Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Nitroso CompoundsNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Nitrosation: Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Anemarrhena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).Equol: A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.DimethylformamideIndenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias: Primary headache disorders that show symptoms caused by the activation of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. These autonomic features include redness and tearing of the EYE, nasal congestion or discharge, facial SWEATING and other symptoms. Most subgroups show unilateral cranial PAIN.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)HungaryPublications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (1/1004)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Acute troglitazone action in isolated perfused rat liver. (2/1004)

1. The thiazolidinedione compound, troglitazone, enhances insulin action and reduces plasma glucose concentrations when administered chronically to type 2 diabetic patients. 2. To analyse to what extent thiazolidinediones interfere with liver function, we examined the acute actions of troglitazone (0.61 and 3.15 microM) on hepatic glucose and lactate fluxes, bile secretion, and portal pressure under basal, insulin- and/or glucagon-stimulated conditions in isolated perfused rat livers. 3. During BSA-free perfusion, high dose troglitazone increased basal (P < 0.01), but inhibited glucagon-stimulated incremental glucose production by approximately 75% (10.0 +/- 2.5 vs control: 40.0 +/- 7.2 micromol g liver(-1), P < 0.01). In parallel, incremental lactate release rose approximately 6 fold (13.1 +/- 5.9 vs control: 2.2 +/- 0.8 mmol g liver(-1), P < 0.05), while bile secretion declined by approximately 67% [0.23 +/- 0.02 vs control: 0.70 +/- 0.05 mg g liver(-1) min(-1)), P < 0.001]. Low dose troglitazone infusion did not enhance the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-stimulated glucose production, but rapidly increased lactate release (P < 0.0005) and portal venous pressure (+0.17 +/- 0.07 vs +0.54 +/- 0.07 cm buffer height, P < 0.0001). 4. These results indicate that troglitazone exerts both insulin-like and non-insulin-like hepatic effects, which are blunted by addition of albumin, possibly due to troglitazone binding.  (+info)

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. (3/1004)

gamma-Tocotrienol (gamma-T3), a naturally occurring analog of tocopherol (vitamin E), has been shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect in animals and humans. Unlike tocopherol, it has also been shown to reduce plasma apoB levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism of action of gamma-T3 on hepatic modulation of apoB production using cultured HepG2 cells as the model system. HepG2 cells preincubated with gamma-T3 were initially shown to inhibit the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a maximum 86+/-3% inhibition at 50 micromol/L observed within 6 hours. gamma-T3, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the uptake of [14C]glycerol into pools of cellular triacylglycerol and phospholipid relative to untreated control. The rate of apoB synthesis and secretion was then studied by an [35S]methionine pulse-labeling experiment and quantified by immunoprecipitating apoB on chasing up to 3 hours. An average reduction of 24+/-3% in labeled apoB in the media was apparent with gamma-T3 despite a 60+/-2% increase in apoB synthesis. Fractionation of secreted apoB revealed a relatively denser lipoprotein particle, suggesting a less stable particle. Using a digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell system, the effects of gamma-T3 on apoB translocation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum were further investigated. The generation of a specific N-terminal 70-kDa proteolytic fragment proved to be a sensitive measure of the rate of apoB translocation and degradation. The abundance of this fragment increased significantly in gamma-T3-treated cells relative to untreated control cells (50+/-21%) after 2 hours of chase. In addition, the presence of gamma-T3 resulted in an average decrease of 64+/-8% in intact apoB. Taken together, the data suggest that gamma-T3 stimulates apoB degradation possibly as the result of decreased apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apoB into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.  (+info)

Hemodynamic basis for the acute cardiac effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. (4/1004)

Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione used for the treatment of NIDDM and potentially for other insulin-resistant disease states. Troglitazone has recently been shown to increase cardiac output and stroke volume in human subjects. These actions are thought to be mediated by the reduction of peripheral resistance, but a potential direct effect on cardiac function has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the direct cardiac hemodynamic effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. Five groups of hearts were studied. Hearts were tested under isovolumetric contraction with a constant coronary flow, and troglitazone (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 micromol) was administered by bolus injection. Peak isovolumetric left ventricular pressure (LVPmax), peak rate of rise of LVP (dP/dt(max)), and peak rate of fall of LVP (dP/dt(min)) were significantly increased 1 min after troglitazone administration in a dose-dependent manner, while the heart rate (HR) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). HR was then fixed by pacing and/or CPP was fixed with nitroprusside to eliminate any effect of the two variables on the action of troglitazone. With constant HR and/or constant CPP, the effect of troglitazone on LVPmax, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min) was still unchanged. In addition, the positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, and negative chronotropic actions of troglitazone were not influenced even when hearts were pretreated with prazosin, propranolol, or nifedipine. In conclusion, troglitazone has direct positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, negative chronotropic, and coronary artery dilating effects. The inotropic and chronotropic actions of troglitazone are not mediated via adrenergic receptors or calcium channels. These findings have important clinical implications for diabetic patients with congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release. (5/1004)

We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis.  (+info)

Induction of solid tumor differentiation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone in patients with liposarcoma. (6/1004)

Agonist ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma have been shown to induce terminal differentiation of normal preadipocytes and human liposarcoma cells in vitro. Because the differentiation status of liposarcoma is predictive of clinical outcomes, modulation of the differentiation status of a tumor may favorably impact clinical behavior. We have conducted a clinical trial for treatment of patients with advanced liposarcoma by using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone, in which extensive correlative laboratory studies of tumor differentiation were performed. We report here the results of three patients with intermediate to high-grade liposarcomas in whom troglitazone administration induced histologic and biochemical differentiation in vivo. Biopsies of tumors from each of these patients while on troglitazone demonstrated histologic evidence of extensive lipid accumulation by tumor cells and substantial increases in NMR-detectable tumor triglycerides compared with pretreatment biopsies. In addition, expression of several mRNA transcripts characteristic of differentiation in the adipocyte lineage was induced. There was also a marked reduction in immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, a marker of cell proliferation. Together, these data indicate that terminal adipocytic differentiation was induced in these malignant tumors by troglitazone. These results indicate that lineage-appropriate differentiation can be induced pharmacologically in a human solid tumor.  (+info)

