repressor that does not require the cofactor RXR and produces a closed chromatin configuration. Surprisingly, repression by PML-RAR occurs through a further pathway that is independent of nucleosome deposition and histone deacetylation. In the presence of RA, PML-RAR is a less efficient transcriptional activator that is unable to modify the DNA nucleoprotein structure. We propose that PML-RAR, aside from its ability to recruit aberrant quantities of histone deacetylase complexes, has acquired additional repressive mechanisms and lost important activating functions; the comprehension of these mechanisms might reveal novel targets for antileukemic intervention.  (+info)

Chromatin remodelling factor Isw1A complexed with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Computer model showing the structure of yeast chromatin remodelling factor Isw1A , i. e. the imitation switch proteins 1 (del_ATPase, dark blue) and 3 (green) complexed with two DNA (yellow, magenta, cyan, orange). From yeast. - Stock Image C035/8413
BACKGROUND: ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are responsible for establishing and maintaining the positions of nucleosomes. Chromatin remodellers are targeted to chromatin by transcription factors and non-coding RNA to remodel the chromatin into functional states. However, the influence of chromatin remodelling on shaping the functional epigenome is not well understood. Moreover, chromatin remodellers have not been extensively explored as a collective group across two-dimensional and three-dimensional epigenomic layers. RESULTS: Here, we have integrated the genome-wide binding profiles of eight chromatin remodellers together with DNA methylation, nucleosome positioning, histone modification and Hi-C chromosomal contacts to reveal that chromatin remodellers can be stratified into two functional groups. Group 1 (BRG1, SNF2H, CHD3 and CHD4) has a clear preference for binding at actively marked chromatin and Group 2 (BRM, INO80, SNF2L and CHD1) for repressively marked chromatin. We find
The chromatin remodeling complexes alter chromatin structures. They remodel nucleosomes in ATP-dependent manner and have essential roles in DNA damage repair, recombination, replication and transcriptional control. Increasing evidences indicate that subunits of chromatin remodelers are mutated and/or deregulated in a number of human cancers, and how they influence the cancer gene expression program during cancer initiation and progression is becomming clearer. Therefore, chromatin remodeling complexes arose as promising new targets for the treatment of human cancers. In this review, chromatin remodeling complexes, their epigenetic reader domains and available inhibitors are described. The insights into the misregulated chromatin remodelers pathways in human malignancies and the novel approach targeting deregulated chromatin remodelers to improve chemotherapy efficiency are discussed. ...
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Lysine methylation of histones is recognized as an important component of an epigenetic indexing system demarcating transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains. Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) marks transcription start sites of virtually all active genes. Recently, we reported that the WD40-repeat protein WDR5 is important for global levels of H3K4me3 and control of HOX gene expression. Here we show that a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger of nucleosome remodelling factor (NURF), an ISWI-containing ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, mediates a direct preferential association with H3K4me3 tails. Depletion of H3K4me3 causes partial release of the NURF subunit, BPTF (bromodomain and PHD finger transcription factor), from chromatin and defective recruitment of the associated ATPase, SNF2L (also known as ISWI and SMARCA1), to the HOXC8 promoter. Loss of BPTF in Xenopus embryos mimics WDR5 loss-of-function phenotypes, and compromises spatial control of Hox gene expression.
Since their discovery in the mid-1990s, nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs) have gained attention for their roles as structural components of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. These remodelers can move nucleosomes along the DNA, evict them from chromatin, and exchange histone variants to alter chromatin states locally. Chromatin-remodeling facilitates DNA-templated processes such as transcription regulation, DNA replication, and repair. Consistent with a role for ARPs in shaping chromatin structure, recent genetic studies show that they affect developmental and cell-type specific transcriptional programming. Here, we focus on recent results that suggest a specific contribution of ARPs to long-range interactions in the nucleus, and review evidence indicating that some ARPs may act independently of chromatin-remodeling machines.. ...
Improved treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) remains elusive because of the limited understanding of its underlying biological mechanisms. It is likely that stress-induced maladaptive transcriptional regulation in limbic neural circuits contributes to the development of MDD, possibly through epigenetic factors that regulate chromatin structure. We establish that persistent upregulation of the ACF (ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor) ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, occurring in the nucleus accumbens of stress-susceptible mice and depressed humans, is necessary for stress-induced depressive-like behaviors. We found that altered ACF binding after chronic stress was correlated with altered nucleosome positioning, particularly around the transcription start sites of affected genes. These alterations in ACF binding and nucleosome positioning were associated with repressed expression of genes implicated in susceptibility to stress. Together, our findings ...
Crystallographic Studies of Large Complexes: From the Yeast Chromatin. Remodeling Factor ISW1a to the Entire Nucleosome-Traversing. Transcription Machinery. Kazuhiro Yamada, PhD. Senior Scientist/Over-assistant. Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics. ETH Zurich. Monday, October 1, 2012. 4 p.m. , Caspary Auditorium. Refreshments 3:45 p.m.. Recommended Readings:. Yen, K.; Vinayachandran, V.; Batta, K.; et al. 2012. Genome-wide Nucleosome Specificity and Directionality of Chromatin Remodelers. CELL 149(7):1461-1473 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.036. Richmond, Timothy J. 2012. Nucleosome recognition and spacing by chromatin remodelling factor ISW1a. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, 40: 347-350 DOI: 10.1042/BST20110748 Please request from Markus Library.. De Cian, A; Praly, E; Ding, F; et al. 2012. ATP-Independent Cooperative Binding of Yeast Isw1a to Bare and Nucleosomal DNA. PLOS ONE 7(2): e31845 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031845. Sharma, A.; Jenkins, K. R.; Heroux, A.; et al. 2011. Crystal ...
Author: Archacki, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-05; Open Access; Title: Genetic analysis of functional redundancy of BRM ATPase and ATSWI3C subunits of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein.. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Histone, DNA modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelling factors are major area to concentrate.. Relevant Conferences: Nucleic Acids Conferences , Biochemistry Conferences. 2ndInternational Conference on Transcriptomics, September 12-14, 2016 Philadelphia ...
One of the first ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes was first identified and characterized more than a decade ago. Since then, the number of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and the variety of roles they play in nuclear processes have become dizzying. Some of the processes include transcription, replication, repair, recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion. The SWI/SNF-related ATP-dependent remodelers are divided into a number of subfamilies, all related by the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase at their catalytic core. In nearly every species where researchers have looked for them, one or more members of each subfamily have been identified. Here I have investigated the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI. I have shown that Xenopus ISWI has a critical function in developing neural tissue. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows ISWI localized in neural tissue including the eye and developing neural tube. Injection of antisense ISWI RNA, morpholino oligonucleotides or ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Adult stem cell function: Both regulators of intracellular signalling (e.g. Spry1) and chromatin remodelling factors are important for normal adult stem cell function. We are investigating the roles of these factors in adult stem cells in the muscle (in collaboration with Dr. Andrew Brack (Harvard) and brain. Supported by the BBSRC Researchers: Kieran Jones, Nemanja Saric ...
Several chromatin-remodelling proteins are implicated in the efficient repair of DNA damage in mammalian cells, including BRG1, CHD1L/ALC1, CHD4, INO80 and ISWI proteins ACF1 and SNF2H (Ahel et al., 2009; Kashiwaba et al., 2010; Lan et al., 2010; Larsen et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2010; Nakamura et al., 2011; Park et al., 2009; Park et al., 2006; Polo et al., 2010; Sánchez-Molina et al., 2011; Smeenk et al., 2010). Most of the chromatin-remodelling proteins are recruited to DNA breaks in a γH2AX-dependent manner and function to modulate chromatin structure and modifications in order to facilitate the access to either DNA or chromatin of factors involved in DNA damage signalling and repair. The function of chromatin remodellers in supporting DNA repair is often conserved from yeast to mammalian cells, indicating that chromatin reorganization during DNA repair is vital for maintenance of genome stability.. LSH has been extensively studied as a protein that promotes DNA methylation and silencing of ...
Nucleosomal DNA is arranged in a higher-order structure that presents a barrier to most cellular processes involving protein DNA interactions. The cellular machinery involved in sister chromatid cohesion, the cohesin complex, also requires access to the nucleosomal DNA to perform its function in chr …
Mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are large, multi-subunit molecular machines that play vital roles in regulating genomi...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mihoko Tame.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Developmental Biology Seminar Series series.. ...
El Centro Nacional de Biotecnología es un centro estratégico del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas con un objetivo mixto académico y de transferencia de tecnología en el área de la Biotecnología.
ATPase subunit of imitation-switch (ISWI) class chromatin remodelers; ATPase; forms a complex with Ioc3p (Isw1a), and a complex with Ioc2p and Ioc4p (Isw1b); Isw1a and Isw1b have partially overlapping and distinct roles, Isw1a involved in repression of transcription initiation and Isw1b involved in regulation of transcription elongation; Isw1b recruited to open reading frames by H3K36 methylation and acts with Chd1p to prevent trans-histone exchange over coding regions ...
KOYAMA Hirofumi , NAGAO Taka-aki , INAI Tomomi , MIYAHARA Kohji , HAYASIDA Yasufumi , SHIRAHIGE Katsuhiko , TSUCHIYA Eiko Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 68(4), 909-919, 2004-04-23 J-STAGE References (45) ...
