Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Chromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Proteins that enhance gene expression when associated with ligand bound activated NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. The coactivators may act through an enzymatic process that affects the rate of transcription or the structure of chromatin. Alternatively nuclear receptor coactivators can function as adaptor proteins that bring nuclear receptors into close proximity with transcriptional complexes.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.p-Aminoazobenzene: Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Polyvinylpyridine N-Oxide: Inhibits the cytotoxic action of quartz and is reported to have delayed the development of experimental silicosis in rats.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Isethionic Acid: A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.

Chromate efflux by means of the ChrA chromate resistance protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1/216)

Everted membrane vesicles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 harboring plasmid pCRO616, expressing the ChrA chromate resistance protein, accumulated four times more (51)CrO(4)(2-) than vesicles from plasmidless cells, indicating that a chromate efflux system functions in the resistant strain. Chromate uptake showed saturation kinetics with an apparent K(m) of 0.12 mM chromate and a V(max) of 0. 5 nmol of chromate/min per mg of protein. Uptake of chromate by vesicles was dependent on NADH oxidation and was abolished by energy inhibitors and by the chromate analog sulfate. The mechanism of resistance to chromate determined by ChrA appears to be based on the active efflux of chromate driven by the membrane potential.  (+info)

Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers. (2/216)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMR 0.93) or of lung cancer (SMR 1.02). Workers routinely exposed to TCE, PCE, or a mixture of solvents also were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMRs 0.86, 1.07, and 0.89, respectively), and the numbers of deaths for specific cancer sites were close to expected values. Slight to moderately increased rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were found among workers exposed to TCE or PCE, but none was significant. A significant increase in testicular cancer was found among those with exposure to mixed solvents, but the excess was based on only six deaths and could not be linked to any particular solvent or job activity. Internal cohort analyses showed no significant trends of increased risk for any cancer with increasing years of exposure to chromate or solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases. Our findings support previous studies of aircraft workers in which cancer risks were generally at or below expected levels.  (+info)

Purification to homogeneity and characterization of a novel Pseudomonas putida chromate reductase. (3/216)

Cr(VI) (chromate) is a widespread environmental contaminant. Bacterial chromate reductases can convert soluble and toxic chromate to the insoluble and less toxic Cr(III). Bioremediation can therefore be effective in removing chromate from the environment, especially if the bacterial propensity for such removal is enhanced by genetic and biochemical engineering. To clone the chromate reductase-encoding gene, we purified to homogeneity (>600-fold purification) and characterized a novel soluble chromate reductase from Pseudomonas putida, using ammonium sulfate precipitation (55 to 70%), anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE Sepharose CL-6B), chromatofocusing (Polybuffer exchanger 94), and gel filtration (Superose 12 HR 10/30). The enzyme activity was dependent on NADH or NADPH; the temperature and pH optima for chromate reduction were 80 degrees C and 5, respectively; and the K(m) was 374 microM, with a V(max) of 1.72 micromol/min/mg of protein. Sulfate inhibited the enzyme activity noncompetitively. The reductase activity remained virtually unaltered after 30 min of exposure to 50 degrees C; even exposure to higher temperatures did not immediately inactivate the enzyme. X-ray absorption near-edge-structure spectra showed quantitative conversion of chromate to Cr(III) during the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

Apoptosis and P53 induction in human lung fibroblasts exposed to chromium (VI): effect of ascorbate and tocopherol. (4/216)