Inhibition of LDL oxidation in vitro but not ex vivo by troglitazone. (7/1004)

Diabetic subjects are at increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, in part because of increased oxidation of LDL, which promotes atherogenesis. Troglitazone, a new antidiabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione class, acts as an insulin sensitizer and improves hyperglycemia. Structurally, it contains a tocopherol moiety similar to vitamin E and has been shown to have antioxidant properties in vitro. Therefore, we evaluated whether troglitazone inhibited LDL oxidation both in vitro and in type 2 diabetic subjects ex vivo. Troglitazone inhibited oxidation of LDL induced by Cu2+ or 2'2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane hydrochloride (AAPH) with 50% inhibition at 1 micromol/l and 100% inhibition at 5-10 micromol/l troglitazone. The inhibition of LDL oxidation by troglitazone also was time dependent. In addition, troglitazone inhibited oxidation of 125I-labeled LDL and its subsequent uptake and degradation by macrophages. To determine whether troglitazone was incorporated into LDL particles or acted in the aqueous milieu, troglitazone was incubated overnight at 37 degrees C with LDL or plasma before LDL re-isolation. After re-isolation, LDL that was incubated with troglitazone was no longer protected from oxidation, compared with probucol-treated LDL, which remained protected. Further, [14C]troglitazone did not get incorporated into LDL. This suggests that troglitazone exerts its antioxidant effect in the aqueous milieu of LDL. Consistent with this was the observation that the lag phases of copper-induced conjugated diene formation, a measure of the susceptibility in vivo, was similar for subjects taking troglitazone (76 +/- 5 min, n = 9) to subjects not taking the drug (77 +/- 3 min, n = 11; NS). Thus, troglitazone may be of value as an aqueous-phase antioxidant in addition to its effect on glucose homeostasis.  (+info)

Agonist-inverse agonist characterization at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of L759633, L759656, and AM630. (8/1004)

We have tested our prediction that AM630 is a CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligand and also investigated whether L759633 and L759656, are CB2 receptor agonists. Binding assays with membranes from CHO cells stably transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors using [3H]-CP55940, confirmed the CB2-selectivity of L759633 and L759656 (CB2/CB1 affinity ratios = 163 and 414 respectively) and showed AM630 to have a Ki at CB2 receptors of 31.2 nM and a CB2/CB1 affinity ratio of 165. In CB2-transfected cells, L759633 and L759656 were potent inhibitors of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with EC50 values of 8.1 and 3.1 nM respectively and CB1/CB2 EC50 ratios of > 1000 and > 3000 respectively. AM630 inhibited [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to CB2 receptor membranes (EC50 = 76.6 nM), enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB2-transfected cells (5.2 fold by 1 microM), and antagonized the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in this cell line induced by CP55940. In CB1-transfected cells, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was significantly inhibited by AM630 (22.6% at 1 microM and 45.9% at 10 microM) and by L759633 at 10 microM (48%) but not 1 microM. L759656 (10 microM) was not inhibitory. AM630 also produced a slight decrease in the mean inhibitory effect of CP55940 on cyclic AMP production which was not statistically significant. We conclude that AM630 is a CB2-selective ligand that behaves as an inverse agonist at CB2 receptors and as a weak partial agonist at CB1 receptors. L759633 and L759656 are both potent CB2-selective agonists.  (+info)

*Chromane

Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. Chromene (benzopyran) Media related to benzodihydropyrans at Wikimedia ...

*Ormeloxifene

Structure-activity relation of 3,4-diphenylchromenes and -chromans". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (2): 276-9. doi:10.1021 ...

*Hericenone

"Chromans, hericenones F, G and H from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum". Phytochemistry. 32: 175-178. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92) ...