ISW1-N小鼠多克隆抗体(ab43434)可与酿酒酵母样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Yes, its in the Teachings of the Buddha. Chapter 5 of the Abhidhamma Sangaha shows that there are 16 worlds for Rūpāvacara Brahmas and 4 worlds of Arūpāvacara Brahmas ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
Excellgen Brahma-related Gene 1 protein, wild type, BRG1, SMARCA4 [RP-22] - Product Name Brahma-related Gene 1, BRG1, SMARCA4 Size 5,000 U Description The wild type human brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) encodes a protein of 1,647 amino acids that contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription regulation (1-3). BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes
One of the longest standing problems in DNA repair is how cells relax chromatin in order to make DNA lesions accessible for global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Since chromatin has to be relaxed for efficient lesion detection, the key question is whether chromatin relaxation precedes lesion detection or vice versa. Chromatin accessibility factors have been proposed but not yet identified. Here we show that p53 acts as a chromatin accessibility factor, mediating UV-induced global chromatin relaxation. Using localized subnuclear UV irradiation, we demonstrate that chromatin relaxation is extended over the whole nucleus and that this process requires p53. We show that the sequence for initiation of global NER is as follows: transcription-associated lesion detection; p53-mediated global chromatin relaxation; and global lesion detection. The tumour suppressor p53 is crucial for genomic stability, a role partially explained by its pro-apoptotic capacity. We demonstrate here that p53 is also a ...
Beijing, China - Chromatin remodeling proteins (chromatin remodelers) are essential and powerful regulators for critical DNA-templated cellular processes, such as DNA replication, recombination, gene transcription/repression, and DNA damage repair. These molecular and genetic processes are important for a wide spectrum of cellular functions, including cell cycle, death, differentiation, pluripotency, and genome integrity. Recently, many scientific reports have shown that chromatin remodeling proteins could be promising new targets for the treatment of human malignancy.. This is a hot and exciting research topic for cancer researchers, and our article provides an updated understanding on the functions and mechanisms of chromatin remodelers in human cancers, says Dr. Chun Zhang, the principle investigator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital and Capital Medical University of China.. Chromatin remodeling is an energy-driven process in which chromatin remodelers use ...
Core component of the BAF (hSWI/SNF) complex. This ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, in cellular antiviral activities and inhibition of tumor formation. The BAF complex is able to create a stable, altered form of chromatin that constrains fewer negative supercoils than normal. This change in supercoiling would be due to the conversion of up to one-half of the nucleosomes on polynucleosomal arrays into asymmetric structures, termed altosomes, each composed of 2 histones octamers. Stimulates in vitro the remodeling activity of SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A. Involved in activation of CSF1 promoter. Belongs to the neural progenitors-specific chromatin remodeling complex (npBAF complex) and the neuron-specific chromatin remodeling complex (nBAF complex). During neural development a switch from a stem/progenitor to a postmitotic chromatin remodeling mechanism occurs as neurons exit the cell cycle and become committed to their adult state. The
ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes (remodelers) modulate gene transcription by regulating the accessibility of highly packaged genomic DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms involved at the nucleosomal level in this process remain controversial. Here, we monitor the real-time activity of single ySWI/SNF or RSC complexes on single, stretched nucleosomal templates under tensions above 1 pN forces. We find that these remodelers can translocate along DNA at rates of approximately 13 bp/s and generate forces up to approximately 12 pN, producing DNA loops of a broad range of sizes (20-1200 bp, average approximately 100 bp) in a nucleosome-dependent manner. This nucleosome-specific activity differs significantly from that on bare DNA observed under low tensions and suggests a nucleosome-remodeling mechanism through intranucleosomal DNA loop formation. Such loop formation may provide a molecular basis for the biological functions of remodelers.
CHD8 (Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA binding protein 8) is a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) subfamily of enzymes, which also belongs to the SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers ...
The DDT has been named after the better characterised DNA-binding homeobox- containing proteins and the Different Transcription and chromatin remodelling factors in which it is found. It is a domain of about 60 amino acids which is exclusively associated with nuclear domains like AT-Hook, PHD finger, methyl-CpG-binding domain, bromodomain and DNA-binding homeodomain.. The DDT domain is characterised by a number of conserved aromatic and charged residues and is predicted to consist of three alpha helices. A DNA-binding function for the DDT domain has been proposed [ (PUBMED:11246006) ]. ...
MS Thesis: EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF WILLIAMS SYNDROME TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (WSTF) IN THE NEURAL DEVELOPMENT OF XENOPUS LAEVIS Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers. Twenty different ISWI complexes have been identified so far in yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus and mammals. Three ISWI-containing complexes, WICH, ACF and CHRAC, have been characterized in Xenopus. Loss of ISWI function in Xenopus embryos results in severe defects in neural and eye development, including loss of retinal differentiation and formation of cataracts. We have begun to dissect the contributions of individual ISWI-dependent complexes to development, by using in situ hybridization and antisense morpholino knockdowns against subunits unique to different ISWI-containing complexes. Here I have investigated the WICH complex in Xenopus and have targeted the WSTF subunit. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows WSTF localized in the neural tissue including eye, brain, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutant-IDH1-dependent chromatin state reprogramming, reversibility, and persistence. AU - Turcan, Sevin. AU - Makarov, Vladimir. AU - Taranda, Julian. AU - Wang, Yuxiang. AU - Fabius, Armida W.M.. AU - Wu, Wei. AU - Zheng, Yupeng. AU - El-Amine, Nour. AU - Haddock, Sara. AU - Nanjangud, Gouri. AU - Lekaye, H. Carl. AU - Brennan, Cameron. AU - Cross, Justin. AU - Huse, Jason T.. AU - Kelleher, Neil L.. AU - Osten, Pavel. AU - Thompson, Craig B.. AU - Chan, Timothy A.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the members of the Chan and Thompson laboratories for helpful discussions. This work was supported in part by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01 CA177828) (T.A.C. and C.B.T.), the MSKCC Brain Tumor Center (S.T. and T.A.C.), the Sontag Foundation (T.A.C.), the PaineWebber Chair Endowment (T.A.C.), NIH T32 grant 5T32CA160001 (S.T.), the MSKCC Society (T.A.C.), the NIH (R01 MH096946) (P.O.), and NIH Cancer Center Support Grant P30CA008748 (G.N.). This research was carried ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Estrogen receptor α (ER) is a member of the family of nuclear receptors and functions as a transcriptional factor to induce gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences upon hormone treatment. It regulates cell growth, development and metabolic homeostasis in multi-cellular organisms. Estrogen-mediated transcription has been intensively studied genome-wide as well as on a small number of specific endogenous target promoters. However, the exact mechanism by which ER coordinates the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription remains elusive. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms of the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex by Fli-I, and recruitment of Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase.; Fli-I can bind directly to both ER and BAF53, an actin-related component of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that Fli-I may recruit SWI/SNF to ER target genes via interaction with BAF53. Depletion of endogenous Fli-I or BAF53 ...
Activation of HO in yeast involves recruitment of transcription factors in two waves. The first is triggered by inactivation of Cdk1 at the end of mitosis, which promotes import into the nucleus of the Swi5 transcription factor. Swi5 recruits the Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complex, which then facilitates recruitment of the SAGA histone acetylase, which in turn permits the binding of the SBF transcription factor. We show here that SBF then recruits the SRB/mediator complex and that this process occurs in the absence of Cdk1 activity. The second wave is triggered by reactivation of Cdk1, which leads to recruitment of PolII, TFIIB, and TFIIH. RNA polymerase is, therefore, recruited to HO in two steps and not as a holoenzyme. A similar sequence of events occurs at other SBF-regulated promoters, such as CLN1, CLN2, and PCL1.
ARID1A is a member of the SWI/SNF family, whose members have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. It possesses at least two conserved domains that could be important for its function. First, it has an ARID domain, which is a DNA-binding domain that can specifically bind an AT-rich DNA sequence known to be recognized by a SWI/SNF complex at the beta-globin locus. Second, the C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene confers specificity to the SWI/SNF complex and may recruit the complex to its targets through either protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions. Two transcript variants encoding ...
Abstract: Gene-gene interactions shape complex phenotypes and modify the effects of mutations during development and disease. The effects of statistical gene-gene interactions on phenotypes have been used to assign genes to functional modules. However, directional, epistatic interactions, which reflect regulatory relationships between genes, have been challenging to map at large-scale. Here, we used combinatorial RNA interference and automated single-cell phenotyping to generate a large genetic interaction map for 21 phenotypic features of Drosophila cells. We devised a method that combines genetic interactions on multiple phenotypes to reveal directional relationships. This network reconstructed the sequence of protein activities in mitosis. Moreover, it revealed that the Ras pathway interacts with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, an interaction that we show is conserved in human cancer cells. Our study presents a powerful approach for reconstructing directional regulatory networks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of SMARCA4 (BRG1) protein expression as determined by immunohistochemistry in small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type distinguishes these tumours from their mimics. AU - Clarke, B.A.. AU - Witkowski, L.. AU - Ton Nu, T.N.. AU - Shaw, P.A.. AU - Gilks, C.B.. AU - Huntsman, D.. AU - Karnezis, A.N.. AU - Sebire, N.. AU - Lamovec, J.. AU - Roth, L.M.. AU - Stewart, Colin. AU - Hasselblatt, M.. AU - Foulkes, W.D.. AU - Mccluggage, W.G.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 John Wiley & Sons LtdAims: Molecular investigation of small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT) has revealed that it is a monogenetic tumour characterized by alteration of SMARCA4 (BRG1), encoding a member of the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complex. A large majority of cases show loss of expression of the corresponding SMARCA4/BRG1 protein. Furthermore, three cases of SCCOHT with retained SMARCA4 protein expression showed loss of SMARCB1/INI1 ...
