A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Relating to the size of solids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Chromate efflux by means of the ChrA chromate resistance protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1/216)

Everted membrane vesicles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 harboring plasmid pCRO616, expressing the ChrA chromate resistance protein, accumulated four times more (51)CrO(4)(2-) than vesicles from plasmidless cells, indicating that a chromate efflux system functions in the resistant strain. Chromate uptake showed saturation kinetics with an apparent K(m) of 0.12 mM chromate and a V(max) of 0. 5 nmol of chromate/min per mg of protein. Uptake of chromate by vesicles was dependent on NADH oxidation and was abolished by energy inhibitors and by the chromate analog sulfate. The mechanism of resistance to chromate determined by ChrA appears to be based on the active efflux of chromate driven by the membrane potential.  (+info)

Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers. (2/216)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMR 0.93) or of lung cancer (SMR 1.02). Workers routinely exposed to TCE, PCE, or a mixture of solvents also were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMRs 0.86, 1.07, and 0.89, respectively), and the numbers of deaths for specific cancer sites were close to expected values. Slight to moderately increased rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were found among workers exposed to TCE or PCE, but none was significant. A significant increase in testicular cancer was found among those with exposure to mixed solvents, but the excess was based on only six deaths and could not be linked to any particular solvent or job activity. Internal cohort analyses showed no significant trends of increased risk for any cancer with increasing years of exposure to chromate or solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases. Our findings support previous studies of aircraft workers in which cancer risks were generally at or below expected levels.  (+info)

Purification to homogeneity and characterization of a novel Pseudomonas putida chromate reductase. (3/216)

Cr(VI) (chromate) is a widespread environmental contaminant. Bacterial chromate reductases can convert soluble and toxic chromate to the insoluble and less toxic Cr(III). Bioremediation can therefore be effective in removing chromate from the environment, especially if the bacterial propensity for such removal is enhanced by genetic and biochemical engineering. To clone the chromate reductase-encoding gene, we purified to homogeneity (>600-fold purification) and characterized a novel soluble chromate reductase from Pseudomonas putida, using ammonium sulfate precipitation (55 to 70%), anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE Sepharose CL-6B), chromatofocusing (Polybuffer exchanger 94), and gel filtration (Superose 12 HR 10/30). The enzyme activity was dependent on NADH or NADPH; the temperature and pH optima for chromate reduction were 80 degrees C and 5, respectively; and the K(m) was 374 microM, with a V(max) of 1.72 micromol/min/mg of protein. Sulfate inhibited the enzyme activity noncompetitively. The reductase activity remained virtually unaltered after 30 min of exposure to 50 degrees C; even exposure to higher temperatures did not immediately inactivate the enzyme. X-ray absorption near-edge-structure spectra showed quantitative conversion of chromate to Cr(III) during the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

Apoptosis and P53 induction in human lung fibroblasts exposed to chromium (VI): effect of ascorbate and tocopherol. (4/216)

Some forms of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] are known to cause damage to respiratory tract tissue, and are thought to be human lung carcinogens. Because Cr(VI) is mutagenic and carcinogenic at doses that evoke cell toxicity, the objective of these experiments was to examine the effect of Cr(VI) on the growth, survival, and mode of cell death in normal human lung fibroblasts (HLF cells). DNA adduct formation was monitored as a marker for bioavailability of genotoxic chromium. We also examined the modulation of these endpoints by vitamins C and E. Long-term Cr(VI) exposures were employed, which decreased clonogenic cell survival by 25% to 95% in a dose-dependent manner. The predominant cellular response to Cr(VI) was growth arrest. We found that Cr(VI) caused up to 20% of HLF cells to undergo apoptosis, and documented apoptotic morphology and the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells. P53 levels increased 4- to 6-fold in chromium-treated cells. In contrast with previous studies using CHO cells, the present study using HLFs found that pretreatment with either vitamin C or E did not exhibit a significant effect on Cr-induced apoptosis or clonogenic survival. In addition, pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the p53 induction observed after chromium treatment. Neither vitamin had any effect on Cr-DNA adduct formation. These data indicate that although pretreatment with vitamin C or E alters the spectrum of cellular and/or genetic lesions induced by chromium(VI), neither vitamin altered the initiation or progression of apoptosis in diploid human lung cells.  (+info)

Organization-dependent effects of toxic bivalent ions microtubule assembly and glycolysis. (5/216)

The effects of bivalent ions on tubulin dynamics and the upper phase of glycolysis were investigated at different organization levels in vitro. Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and CrO4(2-) inhibit the tubulin polymerization at an IC50 of 14-24 microM with high cooperativity and also induce microtubule disassembly. The apparent binding constants of the ions to tubulin, estimated by fluorescence quenching, vary between 6 and 28 microM. BIAcore measurements for tubulin-tubulin interaction suggest that the presence of Cu2+ affects neither koff nor kon, but the amount of the bound tubulin. While the inhibitory effect of Cu2+ on tubulin polymerization is partially abolished by cross-linking of microtubules with substoichiometric amounts of phosphofructokinase or decoration of tubules with cytosolic proteins, in the presence of kinase but not with cytosolic proteins the tubules are resistant to CrO4(2-). No inhibitory effect of Cu2+ or CrO4(2-) on microtubule assembly was detected in the MAP-containing cytosolic fraction. Electron microscopy revealed that tubules assembled in the presence of Cu2+ or CrO4(2-) ions contain aggregates of thread-like oligomers that are less conspicuous in the presence of cytosolic proteins. Cu2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ inhibit the glycolytic flux in the cytosolic fraction characterized at equilibrium by an IC50 of 10-14 microM with high cooperativity. Tubulin diminishes the inhibitory effect of the cations. These data indicate that the responses elicited by the bivalent ions are highly dependent on the supramolecular organization of the systems.  (+info)

Activation of JNK, p38 and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases by chromium(VI) is mediated through oxidative stress but does not affect cytotoxicity. (6/216)

In this study we have explored the involvement of oxidative stress in Cr(VI)-induced JNK, p38 and ERK signaling pathways and their effects on Cr(VI) cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung carcinoma CL3 cells. Exposure to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) markedly activated JNK and p38 and moderately activated ERK in a dose- (10-80 microM) and time-dependent (1-12 h) manner. The activated p38 decreased markedly and rapidly and the activated JNK decreased gradually when Cr(VI) was removed from the medium. Post-incubation of Cr(VI)-treated cells with H(2)O(2) increased the activities of JNK and p38, but not ERK. Co-administering Cr(VI) with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole (3AT), a catalase inhibitor, enhanced p38 activation, but did not influence JNK and ERK activation by Cr(VI). Conversely, co-administering Cr(VI) with mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger and a Cr(V) chelator, reduced p38 activation and increased JNK and ERK activation by Cr(VI). These results indicate that p38 activation by Cr(VI) is positively correlated with oxidative stress, while JNK activity can be enhanced by either a quencher (mannitol) or activator (H(2)O(2)) of redox reactions in Cr(VI)-exposed CL3 cells. However, both 3AT and mannitol reduced the cytotoxicity of Cr(VI), but H(2)O(2) did not. The JNK activated by Cr(VI) was decreased (approximately 50%) by expression of a kinase-defective form of MKK7 (MKK7A) but not that of MKK4 (MKK4KR), suggesting that activation of JNK by Cr(VI) is mediated through MKK7. SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38, markedly decreased JNK but did not change ERK activation by Cr(VI). PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK kinases MKK1/2, blocked ERK and p38 but did not alter JNK activation by Cr(VI). Neither the specific kinase inhibitors nor expression of MKK7A altered Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that activation of the JNK, p38 and ERK pathways by Cr(VI) is mediated through diverse redox mechanisms, yet their activation does not correlate with Cr(VI) cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Cyclosporin A inhibits chromium(VI)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial cytochrome c release and restores clonogenic survival in CHO cells. (7/216)

A variety of key events in the molecular apoptotic pathway involve the mitochondria. Cyclosporin A (csA) affects the mitochondria by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), thereby preventing disruption of the transmembrane potential. The role of the MPT in apoptosis is not fully understood, but inhibition of the MPT may prevent the release of mitochondrial caspase activators, such as cytochrome c (cyt c), into the cytosol. Certain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are known occupational respiratory tract toxins and carcinogens. We have previously shown that these compounds induce apoptosis as a predominant mode of cell death and that this effect can be observed in cell culture using soluble Cr(VI). We show here that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells involves disruption of mitochondrial stability. Using a cyt c-specific monoclonal antibody, we observed a dose-dependent release of mitochondrial cyt c in cytosolic extracts of CHO cells exposed to apoptogenic doses of sodium chromate. Co-treatment of these cells with csA inhibited the release of cyt c and abrogated Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis as determined by a reduction in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Co-treatment with csA also markedly increased clonogenic survival of Cr(VI)-treated CHO cells. In contrast, the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK markedly inhibited most of the morphological and biochemical parameters of apoptosis but did not prevent cyt c release and did not increase clonogenic survival. These results suggest that the MPT plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial cyt c release and that this may be a critical point in the apoptotic pathway in which cells are irreversibly committed to death.  (+info)

Chromate reduction by a pseudomonad isolated from a site contaminated with chromated copper arsenate. (8/216)

A pseudomonad (CRB5) isolated from a decommissioned wood preservation site reduced toxic chromate [Cr(VI)] to an insoluble Cr(III) precipitate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. CRB5 tolerated up to 520 mg of Cr(VI) liter(-1) and reduced chromate in the presence of copper and arsenate. Under anaerobic conditions it also reduced Co(III) and U(VI), partially internalizing each metal. Metal precipitates were also found on the surface of the outer membrane and (sometimes) on a capsule. The results showed that chromate reduction by CRB5 was mediated by a soluble enzyme that was largely contained in the cytoplasm but also found outside of the cells. The crude reductase activity in the soluble fraction showed a K(m) of 23 mg liter(-1) (437 microM) and a V(max) of 0.98 mg of Cr h(-1) mg of protein(-1) (317 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)). Minor membrane-associated Cr(VI) reduction under anaerobiosis may account for anaerobic reduction of chromate under nongrowth conditions with an organic electron donor present. Chromate reduction under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions may be a detoxification strategy for the bacterium which could be exploited to bioremediate chromate-contaminated or other toxic heavy metal-contaminated environments.  (+info)

PROJECT SUMMARY Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. One of the key strategies to combating it is to better understand its causes. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human lung carcinogen of major public health concern because exposure to it is common in the workplace and in the general environment. Our study focuses on investigating the mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis, which are currently unknown. In particular, this work focuses on the particulate Cr(VI) compounds, because they are the most potent Cr(VI) carcinogens. Recent studies indicate particulate Cr(VI) induces chromosome instability and causes cells to evade DNA double strand break repair, which are hallmarks of human lung cancer. Thus, this research focuses on how particulate Cr(VI) induces cells to evade DNA double strand break repair leading to chromosome instability and carcinogenesis. Our data show prolonged exposure to particulate Cr(VI) specifically impacts the effector arm of ...