*Alexander Dianin

... rapid cyclisation reactions producing flavans and chromans occur. This is the source of Dianin's compound in the mixture, and ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... chromans MeSH D03.438.150.240.190 --- catechin MeSH D03.438.150.240.225 --- centchroman MeSH D03.438.150.266 --- chromones MeSH ... chromans MeSH D03.830.219.240.190 --- catechin MeSH D03.830.219.240.225 --- centchroman MeSH D03.830.219.266 --- chromones MeSH ...
This letter is written to clarify several statements in the article "Update in Endocrinology" [1]. First, the article stated that neutropenia may occur in up to 20% of patients receiving troglitazone. It seems that this statement is based on data from Kumar and coworkers [2]. The actual report referenced states "… there was a decrease in the neutrophil count (to less than 0.9 times the lower limit of normal) in 9-20% of patients receiving troglitazone, with the highest incidences at the highest doses, although similar decreases were seen in 9% of patients on placebo." The data from the U.S. studies (n = 2510 patients), as cited in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved labeling for troglitazone, indicated that "small decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit and neutrophil counts (within the normal range) were more common in troglitazone-treated patients than placebo patients and may be related to increased plasma volume seen with troglitazone treatment" [3]. Troglitazone does not appear to ...
Metabolites of α‐ and γ‐tocopherol, 2,5,7,8‐tetramethyl‐2‐(2′‐carboxyethyl)‐6‐hydroxychroman (α‐CEHC) and 2,7,8‐trimethyl‐2‐(β‐carboxyethyl)‐6‐hydroxychroman (γ‐CEHC), respectively, are produced in the liver and have been measured in biological fluids and tissue
This is the first report on the effect of troglitazone on the gastrointestinal tract. Troglitazone is a new, orally effective antidiabetic agent that decreases plasma glucose in insulin-resistant obese and/or diabetic rodent models in which sulfonylureas are ineffective. Unfortunately, troglitazone has a propensity to cause edema, which in most instances has been reversible with the use of diuretics. A mild decrease in red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels was more prevalent in the troglitazone group than in the placebo group (Kosaka et al., 1993). We have shown that troglitazone inhibits the electrogenic bicarbonate secretion, probably via a direct action on duodenal epithelia. It is generally believed that electrogenic HCO3−secretion is accompanied by passive Na+ and water movement toward the intestinal lumen via a paracellular pathway (Powell, 1986). Troglitazone therefore may evoke a tendency to retain water in the body of patients.. Walker et al. (1998) reported that ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Piperidylmethyl-substituted chroman derivatives as active ingredients for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system by H. Heine et al.
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A number of analytical methods exist for the evaluation of oxidative stress. Some of these directly measure the accumulation of oxidizing species or of oxidized products, while other methods measure the defence capacity of the organism against oxidation, which is referred to as the specific or the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Amongst these TAC methods, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assays which involve the use of radicals of compounds such as N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) or 2,2’-azinobis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), have attracted the attention of biochemists and analysts due to their operational simplicity. These methods are based upon the spectrophotometric measurement of the antioxidant activity of body fluids, herbal extracts, fruits, vegetables and other food samples and have certain limitations with regard to their application range, stability and environmental fate. In the present study we have improved upon the ...
Troglitazone (Rezulin, Resulin, Romozin, Noscal) is an antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, and a member of the drug class of the thiazolidinediones. It was prescribed for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo (Japan). In the United States, it was introduced and manufactured by Parke-Davis in the late 1990s, but turned out to be associated with an idiosyncratic reaction leading to drug-induced hepatitis. The F.D.A. medical officer assigned to evaluate troglitazone, John Gueriguian, did not recommend its approval due to potential high liver toxicity; Parke-Davis complained to the FDA and Gueriguian was subsequently removed from his post. A full panel of experts approved it in January 1997. Once the prevalence of adverse liver effects became known, troglitazone was withdrawn from the British market in December 1997, from the United States market in 2000, and from the Japanese market soon afterwards. It did not get approval in the rest of Europe. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Thiazolidinedione, Glitazone, Rosiglitazone, Avandia, Pioglitazone, Actos, Troglitazone, Rezulin.
Background: The risk of myocardial infarction, macular oedema and bone fractures associated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) has been extensively investigated. Objective: The aim of the study was to ve
We report the synthesis of new compounds 4-35 based on two different openings (A and B) of the chromane ring present in the previously identified 5-HT1A ...
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The CD-200 is the new CD-only player from TASCAM, the professional-audio division of TEAC (footnote 1). It has unbalanced analog outputs, and RCA and optical digital outputs. The CD-200 also has a new transport, the CD-5020A, designed by TEAC for audio use.
Previous studies have demonstrated low vitamin E concentrations in infants at birth, and deficient levels in preterm and low birth weight newborns. Low vitamin E has been associated with an increased risk of hemolytic anemia, detrimental fibroplasias, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and thrombocytosis. It was suggested to supplement pregnant women with vitamin E in order to increase fetal stores, but studies have found that while supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal plasma concentrations, it does not increase the fetal vitamin E concentrations. Thus, the transfer of vitamin E across the placenta is limited. Studies of placental tissue demonstrate that the placenta expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes that are involved in vitamin E metabolism, suggesting that it might actively metabolize this nutrient, and thus prevent vitamin E accumulation in the fetal tissues. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine vitamin E metabolites, carboxyethyl hydroxychromans (α- and γ-CEHC), in umbilical
Recently mitochondria in cancer cells have emerged as the Achilles heel for tumour destruction. Anti-cancer agents specifically targeting cancer cell mitochondria are referred to as mitocans. These compounds act by destabilising these organelles, unleashing their apoptogenic potential, resulting in the efficient death of malignant cells and suppression of tumour growth. Importantly, at least some mitocans are selective for cancer cells, and these are represented by the group of redox-silent vitamin E analogues, epitomised by a-tocopheryl succinate (a-TOS). This compound has proven itself in pre-clinical models to be an efficient anti-cancer agent, targeting complex II of the respiratory chain to displace ubiquinone binding. We propose that disrupting the electron flow of mitochondrial complex II results in generation of superoxide, triggering mitochondrial destabilisation and initiation of apoptotic pathways. Moreover, a-TOS is selective for cancer cells with their reduced anti-oxidant ...
Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR) and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM); which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC) generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TM
Purpose : The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a critical role in lipid homeostasis in the retina. A growing body of evidence suggests that dysfunctional lipid metabolism, accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and inflammasome activation are associated with RPE dysfunction and the pathogenesis of dry AMD. We have previously shown that ox-LDL is cytotoxic for RPE by inflammasome-mediate pyroptosis. We hypothesize that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) will increase lipid metabolism and suppress inflammation, and thereby rescue RPE cells from ox-LDL induced cell death. Methods : ARPE-19 and/or primary human fetal RPE cells were treated for 48 hours with a range of concentrations of ox-LDL in the presence or absence of different agonists that selectively activate the three different PPAR isoforms: PPAR-α (fenofibrate 30 μM), PPAR-γ (troglitazone 0.55 μM), and PPAR-β/δ (bezafibrate 60 μM). Cell death was measured by lactate ...
EIPA-modulated retrograde movement of lysosomes depended on the activity of Rab7, a GTPase known to traffic late endosomes and lysosomes towards the nucleus (Johansson et al., 2007) and the Rab7 effector RILP, which is similar to the mechanism of Troglitazone-induced retrograde lysosome trafficking (Steffan and Cardelli, 2010). In fact, lysosomes in Rab7-KD- and DN-RILP-expressing cells were more peripherally located than in vector control cells. Also, HGF-induced invasion by Rab7-KD cells was not blocked by EIPA, in contrast to control cells. Finally, Fig. 6 demonstrates that Rab7-KD cells were more invasive and secreted more cathepsin B than control cells in the absence of HGF. We conclude that a more peripheral cellular location of lysosomes may be important in regulating invasion, and that EIPA blocks invasion by stimulating retrograde lysosome transport or preventing anterograde movement.. In support of this idea, overexpression of WT-RILP induced lysosome aggregation near the nucleus and ...
In the present placebo-controlled study, we report that the increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal after 3 months of troglitazone treatment was associated with an increased Ser473 phosphorylation of PKB at basal and clamp insulin concentrations. Because our study population consisted of insulin-resistant subjects with a genetic background for type 2 diabetes but normal glucose tolerance, the treatment did not alter the plasma glucose concentration. The observed increases of PKB phosphorylation and glucose disposal were therefore independent of a normalization of plasma glucose levels that by itself could have lead to a normalization of insulin signaling and action (29-31).. PKB has been proposed to be an intermediate in the signaling pathway by which insulin, among other things, controls glucose uptake (17, 19, 20). Although there remains some controversy with respect to the exact role of PKB in the insulin signaling toward glucose uptake (38, 39), strong lines of evidence indicate that ...
The insulin-sensitizing compound troglitazone has evolved into a promising therapeutic agent for type II diabetes. It improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein metabolic profiles and lowers blood pressure in humans and rodents. Because troglitazone has insulinlike effects on a number of tissues, we hypothesized that it may reduce vascular tone through stimulation of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) production or by diminution of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Our results show that troglitazone decreases norepinephrine-induced contractile responses in the rat tail artery, an effect not reversed by the NO inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In contrast, troglitazone significantly inhibited L-type Ca2+ currents in freshly dissociated rat tail artery and aortic VSMCs and in cultured VSMCs. The data suggest that troglitazone attenuates vascular contractility via a mechanism involving VSMC [Ca2+]i but independent from endothelial generation of ...
S. W. Leonard and Traber, M., "Measurement of the vitamin E metabolites, carboxyethly hydroxychromans (CEHCs), in biological samples", in Current Protocols in Toxicology, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006, pp. 7.8.1-7.8.12. ...
yTrolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, mg Trolox/g tea (Trolox is a water soluble analogue of vitamin E).. Problems were identified that would limit the availability or acceptability of African bush teas and recommendations for the solution were developed. Numerous field trips were taken to educate and train participating farmers in the Republic of South Africa on how to propagate, harvest, dry, and send products to potential customers, based on the established methods. Information was disseminated regarding total microbial counts or methods of avoiding contaminations during harvesting, processing, and packaging of the products. Lack of well-trained African partners who understand the issues of quality and standards for the preparation of the raw material from the ground up was another problem that was identified during this work. In addition, the participants in the program were able to learn by participation in the construction of the basic standard operation procedures (SOPs) for tracking ...
ratio-Pioglitazone: Pioglitazone is a member of the family of medications known as thiazolidinediones. It is used to lower high blood sugar associated with type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone help insulin to work more effectively.
Were focusing on the lifes work of thousands of amazingly talented individuals in an archival, enjoyably readable format. The collected edition is a big deal.. TRO has the potential to be a really amazing resource. I like to think it already is.. And I want to be open about how the site operates every step of the way. So thats why Im sharing all this with you guys.. TRO has started to be come a real community, with forum discussions and a steady stream of review submissions. Not to mention much needed advice. Some of you have also asked me about a donation button (and I guess I should probably figure out how that works very soon.). I appreciate your friendship and help. Its amazing to see this little dream take shape. The participation keeps me going.. The next few months might be a little bumpy as I do whatever I have to to survive - taking odd jobs, selling stuff I dont really need, getting serious about selling my own art, trying to launch a separate local business - but TRO is a ...
Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds. AU - Chang, Su Feng. AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. AU - Yen, Gow Chin. PY - 2008/1/15. Y1 - 2008/1/15. N2 - The antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of extracts from Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit (ODHF) and its active compounds on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ODHF in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assays were in the order of seed , peel , pulp. The lag time of conjugated diene formation in Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was increased by incubation of LDL with various methanolic extracts of ODHF. The methanolic extracts from seed, peel and pulp prolonged the lag time compared to control (154.1 min) to 514.8, 163.9 and 190.2 min, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Among the extracts, seed extracts of ...