PubMed journal article: Brahma-related gene 1 ameliorates the neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Due to advances in molecular biology techniques, chromatin structure and function has re-emerged as a key research area in the investigation of gene regulation and expression. This indispensable new book provides the busy researcher with an overview of all the latest research in this important area. Topicality and breadth of coverage is assured by the contributions of an international group of over 30 leading scientists in this field. Contents list: Elements of chromatin structure: histones, nucleosomes, fibers; DNA structure: implications for chromatin structure and function; Replication and assembly; Promoter potentiation and activation: chromatin structure and transcriptional induction of heat shock genes; Initiation of expression: remodelling genes; Transcription on chromatin templates; Chromatin structure and epigenetic regulation in yeast; Epigenetic regulation in Drosophilia: a conspiracy of silence; Boundaries and domains; Epigenetic regulation in mammalian cells.Elgin, Sarah C. is the ...
FISH studies on several strongly transcribed chromosomal regions have shown a disposition for looping out from their respective chromosome territories (Mahy et al., 2002b; Volpi et al., 2000; Williams et al., 2002), suggesting a large-scale chromatin decondensation reminiscent of results obtained by targeting transcription factors to transgene arrays. In the first of these targeting studies chromatin decondensation was induced by the viral transcriptional VP16 acidic activation domain. Targeting was achieved within the context of large transgene arrays containing multiple-copy plasmid integrations; each plasmid carried direct repeats of 256 (Tumbar et al., 1999) or 96 (Tsukamoto et al., 2000) operator binding sites for fusion proteins between the lac or tet repressor and VP16. Despite the large opening activity observed, the biological relevance of these observations hinges on the actual physiological relevance of the experimental system. In particular, there are three obvious concerns.. First, ...
The Klose lab is interested in understanding how chromatin based and epigenetic processes contribute to regulation of gene expression.. To achieve this we use cutting edge biochemical, molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches in model stem cell and developmental systems.. Ultimately, our motivation is to understand how chromatin impinges on gene expression in normal cell biology as a way of informing therapeutic approaches to counteract its perturbation in cancer and other human diseases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin remodeling complex interacts with ADD1/SREBP1c to mediate insulin-dependent regulation of gene expression. AU - Lee, Yun Sok. AU - Sohn, Dong Hyun. AU - Han, Daehee. AU - Lee, Han Woong. AU - Seong, Rho Hyun. AU - Kim, Jae Bum. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Insulin plays a critical role in whole-body energy homeostasis by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. In fat and liver tissues, ADD1/SREBP1c is a key transcription factor to mediate insulin-dependent regulation of gene expression. Although transcriptional and proteolytic activation of ADD1/SREBP1c has been studied intensively, the mechanism by which insulin regulates expression of its target genes with ADD1/SREBP1c at the chromatin level is unclear. Here, we reveal that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors interact with the ADD1/SREBP1c and actively regulate insulin-dependent gene expression. Insulin enhanced recruitment of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors to its target gene promoters with concomitant ...
Transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene expression has been at the forefront of studies of innate immunity and is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. The growing evidence for involvement of chromatin in the regulation of gene expression in innate immune cells, has uncovered an evolutionarily conserved role of microbial sensing and chromatin remodeling. Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors trigger these signaling pathways leading to transcriptional expression of a set of genes involved in inflammation. Tightly regulated control of this gene expression is a paramount, and often foremost, goal of most biological endeavors. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress about the molecular mechanisms governing control of pro-inflammatory gene expression by an evolutionarily conserved novel nuclear protein Akirin2 in macrophages and its emergence as an essential link between NF-κB and chromatin remodelers for transcriptional
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Pay Per Article - You may access this article (from the computer you are currently using) for 1 day for US$35.00. Regain Access - You can regain access to a recent Pay per Article purchase if your access period has not yet expired.. ...
Enter the text here that is the new abstract information for your application. The organization of the nucleus and the regulated folding of the genome plays ess...
Chromatin is a complex polymer molecule in eukaryotic cells, primarily consisting of DNA and histones. Many works have shown that the 3D folding of chromatin structure plays an important role in DNA expression. The recently proposed Chro- mosome Conformation Capture technologies, especially the Hi-C assays, provide us an opportunity to study how the 3D structures of the chromatin are organized. Based on the data from Hi-C experiments, many chromatin 3D structure modeling methods have been proposed. However, there is limited ground truth to validate these methods and no robust chromatin structure alignment algorithms to evaluate the performance of these methods. In our work, we first made a thorough literature review of 25 publicly available population Hi-C-based chromatin 3D structure modeling methods. Furthermore, to evaluate and to compare the performance of these methods, we proposed a novel data simulation method, which combined the population Hi-C data and single-cell Hi-C data without ad ...
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This protocol describes the chromatin preparation from fresh or frozen tissues. The isolated chromatin can be used for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using Diagenode&rsquo...
Single-cell chromatin accessibility sequencing from 13 mouse tissue types provides novel insights into regulatory dynamics and human disease states.
A number of years ago, inspired by the work of Dr. Bob Simpson [1], we developed a model system in yeast to study the events that occur when a gene is activated for transcription [2, 3]. This involves the purification from yeast cells of native plasmid ch
We recommend using an alternative version SMARCA4 Polyclonal Antibody Background SNF2beta;/BRG1 is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which...
K. Balasubramanyam, R. A. Varier, M. Altaf, V. Swaminathan, N. B. Siddappa, U. Ranga and Kundu T.K., Curcumin, a novel p300/CBP specific inhibitor of acetyltransferase, represses the acetylation of histones/nonhistone proteins and HAT dependent chromatin transcription, J Biol Chem 279, 51163 - 51171 (2004 ...
c‐MYC and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex act as master regulators of transcription, and play a key role in human cancer. Although they are known to interact, the molecular details of their interaction are lacking. We have determined the structure of the RPT1 region of the INI1/hSNF5/BAF47/SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex that acts as a c‐MYC‐binding domain, and have localized the i ...
Recent years have seen major advances in elucidating the complexity of chromatin and its role as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression in eukaryotes. We now have a basic understanding of chromatin control and the enzymatic modifications that impart diverse regulatory cues to the functional activity of the genome. Most importantly, although research into chromatin has uncovered fascinating insights into the control of gene expression, it has also generated a large body of information that is being harnessed to develop new therapeutic modalities for treating cancer. Here, we discuss recent advances that support the contention that future generations of chromatin-modulating drugs will provide a significant group of new, mechanism-based therapeutics for cancer. ©2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foster SL, Hargreaves DC, Medzhitov R. Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature. 2007;447,972-8. Learn More ...
Learn more about the Chromatin Modification Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation, next-gen sequencing, and other approaches allow researchers to study chromatin structure and DNA-binding interactions to determine how they regulate gene expression.
With great resolution comes great sequencing requirements, and those trying some chromatin conformation should catch T2C: Targeted Chromatin Capture.
BRG1 is an essential component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and implicated in multiple functions through its interaction with different proteins, including the tumor suppressor protein pRb, serine-threonine kinase LKB1, and other transcrip
what is chromatin when it condesnses into chromosomes Chromatin is the same thing in metaphase than anyother point in the cell cycle, its DNA wrapp...
NEW TOOL: A new tool has been added to the Reports section on the side tool bar. This tool, Protein Group Counts, allows users to see the number of genes within all protein groups for any organism, or combination of organisms in the database.. UPDATE: The featured Chromatin Researcher Spotlight has been changed. Our new researcher is Professor Richard Amasino. His research statement is shown below. We have activated the archive section for the Chromatin Researcher Spotlight. Research statements for previous researchers can be accessed via the Archive link on the side tool bar ...
Chromatin UI - Icon Pack v1.4Requirements: 4.0+Overview: Chromatin UI is a new Material Design icon pack inspired by the grain effects from Google illustration. This icon pack is based on Nucleo UI but with three big difference : no long shadow, a grain effect end a vivid color.
Download|| Chromatin UI - Icon Pack v3.0 Apk | 40 MB | Resumable Links | Requires :Android 4.0.3 and up | Chromatin UI is a new Material Design icon
Chromatin UI Icon Pack v2.3 APK is an amazing icon pack for Android. Chromatin UI is a new Material Design icon pack inspired by the grain effects
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Unwinding chromatin at the right places: How BAF is targeted to specific genomic locations during development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Research staff Fredy Barneche CNRS Research Director - Tel. : +33 (0) 144 32 35 28 Anne-Flore Deton Research assistant - Tel. : +33 (0) 144 32
Sun H, Damez-Werno DM, Scobie KN, Shao N-, Dias C, Rabkin J, et al. ACF chromatin-remodeling complex mediates stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Nat Med. 2015;21(10):1146-53. ...
"The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 339 (1289 ... Ito T, Tyler JK, Bulger M, Kobayashi R, Kadonaga JT (1996). "ATP-facilitated chromatin assembly with a nucleoplasmin-like ...
1993). "The Role of Nucleoplasmin in Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. 339 ... nucleosome assembly, genome stability, ribosome biogenesis, DNA duplication and transcriptional regulation. During the assembly ... Philpott, Anna; Leno, Gregory H. (1992). "Nucleoplasmin remodels sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts". Cell. 69 (5): 759- ... "Nucleoplasmin-Mediated Decondensation of Mytilus Sperm Chromatin. Identification and Partial Characterization of a ...
... chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G05.195.830 - sos response (genetics) MeSH G05.200.760 - dna replication timing MeSH ... chromatin assembly and disassembly MeSH G05.315.125 - dosage compensation, genetic MeSH G05.315.125.970 - x chromosome ...
"Role of the conserved Sir3-BAH domain in nucleosome binding and silent chromatin assembly". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1015-28. ... Once replication is complete, specific termination events lead to the disassembly of replisomes. As long as the entire genome ... Not surprisingly, several chromatin remodelers and chromatin-modifying enzymes have been found to associate with origins and ... These assembly loci constitute the start sites of DNA replication or replication origins. In the elongation phase, replisomes ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
In addition, TPX2 has been shown to be important in chromatin-dependent spindle assembly. Even with duplicated centrosomes, ... role in directly suppressing tubulin subunit off-rates at the microtubule tip during microtubule assembly and disassembly, ... It is one of the many spindle assembly factors that play a key role in inducing microtubule assembly and growth during M phase ... Gruss OJ, Vernos I (September 2004). "The mechanism of spindle assembly: functions of Ran and its target TPX2". The Journal of ...
NPC assembly is a very rapid process yet defined intermediate states occur which leads to the idea that this assembly occurs in ... This disassembly of the NPC peripheral groups is largely thought to be phosphate driven, as several of these nucleoporins are ... One possibility is that as a protein complex it binds to the chromatin. It is then inserted into the double membrane close to ... This prepore would form when several Nup complexes come together and bind to the chromatin. This would have the double membrane ...
Lerner L, Henriksen MA, Zhang X, Darnell JE (October 2003). "STAT3-dependent enhanceosome assembly and disassembly: synergy ... Wallberg AE, Neely KE, Hassan AH, Gustafsson JA, Workman JL, Wright AP (March 2000). "Recruitment of the SWI-SNF chromatin ... "BAF60a mediates critical interactions between nuclear receptors and the BRG1 chromatin-remodeling complex for transactivation ... states of hsp70 and hsp90 during sequential steps in the process of glucocorticoid receptor.hsp90 heterocomplex assembly". J. ...
"Assembly and disassembly of nucleosome core particles containing histone variants by human nucleosome assembly protein I". ... Chadwick BP, Willard HF (January 2001). "A novel chromatin protein, distantly related to histone H2A, is largely excluded from ... El Kharroubi A, Piras G, Zensen R, Martin MA (May 1998). "Transcriptional activation of the integrated chromatin-associated ... The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes ...
Motility and Shape Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems Motor function, regulation and diversity D. ... Chromatin and Chromosomes Karyotypes Translocations, inversions, deletions and duplications Aneuploidy and polyploidy Structure ... Assembly, Organization and Dynamics Small molecules Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and complex ... Viruses Genome replication and regulation Virus assembly Virus-host interactions H. Methods Restriction maps and PCR Nucleic ...
Broers JL, Ramaekers FC (2004). "Dynamics of nuclear lamina assembly and disassembly". Review. Symposia of the Society for ... During most of the cell cycle these are organized in a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin, and during cell division the ... In most cells, the disassembly of the nuclear envelope marks the end of the prophase of mitosis. However, this disassembly of ... Inhibition of lamin assembly itself is an inducer of apoptosis. The nuclear envelope acts as a barrier that prevents both DNA ...
Cdc48 is necessary for spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope assembly, and chromosome decondensation. Cdc48 modifies proteins ... "Nucleosomal regulation of chromatin composition and nuclear assembly revealed by histone depletion". Nature Structural & ... to trigger the spindle disassembly and nuclear envelope assembly) only after late anaphase. Cdc14-mediated dephosphorylation ... although the initiation of nuclear reassembly tends to precede that of spindle disassembly. Spindle disassembly is an ...
... for it is clear that it plays no essential part in the nuclear membrane assembly around chromatin. The presence of lamins in ... These different disassembly events are initiated by the cyclin B/Cdk1 protein kinase complex (MPF). Once this complex is ... Chromatin that interacts with lamina forms lamina-associated domains (LADs). The average length of human LADs is 0.1-10 MBp. ... It has been shown that lamin polypeptides have an affinity for binding chromatin through their α-helical (rod like) domains at ...
Assembly and disassembly. An image of a newt lung cell stained with fluorescent dyes during metaphase. The mitotic spindle can ... During most of the cell cycle these are organized in a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin, and during cell division the ... In most cells, the disassembly of the nuclear envelope marks the end of the prophase of mitosis. However, this disassembly of ... The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the ...
"The JmjC domain protein Epe1 prevents unregulated assembly and disassembly of heterochromatin". The EMBO Journal. 26 (22): 4670 ... insight into how transcription and resulting non-coding RNA might influence the assembly of specialised CENP-A chromatin and ... His research group at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms governing the assembly of ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "EPIGENETICS AND SPECIALIZED CHROMATIN". Allshire, Robin C; Gosden, John R; Cross, Sally H; ...
Chromatin greatly impedes transcription in eukaryotes. Assembly of large multi-protein preinitiation complex is required for ... it causes disassembly of elongation factors and/or an assembly of termination factors that cause conformational changes of the ... The eukaryotic genome is organized into a compact chromatin structure that allows only regulated access to DNA. The chromatin ... Pausing can influence chromatin structure at promoters to facilitate gene activity and lead to rapid or synchronous ...
Keller DM, Lu H (2003). "p53 serine 392 phosphorylation increases after UV through induction of the assembly of the CK2.hSPT16. ... LeRoy G, Orphanides G, Lane WS, Reinberg D (1998). "Requirement of RSF and FACT for transcription of chromatin templates in ... interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to effect nucleosome disassembly and transcription elongation. FACT is composed of ... Orphanides G, Wu WH, Lane WS, Hampsey M, Reinberg D (1999). "The chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT ...
Progression requires the disassembly of the MCC, which is found to be mediated by p31-Comet. This is through to occur in part ... Ma HT, Poon RY (February 2016). "TRIP13 Regulates Both the Activation and Inactivation of the Spindle-Assembly Checkpoint". ... San-Segundo PA, Roeder GS (April 1999). "Pch2 links chromatin silencing to meiotic checkpoint control". Cell. 97 (3): 313-24. ... including meiosis G2/Prophase and during the Spindle Assembly checkpoint (SAC). Evidence shows regulation to occur through the ...
The outcome of these studies strongly supports the notion that condensins play crucial roles in mitotic chromosome assembly and ... "Condensin-mediated remodeling of the mitotic chromatin landscape in fission yeast". Nat Genet. 49 (10): 1553-1557. doi:10.1038/ ... "Mutations in the chromosomal passenger complex and the condensin complex differentially affect synaptonemal complex disassembly ... Condensins also play important roles in chromosome assembly and segregation in meiosis. Genetic studies have been reported in S ...
This allows chromatin to separate from the nuclear lamina in order to be condensed. As apoptosis continues, cell structures ... During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by Mitosis-Promoting Factor (MPF), which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the ... Stuurman, Nico; Heins, Susanne; Aebi, Ueli (1998-01-01). "Nuclear Lamins: Their Structure, Assembly, and Interactions". Journal ... This allows chromatin to condense and the DNA to be replicated. After chromosome segregation, dephosphorylation of nuclear ...
Rapid assembly and disassembly of actin network enables cells to migrate (Cell migration). In metazoan muscle cells, to be the ... Actin takes part in the regulation of chromatin structure, interacting with RNA polymerase I, II and III. In Pol I ... Once the ring has been constructed the structure is maintained by a continual assembly and disassembly that, aided by the Arp2/ ... This new situation favors the dynamics of assembly and disassembly. The most notable of these proteins are gelsolin and cofilin ...
2005). "Assembly and disassembly of nucleosome core particles containing histone variants by human nucleosome assembly protein ... 2002). "Dual roles of p300 in chromatin assembly and transcriptional activation in cooperation with nucleosome assembly protein ... Nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAP1L1 gene. This gene encodes a member of ... "Entrez Gene: NAP1L1 nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, et ...
Keller DM, Lu H (2003). "p53 serine 392 phosphorylation increases after UV through induction of the assembly of the CK2.hSPT16. ... LeRoy G, Orphanides G, Lane WS, Reinberg D (1998). "Requirement of RSF and FACT for transcription of chromatin templates in ... FACT interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to effect nucleosome disassembly and transcription elongation. FACT and ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a heterodimer that, along with SUPT16H, forms chromatin transcriptional ...
structural constituent of chromatin. Cellular component. • nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • cytosol. • senescence-associated ... nucleosome disassembly. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... senescence-associated heterochromatin focus assembly. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • response to ... chromatin. • RNA polymerase II transcription regulator complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell population ...
Part of the assembly process includes a compaction step, in which ULF tighten and assume a smaller diameter. The reasons for ... Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease ... During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by MPF, which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the nuclear envelope. Beaded ... Lee CH, Kim MS, Chung BM, Leahy DJ, Coulombe PA (June 2012). "Structural basis for heteromeric assembly and perinuclear ...
018244 Required for the assembly of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III ... "Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level". PLoS Genetics. 7 ( ... beta polypeptide WDR1 actin disassembly? A specialized form of cell signaling BLOC1S1 BLOC1S2NM_173809 BLOC1S3NM_212550 ...
Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, ParB has the ability to bind not only to high-affinity parS sites ... Sanchez, A; Cattoni, DI; Walter, JC; Rech, J; Parmeggiani, A; Nollmann, M; Bouet, JY (2015). "Stochastic Self-Assembly of ParB ... "Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
Play media Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the ends of a microtubule. The ... RAN-GTP associates with chromatin during mitosis to create a gradient that allows for local nucleation of microtubules near the ... However, the GTP bound to β-tubulin may be hydrolyzed to GDP shortly after assembly. The assembly properties of GDP-tubulin are ... which is the steady state concentration of dimers at which there is no longer any net assembly or disassembly at the end of the ...
The protein gelsolin, which is a key regulator in the assembly and disassembly of actin. It has six subdomains, S1-S6, each of ... Transcription - Actin is involved in chromatin reorganization,[80][107][115][116] transcription initiation and interaction with ... This new situation favors the dynamics of assembly and disassembly. The most notable of these proteins are gelsolin and cofilin ... Once the ring has been constructed the structure is maintained by a continual assembly and disassembly that, aided by the Arp2/ ...
Kleiger, G., Saha, A., Lewis, S., Kuhlman, B., and Deshaies, R.J. (2009). Rapid E2-E3 assembly and disassembly enable ... This was followed by identifying novel functions for p97, including removal of proteins from chromatin as part of the DNA ... Deshaies, R.J., Sanders, S., Feldheim, D., and Schekman, R. (1991). Assembly of yeast Sec proteins involved in translocation ... Cand1 promotes assembly of new SCF complexes through dynamic exchange of F box proteins. Cell 153, 206-215 ...
They create non-enzymatic DNA-protein crosslinks through non-specific crosslinking of chromatin-interacting proteins to DNA. ...
nuclear chromatin. Biological process. • Notch signaling pathway. • chromatin remodeling. • negative regulation of monocyte ... beta-catenin-TCF complex assembly. • transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S ... protein-DNA complex disassembly. • ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • cellular response to hypoxia. ... Myc also functions to regulate global chromatin structure by regulating histone acetylation both in gene-rich regions and at ...
... II Transcription: the process of transcript elongation facilitated by disassembly of nucleosomes. ... The ω subunit facilitates assembly of RNAP and stabilizes assembled RNAP.[26] ... "RNA polymerase V transcription guides ARGONAUTE4 to chromatin". Nature Genetics. 41 (5): 630-4. doi:10.1038/ng.365. PMC ... regulation of preinitiation complex assembly". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 16: 402-408. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90164-Q. ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... The complexes formed by the looping of the DNA are known as chromatin. The basic structural unit of chromatin is the nucleosome ... Chromatin states were investigated in Drosophila cells by looking at the binding location of proteins in the genome. Use of ... This led to chromatin states which define genomic regions by grouping the interactions of different proteins and/or histone ...
... a role in cytoskeletal assembly". The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (4): 893-903. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.4.893. PMC 2289706. PMID ... "Coupling of PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX to GIT1 promotes focal complex disassembly". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 ... which involves contracting the cortical actin ring and is followed by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. ... "Protein tyrosine phosphatase-PEST regulates focal adhesion disassembly, migration, and cytokinesis in fibroblasts". The Journal ...
11,183,530-11,382,580 in the GRCh37 assembly, or 6:11,183,298-11,382,348 in the GRCh38 assembly. The gene is on the minus ... Pugacheva EN, Jablonski SA, Hartman TR, Henske EP, Golemis EA (2007). "HEF1-dependent Aurora A activation induces disassembly ... "The transcription factor PAX5 regulates its target genes by recruiting chromatin-modifying proteins in committed B cells". EMBO ...
Finally, phosphorylation by M cyclins (e.g., Clb1, 2, 3 and 4) in complex with Cdk1 leads to spindle assembly and sister ... This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). Given its ... "Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein". J. Biol. ...
Maruta H, Greer K, Rosenbaum JL (1986). "The acetylation of alpha-tubulin and its relationship to the assembly and disassembly ... Among these proteins, chromatin proteins and metabolic enzymes are highly represented, indicating that acetylation has a ... "NAA80 is actin's N-terminal acetyltransferase and regulates cytoskeleton assembly and cell motility". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ...
... leading to the disassembly of the lamina and hence the envelope membranes into small vesicles.Electron and fluorescence ... a mesh of intermediate filaments which stabilizes the nuclear membrane as well as being involved in chromatin function and ... "Inner/Outer Nuclear Membrane Fusion in Nuclear Pore Assembly". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 21 (23): 4197-4211. doi:10.1091/ ...
The chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin. Cytokinesis, the pinching of the cell membrane in animal cells or the formation of ... Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina (2015-06-05). "Error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly ... and is marked by decondensation and lengthening of the chromosomes and the disassembly of the spindle. Nuclear envelopes re- ... "Self-Organization of MTOCs Replaces Centrosome Function during Acentrosomal Spindle Assembly in Live Mouse Oocytes". Cell. 130 ...
The formation or destruction of chromatin structures.. Synonyms. chromatin assembly/disassembly View GO Annotations in other ... Gene Ontology Term: chromatin assembly or disassembly. GO ID. GO:0006333 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or ...
The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genom … ... Distinct regions of the eukaryotic genome are packaged into different types of chromatin, with euchromatin representing gene ... Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly* * DNA Replication * Epigenesis, Genetic * Heterochromatin / metabolism* * Histones / ... Centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast--balancing transcription, RNA interference and chromatin modification ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly * DNA Methylation * Epigenesis, Genetic* * Epigenomics * Gene Expression Regulation, ... This information, along with the promising clinical and preclinical results seen with epigenetic drugs against chromatin ...
"The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 339 (1289 ... Ito T, Tyler JK, Bulger M, Kobayashi R, Kadonaga JT (1996). "ATP-facilitated chromatin assembly with a nucleoplasmin-like ...
R-BTA-3301854. Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) Disassembly. R-BTA-4551638. SUMOylation of chromatin organization proteins. R-BTA- ... R-BTA-191859. snRNP Assembly. R-BTA-3108214. SUMOylation of DNA damage response and repair proteins. R-BTA-3301854. Nuclear ... Pore Complex (NPC) Disassembly. R-BTA-4551638. SUMOylation of chromatin organization proteins. R-BTA-4570464. SUMOylation of ... R-BTA-191859. snRNP Assembly. R-BTA-3108214. SUMOylation of DNA damage response and repair proteins. ...
1993). "The Role of Nucleoplasmin in Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. 339 ... nucleosome assembly, genome stability, ribosome biogenesis, DNA duplication and transcriptional regulation. During the assembly ... Philpott, Anna; Leno, Gregory H. (1992). "Nucleoplasmin remodels sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts". Cell. 69 (5): 759- ... "Nucleoplasmin-Mediated Decondensation of Mytilus Sperm Chromatin. Identification and Partial Characterization of a ...
Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a ... chromatin assembly or disassembly Source: SGD ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles ... chromatin organization Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based propagation of ... chromatin silencing Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based propagation of ...
Chromatin assembly and disassembly are essent See details National Institutes of Health. 7/16/2009. ... Trans-NIH Recovery Act Research Support The packaging of the eukaryotic genome together with histone proteins into chromatin ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. Dr. Jessica Tyler, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston ... Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes 2013. Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes 2013. BioMed ... The session on chromatin interactions could not have started with a better introduction than that given by Dr. Job Dekker ( ... This fusion of TAL DNA binding protein to LSD1 (lysine specific demethylase) was used to locally modify the chromatin state to ...
chromatin assembly or disassembly. IEA. --. GO:0006338. chromatin remodeling. IEA. --. GO:0006351. transcription, DNA-templated ... a chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array ... a chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array ... The WSTF-SNF2h chromatin remodeling complex interacts with several nuclear proteins in transcription. (PMID: 16603771) Cavellán ...
Chromatin maintains nuclear mechanical stability and shape in coordination with lamins and the cy... ... Chromatin Assembly And Disassembly. The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific ... Sex Chromatin. In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X ... Chromatin mechanics underlies this link, as alterations to chromatin and its physical properties can disrupt or rescue nuclear ...
Nucleosome assembly factor; involved in chromatin assembly, disassembly; required for recovery after DSB repair; role in H3K56 ... Histone binding protein; involved in DNA replication-dependent and independent nucleosome assembly, nucleosome disassembly, ... histone acetylation, chromatin silencing, and gene expression; localizes to the nucleus. View computational annotations ...
Aizer A, Brody Y, Ler L W, Sonenberg N, Singer R H, Shav-Tal Y (2008). The dynamics of mammalian P body transport, assembly, ... and disassembly in vivo. Mol Biol Cell, 19(10): 4154-4166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hübner M R, Spector D L (2010). Chromatin dynamics. Annu Rev Biophys, 39(1): 471-489PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... chromatin structure and dynamics FROS FISH TALE CRISPR/Cas9 single-guide RNA Suntag super-resolution imaging ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly; Exocytosis; Membrane Fusion; Munc18 Proteins; Optical Tweezers; Protein Folding; SNARE ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly. *SNARE Proteins. *Synaptotagmins. *Munc18 Proteins. *Optical Tweezers. Dr. Zhang obtained a ... Using optical tweezers, he found that representative chromatin remodeling factors contain DNA translocases and first measured ... showed how specific lipid bindings can act as molecular glue to hold oligomeric assemblies of membrane proteins. ...
The role of nucleoplasmin in chromatin assembly and disassembly. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 339, 263-269. ... Otto, H., Hanson, P. I., and Jahn, R. (1997). Assembly and disassembly of a ternary complex of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and ... a class of chaperone-like ATPases associated with the assembly, operation, and disassembly of protein complexes. Genome Res. 9 ... If buffer conditions favor coat disassembly then binding of an Hsc70 to one of every 3-6 of the CHC C-termini will induce coat ...
chromatin assembly/disassembly Protein Function :. InterPro :. HSP40/DnaJ pept-bd , J dom sf , DnaJ C , DnaJ domain [+] , DnaJ ...