Business Directory for Potassium Chromate Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Potassium Chromate Manufacturers, Wholesale Potassium Chromate Exporters, Best Potassium Chromate Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Providing here the database of sodium chromate (cas no 7775-11-3), sodium chromate manufacturers, suppliers and exporters. These sodium chromate manufacturing companies are delivering best quality products to the clients on time.
Chromic acid is a strong oxidizing agent, used to oxidize many classes of organic compounds, the most common of which is alcohols. There are two generalizations that help understand oxidation of alcohols using chromic acid.. 1. Any alcohol containing at least one alpha hydrogen is oxidized by chromic acid, meaning tertiary alcohols are not oxidized by chromic acid.. 2. Any organic product formed whose molecule has at least one hydrogen atom bonded to the carbonyl carbon is further oxidized by chromic acid.. Oxidation of a primary alcohol by chromic acid results in a carboxylic acid as the organic product.. eg:. ...
potassium chromate chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of potassium chromate 7789-00-6, What are the physical properties of potassium chromate ect.
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Chromic acid is an intermediate in chromium plating, and is also used in ceramic glazes, and colored glass. Because a solution of chromic acid in sulfuric acid (also known as a sulfochromic mixture or chromosulfuric acid) is a powerful oxidizing agent, it can be used to clean laboratory glassware, particularly of otherwise insoluble organic residues. This application has declined due to environmental concerns.[5] Furthermore, the acid leaves trace amounts of paramagnetic chromic ions - Cr(III) - that can interfere with certain applications, such as NMR spectroscopy. This is especially the case for NMR tubes.[6]. Chromic acid was widely used in the instrument repair industry, due to its ability to brighten raw brass. A chromic acid dip leaves behind a bright yellow patina on the brass. Due to growing health and environmental concerns, many have discontinued use of this chemical in their repair shops. It was used in hair dye in the 1940s, under the name Melereon.[7]. As a bleach in black and ...
Search Indian Chromic Acid Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Chromic Acid Exporters in India, Chromic Acid Wholesalers, Chromic Acid Distributors and Traders from India.
This article presents a retrospective exposure assessment for 493 workers who were occupationally exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), at a Painesville, Ohio, chromate production plant from 1940-1972. Exposure estimates were reconstructed using a job-exposure matrix approach that related job titles with area monitoring data from 21 industrial hygiene surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971. No personal monitoring data were collected. Specifically, airborne Cr(VI) concentration profiles for 22 areas of the plant, termed job-exposure group (JEG) areas, were constructed for three distinct time periods (1940-1949, 1950-1964, and 1965-1972), with cut points based on known major plant and process changes. Average airborne Cr(VI) concentrations were the highest for the bridge crane operators (5.5 mg/m3) prior to 1965, although only four cohort members held this job title. Airborne concentrations for the rest of the production areas of the plant ranged from 1.9 mg/m3 for packers in the 1940s to ...
Sodium chromate is a chemical compound composed of sodium ions and chromate ions. It is a bright yellow crystal chemical. It is similar to potassium chromate. It is a strong oxidizing agent. It is toxic because it contains chromium in the +6 oxidation state. It can be destroyed by reaction with a reducing agent, converting it to harmless chromium in the +3 oxidation state. Its chemical formula is Na2Cr2O4. ...
View drug interactions with ARI Sodium Chromate (51Cr) 37-370 MBq/mL. This medication may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
NTP Experiment-Test: 20114-01 NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL Report: PEIRPT04 Study Type: SUBCHRON 90-DAY SODIUM DICHROMATE DIHYDRATE (VI) Date: 05/14/03 Route: DOSED WATER Time: 14:47:02 FINAL#1 Facility: Southern Research Institute Chemical CAS #: 7789-12-0 Lock Date: 06/24/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All Note: Animals arranged according to CID number Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 20114-01 NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL Report: PEIRPT04 Study Type: SUBCHRON 90-DAY SODIUM DICHROMATE DIHYDRATE (VI) Date: 05/14/03 Route: DOSED WATER Time: 14:47:02 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ , 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, , , DAY ON TEST , 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, , , , 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, , , __________________________________________,__________________________________________________________________________, T (*) , , 0, 0, 0, 0, ...
All micro life cultures will be delivered to you within two business days when order is placed before 12:00 pm EST. Your specimens or cultures will arrive in good condition or we will send a free replacement. Requesting a delivery date of Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday ensures healthy delivery of your live specimens. Live materials will not be delivered on Mondays. For Tuesday deliveries, additional shipping charges may apply. Contact Sargent Welch customer service (800-727-4368) to arrange a Tuesday live materials delivery. For live materials coupon redemption, visit sargentwelch.com/coupon. In instances of severe weather, we may delay or cancel a shipment if it will not arrive safely. See our live materials page for the latest updates if you suspect weather could be an issue in your area. If your school is closed due to weather, please call customer service to let us know and we will hold you specimen and reschedule at your convenience. ...
It is a yellow crystalline solid. It is an oxidizing agent in an acidic condition. It is toxic though, because it contains chromium in its +6 oxidation state. It can be destroyed by reaction with reducing agents. It is very rarely found in the ground. It reacts with lead nitrate to make lead chromate, a yellow pigment. ...
Potassium chromate | K2CrO4 or CrK2O4 | CID 24597 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Calculate weight of Potassium chromate per volume, it weighs 2 732 kg/m³ (170.55319 lb/ft³). Materials volume to weight conversions
The oxidation of the aldehyde can not be prevented by using one molar equivalent of chromic acid. (If one molar equivalent of chromic acid is used, some aldehyde and some carboxylic acid are obtained as organic products, and, since there are not enough chromic acid molecules to react with all the alcohol molecules, some unreacted alcohol is recovered.) The aldehyde itself does not react with chromic acid. It reacts with water to give a gem diol that is oxidized by chromic acid to the carboxylic acid.. eg:. ...
Zinc chromate, ZnCrO4, is a chemical compound containing the chromate anion, appearing as odorless yellow powder or yellow-green crystals, but, when used for coatings, pigments are often added. It is used industrially in chromate conversion coatings, having been developed by the Ford Motor Company in the 1920s ...