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT) is a member of the vitamin E family. Our preliminary studies indicated that it protected mice from lethal irradiation, so we hypothesized that GT might be a radiation sensitizing agent for tumors. To test this, we induced prostate tumors by injecting PC3 cells into nude BALB/c mice. When the tumors were about 5 mm in diameter, mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg gamma-tocotrienol and irradiated 24 h later at the site of the tumor with a dose of 12 Gy (60) Cobalt. Tumor size was monitored for 24 days after radiation. Tumor tissues as well as normal tissues like rectum, kidney, and liver were monitored for lipid peroxidation on day 4 and day 24 after radiation. The results indicated that the size of the tumors was reduced by almost 40%, but only in GT-treated and irradiated mice. In unstimulated and Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation groups, lipid peroxidation in the tumors from irradiated mice increased to 135% and 150%, respectively, four days after irradiation ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah].
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MP-513 (Teneligliptin) in combination with thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) in patients with type 2 Diabetes for 12 weeks administration and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MP-513 in combination with thiazolidinedione with an extension treatment for up to 52 weeks ...
Compounds of the formula ##STR1## where the symbols have the meaning defined in the specification have retinoid-like biological activity.
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Product Page for Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols 125 mg 30 Softgels made by nutricology offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
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Ashok Krishnaswami, MD, FACC; Shalini Ravi-Kumar, MD; John M Lewis, MD Fall 2010 - Volume 14 Number 3 Abstract A large number of cardiology clinical trials have mortality as an endpoint unless adequate surrogate endpoints are available. Alt
2011 (Swedish)In: Motståndets möjligheter: Filosofiska repliker till Eberhard Herrmann / [ed] Lena Edlund et al, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag , 2011, 57-73 p.Chapter in book (Other academic) ...
T00845 (acav,adh,amin,apom,arn,arx,asoc,ato,bacs,balt,bara,barw,bcae,bko,camg,cmb,def,fln,frm,gli,gtm,lagl,les,lzy,mbov,mee,ntp,ntt,parb,part,pcx,pht,ppoa,ptu,rhu,sbj,sgv,slau,smal,sphd,sscu,sya,tpaf,trl : calculation not yet completed ...
Complications like allergies, swelling, heart failure happen due to side-effects of medications. Find out when should diabetics should not take tzds.
Profilová stránka súčasného poslanca Európskeho parlamentu - História pôsobenia v Parlamente obsahuje členstvo v politických skupinách, vnútroštátnych stranách, parlamentných výboroch a delegáciách, ako aj parlamentné činnosti v predchádzajúcich volebných obdobiach a vyhlásenie o finančných záujmoch z predchádzajúceho volebného obdobia
LEYLA and MEJNUNTranslated by Sofi Nuri LXVIIIHerein is set forth the Epilogue to this Section of the Story of Leyla and Mejnun.With so roach zest and fervour prayed MejnunA guerdon asking for his tro
In the first part, the preparation and properties of chalcogen-containing vitamin E analogues are described. The sulfur compound 3,3,4,6,7-pentamethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-5-ol was prepared by two different routes using ionic and radical chemistry. Interesting rearrangements were observed in the two synthetic pathways. A new methodology for the synthesis of dihydroselenophene and dihydrotellurophene derivatives is described. In the preparation of the vitamin E analogues 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophene-5-ol and 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]tellurophene-5-ol a tellurium-mediated tandem SRN1/SHi sequence was suggested to be operative. 2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene-5-ol and the vitamin E-like selenide 2-methyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecyl)-selenochroman-6-ol were prepared via intramolecular homolytic substitution at sulfur and selenium, respectively. The first rate constant for intramolecular homolytic substitution at tellurium is also reported (5x108 s-1 at 25 °C). The antioxidant profile for ...
The antioxidant activities of five medicinal plants (Ampelopsis sinica, Ampelopsis humiliforlia var. heterophylla, Potentilla freyniana, Selaginella labordei and Chrysanthemum multiflorum), used in the Hubei province of China, have been investigated using both enzymatic and non-enzymatic in vitro antioxidant assays. Extracts from all five of the plants inhibited xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase activities, and were scavengers of the ABTS*+ radical cation using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC). Extracts from Potentilla freyniana and Selaginella labordei down-regulated cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, measured by real-time RT-PCR, in human colon adenocarcinoma CaCo-2 cells.. ...
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of vitamin E analogs, especially gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), on hepatic TG accumulation and enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism in three types of rat primary hepatocytes: (1) normal hepatocytes, (2) hepatocytes incubated in the presence of palmitic acid (PA), and (3) hepatocytes with fat accumulation. Our results showed that γ-T3 significantly reduced the TG content of normal hepatocytes. γ-T3 also increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1A) mRNA, and tended to reduce that of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA. In addition, γ-T3 markedly suppressed the gene expression of both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and SREBP-1c induced by PA. As these two genes are located downstream of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, their suppression by γ-T3 might result from a decrease of ER stress. Moreover, γ-T3 suppressed the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which lies downstream of ...
Ciglitazone (INN) is a thiazolidinedione. Developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals in the early 1980s, it is considered the prototypical compound for the thiazolidinedione class. Ciglitazone was never used as a medication, but it sparked interest in the effects of thiazolidinediones. Several analogues were later developed, some of which-such as pioglitazone and troglitazone-made it to the market. Ciglitazone significantly decreases VEGF production by human granulosa cells in an in vitro study, and may potentially be used in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Ciglitazone is a potent and selective PPARγ ligand. It binds to the PPARγ ligand-binding domain with an EC50 of 3.0 µM. Ciglitazone is active in vivo as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in the ob/ob murine model. Inhibits HUVEC differentiation and angiogenesis and also stimulates adipogenesis and decreases osteoblastogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells. Pershadsingh HA, Szollosi J, Benson S, Hyun WC, Feuerstein BG, Kurtz TW (June 1993). ...
Our study finds that coffee consumption or ex vivo treatment of cells with caffeine significantly improves migration of ECs and EPCs by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Importantly, AMPK also contributed to the enhanced reendothelialization induced by caffeine in vivo. The beneficial influence of caffeine on reendothelialization seen in the mouse model could be explained by both migration of mature ECs as well as attachment of circulating EPCs, accelerating recovery of the endothelial monolayer. Several studies have documented the fundamental role of EPCs in the healing process of vascular endothelium alone,26 after mobilization with GM-colony stimulating factor (CSF),27 erythropoietin,28 or pretreatment with statins,3 estrogen29,30 or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone.31 So far, two studies have investigated a potential role of AMPK for migration at least in mature ECs. Nagata et al have shown that overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the AMPK ...