Microtubule-Depolymerizing Kinesins in the Regulation Of Assembly, Disassembly and Length of Cilia and Flagella. Zhangfeng Hu, ... Nuclear Envelope and Chromatin, the Lock and the Key of the Genome Integrity. Sophie Gay and Marco Foiani ... Role of Ocrl1 in Primary Cilia Assembly. Kayalvizhi Madhivanan, Swetha Ramadesikan and R. Claudio Aguilar ...
Two high-throughput (HT) experimental technologies, gene expression microarrays and Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on Chip ( ... chromatin assembly or disassembly. 1.6E-03. 4.7E-03. amino acid biosynthesis (5) ... Two transcriptional modules involved in the biological processes of chromatin cohesion and DNA repair and G2/M cell cycle ... Clusters associated with the biological processes of synapsis/recombination and spore wall assembly were clearly discerned in ...
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Flow Cytometry Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay RNA ... Analysis of the reporter in 4967 nonessential yeast genes revealed striking phenotypic overlaps between chromatin remodeling, ...
Categories: Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Chromatin assembly or disassembly. 8.76E-106. 128. Pigment biosynthetic process. 1.73E-103 ...
Furthermore, some genes clustered in this module were shown to function in chromatin assembly/disassembly processes, which are ... and chromatin assembly or disassembly (GO: 6333; p value: 4.74e-7) (supplemental Fig. S2B). As expected, 9 of 10 ... and chromatin binding proteins (e.g. CHD1, CHD3, HPL2, and HHO1) in our phosphoproteome dataset were clustered in this module. ... the phosphorylation of those evolutionarily conserved spliceosome components is essential for modulating spliceosome assembly ...
Nucleosome Assembly Proteins Histone chaperones direct the productive assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes by facilitating ... They are therefore central to the regulation of multiple cellular processes, such as chromatin remodeling and DNA replication. ... The nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) family represents a key group of histone chaperones that are essential for cell viability ... multi-angle laser light scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering to reveal their oligomeric assembly states in solution. By ...
DNA2 may be more directly involved in chromatin assembly or disassembly at the replication fork. The helicase may have a dual ... 1997 RLF2, a subunit of yeast chromatin assembly factor I, is required for telomeric chromatin function in vivo. Genes Dev. 11 ... 1997 Chromatin assembly factors: a dual function in nucleosome formation and mobilization? Genes Cells 2: 593-600. ... In particular, assembly (or reassembly) of the silent chromatin must occur during or shortly after each round of DNA ...
Indeed, in the case of Hcm1p we were able to identify 8 new potential target genes that were not identified in chromatin ... 2], of Gene Ontology annotations and of the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (as in the present paper) are ... even though it was not reported in Chromatin IP experiments, as shown by the results reported in Tabs. 5 and 6. In particular, ... similar annotation perfectly overlapped with the transcription factor binding sites predicted on the basis of the chromatin IP ...
Chromatin assembly/disassembly. 14. 2.0 × 10-5. Protein amino acid phosphorylation. 34 ...
To prevent these deleterious effects, a network of histone chaperones regulates each step of chromatin assembly and disassembly ... A basic patch within the N-terminal PH domain of Pob3 was necessary for histone binding and chromatin assembly function. (A) ( ... During nucleosome assembly, Rtt106 binds and chaperones newly synthesized H3/H4 histones into chromatin. Before incorporation, ... Because Rtt106:H3 binding was likely a prerequisite for both silencing and replication-coupled chromatin assembly, we tested ...
  • This fusion of TAL DNA binding protein to LSD1 (lysine specific demethylase) was used to locally modify the chromatin state to study the effect of an enhancer on various downstream target genes. (epigenie.com)
  • The ends of chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiate a repressive chromatin structure that spreads internally and inhibits the transcription of nearby genes, a phenomenon termed telomeric silencing. (genetics.org)
  • Chromatin, the constituent substance of all eukaryotic chromosomes, is a highly compacted structure consisting mainly of genomic DNA in association with the four histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (asm.org)
  • The CPC plays a major role in restricting spindle assembly to the vicinity of chromosomes in oocytes and eggs and is a major focus of our studies. (cancer.gov)
  • Our collaborative projects range from developing new atomic force microscopy applications to enable fluorescent single molecule recognition within native chromatin, analyzing the structure of human artificial chromosomes, to mapping chromatin domains at fragile regions in human chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of condensin I from pre-established chromosomes results in rapid disassembly of centromeric regions while most chromatin mass undergoes hyper-compaction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Histone chaperone that facilitates histone deposition and histone exchange and removal during nucleosome assembly and disassembly. (abcam.com)
  • Histone chaperones modulate DNA accessibility via facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly both in a replication-coupled and replication-independent manner ( Campos and Reinberg, 2009 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • This may involve histone chaperones, such as Asf1 (antisilencing function 1), that can participate in both nucleosome assembly and disassembly ( 1 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. (uniprot.org)
  • Essential component of the WICH complex, a chromatin remodeling complex that mobilizes nucleosomes and reconfigures irregular chromatin to a regular nucleosomal array structure. (genecards.org)
  • Histone chaperones direct the productive assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes by facilitating histone deposition and exchange. (port.ac.uk)
  • During DNA-dependent processes, nucleosomes disassemble to grant access to specific regions of DNA and reassemble in a way that preserves the local chromatin landscape. (pnas.org)
  • Nucleosomes are highly dynamic structures, which are responsible for the state of chromatin, and may be found in either an extended (accessible = euchromatin) or condensed, (tightly packed = heterochromatin) state ( 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Assembly, mobilization and disassembly of nucleosomes can influence the regulation of gene expression and other processes that act on eukaryotic DNA. (futura-sciences.com)
  • Distinct nucleosome-assembly pathways deposit dimeric subunits behind the replication fork or at sites of active processes that mobilize pre-existing nucleosomes. (futura-sciences.com)
  • Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly appears to be the default process that maintains silent chromatin, counteracted by active processes that destabilize nucleosomes. (futura-sciences.com)
  • We have recently proposed that these structural differences determine the accessibility of the centromeric chromatin fiber during the cell cycle so that kinetochore proteins can distinguish CenH3 nucleosomes, and that other forms of the CenH3 nucleosome at ectopic locations that block kinetochore recognition, protecting the cell from neocentromere formation. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, we also find that the presence of Sir2p and Sir4p on chromatin stimulates SWI/SNF to evict histone proteins H2A and H2B from nucleosomes. (umassmed.edu)
  • In mammalian cells, canonical histone H3 (H3.1) and H3 variant (H3.3) differ by five amino acids and are assembled, along with histone H4, into nucleosomes via distinct nucleosome assembly pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Another focus in our laboratory involves understanding the mechanisms of both assembly/disassembly and replication of nucleosomes containing histone variant(s). (nyu.edu)
  • Taken together, the DOT genes include both components and regulators of silent chromatin. (genetics.org)
  • Rtt106 also plays a poorly defined role in silent chromatin (heterochromatin) formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vivo, we find that this Sir3p eviction activity is required for proper DNA replication, and for establishment of silent chromatin, but not for SWI/SNF's traditional roles in transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • This new disruption activity requires nucleosomal contacts that are essential for silent chromatin formation in vivo. (umassmed.edu)
  • The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genome control, including silencing of gene transcription, suppression of recombination, and to ensure proper chromosome segregation. (nih.gov)
  • In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Developments in chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed that interactions between regions of chromatin are pervasive and highly cell-type specific. (nih.gov)
  • Mitotic chromosome assembly remains a big mystery in biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • Condensin complexes are pivotal for chromosome architecture yet how they shape mitotic chromatin remains unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mitotic chromosome assembly, although poorly understood at the molecular level ( Piskadlo and Oliveira, 2016 ), fulfils three major tasks essential for faithful chromosome segregation: First, it ensures chromosome compaction making cell division feasible within the cell space. (elifesciences.org)
  • Distinct regions of the eukaryotic genome are packaged into different types of chromatin, with euchromatin representing gene rich, transcriptionally active regions and heterochromatin more condensed and gene poor. (nih.gov)
  • Having been exposed to chromatin dynamics, I have been curious about alternative strategies (apart from RNAi methods) of knocking down a gene instead of the physical deletion of the same from the genome. (epigenie.com)
  • Among all the fluorescent labeling tools, the adoption of genome editing tools, such as TALE and CRISPR, have great potential for the labeling and imaging of chromatin. (springer.com)
  • The protein was first isolated from Xenopus species The pentameric protein participates in various significant cellular activities like sperm chromatin remodeling, nucleosome assembly, genome stability, ribosome biogenesis, DNA duplication and transcriptional regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two high-throughput (HT) experimental technologies, gene expression microarrays and Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on Chip (ChIP-chip), are capable of producing data informative about expression regulatory mechanism on a genome scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin dynamics play a central role in maintaining genome integrity, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. (gwu.edu)
  • Chromatin organization is crucial for genome replication, transcriptional silencing, and DNA repair and recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process is highly related to the linear topography of different chromatin states and to the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome, which defines territories such as euchromatic and heterochromatic domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, advances have been made in our understanding of the complex crosstalk between chromatin, transcriptional activity, genome replication, and repair, as well as in characterizing heterochromatin boundaries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple combinations of chromatin marks actually occur, so the combinatorial possibilities at a given genome locus are extraordinary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of sophisticated computational approaches has not only confirmed the preferential association of certain chromatin marks on a genome-wide scale, but also made it possible to begin to decode the different patterns of DNA and histone modifications across the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, these chromatin domains, which were scattered along the genome, represented active and repressed genes in euchromatin, silent heterochromatin, and intergenic regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin structure and dynamics underlie every aspect of genome function. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The WICH complex regulates the transcription of various genes, has a role in RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III transcription, mediates the histone H2AX phosphorylation at Tyr-142, and is involved in the maintenance of chromatin structures during DNA replication processes. (genecards.org)