Some forms of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] are known to cause damage to respiratory tract tissue, and are thought to be human lung carcinogens. Because Cr(VI) is mutagenic and carcinogenic at doses that evoke cell toxicity, the objective of these experiments was to examine the effect of Cr(VI) on the growth, survival, and mode of cell death in normal human lung fibroblasts (HLF cells). DNA adduct formation was monitored as a marker for bioavailability of genotoxic chromium. We also examined the modulation of these endpoints by vitamins C and E. Long-term Cr(VI) exposures were employed, which decreased clonogenic cell survival by 25% to 95% in a dose-dependent manner. The predominant cellular response to Cr(VI) was growth arrest. We found that Cr(VI) caused up to 20% of HLF cells to undergo apoptosis, and documented apoptotic morphology and the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells. P53 levels increased 4- to 6-fold in chromium-treated cells. In contrast with previous studies using CHO cells, the present study using HLFs found that pretreatment with either vitamin C or E did not exhibit a significant effect on Cr-induced apoptosis or clonogenic survival. In addition, pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the p53 induction observed after chromium treatment. Neither vitamin had any effect on Cr-DNA adduct formation. These data indicate that although pretreatment with vitamin C or E alters the spectrum of cellular and/or genetic lesions induced by chromium(VI), neither vitamin altered the initiation or progression of apoptosis in diploid human lung cells.  (+info)

Organization-dependent effects of toxic bivalent ions microtubule assembly and glycolysis. (5/216)

The effects of bivalent ions on tubulin dynamics and the upper phase of glycolysis were investigated at different organization levels in vitro. Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and CrO4(2-) inhibit the tubulin polymerization at an IC50 of 14-24 microM with high cooperativity and also induce microtubule disassembly. The apparent binding constants of the ions to tubulin, estimated by fluorescence quenching, vary between 6 and 28 microM. BIAcore measurements for tubulin-tubulin interaction suggest that the presence of Cu2+ affects neither koff nor kon, but the amount of the bound tubulin. While the inhibitory effect of Cu2+ on tubulin polymerization is partially abolished by cross-linking of microtubules with substoichiometric amounts of phosphofructokinase or decoration of tubules with cytosolic proteins, in the presence of kinase but not with cytosolic proteins the tubules are resistant to CrO4(2-). No inhibitory effect of Cu2+ or CrO4(2-) on microtubule assembly was detected in the MAP-containing cytosolic fraction. Electron microscopy revealed that tubules assembled in the presence of Cu2+ or CrO4(2-) ions contain aggregates of thread-like oligomers that are less conspicuous in the presence of cytosolic proteins. Cu2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ inhibit the glycolytic flux in the cytosolic fraction characterized at equilibrium by an IC50 of 10-14 microM with high cooperativity. Tubulin diminishes the inhibitory effect of the cations. These data indicate that the responses elicited by the bivalent ions are highly dependent on the supramolecular organization of the systems.  (+info)

Activation of JNK, p38 and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases by chromium(VI) is mediated through oxidative stress but does not affect cytotoxicity. (6/216)

In this study we have explored the involvement of oxidative stress in Cr(VI)-induced JNK, p38 and ERK signaling pathways and their effects on Cr(VI) cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung carcinoma CL3 cells. Exposure to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) markedly activated JNK and p38 and moderately activated ERK in a dose- (10-80 microM) and time-dependent (1-12 h) manner. The activated p38 decreased markedly and rapidly and the activated JNK decreased gradually when Cr(VI) was removed from the medium. Post-incubation of Cr(VI)-treated cells with H(2)O(2) increased the activities of JNK and p38, but not ERK. Co-administering Cr(VI) with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole (3AT), a catalase inhibitor, enhanced p38 activation, but did not influence JNK and ERK activation by Cr(VI). Conversely, co-administering Cr(VI) with mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger and a Cr(V) chelator, reduced p38 activation and increased JNK and ERK activation by Cr(VI). These results indicate that p38 activation by Cr(VI) is positively correlated with oxidative stress, while JNK activity can be enhanced by either a quencher (mannitol) or activator (H(2)O(2)) of redox reactions in Cr(VI)-exposed CL3 cells. However, both 3AT and mannitol reduced the cytotoxicity of Cr(VI), but H(2)O(2) did not. The JNK activated by Cr(VI) was decreased (approximately 50%) by expression of a kinase-defective form of MKK7 (MKK7A) but not that of MKK4 (MKK4KR), suggesting that activation of JNK by Cr(VI) is mediated through MKK7. SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38, markedly decreased JNK but did not change ERK activation by Cr(VI). PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK kinases MKK1/2, blocked ERK and p38 but did not alter JNK activation by Cr(VI). Neither the specific kinase inhibitors nor expression of MKK7A altered Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that activation of the JNK, p38 and ERK pathways by Cr(VI) is mediated through diverse redox mechanisms, yet their activation does not correlate with Cr(VI) cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Cyclosporin A inhibits chromium(VI)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial cytochrome c release and restores clonogenic survival in CHO cells. (7/216)