The stronger an acid is the more easily it loses a proton H . The variable group also called the R group or side chain determines the identity and many of the properties of a specific amino acid. Most acids have the general formula how to make chromic acid for cleaning glassware HA where A is an anion and most bases have the form BOH where B is an appropriate cation
EINECS (European INventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances) as published in O.J. C 146A, 15.6.1990. EINECS is an inventory of substances that were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. EINECS was drawn up by the European Commission in the application of Article 13 of Directive 67/548/EEC, as amended by Directive 79/831/EEC, and in accordance with the detailed provisions of Commission Decision 81/437/EEC. Substances listed in EINECS are considered phase-in substances under the REACH Regulation ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
From an EU review of studies to assess the impact of chromium (VI) and (III) on microbially-mediated soil processes a statistical assessment was carried out. A substantial amount of information is available for the toxicity of chromium (VI) to terrestrial organisms. In the environment, it is likely that chromium (VI) will be reduced to chromium (III) in soil, and it is also likely that such conversion would have taken place in many of the toxicity tests ...
Synonyms for Chromates in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chromates. 2 words related to chromate: lead chromate, salt. What are synonyms for Chromates?
Lead Acetate Lead Carbonate Lead Chloride Lead Chromate Lead Metal Lead Monoxide Lead Nitrate Lead Oxide Lead Sheet Lead Subacetate Lead Sulfate Lead Sulfide
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1 September 2019 for the use of the substance in the production of spare parts for the repair of articles the production of which ceased or will cease before the sunset date indicated in the entry for that substance, where that substance was used in the production of those articles and the latter cannot function as intended without that spare part, and for the use of the substance (on its own or in a mixture) for the repair of such articles where that substance on its own or in a mixture was used in the production of those articles and the latter cannot be repaired otherwise than by using that substance ...
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Sodium Dichromate Import Data of India and Price SEAIR EXIM SOLUTIONS provides the latest, 100% genuine and trusted Indian import data of Sodium Dichromate.It will help you in many ways such as you can generate competitive analysis reports on Importer, port, Supplier and Exporter of Sodium Dichromate.We collect Sodium Dichromate import data from more than 190 Indian import ports …
This report examines the Sodium Dichromate market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Sodium Dichromate market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Sodium Dichromate market is considered…
Bright orange crystals that are light sensitive. Potassium dichromate is used as a chrome mordant in dyeing textiles. It is also used to chrome tan Leather and stain Wood to an orange color. Potassium dichromate is used as an intensifier in black and white photographic processing. It is used as a pigment and as an Insecticide. Potassium dichromate may also be used as a colorimetric reagent for the detection of Lead in objects because the two materials react to form bright yellow lead chromate crystals (Odegaard et al 2000). Silver reacts with potassium dichromate to form a red precipitate. ...
Free Online Library: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway.(Research, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Cancer treatment Chromium compounds Health aspects Cyclooxygenases Physiological aspects Genes Luciferase Transcription factors
Find Leading Sodium Dichromate Manufacturers, Suppliers, Exporters and Traders at one place. Contact Exporters India for more information about Sodium Dichromate manufacturers
Water Based Red Oxide Zinc Chromate Primer Paint Manufacturer Exporter & Supplier in Mumbai India- Prabhat Paints is a best Manufacturer Exporter & Supplier of Water Based Red Oxide Zinc Chromate Primer Paint in Mumbai, Water Based Red Oxide Zinc Chromate Primer Paint Supplier Maharashtra, Water Based Red Oxide Zinc Chromate Primer Paint Manufacturing Company in India.
Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a potent respiratory carcinogen with widespread human exposure. The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. These particles impact at bifurcation sites of the lung and persist in the respiratory tract. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of lung cancer with cells exhibiting both translocations and severe aneuploidy. However, the ability of Cr(VI) to induce translocations is unknown. We exposed human lung cells to lead chromate for three sequential 24 h periods, each separated by about a month. After each treatment, cells were seeded at colony forming density, cloned, expanded and retreated. Each generation of clones were tested for their chromium sensitivity, chromosome complement and DNA repair capacity. We found that after the first treatment, lead chromate-treated cells exhibited a normal chromosome complement though a few clones showed an increase in relative survival. ...
The dichromate is isolated as the dihydrate by crystallization. In this way, many millions of kilograms of sodium dichromate are produced annually. Since chromium(VI) is toxic, especially as the dust, such factories are subject to stringent regulations. For example, effluent from such refineries is treated with reducing agents to return any chromium(VI) to chromium(III), which is less threatening to the environment.[1] A variety of hydrates of this salt are known, ranging from the decahydrate below 19.5 °C (CAS# 13517-17-4 ) as well as hexa-, tetra-, and dihydrates. Above 62 °C, these salts lose water spontaneously to give the anhydrous material. It is crystallised around 30 to 35 degrees C ...
We produce the highest quality liquid and crystal sodium dichromate used for pigments & coatings, metal passivation and as an oxidizing agent.. ...
Have you or a loved one been exposed to sodium dichromate while serving in Qarmat Ali, Iraq? Doyle is committed to help victims get full financial aid.
potassium chromate poisoning answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Effects of Nephrargin on the potassium chromate nephrosis in rabbits]. by R AKAMIZU et al.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto magnetic natural zeolite-polymer composite. AU - Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.. AU - Onyango, Maurice S.. AU - Ochieng, Aoyi. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Magnetic natural zeolite-polypyrrole (MZ-PPy) composite was prepared for enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent was analyzed with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field-emission microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of magnetic zeolite loading within the composite, initial pH, sorbent dosage, temperature and Cr(VI) concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Up to 99.99% removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was 2 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 300 mg/L. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the ...
In the past few years, Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI), a genotoxic carcinogen, has come under increased scrutiny as it is the most toxic form of chromium found
When present in soil, the oxidized forms of certain metallic contaminants (e.g., hexavalent chromium) are quite mobile and can be easily carried by waters percolating through the unsaturated zone. To avoid the excessive costs and risks associated with excavation, transportation, and disposal of the chromium contamination at locations such as Pantex, Hanford, and the Sandia National Laboratory, the Department of Energy (DOE) is testing the In-Situ Gaseous Reduction System (IGRS). In IGRS, the oxidized metals are reduced and immobilized. For chromium-contaminated sites, the primary chemical reaction involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr (III)], with subsequent precipitation as a nontoxic, insoluble solid ...
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancerrisk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. ...
Chromic acid is an industrial metal acid widely used for electroplating in alloy and dye production. It can cause serious skin burn and, if absorbed, may lead to acute chromium poisoning. Such poisoning cases appear rarely in the literature [ 1 ]. We n......
Chromium-51 is the most commonly used readioactive marker for the labeling of target cells in cytotoxicity assays. The common name for such assays Chromium Release also describes the fundamental method behind the assay procedure. Methods for the precise and accurate quantification of cytotoxicity are of fundamental importance in immunology particularly for the study of tumor and virus cytolysis ...
Extending the class of group 6 metal-metal bonded methylate compounds supported by alkali metal counter-ions, the first sodium octamethylmolybdate(II) complex [(TMEDA)Na]4Mo2Me8 and heptamethylchromate(II) relations [(donor)Na]3Cr2Me7 (donor is TMEDA or TMCDA) are reported. The former was made by treating [(Et2O)Li]4Mo2Me8 with four equivalents of NaOtBu/TMEDA in ether; whereas the latter resulted from introducing TMEDA or TMCDA to ether solutions of octamethyldichromate [(Et2O)Na]4Cr2Me8. X-ray crystallography revealed [(TMEDA)Na]4Mo2Me8 is dimeric with square pyramidal Mo centres [including a short Mo-Mo interaction of 2.1403(3) Å] each with four methyl groups in a mutually eclipsed conformation. In dinuclear [(TMCDA)Na]3Cr2Me7 trigonal bi-pyramidal Cr centres each bond to three terminal methyl groups and one common Me bridge, that produces a strikingly short Cr-Cr contact of 1.9136(4) Å. Broken symmetry density functional theoretical calculations expose the multiconfigurational metal-metal ...
DORGAN: DOD IG REPORT CONFIRMS PENTAGON DROPPED THE BALL ON CHEMICAL EXPOSURE OF U.S. TROOPS IN IRAQ See the video here Read the IG Report here FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE FOR MORE INFORMATION: Friday CONTACT: Barry E. Piatt October 22, 2010 PHONE: 202-224-0577 (WASHINGTON, D.C.) --- U.S. Senator Byron Dorgan (D-ND) said Friday a…
To test for the presence of methanol, you can apply sodium dichromate to a sample of the solution. To do so, mix 8 mL of a sodium dichromate solution with 4 mL of sulfuric acid. Swirl gently to mix, then add 10 drops of the mixed solution to a test tube or other small container containing the alcohol. ...