  • This is cell cycle checkpoint and ATM-pathway dependent and appears to regulate processes involved in chromatin assembly. (genecards.org)
  • They are therefore central to the regulation of multiple cellular processes, such as chromatin remodeling and DNA replication. (port.ac.uk)
  • These findings suggest that the PAK1-MORC2 axis is critical for orchestrating the interplay between chromatin dynamics and the maintenance of genomic integrity through sequentially integrating multiple essential enzymatic processes. (gwu.edu)
  • Identification of the most abundant proteins contained in these fractions indicated that they are involved in DNA-related, or in RNA-dependent, processes, such as regulation of chromatin structure, splicing, or translation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • For instance, SUMO has been implicated in the assembly and disassembly processes of protein complexes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The histone chaperone Rtt106 binds histone H3 acetylated at lysine 56 (H3K56ac) and facilitates nucleosome assembly during several molecular processes. (pnas.org)
  • The Rtt106-mediated incorporation of H3K56ac into chromatin is important for several processes. (pnas.org)
  • Through a subsequent combination of the focused quantitative proteomics experiments with available large-scale genetic interaction data and Gene Ontology functional associations, we provided sufficient evidence to associate Ydl156w with multiple processes including chromatin remodeling, transcription and DNA repair/replication. (mcponline.org)
  • Considering that the developmental process and stress response require altered expression of a large array of genes, our results suggest that some plant histone chaperones may serve a regulatory role by controlling the expression of genes associated with these vital processes, possibly via modulating chromatin dynamics at the corresponding genetic loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryotic nuclear DNA is condensed as chromatin in such a dynamic manner that allows its access for various processes including DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current studies reinforce the idea of intimate crosstalk between chromatin features and processes involving DNA transactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the substrate for these processes is not the naked DNA molecule, but chromatin, a highly structured and dynamic macromolecular entity formed by the association of genomic DNA with histones and non-histone proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, intimate connections exist between these three basic processes and chromatin structure and dynamics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin structure regulates the access of regulatory factors to the genomic DNA and thus exerts a profound control over most DNA-templated processes such as transcription, DNA repair and replication. (nyu.edu)
  • Elucidating the interaction between chromatin structure and these nuclear processes is critical for understanding of development and human disease. (nyu.edu)
  • Histone lysine methylation is a critical regulator of chromatin-templated processes such as gene transcription and DNA repair, and is dynamically controlled by enzymes that write and erase this posttranslational modification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hif1 , as well as its human homolog NASP, has been implicated in an array of chromatin-related processes including histone H3/H4 transport, chromatin assembly and DNA repair. (g3journal.org)
  • Taken together, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into Hif1 functions and establish it as an important protein in chromatin-associated processes. (g3journal.org)
  • Although a number of chromatin labeling techniques are available for both fixed and live cells, much more effort is still clearly required to develop fluorescence labeling methods capable of targeting arbitrary sequences non-intrusively to allow long-term, multiplexing, and high-throughput imaging of genomic loci and chromatin structures. (springer.com)
  • Interactions between regulatory elements separated by large genomic distances have been observed at high frequencies at other loci, leading to the proposition that chromatin looping generally results in the formation of hub-like structures. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, BGP-15 alone inhibited the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), thereby increasing chromatin accessibility at multiple genomic loci including the stress-inducible HSPA1A. (springer.com)
  • The formation or destruction of chromatin structures. (yeastgenome.org)
  • By employing single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we visualized these complexes for the first time, revealing heterogeneous ring-like structures, potentially acting as large scaffolds for histone assembly and exchange. (port.ac.uk)
  • The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications.However, the factors responsible for mediating these changes and determining enhancer:promoter specificity are still not completely known.In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in long-range interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications. (nih.gov)
  • Chromatin looping is responsible for forming higher-order hub-like structures within the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • These chromatin structures depend on sequence-specific TFs bound to both the enhancer and promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer:promoter interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The misregulation of chromatin structures results in aberrant gene expression and can ultimately lead to developmental disorders or cancers. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • In addition to the action of these recruited enzymes, histone chaperones have been suggested to play a role in forming open chromatin structures via their direct association with histones. (asm.org)
  • Applying 3D structured illumination microscopy to Xenopus laevis egg extracts, here we reveal that in the absence of microtubule attachment, proteins responsible for lateral attachment and spindle checkpoint signaling expand to form micrometer-scale fibrous structures over CENP-A-free chromatin, whereas a core module responsible for end-on attachment (CENP-A, CENP-T, and Ndc80) does not. (rupress.org)
  • Our mutational analysis, based on the electron cryomicroscopy structures of monomeric Pol I alone and in complex with Rrn3, underscores the central role of subunits A43 and A14 in the regulation of differential Pol I complexes assembly and subsequent promoter association. (elifesciences.org)
  • Similar polyacidic tracks are found in several nuclear proteins whose functions are linked to chromatin decondensation, nucleosome assembly/disassembly and establishment of chromatin structures competent for transcription ( Earnshaw, 1987 ). (embopress.org)
  • Chromatin dynamics governed by a set of nuclear structural proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The organization and dynamics of chromatin are directly responsible for many functions incl. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chromatin dynamics in interphase nuclei and its implications for nuclear structure. (springer.com)
  • The dynamics of mammalian P body transport, assembly, and disassembly in vivo . (springer.com)
  • However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These histone variants dramatically alter the structure and dynamics of the local chromatin fiber resulting in epigenetic control of functions ranging from promoter accessibility to centromere identity. (nih.gov)
  • We focus on centromeres to elucidate the relationship between histone variants, chromatin fiber structure, assembly/disassembly dynamics and biological function. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from discovering a new potential mechanism of heterochromatin dynamics, these data also establish a new paradigm of chromatin remodeling enzyme regulation by nonhistone proteins present on the substrate. (umassmed.edu)
  • This information, along with the promising clinical and preclinical results seen with epigenetic drugs against chromatin regulators, signifies that it is time to embrace the central role of epigenetics in cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Chromatin and epigenetic features of long-range gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in long-range interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Histone chaperones modulate chromatin architecture and hence play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The centromeric chromatin fiber presents a near-perfect model for studying epigenetic control, because no single DNA sequence is deemed necessary for formation, specification, maintenance or function of the centromere. (nih.gov)
  • Chromatin structure can be altered by several epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and the assembly of variant histones into chromatin. (nyu.edu)
  • Our research focuses on how epigenetic mechanisms, in particular the incorporation of histone variants into nucleosome, modulate chromatin structure and gene expression. (nyu.edu)
  • To examine the role of chromatin structure in this process we studied epigenetic silencing of c‐fms during B‐lymphopoiesis. (embopress.org)
  • The precise regulation of gene transcription during metazoan development is controlled by a complex system of interactions between transcription factors, histone modifications and modifying enzymes and chromatin conformation. (nih.gov)
  • Due to chromatin's occluded nature, significant chromatin remodeling is required to allow transcription factors to gain access to their DNA cognate sites. (asm.org)
  • Several studies have established that transcription factors bound to specific DNA sequences are capable of attracting histone-modifying and ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes, which in turn act to promote chromatin's adoption of an open conformation (reviewed in reference 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Modulating these many pathways requires alteration of expression of a diverse array of genes, which takes place via the coordinated action of various stress-responsive transcription factors as well as chromatin-associated factors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They recruit chromatin remodelling and other transcriptional enzymes to facilitate the assembly of general transcription factors for transcriptional activation. (nature.com)
  • c‐fms chromatin in stem cells and multipotent progenitors is in the active conformation and bound by transcription factors. (embopress.org)
  • In developing B cells, c‐fms chromatin is silenced in distinct steps, whereby first the binding of transcription factors and RNA expression is lost, followed by a loss of nuclease accessibility. (embopress.org)
  • Since gene expression would be a function of both of these parameters, a method to decipher both DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy simultaneously could lead to new ways to understand the relationship of mutations on chromatin remodeling enzymes and disease. (epigenie.com)
  • 0.30).Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways.These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones. (nih.gov)
  • These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones. (nih.gov)
  • We set out to understand how a unique histone chaperone uses chemical energy to assemble or disassemble chromatin. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • In this review, we hope to provide a conceptual model of centromeric heterochromatin in fission yeast that integrates our current understanding of the competing forces of transcription, replication, and RNA decay that influence its assembly and propagation. (nih.gov)