A variety of key events in the molecular apoptotic pathway involve the mitochondria. Cyclosporin A (csA) affects the mitochondria by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), thereby preventing disruption of the transmembrane potential. The role of the MPT in apoptosis is not fully understood, but inhibition of the MPT may prevent the release of mitochondrial caspase activators, such as cytochrome c (cyt c), into the cytosol. Certain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are known occupational respiratory tract toxins and carcinogens. We have previously shown that these compounds induce apoptosis as a predominant mode of cell death and that this effect can be observed in cell culture using soluble Cr(VI). We show here that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells involves disruption of mitochondrial stability. Using a cyt c-specific monoclonal antibody, we observed a dose-dependent release of mitochondrial cyt c in cytosolic extracts of CHO cells exposed to apoptogenic doses of sodium chromate. Co-treatment of these cells with csA inhibited the release of cyt c and abrogated Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis as determined by a reduction in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Co-treatment with csA also markedly increased clonogenic survival of Cr(VI)-treated CHO cells. In contrast, the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK markedly inhibited most of the morphological and biochemical parameters of apoptosis but did not prevent cyt c release and did not increase clonogenic survival. These results suggest that the MPT plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial cyt c release and that this may be a critical point in the apoptotic pathway in which cells are irreversibly committed to death.  (+info)

Chromate reduction by a pseudomonad isolated from a site contaminated with chromated copper arsenate. (8/216)

A pseudomonad (CRB5) isolated from a decommissioned wood preservation site reduced toxic chromate [Cr(VI)] to an insoluble Cr(III) precipitate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. CRB5 tolerated up to 520 mg of Cr(VI) liter(-1) and reduced chromate in the presence of copper and arsenate. Under anaerobic conditions it also reduced Co(III) and U(VI), partially internalizing each metal. Metal precipitates were also found on the surface of the outer membrane and (sometimes) on a capsule. The results showed that chromate reduction by CRB5 was mediated by a soluble enzyme that was largely contained in the cytoplasm but also found outside of the cells. The crude reductase activity in the soluble fraction showed a K(m) of 23 mg liter(-1) (437 microM) and a V(max) of 0.98 mg of Cr h(-1) mg of protein(-1) (317 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)). Minor membrane-associated Cr(VI) reduction under anaerobiosis may account for anaerobic reduction of chromate under nongrowth conditions with an organic electron donor present. Chromate reduction under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions may be a detoxification strategy for the bacterium which could be exploited to bioremediate chromate-contaminated or other toxic heavy metal-contaminated environments.  (+info)