To test for the presence of methanol, you can apply sodium dichromate to a sample of the solution. To do so, mix 8 mL of a sodium dichromate solution with 4 mL of sulfuric acid. Swirl gently to mix, then add 10 drops of the mixed solution to a test tube or other small container containing the alcohol ...
To test for the presence of methanol, you can apply sodium dichromate to a sample of the solution. To do so, mix 8 mL of a sodium dichromate solution with 4 mL of sulfuric acid. Swirl gently to mix, then add 10 drops of the mixed solution to a test tube or other small container containing the alcohol. ...
A pool of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) is placed in a Petri dish. A few drops of cyclohexanol is added and a clear reaction is observed for the formation of cyclohexanone.
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White craft or carpenters PVA glue, I buy it at the dollar store or craft store. Any cheap water soluble glue will work. Carpenters glue has a slightly better bond, but its a little more expensive. 120ml of glue makes just enough to cover three medium/large size screens.. Potassium Dichromate can be purchased at speciality arts stores that carry supplies for wood staining, leather tanning, custom pigment paints, etc. I found mine at Kama Pigments in Montreal.. First of all, work in a dimly lit room (obviously not totally dark or you cant see what you are doing, just dont use an overhead light and not in direct sunlight you should be fine). Wear gloves… try not to get this stuff on you, it is toxic as hell.. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Potassium dichromate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Current coating technology utilizes heavy-metal anti-corrosion pigments in the primer to provide high-performance/heavy-duty corrosion protections for metals. For years, the most effective anti-corrosion pigments were those that contained hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), which is highly toxic and carcinogenic. The toxicity of Cr6+ became well known to the general public through the 2000 Oscar-nominated film Erin Brockovich. The film depicted the real-life story of hexavalent chromium leakage that contaminated both groundwater and drinking water in the small California desert town of Hinkley, and led to the largest . . .
In the 18th century orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance; her name came from the pomon, the Latin word for fruit. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie. The French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of inspiration dressed in orange. In 1797 a French scientist Louis Vauquelin discovered the mineral crocoite, or lead chromate, which led in 1809 to the invention of the synthetic pigment chrome orange. Other synthetic pigments, cobalt red, cobalt yellow, and cobalt orange, the last made from cadmium sulfide plus cadmium selenide, soon followed. These new pigments, plus the invention of the metal paint tube in 1841, made it possible for artists to paint outdoors and to capture the colours of natural light. In Britain orange became highly popular with the Pre-Raphaelites and with history ...
Chronic inhalation and ingestion may cause effects similar to those of acute inhalation and ingestion. Prolonged or repeated exposure may lead to asthma and perforation of the nasal septum. Repeated inhalation may cause chronic bronchitis. May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause cancer in humans ...
Protect against physical damage. Store in a dry location separate from combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable materials. Avoid storage on wood floors. Remove and dispose of any spilled dichromates; do not return to original containers. Wear special protective equipment (Sec. 8) for maintenance break-in or where exposures may exceed established exposure levels. Wash hands, face, forearms and neck when exiting restricted areas. Shower, dispose of outer clothing, change to clean garments at the end of the day. Avoid cross-contamination of street clothes. Wash hands before eating and do not eat, drink, or smoke in workplace. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product ...
Pre-wetting the surface, just prior to application, will aide in even absorption of the Dichromate solution. Use Clean water and a damp (not dripping) sponge or rag. ...
Find hexavalent chromium requirement articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
① Lung Cancer.. Large-scale cohort studies and many other studies have reported excess risk of lung cancer in workers exposed to chromium (VI). In conclusion, IARC reported that there is sufficient evidence in humans that chromium (VI) causes lung cancer [2]. OSHA reviewed literature about carcinogenic effects in different work types as follows. In chromate production, an increase of lung cancer mortality was identified and a significant increase was found particularly in response to the cumulative exposure dose and the exposure period. In the chromium pigment production, an increase of lung cancer incidents in comparison with standard population was reported, and the risk of lung cancer was higher either in water-soluble chromium or water-insoluble chromium. In chromium plating process where workers are exposed to chromic trioxide (CrO3), an increase of lung cancer mortality was verified, although the number of studies analyzed was less than the studies about chromate or chrome pigment ...
Radon is an established human lung carcinogen based on human epidemiological data supported by experimental evidence of mutagenesis studies in cell culture and laboratory animals. Extrapolation from cohort studies on miners suggested that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer death after …
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
One day, I received a phonecall from my boss. We were on the verge of securing a contract with a new company and that could I whip up a test batch of a particular product so they had something for the customer when they came around next week. Simples enough. After 15 minutes, Id written down the ingredients I needed to make this product. Id managed to secure all of them except one. Potassium Dichromate. We didnt really have any knocking around. Until I remembered the Shed! The shed was an old building which kept chemicals from products which had long since been made obsolete and were awaiting disposal. There was bound to be some Potassium Dichromate there!. So, I set off towards the shed. The shed was on the other side of the plant and took a while to get there. When I arrived at the shed, I put the (supposed only) key in the lock and opened the door. I turned on the light and there standing before me was the manager I didnt and, more importanly Mrs Simpering Ive-got-the-IQ-of-a-roof-slate! ...
Browse many computed properties for this triclinic Cs2Cr4Cu(HO4)4 compound, including formation energy from the elements, energy of decomposition into the set of most stable materials at this chemical composition, bulk crystalline density, and band gap. Also known as: Dicesium copper bis(dichromate) dihydrate.
Atıf İçin Kopyala Acar Çınar B., Acar M. B. , YÜKSEKDAĞ Z. International Eurasian Conference on Biological and Chemical Sciences (Eurasian BioChem 2018), 26 - 27 Nisan 2018 ...
The S1 TITAN XRF gun can be used to help ensure compliance with Toxics in Packaging Laws. The TPCH indicates that by paying attention to the sample matrix, sample thickness, sample homogeneity, chemical interferences, and instrumental errors (as one should in any type of screening or analysis), XRF is an excellent screening tool for identifying toxics in packaging.
By Rebecca Sutton, PhD, EWG Senior Scientist When you see news reports about a cancer-causing chemical in drinking water everywhere you turn, you probably
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Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of N,N,Nâ  ,Nâ  - Tetramethylethylenediammonium dichromate (C6H18N2)[Cr2O7
Strong dark self-enhancement, the increase in diffraction efficiency after irradiation, has been reported previously for dichromated-gelatin gratings. Here a more-detailed study of this self-enhancement effect is presented. The self-enhancement in dichromated-gelatin gratings was of the order of 10-100, depending on the pH and on the dichromate concentration of the solution used for the preparation of dichromated-gelatin films. The highest self-enhancement gain occurred when pH was high and dichromate concentration was low. The increase in the diffraction efficiencies of the gratings continued over 3 months.. © 1999 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The chromate recovery system will be a completely closed system. Fig. 3 shows such an ion exchange system. The concentration of chromate in the still rinse will be allowed to rise to about 10 per cent. At frequent intervals this still rinse will be passed through a cation exchange unit to remove metallic cations, and occasionally part of the treated acid will be returned to the plating tank. It may be necessary to use an evaporator to concentrate this solution although experience in many locations has indicated that a 10 per cent solution may be returned directly. While the dragout from the plating rinse contains some metallic cations, the dragout from the still rinse will be almost pure chromic acid. This running rinse will pass through a highly basic styrene base anion exchanger and then be recycled. When this unit is exhausted, it will be regenerated with caustic soda and the regenerant effluent sent through the cation exchange unit for removal of sodium and then to the still rinse tank. ...
Potassium Dichromate K2Cr2O7 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts & credit cards/PayPal accepted.
Diffusion. Image 1 of 2. Crystal of potassium dichromate (orange) in a petri dish containing agar gel. Over time, the crystal dissolves, spreading out to colour the entire dish. For this set-up after one day, see image A350/142. - Stock Image A350/0141
Class: chromatesEdit. *07.F Chromates *07.FA Without additional anions: 05 Tarapacaite, 10 Chromatite, 15 Hashemite, 20 ... The chromate and manganate minerals have a similar structure and are often included with the sulfates in mineral classification ...
Lead molybdate (wulfenite) co-precipitated with lead chromate and lead sulfate is a bright-orange pigment used with ceramics ... Molybdates are weaker oxidants than chromates. They tend to form structurally complex oxyanions by condensation at lower pH ...
chromate vanadium vanadate copper cuprate iron ferrate [Cu(H2O)6] 2+ → hexaaquacopper(II) ion. [NiCl4]2− → ...