Our study finds that coffee consumption or ex vivo treatment of cells with caffeine significantly improves migration of ECs and EPCs by an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Importantly, AMPK also contributed to the enhanced reendothelialization induced by caffeine in vivo. The beneficial influence of caffeine on reendothelialization seen in the mouse model could be explained by both migration of mature ECs as well as attachment of circulating EPCs, accelerating recovery of the endothelial monolayer. Several studies have documented the fundamental role of EPCs in the healing process of vascular endothelium alone,26 after mobilization with GM-colony stimulating factor (CSF),27 erythropoietin,28 or pretreatment with statins,3 estrogen29,30 or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone.31 So far, two studies have investigated a potential role of AMPK for migration at least in mature ECs. Nagata et al have shown that overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the AMPK ...
It helps the body use vitamin A, maintains cell membranes. Contributes to healthy skin and hair, protecting healthy cells from destruction by free radicals.. Only until recently vitamin E was thought to be composed of several tocophenols. A new class of compounds related to tocophenols have been discovered and they are called tocotrienols. There are 4 named tocotrienols at this moment and additional 20 unnamed tocotrienols have been discovered.. This powder contains alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols. Tocopherol is usually found in drugstores as supplements or as an additive to fortified products. Their molecules have a long tail with no double bonds. This makes its anti oxidative capacity lower than tocotrienols which have a short tail with 3 double bonds. This structure enables the vitamin to perform more efficiently. Tocotrienols occur naturally in certain foods but in a small dose.. ingredients :Stabilised rice bran, rice bran extract, rice germ. all natural and processed without any ...
If there are differences in the hepatic processing of α-tocopherol in smokers, this may also be observed by monitoring vitamin E metabolite production. Vitamin E is metabolized in the liver by CYP (cytochrome P450)-induced ω-oxidation followed by consecutive β-oxidation, yielding CEHCs (carboxyethylhydroxychromans) which are present in both plasma and urine. Tocopherols appear to be preferentially metabolized by different CYPs and to different extents. α-Tocopherol is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, but only a small fraction of the dose (,1%) is found as α-CEHC [30], whereas γ-tocopherol is primarily metabolized by CYP4F2 and is extensively converted into γ-CEHC [31]. In a study using labelled synthetic (all rac) and natural (RRR) α-tocopherol (when given simultaneously), the synthetic form of α-tocopherol was metabolized to a greater extent than the natural form [32]. These studies highlight the selective metabolism of vitamin E forms other than α-tocopherol. However, α-tocopherol ...
Heart health - Consumption of tocotrienols is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease.. Lipid management - Clinical studies demonstrate that tocotrienols lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, and effectively lower triglyceride levels. Elevation of either of these lipid levels is associated with heart disease and metabolic syndrome.. Free radical damage control - Tocotrienols protect the bodys approximately 75 trillion cells from oxidative damage.. Anti-inflammation - Tocotrienols control inflammatory mechanisms including reduction of atherogenic lipoprotein (a) and inhibition of the sticky adhesion molecules present in early stages of atherosclerosis.. Eye health - Tocotrienols reduce angiogensis, and may slow down the process of retinopathy and macular degeneration. Angiogenesis is involved in the abnormal growth of blood vessels in eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness.. Brain health - Tocotrienols improve carotid ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) plays a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is the target of many drug discovery studies, because of its role in various disease states including diabetes and cancer. Thiazolidinediones, a synthetic class of agents that work by activation of PPAR?, have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a combination of QSAR and docking methods were utilised to perform virtual screening of more than 25 million compounds in the ZINC library. The QSAR model was developed using 1,517 compounds and it identified 42,378 potential PPAR? agonists from the ZINC library, and 10,000 of these were selected for docking with PPAR? based on their diversity. Several steps were used to refine the docking results, and finally 30 potentially highly active ligands were identified. Four compounds were subsequently tested for their in vitro activity, and one compound was found to have a K i values ...
Antioxidant activity determined using TEAC method.Gallic acid was used as standard in place of trolox. Gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GEAC; µg/mL
Increased oxidative stress plays a significant role in the etiology of bone diseases. Heightened levels of H2O2 disrupt bone homeostasis, leading to greater bone resorption than bone formation. Organochalcogen compounds could act as free radical trapping agents or glutathione peroxidase mimetics, reducing oxidative stress in inflammatory diseases. In this report, we synthesized and screened a library of organoselenium and organotellurium compounds for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, using macrophagic cell lines RAW264.7 and THP-1, as well as human mono- and poly-nuclear cells. These cells were stimulated to release H2O2, using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, with and without organochalogens. Released H2O2 was then measured using a chemiluminescent assay over a period of 2 h. The screening identified an organoselenium compound which scavenged H2O2 more effectively than the vitamin E analog, Trolox. We also found that this organoselenium compound protected MC3T3 cells against H2O2 -induced ...
We found that a novel antidiabetic drug, TRO, relaxed the medial strips of the porcine coronary artery by decreasing [Ca2+]i and by shifting the [Ca2+]i-force relation to the right in smooth muscle. The rightward shift of [Ca2+]i-force relation indicated the decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus as a whole. The decrease in [Ca2+]i was mainly caused by an inhibition of Ca2+ influx and partly caused by an inhibition of agonist/receptor-mediated Ca2+ release. TRO completely inhibited [Ca2+]i increase and Mn2+ influx induced by 100 nmol/L U46619, but only partially inhibited those induced by 30 mmol/L K+, although these two stimulations induced similar [Ca2+]i elevation and Mn2+ influx. This finding suggested that there was a difference in efficacy of TRO in inhibiting Ca2+ influx between stimulation with U46619 and K+ depolarization. On the other hand, although 60 mmol/L K+ induced similar force development to that obtained with 100 nmol/L U46619, TRO inhibited U46619-activated ...
A method for the prevention and/or treatment of skin or hair damage, particularly inflammation and aging of skin and hair damage from sunlight and chemicals, in which a tocotrienol, a derivative thereof or a vitamin E preparation enriched with tocotrienol or a tocotrienol derivative, is topically applied to the exposed or affected skin or hair areas. A fat-soluble fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid such as palmityl ascorbate is preferably applied with the tocotrienol in association with a dermatologically acceptable carrier.
We strongly recommend restrictions in the use of thiazolidinediones (the class of drugs) and question the rationale for leaving rosiglitazone on the market," write Sonal Singh, M.D., M.P.H., assistant professor of internal medicine, and Curt D. Furberg, M.D., Ph.D., professor of public health sciences. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are the two major thiazolidinediones ...