  • Their functions include providing attachment sites for heterochromatin and the nuclear lamina, the latter of which is a meshwork of intermediate filaments that associates with interphase chromatin and lines the inner nuclear membrane (for review see Gerace and Burke, 1988 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this work, we discover and characterize activities that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SWI/SNF uses to disrupt repressive heterochromatin structure. (umassmed.edu)
  • These data establish new roles for ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in regulating heterochromatin. (umassmed.edu)
  • We find that SWI/SNF evicts all three heterochromatin proteins off of chromatin. (umassmed.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that may be involved in the regulation of chromatin assembly. (genecards.org)
  • Regulation of Chromatin Assembly and Cell Transformation by Formaldehyde Exposure in Human Cells. (nyu.edu)
  • a) An active chromatin hub (ACH) is a structure that allows enhancers and promoters to come into close spatial proximity with each other (40). (nih.gov)
  • We reveal hierarchical assembly of a transcriptionally active chromatin hub containing the ASE and RAG promoters, with Rag2 recruitment and expression dependent on assembly of a functional ASE- Rag1 framework. (rupress.org)
  • These complexes have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, multi-angle laser light scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering to reveal their oligomeric assembly states in solution. (port.ac.uk)
  • The kinetochore is thought to assemble on centromeric chromatin according to a temporal and spatial hierarchy of functionally distinct complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Reactivation of transcription requires resetting the promoter-bound nucleosome into the "on" position by the DNA-dependent ATPase CSB (Cockayne syndrome protein B). The results uncover a unique mechanism by which ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes with opposing activities establish a specific chromatin state and regulate transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • We present in vivo evidence that, when growth is arrested by nutrient deprivation, cells induce rapid clearance of Pol I-Rrn3 complexes, followed by the assembly of inactive Pol I homodimers. (elifesciences.org)
  • Under these conditions, which preserve the hexameric MCM2-7 complex ( 8 ) (fig. S2B), Mcm3 and Mcm5 coimmunoprecipitated with Asf1 ( Fig. 1D ), which was also confirmed by epitope tag purification of e-Asf1 complexes from chromatin (fig. S2C). (sciencemag.org)
  • Regulation of gene expression by the nuclear estrogen receptor is stimulated in response to binding ligand and involves the recruitment and assembly of multiprotein complexes. (sciencemag.org)
  • ANCCA is an AAA+ ATPase and a bromodomain-containing nuclear coactivator for the estrogen and androgen receptors that is crucial for assembly of chromatin-modifying complexes and proliferation of hormone-responsive cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We use a combination of Xenopus egg extracts, human cell culture, biochemical reconstitution and structural biology to study kinetochore assembly. (cancer.gov)
  • In particular, Xenopus egg extracts allow for the study of de novo kinetochore assembly in a physiological context. (cancer.gov)
  • Here, we describe protocols (1) to prepare cell-free egg extracts (LSE), (2) to treat Xenopus sperm chromatin with two different DNA damaging approaches (MMS and UV), (3) to prepare the DNA damage-mimicking structure AT70, and (4) to trigger the ATR/Chk1-mediated DNA damage checkpoint in LSE with damaged sperm chromatin or a DNA damage-mimicking structure. (jove.com)
  • During the assembly of regular nucleosomal arrays, these nucleoplasmins transfer the DNA to them by binding to the histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatin remodelers can either organize or disrupt nucleosomal arrays, yet the mechanisms specifying these opposing actions are not clear. (jhu.edu)
  • Among these were genes encoding chromatin component Sir4p, DNA helicase Dna2p, ribosomal protein L32, and two proteins of unknown function, Asf1p and Ifh1p. (genetics.org)
  • Following DNA damage, MORC2 is phosphorylated on serine 739 in a PAK1-dependent manner, and phosphorylated MORC2 regulates its DNA-dependent ATPase activity to facilitate chromatin remodeling. (gwu.edu)
  • Importin-β negatively regulates chromatin binding by the POM121 fragment through a conserved NLS motif and is also shown to affect the recruitment of the endogenous membrane protein to chromatin in the full assembly system. (biologists.org)
  • To prevent these deleterious effects, a network of histone chaperones regulates each step of chromatin assembly and disassembly. (pnas.org)
  • O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the histone chaperone HIRA complex and regulates nucleosome assembly and cellular senescence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is widely accepted that the kinetochore is built on CENP-A-marked centromeric chromatin in a hierarchical order from inner to outer kinetochore. (rupress.org)
  • I found the talk by Dr. Eric M Mendenhall to be very interesting as he discussed a novel method of gene regulation by combining the specificity of transcription activator-like (TAL) effector DNA binding proteins and the power of chromatin modifying enzymes. (epigenie.com)
  • One of the first chaperones found to have modification-specific histone-binding activity is Rtt106, a fungal-specific histone chaperone that escorts newly synthesized H3 and H4 histones into chromatin during replication and transcription ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Atypical tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a central role in chromatin remodeling and acts as a transcription regulator. (genecards.org)
  • The replication machinery is relevant for the maintenance of chromatin states, influencing DNA replication origin specification and accessibility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromatin maintains nuclear mechanical stability and shape in coordination with lamins and the cytoskeleton. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Isoform 3 phosphorylates and enhances the stability of the t-SNARE SNAP23, augmenting its assembly with syntaxin. (genecards.org)
  • These post-translational modifications determine or modulate SRC stability, subcellular localization, functional specificity, co-activator activity and/or co-activator complex assembly or disassembly. (nature.com)
  • We also found that despite looking like a protein disassembly machine, Abo1 actually loads histone substrates onto DNA to facilitate chromatin assembly. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • Nucleoplasmin-Mediated Decondensation of Mytilus Sperm Chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of demembranated sperm chromatin to LSE results in nuclei formation where DNA is replicated in a semiconservative fashion once per cell cycle. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, our data indicate that PRDM6 is expressed by vascular precursors, has differential effects in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and may play a role in vascular precursor differentiation and survival by modulating local chromatin-remodeling activity within hematovascular subpopulations during development. (elsevier.com)
  • This structure has a high concentration of chromatin remodellers and PolII, which allows stable/high levels of transcription. (nih.gov)
  • c and d) During development, genes in the Hox locus show a linear movement from a repressive chromatin structure to a region where they are expressed (166). (nih.gov)
  • Despite all these biochemical and biological functional analyses, the structure-function relationship of the nucleosome assembly/disassembly activity of CIA/ASF1 has remained elusive. (nature.com)
  • The histone H3-H4 tetramer-disrupting activity of CIA/ASF1 and the crystal structure of the CIA/ASF1-histone-H3-H4 dimer complex should give insights into mechanisms of both nucleosome assembly/disassembly and nucleosome semi-conservative replication. (nature.com)
  • Here we show that the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex establishes a specific chromatin structure at rRNA genes that are poised for transcription activation. (elsevier.com)
  • In Arnold Stein's laboratory at Purdue University, she used classical chromatin biochemistry tools to understand how DNA sequence motifs and linker histones can shape the chromatin structure in silico, in vitro, and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease in the asf1-33 mutant was increased compared to the asf1(+) strain at the restrictive temperature, suggesting that asf1 mutations also caused a defect in overall chromatin structure. (jove.com)
  • In cells our DNA is part of a structure called chromatin comprised o. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In cells, our DNA is part of a structure called chromatin, comprised of proteins, the majority called histones, which are wrapped with the DNA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA is incorporated into the nucleoprotein structure of chromatin. (umassmed.edu)
  • This meeting will bring together leading experts in diverse areas of chromatin biology who are developing and applying new approaches to develop a concrete mechanistic link between chromatin structure and chromatin function. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results present a new pharmacological strategy for restoring protein homeostasis by inhibiting HDACs, increasing chromatin accessibility, and lowering the threshold for heat shock response activation. (springer.com)
  • b) The recruitment of genes and enhancers to a repressive chromatin hub (RCH) results in their downregulation (165). (nih.gov)
  • Most of the identified proteins are functionally linked to transcription, chromatin modification, RNA metabolism, or translation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Their analysis permitted the identification of three types of cycles of ordered complex assembly and disassembly and chromatin modification, which they present in a model for the formation of one transcriptionally silent cycle followed by two different transcriptionally active types of cycles. (sciencemag.org)
  • The soluble POM121 fragment binds chromatin at sites that are distinct from ELYS-Nup107-160 'seeding' sites and prevents membrane enclosure and NPC formation. (biologists.org)
  • We provide evidence that the association of histone H3.3 with distinct assembly systems allows it to acquire unique posttranslational modifications before deposition that might affect its role after incorporation into chromatin. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Packaging DNA into chromatin is dynamic, reversible, and essential for eukaryotic cell viability. (pnas.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged into a DNA-protein complex called chromatin. (nyu.edu)
  • Adkins, M. W., Howar, S. R. & Tyler, J. K. Chromatin disassembly mediated by the histone chaperone Asf1 is essential for transcriptional activation of the yeast PHO5 and PHO8 genes. (nature.com)
  • abstract = "Chromatin coregulators are important factors in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. (elsevier.com)
  • However, even at mature B cell stages, c‐fms chromatin is still in a poised conformation and c‐fms expression can be re‐activated by conditional deletion of the transcription factor Pax5. (embopress.org)
  • Recruitment of many kinetochore proteins depends on microtubule attachment status, but it remains unclear how their assembly/disassembly is orchestrated. (rupress.org)
  • We observed that, during mitosis, B23 was released from chromatin upon inactivation of its RNA binding activity by cdc2 kinase-mediated phosphorylation. (asm.org)
  • Here we have investigated the molecular mechanisms governing the assembly and disassembly of a transcriptionally active RAG locus chromatin hub in CD4 + CD8 + thymocytes. (rupress.org)
  • In replication-coupled nucleosome assembly, Rtt106 is thought to deliver H3K56ac to sites of DNA synthesis through a direct physical interaction with the CAF-1 histone chaperone complex (Cac1, Cac2, and Msi1) ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)