Chromates and molybdates produce the same reaction. The major drawback of the test is the deterioration of stock solution of ... Reacting a Diphenylcarbazide with Chromium (VI) compounds, such as chromates or dichromates produces diphenylcarbazone, which ...
Chromate blood loss studies". Am. J. Med. 31 (2): 259-65. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(61)90114-0. PMID 13735596. Norfleet RG (April ...
4 chromate. Cr. 2O2−. 7 dichromate. BO3−. 3 borate. AsO3−. 4 arsenate. C. 2O2−. 4 oxalate. CN−. cyanide. SCN−. thiocyanate. MnO ...
Barium chromate - used in delay compositions, e.g. in fireworks rockets Lead chromate - used in delay compositions Potassium ... Other possibilities include permanganates, chromates, and some oxides. Generally, the less the oxidizer, the slower the burning ...
nov., a chromate-resistant strain." International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 61.4 (2011): 956-960. ...
"Studies on sulphates, selenates and chromates of mercury (II)." Acta Chem. Scand 15.9 (1961): 1932-1938. Aurivillius, K. A. R. ...
... manganese with lead chromate and barium chromate (lead chromate is the principal oxidizer, barium chromate acts as burning rate ... Oxidizers: lead dioxide, iron oxides, barium chromate, lead chromate, tin(IV) oxide, bismuth(III) oxide, barium sulfate (for ... zirconium-nickel alloy with barium chromate and potassium perchlorate. boron with barium chromate [5] "PYROTECHNIC CHEMISTRY". ... modifier, the more of it the slower the reaction) [3] Tungsten Delay Composition: tungsten with barium chromate and potassium ...
... is lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4). It occurs naturally as the mineral crocoite but the mineral ore was never used as ... List of colors List of inorganic pigments School bus yellow Kühn, H. and Curran, M., Chrome Yellow and Other Chromate Pigments ... Chrome yellow had been commonly made by mixing solutions of lead nitrate and potassium chromate and filtering off the lead ... After the French chemist Louis Vauquelin discovered the new element chromium in 1797 lead chromate was synthesized in the ...
Chromate based langbeinites include dicaesium dimanganese chromate. Molybdates include Rb 2Co 2(MoO 4) 3. Potassium members are ... chromate (CrO2− 4), molybdate (MoO2− 4), or tungstates. Although monofluorophosphates are predicted, they have not been ...
Fendorf, S.E.; M.J. Eick; P.R. Grossl; D.L. Sparks (February 1997). "Arsenate and Chromate Retention Mechanisms on Goethite. 1 ...
She makes the grills with chromium chromate. She makes a print and a plat, then sculpts a mold out of alginate. She uses yellow ...
Chromates(VI) (IDs 7.F). *Molybdates, wolframates, niobates(VI) (IDs 7.G-H) ...
The chromates and copper are rather unusual and pose a problem. Normally chromates are associated with oceanic and ultramafic ... Amongst these galena-derived lead minerals we find chromates (crocoite, embreyite and vauquelinite), arsenates (mimetesite) and ...
Chromates, metal hydroxides, carbonates, and sulfides, formed with lead, copper, silver, mercury and cobalt salts are sometimes ... Swami, S.N.; Kant, K. (March 1966). "Liesegang Rings of Copper Chromate in Gelatin Gel". Colloid and Polymer Science. 209 (1): ...
Magalhães, A. A. O; Margarit, I. C. P; Mattos, O. R (1999-07-31). "Electrochemical characterization of chromate coatings on ... Additional electroplating such as a chromate conversion coating may be applied to provide further surface passivation to the ...
1) Chromate esters are implicated in these reactions. The chromate ester decomposes to the aldehyde or carbonyl by transfer of ... Acidic reagents such as PCC may cause ionization and recombination of the chromate ester (path A), while the basic reagents ( ... Insights into the mechanism is provided by structure-reactivity, implicating direct epoxidation by the chromate ester. ...
This is isoelectronic with permanganate and chromate ions. OsO4 is formed slowly when osmium powder reacts with O2 at ambient ...
... nitrates and chromates when grown anaerobically. This species is referred to as S. oneidensis MR-1, indicating "manganese ...
Chromate-dyed textiles or chromate-tanned leather shoes can cause skin sensitivity. In the U.S., the OSHA PEL for airborne ... Yet, soluble chromates are a confirmed carcinogen so it would be prudent to consider all chromates carcinogenic. Chronic ... Both insoluble salts of lead and barium chromates as well as soluble chromates were negative in the implantation model of lung ... Industrial uses of hexavalent chromium compounds include chromate pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics; chromates added ...
... and Chromates. NSRDS. 1975, 56, 2-12 Fordland, T.; Keogh, M. J. The structure of the High temperature Modification of lithium ...
However lead chromate continued to be used in yellow road markings up to the present day. Its use was supposed to cease on 21 ... Until the early 1970s red, yellow, orange and green lead-based pigments (lead chromate) were added to a limited number of ... "Comment: End of the road for lead chromate pigments?", Highways Magazine, Sevenoaks, England, November 2014. Retrieved on 2015- ...
It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia. Iron(III) sulfate ...
Chromate Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr 2O2− 7. They are ... In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. Circular motion In physics, circular motion is a ...
"TARGETS OF IMPROVEMENT IN BACTERIAL CHROMATE BIOREMEDIATION" (PDF). "Mechanism of chromate reduction by the Escherichia coli ... and the role of different chromate reductases in minimizing oxidative stress during chromate reduction". Ackerley, D. F.; Barak ... Barak Y, Ackerley DF, Dodge CJ, Banwari L, Alex C, Francis AJ, Matin A (November 2006). "Analysis of novel soluble chromate and ... Matin has also studied bacterial bioremediation of the carcinogens chromate Cr(VI) and uranyl U(VI), which are wide-spread ...
One uses a fuze strip (containing barium chromate and powdered zirconium metal in a ceramic paper) along the edge of the heat ... Another mixture is 46.67 wt.% of titanium, 23.33% of amorphous boron, and about 30% barium chromate. Yet another one is 45 wt ... Another composition in use is zirconium with barium chromate. ... tungsten, 40.5% barium chromate, 14.5% potassium perchlorate, ...
2 C2H4N4 + C2H5N3O2 → 2C3H5N5O + NH3 Ammeline is weakly acidic with pKa ~9. It can form nitrate, sulfate, chromate, and oxalate ...
Dichromate and chromate salts are oxidizing agents. For the tanning of leather, sodium dichromate is first reduced with sulfur ...
Chromic acid and chromates. CAS No: Varies. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Chromic acid and chromates. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause asthma. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause nasal ulceration. This may result in perforation of the nasal septum. The substance may have effects on the kidneys. This may result in kidney impairment. This substance is carcinogenic to humans. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxicity to human reproduction or development ...
Media in category "Sodium chromate". The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Sodium_chromate&oldid=32604858" ...
Butyl chromate, tert-. CAS No: 1189-85-1. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Butyl chromate, tert-. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Chromate or chromat, and their derived terms, may refer to: Chromate and dichromate, ions Monochromate, an ion Trichromate, an ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chromate. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... ion Tetrachromate, an ion Chromate conversion coating, a method for passivating metals Monochromacy (monochromate) having one ...
The substance may have effects on the blood, bone marrow, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and kidneys. Repeated or prolonged inhalation may cause nasal ulceration. This may result in perforation of the nasal septum. Repeated or prolonged contact may cause skin sensitization. This substance is carcinogenic to humans. May cause toxicity to human reproduction or development ...
Calcium chromate is an inorganic compound with the formula CaCrO4, i.e. the chromate salt of calcium. It is a bright yellow ... Calcium chromate is formed from the salt metathesis reaction of sodium chromate and calcium chloride: Na2CrO4 + CaCl2 → CaCrO4 ... The compound is occasionally used as a yellow inorganic pigment, or a corrosion inhibitor as part of the chromate conversion ... Chromium (VI) compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). "Calcium chromate 10827-V". ntp.niehs.nih.gov. National ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Sodium Chromate Cr-51. Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection (JAN) is known as Sodium Chromate Cr-51 in the US. ... Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection. Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection may be available in the countries listed below. ...
Silver chromate 98%; CAS Number: 7784-01-2; EC Number: 232-043-8; Synonym: Chromic acid, disilver(I)salt; Linear Formula: ...