  • This instruction provides guidance for citing violations resulting from employee exposure to chromates, dichromates and chromic acid mist. (
  • 1. OSHA has been citing all violations resulting from employee exposure to chromic acid mist, or dust from chromates and dichromates under 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2. (
  • thus, declines in chromate pigments will slow as they are replaced by various organic and complex inorganic types. (
  • LINK: [ International Chemical Safety Card] == Additional Information == H. Kuhn, M.Curran, "Chrome Yellow and Other Chromate Pigments", ''Artists Pigments, Volume 1, R. Feller (ed. (
  • Chromate is useful in many industries - in the production of pigments and dyes for textiles, paints and colored glass, anodized or plated onto metals for surface finishing applications, as an oxidizing agent to tan and process leather, and as a corrosion inhibitor in industrial cooling towers. (
  • IES pigments were originally developed and introduced in the 1980s (8), (9) as nonhazardous, environmentally compliant alternatives to traditional anticorrosive pigments, such as chromates and lead pigments, as well as the existing zinc phosphate anticorrosive pigments. (
  • In response to chromate stress, L. chromiiresistens forms biofilms, which are held together via extracellular DNA. (
  • As a new cellular response to chromate stress, we observed an increased production of the carotenoid lutein. (
  • Comparative analysis indicated that the core molecular response to chromate, irrespective of the nutritional conditions tested, comprised seven up-regulated proteins belonging to six different functional categories including transcription, inorganic ion transport/metabolism, and amino acid transport/metabolism. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data illustrate that repetitive exposure to particulate chromate induces chronic injury and an inflammatory microenvironment that may promote Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. (
  • Studies have not been done of particulate Cr(VI) after oral exposure, but given the low pH of the stomach, it is likely that these exposures would ultimately become exposures to soluble Cr(VI) as particulate chromates dissolve at low pH. (
  • Most of be emphasis is centered on the traditional metal oxides, such as chromate or permanganate salts, in spite of the hazards and waste management concerns associate with them. (
  • Exposure to chromate salts has been reported to produce skin and nasal ulcerations with continued exposure leading to perforation of the nasal septa. (
  • occurs accidentally as a result of exposure to chromate residues. (
  • 1. Cite violations resulting from employee exposure to lead chromate and dichromate under the lead standard, 29 CFR 1910.1025. (
  • 2. Cite violations resulting from employee exposure to zinc chromate and dichromate as well as other chromates and dichromates under 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2 (PEL 0.1 mg/m3). (
  • 3. The comprehensive standard for occupational exposure to lead is also applicable to lead chromate, and would provide greater protection to workers exposed to lead chromate than would be provided under the chromates standard. (
  • By instructing compliance officers to cite violations under the new lead standard, 29 CFR 1910.1025 (PEL 50 ug/m3), the permissible exposure to lead chromate is, in effect, lowered to less than 25 percent of what the chromates standard (29 CFR 1910.1000, PEL 0.1mg/m3) would allow. (
  • protective provisions not found in the provisions applicable to chromates, such as exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, medical removal protection, and worker training and education. (
  • By contrast, the chromate-responsive proteome derived under defined minimal growth conditions was characterized predominantly by up-regulated proteins related to cell envelope biogenesis, inorganic ion transport, and motility. (
  • To further understand the mechanisms developed by these bacteria to tolerate chromate, a proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins involved in chromate stress response of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from a fly ash dumping site. (
  • Pure culture of bacteria using chromates and bichromates as hydrogen acceptors during development under anaerobic conditions]. (
  • Our results suggest a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of chromate. (
  • The extreme chromate tolerance and the unique set of resistance factors suggest the use of L. chromiiresistens as a new model organism to study microbial chromate resistance. (
  • These proteins might potentially serve as indicators of chromate stress in natural microbial communities. (
  • Inhibition of biofilm formation leads to drastically decreased chromate tolerance. (
  • However, the overall probabilistic results rated potassium chromate as the best inhibitor compared to potassium dichromate in most of the other concentrations investigated in the study, especially in concrete structures exposed to saline environments. (
  • Anion Exchange Sorption of Chromate from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon. (
  • It was concluded that the anion exchange sorption was involved in removing the chromate anion from the aqueous system into the surface of activated carbon. (
  • Activated carbon is a good choice to be used for the decontamination of water from chromate anion because of its high surface area and excellent performance as compared to its counterparts reported in the literature . (
  • Potential detoxifying microorganisms are often not sufficient in their resistance characteristics to effectively perform, e.g., chromate reduction or biosorption. (
  • However, there was significant negative publicity surrounding chromates wrought in 1993 by Erin Brokovich and the subsequent dramatisation of events in the eponymous 2000 movie. (