Full Spectrum Tocotrienols Enhanced Absorption Tocotrienols are members of the Vitamin E family with unique biological activities.* Tocotrienols are powerful fr
In our effort for synthesis of selective COX2 inhibitors, certain new 2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives were synthesized. It necessitates preparation of potassium salt of 2,4-thiazolidinedione 2, whic
When they were compared to people who were taking combinations of other diabetes drugs, people who took rosiglitazone on its own had a 60% increased risk of congestive heart failure[3], a 40% increased risk of heart attack, and a 29% increased risk of dying.. While other studies have associated rosiglitazone with an increased risk of heart attack and both thiazolidinedione[4] drugs (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone [Actos]) with an increased risk of congestive heart failure, this was the first study to link rosiglitazone with an increase in mortality rates.. While the new study did not link pioglitazone with the same increase in risks, 50% fewer people examined in the study took pioglitazone than rosiglitazone, which the researchers say could have skewed the results. They have called for further studies of both drugs in the thiazolidinedione class.. It is important to note that observational studies such as this one do not provide the same quality of evidence as randomized, controlled clinical ...
As part of new CytoActives, formerly Ageless Actives™, Isagenix has now added tocotrienols. So what are tocotrienols and why is the Isagenix Research and Science team so enthusiastic to incorporate them into a product designed to support cellular health?
Purpose of Review Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are the only pharmacologic agents that specifically treat insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of TZDs on the cardiovascular risk factors associated...
(HealthDay) -- Thiazolidinediones are associated with a lower risk of liver and colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the May issue of Hepatology.
Buy high quality 5-[[4-(2-Cyclohexylethoxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]methylene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione 1239610-60-6 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Nalijme si ist ho v na! S takov m heslem jde do eurovoleb Strana venkova - spojen ob ansk s ly. Nen divu: jej m l drem je f Vinohradsk a vina sk unie Ji Sedlo. Jsme jedinou stranou v t to zemi, kter se stav za na e zem d lce, venkov jako celek, zd raz uje.
Ahoj! My máme taký problém, že náš malý Patrik /11,5 mesiac/ má tvrdú stolicu. Vykaká sa do nočníka ale niekedy máva trošilinka krvavý zadoček. Nie je to červená krv ale taká hnedstá. Kaká každý deň, pije 3dcl čajíka, na raňajky Nutrilon, desiata výživa, obed zemiakové piré+zelenina alebo mäsko,...
Day nineteen. Leo and I did a grand tour of the métro, visiting the 3bis, the 7bis, and the station named for him: Léo Lagrange. ...
Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione compound with a mode of action as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist. Activation of this receptor causes increased transcriptional activity at a number of locations that are important to carbohydrate and lipid (fat) metabolism. Insulin resistance is reversed by enhancing the action of insulin, thereby promoting glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver, and reducing lipolysis at the adipocyte.. In previous studies of pioglitazone, peripheral edema (swelling in the hands, feet, and legs) was reported as an adverse event more often in pioglitazone groups and appears to be a dose dependent phenomenon with pioglitazone. The incidence of peripheral edema in monotherapy studies was 3.2% in pioglitazone patients compared with 0.7% placebo patients and was reported more by females than males. This incidence was higher when pioglitazone was combined with sulphonylurea or insulin (5.9% and 15.6%, ...
Abstract: A major concern in drug development is the potential for chemical injury to the liver. Drugs account for 1/3~1/2 of acute liver failures, yet underlying toxicity mechanisms are poorly understood. Adverse reactions are often detected too late, as with troglitazone, an antidiabetic drug introduced in 1997 and withdrawn in 2000 after several cases of liver failure. Predictions are more limi... read moreted with multi-drug interactions, common among patients with chronic ailments like diabetes. Here we develop a microfluidic reactor for the culture of HepG2 cells and the establishment of a steady state drug gradient. Traditional in vitro experiments explore the metabolic effects of troglitazone on HepG2 cells and the interactions between rosiglitazone and metformin (common antidiabetic compounds). LC-MS methods are developed for the detection of drugs and key metabolites. This research expands our knowledge drug metabolism in the liver and introduces a physiologically relevant platform for ...
Natural vitamin E contains 8 isoforms, of which four are alpha, beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols. They differ because of the presence or absence of a methyl (-CH3) group at the 2, 4 and 8 positions on the chromanol ring. Natural tocotrienols have this group in the R configuration at the 2 position, which is responsible for its biological activity.
Doctors Best Tocotrienols is a natural vitamin E. Tocotrienols may help cardiovascular support while maintaining healthy circulation. Promotes a healthy immune system.
Source Naturals - Tocotrienol Antioxidant Complex 50 mg 30 Softgels aturally occurring vitamin E from rice bran oil contains both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocotrie...
The synthesis of 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline- and 6-R-4-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-8-carboxylic acids - the structural analogues of helquinoline
The synthesis of 6-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline- and 6-R-4-R-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-8-carboxylic acids - the structural analogues of helquinoline
Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone are members of the Thiazolidinedione (TZD-�glitazone�) class of drugs which act through agonist effects (single or dual) on a set of nuclear hormone receptors termed PPAR (Perixosome Proliferated Activated Receptors: alpha, delta & gamma). PPAR subsequently serve as transcription factors that regulate a panel of genes influencing glucose and lipid metabolism as well as inflammatory pathways (many of the actions and precise mechanisms remain to be fully defined). Certainly PPAR gamma increased the sensitivity of adipose, skeletal muscle and hepatic tissues to Insulin and thus improved glycaemic control. This latter effect was demonstrated efficaciously in clinical trials leading to their approval in 2000 as add-on oral hypoglycaemics for patients with type 2 diabetes. They became the two remaining in clinical use after Troglitazone was removed from the market by the FDA because of liver toxicity and in Muriglitazar because of increased risks of myocardial ...
(NaturalHealth365) Research indicates that tocotrienols and quercetin can effectively stop the growth of cancer cells and cause them to die.
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Exercise is the most potent insulin-sensitizing agent we have, said Dr. Suzanne Craft, a geriatrician and Alzheimers researcher at the Veterans Ad