Using zinc chromate as a standard, it was discovered that barium chromate is both genotoxic and cytotoxic. The cytotoxicity was ... Barium chromate, named barium tetraoxochromate(VI) by the IUPAC, is a yellow sand like powder with the formula BaCrO4. It is a ... Barium chromate has been found to be useful in many capacities. The compound is often used as a carrier for the chromium ions. ... Barium chromate is an oxidizing agent, making it useful as a burn rate modifier in pyrotechnic compositions. It is especially ...
Sodium Chromate Cr-51 Injection is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in a diagnostic test to determine the presence of a disease ... Covidien and FDA announced the recall of one lot [#370-9004] of Mallinckrodt Sodium Chromate Cr-51 Injection as a result of ... Mallinckrodt Sodium Chromate Cr-51 Injection. July 10, 2009. Audience: Hematology and Nuclear Medical healthcare professionals ...
Thallium Chromate Tl2CrO4 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... About Thallium Chromate. Thallium Chromate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Thallium Chromate. Chemical Manufacturing. Chromates. Research & Laboratory. ... Adsorption mechanisms of chromate and phosphate on hydrotalcite: A combination of macroscopic and spectroscopic studies. ...
Testing Status of Sodium chromate tetrahydrate M88034. CASRN: 10034-82-9. Formula: Cr-O4.2Na.4H2-O. Synonyms/Common Names. * ...
Once released into soil, it is likely that much of the chromium (VI) present will be reduced to chromium (III). Toxicity data are available for chromium (VI) in soil, but it is also likely that in these experiments the majority of the chromium present will be converted to chromium (III) during the test. Chromium (III) has generally been shown to be less toxic than chromium (VI) to soil organisms. For Cr(VI) LC50 and EC50 values were 146 and 792 mg Cr(VI)/kg dry soil. An NOEC value of 32 mg Cr(III)/kg dry soil was observed. ...
European Union Risk Assessment Report: chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium ...
Chromate(1-), bis(benzenamine)tetrakis(thiocyanato-N)-, ammonium (9CI) Regulatory process names 1 Other identifiers 1 ...
Sodium chromate is a chemical compound composed of sodium ions and chromate ions. It is a bright yellow crystal chemical. It is ... similar to potassium chromate. It is a strong oxidizing agent. It is toxic because it contains chromium in the +6 oxidation ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_chromate&oldid=6191181" ...
It can also be used to make lead chromate for paint. Safety[change , change source]. Potassium chromate is very toxic. It is a ... Potassium chromate is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is K2CrO4. It has potassium and chromate ions. ... Potassium chromate is found very rarely as a mineral. It dissolves easily in water. It is only found in very dry places. ... It reacts with lead nitrate to make lead chromate, a yellow pigment. ...
Sodium chromate, 98+%, anhydrous, Acros Organics 5g; Plastic bottle Chemicals:Other Inorganic Compounds:Inorganic Sodium ...
... Standard: CrO4(-2) @ 10000 µg/mL in H2O 100 mL VHG-I1PCRO-100 ... Chromate Standard: CrO4(-2) @ 10000 µg/mL in H2O 500 mL VHG-I1PCRO-500 ... Chromate Standard: CrO4(-2) @ 1000 µg/mL in H2O 100 mL VHG-ICRO-100 ... Chromate Standard: CrO4(-2) @ 1000 µg/mL in H2O 500 mL VHG-ICRO-500 ...
... was developed in order to improve the old method by alleviating the environmental problems associated with the toxic chromate. ... Determination of Chlorinity of Water without the Use of Chromate Indicator. Tae-Kee Hong. ,1 Myung-Hoon Kim,2 and Myung-Zoon ... Determination of Chlorinity of Water without the Use of Chromate Indicator,. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry,. ... Titration of halides, iodate, chromate, and secondary phosphate," Bunseki Kagaku, vol. 20, p. 522, 1971. View at: Google ...
... chromate explanation free. What is chromate? Meaning of chromate medical term. What does chromate mean? ... Looking for online definition of chromate in the Medical Dictionary? ... chro·mate. (krōmāt), A salt of chromic acid.. chromate. /chro·mate/ (kro´māt) any salt of chromic acid.. chromate (CrO4 2-). ... chromate. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to chromate: lead chromate, Barium chromate, ...
Reaction mass of Chromate(1-), [N-[7-hydroxy-8-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-1-naphthalenyl]acetamidato(2-)][1-[(2-hydroxy-5- ... with N-cyclohexylcyclohexanamine (1:1) and hydrogen bis[1-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphtholato(2-)]chromate(1-) , ...
2. Cite violations resulting from employee exposure to zinc chromate and dichromate as well as other chromates and dichromates ... the permissible exposure to lead chromate is, in effect, lowered to less than 25 percent of what the chromates standard (29 CFR ... and would provide greater protection to workers exposed to lead chromate than would be provided under the chromates standard. ... 2. Certain chromate compounds are suspected to be carcinogenic, and since no safe levels of exposure to carcinogenic substance ...
What is potassium chromate? Meaning of potassium chromate medical term. What does potassium chromate mean? ... Looking for online definition of potassium chromate in the Medical Dictionary? potassium chromate explanation free. ... potassium chromate. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. potassium chromate. K2CrO4, carcinogenic ... Potassium chromate , definition of potassium chromate by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Dipotassium Chromate, Neutral Potassium chromate
Shelf Life (months): 36
Storage: Blue ... Synonyms: Dipotassium Chromate, Neutral Potassium chromate. Shelf Life (months): 36. Storage: Blue. ... Potassium Chromate Reagent. 100 g. Crystal. Each (100g). Retrieving. Clearance . Act quickly! These items have limited quantity ... Potassium Chromate Reagent. 500 g. Crystal. Each (500g). Retrieving. Clearance . Act quickly! These items have limited quantity ...
Potassium chromate , K2CrO4 or CrK2O4 , CID 24597 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification ...
Abstract: Chromate (CrO42-) adsorption was investigated on kaolinite (0.2-2 µm) saturated with NaClO4 over a range of pH. ... Key Words: Adsorption • Chromate • Kaolinite • Sulfate • Surface complex. Clays and Clay Minerals; August 1988 v. 36; no. 4; p ... The adsorption of both chromate and sulfate can be described in terms of a site-binding model of the kaolinite edge, in which ... Chromate Adsorption by Kaolinite. J. M. Zachara, C. E. Cowan, R. L. Schmidt and C. C. Ainsworth ...
Concomitant microbial generation of palladium nanoparticles and hydrogen to immobilize chromate. Environmental Science and ... where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of chromate. ...
  • Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection may be available in the countries listed below. (drugs.com)
  • Sodium Chromate (⁵¹ Cr) Injection (JAN) is known as Sodium Chromate Cr-51 in the US. (drugs.com)
  • Alternatively, it can be created by the interaction of barium chloride with sodium chromate . (wikipedia.org)
  • It can react with barium hydroxide in the presence of sodium azide to create barium chromate(V) . The reaction releases oxygen and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covidien and FDA announced the recall of one lot [#370-9004] of Mallinckrodt Sodium Chromate Cr-51 Injection as a result of routine post-market testing in which the product was found to be subpotent. (drugs.com)
  • Sodium Chromate Cr-51 Injection is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in a diagnostic test to determine the presence of a disease known as Polycythemia rubra vera. (drugs.com)
  • Sodium chromate is a chemical compound composed of sodium ions and chromate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We offer our customers an excellent quality range of Sodium Bi Chromate. (tradeindia.com)
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Sodium chromate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Sodium chromate Cr 51 (Chromitope®) injections were withdrawn from the US market by Bracco Diagnostics on July 15, 2012. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • You should not receive this medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to sodium chromate Cr 51. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • This study covers the world outlook for chromium compounds excluding sodium bichromate and sodium chromate across more than 190 countries. (marketresearch.com)
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for chromium compounds excluding sodium bichromate and sodium chromate. (marketresearch.com)
  • This study investigated the performance of potassium dichromate and potassium chromate inhibitors on the corrosion of steel rebar in concrete partially immersed in sulfuric acid and sodium chloride medium. (springer.com)
  • In the inhibitor concentrations used, the statistically analyzed experimental results identified 0.145 M potassium chromate as exhibiting the best inhibiting quality in sulfuric acid whereas the synergetic admixture of 0.032 M potassium dichromate and 0.097 M potassium chromate was predicted as showing the lowest probability of corrosion risk in sodium chloride solution. (springer.com)
  • Afolabi, A.S.: Synergistic Inhibition of Potassium Chromate and Sodium Nitrite on Mild Steel in Chloride Sulphide Media (2008). (springer.com)
  • Other properties identical to those of unlabeled sodium chromate. (drugfuture.com)
  • Iron III Nitrate with Sodium Chromate. (rebelwithoutacarproductions.com)
  • However, the argentometry with the Mohr or Mohr-Knudsen method [ 1 , 5 , 7 ], which is based on appearance of the red color of silver chromate precipitate at the equivalence point raises concerns with environment problems because of the toxicity of the chromate with a hexavalent chromium. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the years, the most widely used conversion coatings for magnesium alloys have been based on hexavalent chromium, also known as hex-chrome or chromate. (energy.gov)
  • Metrohm Process Analytics is pleased to present a solution for the online monitoring of chromate (hexavalent chromium) in industrial wastewater streams. (labmate-online.com)
  • López-Bucio, José 2014-06-14 00:00:00 Soil contamination by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) or chromate] due to anthropogenic activities has become an increasingly important environmental problem. (deepdyve.com)
  • The compound is occasionally used as a pigment, but this usage is limited due to the very toxic and carcinogenic nature of haxavalent chromium compounds such as chromate salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound is occasionally used as a yellow inorganic pigment, or a corrosion inhibitor as part of the chromate conversion coating procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is used as a corrosion inhibitive pigment when zinc-alloy electroplating surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pigment known as lemon yellow often contained barium chromate mixed with lead sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It reacts with lead nitrate to make lead chromate , a yellow pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major studies pinpointing Cr(VI) as a human lung carcinogen have been performed on workers involved in chromate production, chromate pigment production and chromium plating. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromium (VI) compounds are … Iron(III) chromate, a yellow powder used as a pigment in paints, contains 24.3% Fe, 33.9% Cr, and 41.8% O. It is commonly presents in its hydrated … Use the Common Ion Table to find the formula and charge for the sulfate ion. (rebelwithoutacarproductions.com)
  • It still has the telltale green of aviation zinc chromate paint on one side. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. Cite violations resulting from employee exposure to zinc chromate and dichromate as well as other chromates and dichromates under 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2 (PEL 0.1 mg/m3). (osha.gov)
  • E-Chrome Ultra is a high-quality line of corrosion-inhibiting chromates for zinc that produces exceptional colors, superior salt spray protection, and fade resistance. (epi.com)
  • While it may be somewhat confusing in that it is sometimes used with another finish when masked off, such as either hardcoat or sulfuric anodize, but when we say secondary post treatment it is meant as a chromate over another finish such as Zinc or Cadmium. (anoplate.com)
  • Chromates are what give the color options such as yellow, black, or olive drab to Zinc or Cadmium finishes. (anoplate.com)
  • IES pigments were originally developed and introduced in the 1980s (8), (9) as nonhazardous, environmentally compliant alternatives to traditional anticorrosive pigments, such as chromates and lead pigments, as well as the existing zinc phosphate anticorrosive pigments. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Animal studies illustrate that slightly soluble and highly insoluble Cr(VI) particulates such as chromates of zinc, lead, strontium, barium, and sintered calcium consistently induced a tumor response, albeit with variable efficacy (reviewed by IARC 1990). (freethesaurus.com)
  • SrCrO 4 (203.612) Zinc Chromate … Properties. (rebelwithoutacarproductions.com)
  • Barium chromate , named barium tetraoxochromate(VI) by the IUPAC , is a yellow sand like powder with the formula BaCrO 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first naturally occurring barium chromate was found in the country of Jordan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hashemite crystals are not composed of pure barium chromate but instead contain some small sulfur content as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be synthesized by reacting barium hydroxide or barium chloride with potassium chromate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate has been found to be useful in many capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such case is the use of barium chromate as a sulfate scavenger in chromium electroplating baths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding barium chromate enhances the life of the bath by adding to the chromic acid concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is an oxidizing agent, making it useful as a burn rate modifier in pyrotechnic compositions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When mixed with solid fumaric acid , barium chromate can be used in the removal of impurities and residual moisture from organic dry-cleaning solvents or from petroleum fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is also used in the composition of a catalyst for alkane dehydrogenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate (CAS 10294-40-3) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on barium chromate market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • It captures barium chromate market trends, pays close attention to barium chromate manufacturers and names suppliers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Besides, the report provides barium chromate prices in regional markets. (marketpublishers.com)
  • In addition to the above the report determines barium chromate consumers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Barium chromate (CAS 10294-40-3) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that Barium chromate (CAS 10294-40-3) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • This instruction provides guidance for citing violations resulting from employee exposure to chromates, dichromates and chromic acid mist. (osha.gov)
  • 1. OSHA has been citing all violations resulting from employee exposure to chromic acid mist, or dust from chromates and dichromates under 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2. (osha.gov)
  • Iron Chromate is generally immediately available in most volumes, including bulk quantities.American Elements can produce materials to custom specifications by request, in addition to custom compositions for commercial and research applications and new proprietary technologies. (rebelwithoutacarproductions.com)
  • thus, declines in chromate pigments will slow as they are replaced by various organic and complex inorganic types. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Four years ago, the EU Commission granted the Canada-based paint manufacturer Dominion Colour Corporation (DCC) authorisation to use toxic lead chromates in red and yellow paint pigments. (chemsec.org)
  • LINK: [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng0003.html International Chemical Safety Card] == Additional Information == H. Kuhn, M.Curran, "Chrome Yellow and Other Chromate Pigments", ''Artists Pigments, Volume 1, R. Feller (ed. (mfa.org)
  • Chromate is useful in many industries - in the production of pigments and dyes for textiles, paints and colored glass, anodized or plated onto metals for surface finishing applications, as an oxidizing agent to tan and process leather, and as a corrosion inhibitor in industrial cooling towers. (labmate-online.com)
  • 2. Certain chromate compounds are suspected to be carcinogenic, and since no safe levels of exposure to carcinogenic substance have been demonstrated, it has been OSHA's policy to attempt to minimize worker exposure to them to the greatest extent feasible. (osha.gov)
  • Fourier transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy, as well as other techniques have been used to test a putative, non-carcinogenic metal coating material based on molybdate to replace chromate for corrosion protection of aluminium in the automobile, aerospace and engineering industries. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Carcinogenic chromates are now banned in consumer and automotive products, but their use in the defence and aerospace industries is exempted in the absence of viable alternatives. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The particulate form, for example lead chromate, has been determined to be the most toxic and carcinogenic form. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calcium chromate is an inorganic compound with the formula CaCrO4, i.e. the chromate salt of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the chromate-responsive proteome derived under defined minimal growth conditions was characterized predominantly by up-regulated proteins related to cell envelope biogenesis, inorganic ion transport, and motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative analysis indicated that the core molecular response to chromate, irrespective of the nutritional conditions tested, comprised seven up-regulated proteins belonging to six different functional categories including transcription, inorganic ion transport/metabolism, and amino acid transport/metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Cite violations resulting from employee exposure to lead chromate and dichromate under the lead standard, 29 CFR 1910.1025. (osha.gov)
  • However, the overall probabilistic results rated potassium chromate as the best inhibitor compared to potassium dichromate in most of the other concentrations investigated in the study, especially in concrete structures exposed to saline environments. (springer.com)
  • Most of be emphasis is centered on the traditional metal oxides, such as chromate or permanganate salts, in spite of the hazards and waste management concerns associate with them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exposure to chromate salts has been reported to produce skin and nasal ulcerations with continued exposure leading to perforation of the nasal septa. (espimetals.com)
  • The coating could replace chromate coatings, which have been used in aerospace and other applications for more than half a century. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Materials scientists have been attempting to find ways to replace chromate coatings with non-toxic alternatives since the 1980s. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The main obstacle until now for finding a viable replacement is that chromate coatings can "self heal" if they are damaged or scratched whereas no previous alternative has had that property. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Now, Chidambaram and colleagues have demonstrated how a new molybdate-based formulation can perform comparably well to chromate coatings and undergo self-healing. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The objective of this research project was to develop a chromium-free zeolite coating that has comparable thickness to chromate conversion and anodization coatings and equivalent or superior performance in coating adhesion, corrosion protection, abrasion resistance, and paint adhesion. (epa.gov)
  • We have shown that high-silica zeolite ZSM-5 coatings on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 (AA-2024-T3) and other metals offer remarkably better corrosion resistance than chromate conversion coating and anodization coating in strong acids and bases (0.5 M NaOH), and pitting aggressive environments (Cheng, et. (epa.gov)
  • Although chromate free conversion coatings are available, the corrosion resistance they offer, in the absence of the ability to self-heal, does not match that of the CCC. (energy.gov)
  • Describes methods for the determination of: - the presence of colourless chromate conversion coatings. (saiglobal.com)
  • For ease of explanation we are going to further sub-divide this category into steel conversion coatings, chromate conversion coatings, and anodize which is covered elsewhere. (anoplate.com)
  • Chromate conversion coatings are a varying group that can be done as a stand alone finish, used by itself, or as a secondary post finish treatment, used over a metal plating. (anoplate.com)
  • AnoChem TCP replaces hexavalent chromate conversion coatings used for aluminum alloys without sacrificing corrosion resistance, electrical contact resistance or organic topcoat adhesion properties while meeting regulatory requirements of ROHS, WEEE and ELV legislation. (anoplate.com)
  • The adsorption of both chromate and sulfate can be described in terms of a site-binding model of the kaolinite edge, in which the edge is viewed as composite layers of Al and Si oxide. (clays.org)
  • In response to chromate stress, L. chromiiresistens forms biofilms, which are held together via extracellular DNA. (nih.gov)
  • As a new cellular response to chromate stress, we observed an increased production of the carotenoid lutein. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium chromate is very toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new method for determining chlorinity of water was developed in order to improve the old method by alleviating the environmental problems associated with the toxic chromate. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, chromate is reduced intracellularly to the less-toxic Cr(III). (nih.gov)
  • IMPORTANCE Chromate is a highly toxic oxyanion. (nih.gov)
  • Chromate (CrO 4 2- ) adsorption was investigated on kaolinite (0.2-2 µm) saturated with NaClO 4 over a range of pH. (clays.org)
  • Adsorption increased with decreasing pH because of protonation of chromate and/or variable charge sites on kaolinite. (clays.org)
  • Chromate adsorption at different sorbate and sorbent concentrations increased below the pH zpc for the kaolinite edge, suggesting the formation of weak surface complexes. (clays.org)
  • Surface complexation constants for CrO 4 2- on kaolinite were similar to those for alumina, pointing to the importance of Al-OH edge sites in chromate adsorption. (clays.org)
  • Different models were tested to access the sorption maxima and to probe into the chromate adsorption mechanism. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Though, the adsorption of chromate on carbon materials has been studied previously. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The present study not only focuses to probe into the mechanism of chromate adsorption onto activate carbon but also to evaluate the thermodynamic feasibility of the process. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • a property which is enhanced by the high solubility of chromate and its affinity for leaching. (labmate-online.com)
  • What is the solubility (in mol/L) of silver chromate in 1.4 M potassium chromate aqueous solution? (jiskha.com)
  • A saturated solution of lead chromate, pbcro4 has a lead ion concentration of 1.4 x 10^-7 m. what is the value of the solubility product ksp for lead chromate? (jiskha.com)
  • Solid calcium chromate will react explosively with hydrazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.mindat.org Occupational Safety And Health Guideline For Calcium Chromate Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine IARC (2012) [17-24 March 2009]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium chromate 10827-V". ntp.niehs.nih.gov. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-corrosive, strontium chromate primer semi matt green, used on its own, or as a base for use with either the IP3 or IP9064 epoxy or IP6 polyurethane ranges. (indestructible.co.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data illustrate that repetitive exposure to particulate chromate induces chronic injury and an inflammatory microenvironment that may promote Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies have not been done of particulate Cr(VI) after oral exposure, but given the low pH of the stomach, it is likely that these exposures would ultimately become exposures to soluble Cr(VI) as particulate chromates dissolve at low pH. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The analytical methods recommended in the Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Waste Water [ 15 ] and the Official and Standardized Method of Analysis [ 16 ] are: (1) argentometric titration with silver nitrate using potassium chromate indicator, (2) titration with mercuric nitrate using s-diphenylcarbazone indicator, and (3) potentiometric titration using a glass and a silver-silver chloride electrode. (hindawi.com)
  • The suspended NH3 and hydrogen chloride can recombine in the atmosphere and form small particles of ammonium chloride which can settle on and contaminate the chromate bath or the water used for quenching stages as well as all galvanized pieces lying on the floor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • as long as there is chloride present, any silver chromate that forms will disappear as the silver gets taken out of solution by the silver chloride. (rebelwithoutacarproductions.com)
  • Potassium Chromate Indicator for Silver - Chloride Titrations. (suratchemical.com)
  • From the results we have so far, I am certain that we can develop a viable treatment for former industrial sites where chromate compounds are a problem," said Dr Stewart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Are Trivalent Chromates really Hexavalent Chromates? (epi.com)
  • Are Trivalent Chromates really Hexavalent Chromates after Salt Spray Testing? (epi.com)
  • The latest Plating Surface Finishing magazine has an article by Tom Rochester that states that trivalent chromates under salt spray testing result in hexavalent chrome when using the diphenyl carbizide indicator test. (epi.com)
  • Do they certify that the salt spray cabinet has no hexavalent chrome in that cabinet while they are doing salt spray of trivalent chromates? (epi.com)
  • I remember one time we were doing testing on a trivalent chromate and we put some panels in and my chemist Mark Kulas informed me that we had an unusual failure after 24 hours. (epi.com)
  • EPi has created two product lines for trivalent chromates that will help a variety of metal pass salt spray tests: E-Chrome Ultra and E-PASSivate. (epi.com)
  • EPi's environmentally friendly lines of trivalent yellow chromate and trivalent blue chromate processes meet many European Union initiatives. (epi.com)
  • All units are phosphate washed, caulked with polyurethane sealant to prevent rust in seams, and painted with an epoxy primer using an acrylic enamel paint that is lead and chromate free. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Potassium Chromate. (researchbeam.com)
  • Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Silver chromate is sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions. (jiskha.com)
  • occurs accidentally as a result of exposure to chromate residues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. The comprehensive standard for occupational exposure to lead is also applicable to lead chromate, and would provide greater protection to workers exposed to lead chromate than would be provided under the chromates standard. (osha.gov)
  • By instructing compliance officers to cite violations under the new lead standard, 29 CFR 1910.1025 (PEL 50 ug/m3), the permissible exposure to lead chromate is, in effect, lowered to less than 25 percent of what the chromates standard (29 CFR 1910.1000, PEL 0.1mg/m3) would allow. (osha.gov)
  • protective provisions not found in the provisions applicable to chromates, such as exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, medical removal protection, and worker training and education. (osha.gov)
  • To further understand the mechanisms developed by these bacteria to tolerate chromate, a proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins involved in chromate stress response of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from a fly ash dumping site. (ajol.info)
  • Pure culture of bacteria using chromates and bichromates as hydrogen acceptors during development under anaerobic conditions]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results suggest a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of chromate. (rti.org)
  • The extreme chromate tolerance and the unique set of resistance factors suggest the use of L. chromiiresistens as a new model organism to study microbial chromate resistance. (nih.gov)
  • These proteins might potentially serve as indicators of chromate stress in natural microbial communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of biofilm formation leads to drastically decreased chromate tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Leucobacter chromiiresistens is a highly chromate-resistant strain, tolerating chromate concentrations in LB medium of up to 400 mM. (nih.gov)
  • Reduction of high concentrations of chromate by Leucobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EPi offers high-quality chromates and passivates for a variety of metals. (epi.com)
  • As they age, the small lead chromate particles are completely reduced to chromium oxide, while larger ones maintain a core of lead chromate that is coated in a shell of chromium oxide. (freethesaurus.com)
  • It was concluded that the anion exchange sorption was involved in removing the chromate anion from the aqueous system into the surface of activated carbon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Activated carbon is a good choice to be used for the decontamination of water from chromate anion because of its high surface area and excellent performance as compared to its counterparts reported in the literature [20]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This series shows a progression as potassium chromate (K2CrO4) is added drop by drop to a test tube containing silver nitrate (AgNO3). (sciencephoto.com)
  • calculate the minimum concentration of ag+ ion that must be added to (or built up in) a 0.140 m Na2CrO4 solution in order to initiate a precipitation of silver chromate. (jiskha.com)
  • Lead chromate can range in shade from lemon yellow to orange depending on its particle size and hydration state. (mfa.org)
  • Specifies requirements for solvent-borne, lead and chromate free, anticorrosive metal primer applied to ships and equipment. (saiglobal.com)
  • citation needed] All applications suffer from the high toxicity of chromium(VI) species to humans, with chromates listed as IARC Group 1 carcinogens while also very corrosive (e.g. capable of producing permanent eye damage) and genotoxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromate species is of particular concern because of its appreciable migratory potential and the resultant threat to groundwater supplies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Staphylococci species resistant to chromate were previously isolated from a fly ash dumping site. (ajol.info)
  • Potential detoxifying microorganisms are often not sufficient in their resistance characteristics to effectively perform, e.g., chromate reduction or biosorption. (nih.gov)