Rezervišite smeštaj onlajn u Maleziji. Od niskobudžetnih smeštajnih objekata do luksuznih hotela. Odlične cene. Bez troškova rezervacije. Recenzije stvarnih gostiju.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, and glucose effectiveness. For many years, insulin secretagogues (the sulfonylureas) have been the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy. Recently, drugs that improve insulin action have become available. Among these agents are the thiazolidinedione drugs, which mediate their effects by binding to the peroxisome proliferator-activated γ-nuclear receptor. The study by Schwartz and colleagues documents the ability of troglitazone, the first marketed thiazolidinedione, to decrease insulin requirements in patients receiving exogenous insulin. However, a reduction in insulin dose is not a major goal of therapy. Rather, the ability of the drug to achieve and maintain optimal glycemic control in patients with poorly controlled disease is what matters. The results of this study show a clinically significant decrease in fasting glucose and HbAlc levels that are maintained over a 26-week period. Other components of the ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a class of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents receiving continued attention regarding potential implications of TZD therapy on risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies have provided valuable insight into the mechanisms underlying these effects however much remains to be elucidated. In our current investigation of non-genomic effects of thiazolidinediones on cells of the cardiovascular system we employ methods adapted from Shang and Caddy et al. to further investigate TZD induced ER stress and upregulation of UPR pathways in THP-1 monocytic cells by qualitative and quantitative analysis of XBP-1 spliced variants in thapsigargin, rosiglitazone (1 and 10μM) and pioglitazone treated cells following each sequential dose; providing valuable insight in the ongoing investigation into thiazolidinedione associated effects on cells of the cardiovascular system. THP-1 monocytic cells were maintained in culture ...
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Hi,. I believe it is logical to find a connection between the cognitive and the physical, so this is not a surprise, but the occurrence does nothing to show a direction for "cure" or health enhancement.. So, I am weighing in. My mentor is Dr. Robert O. Young, PhD, DSc, ND, originator of the New Biology paradigm. On my blog at http://diabetesdietdialogue.wordpress.com I discuss the root cause of diabetes (and other chronic complaints which are often seen together in diabetics).. The cause of diabetes and (in this case) Alzheimers are connected by the amount of latent tissue acidosis which exists in the persons body. This cellular acidosis is the result of poor metabolism or naturally efficient metabolism (both produce acid, just different amounts) and how effective our body is in detoxifying itself daily. If we do not detoxify successfully (through bowel, kidney, liver and lungs), the acid is there to wreke havoc on organs and organ systems (in this case pancreas and brain) until it is ...
Novel compounds of the formula ##STR1## where X is S, O; R1 -R5 are hydrogen or lower alkyl; R6 is lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, lower cycloalkyl having 1 to 6 carbons, or halogen; A is lower branched chain alkyl having 2 to 6 carbons, cycloalkyl having 3 to 6 carbons, alkenyl having 2 to 6 carbons and 1 or 2 double bonds, alkynyl having 2 to 6 carbons and 1 or 2 triple bonds, (CH2)n where n is 0-5; and B is hydrogen, COOH or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, COOR8, COONR9 R10, --CH2 OH, CH2 OR11, CH2 OCOR11, CHO, CH(OR12)2, CHOR13 O, --COR, CR(OR12)2, or CROR13 O, where R is an alkyl, cycloalkyl or alkenyl group containing 1 to 5 carbons, R8 is an alkyl group of 1 to 10 carbons, or a cycloalkyl group of 5 to 10 carbons, or R8 is phenyl or lower alkylphenyl, R9 and R10 independently are hydrogen, an alkyl group of 1 to 10 carbons, or a cycloalkyl group of 5 to 10 carbons, or phenyl or lower alkylphenyl, R11 is lower alkyl, phenyl or lower alkylphenyl, R12 is lower alkyl, R13 is divalent
|p||strong|Avandia is used for:|/strong||br /|Treating type 2 diabetes in certain patients. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines. Avandia is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic. It lowers blood sugar by making the cells of the body more sensitive to the action of insulin.|br /||br /||strong|Do NOT use Avandia if:|/strong||br /|• you are allergic to any ingredient in Avandia|br /|• you have moderate to severe heart failure|br /|• you have type 1 diabetes|br /|• you have a history of liver problems, including jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes), during therapy with a similar medicine called troglitazone|br /|• you are taking nitrates (eg, nitroglycerin) or using insulin|br /|Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.|br /||br /||strong|Before using Avandia:|/strong||br /|Some medical conditions may interact with Avandia . Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical
I just stumbled across this article in the Pharmacological Reviews tying iron to CNS damage (Notice it originated in Italy): Pharmacology of Lazaroids and Brain Energy Metabolism: A Review 1. Roberto Federico VillaFNa and 2. Antonella Gorini + Author Affiliations ...
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Le Tiny Arcade est un minuscule jeu darcade rétro imaginé par TinyCircuits et lancé sur Kickstarter. Ce studio, basé dans lOhio, a voulu reproduire le meuble du jeu darcade à petite échelle, avec un tout petit.... ...
Trichopteryx polycommata D. & S. (La Phal ne du Tro ne, la Lob e des haies) - Chenille - Photo Wolfgang Wagner, www.pyrgus.de ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. It is expressed in adipocytes, immune cells, and cardiovascular cells that include cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth mus
Little, Peter J., Ballinger, Mandy L., Survase, Soniya, Osman, Narin, Ogru, Esra, Geytenbeek, Stephen, Bruemmer, Dennis and Nigro, Julie (2008) Phosphorylated troglitazone activates PPAR gamma and inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 51 3: 274-279. ...
Bluebonnet Rice Tocotrienol SoftgelsBluebonnets Rice Tocotrienol Softgels provide a highly advanced lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient complex of vitamin E compounds. These natural vitamin E compounds are extracted from rice and provide a full spectrum of natural d-alpha tocopherol and tocotrienols, including alpha, delta and gamma forms in easy-to-swallow softgels for maximum assimilation and absorption. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 Softgel Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) 100IU 333% Gamma Tocotrienol 31.2mg* Alpha Tocotrienol 18.5mg*Delta Tocotrienol 0.3mg* Daily Value not established. Other ingredients: Gelatin, glycerin, water. Contains: Soybeans Free of milk, egg, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts and wheat. Also free of corn, yeast, gluten, barley, sodium and sugar.
BioAssay record AID 721645 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity assessed as trolox equivalent of DPPH radical scavenging activity after 15 mins by spectroscopic analysis.
Congratulations! You have found the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Forum on Forum Jar. This forum is a place where people who are interested in Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor come together and discuss about Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Please use the message board below to post anything related to Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor . If you are interested in other similar forums, please check out the Related Forums section on the right. If you like this forum, please dont forget to tell your friends about Forum Jar ...
The fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF, ANGPTL4, PGAR, HFARP) was previously identified as a novel adipocytokine that was up-regulated by fasting, by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, and by hypoxia. To further characterize FIAF, we studied regulation of FIAF mRNA and protein in liver and adipose cell lines as well as in human and mouse plasma. Expression of FIAF mRNA was up-regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARβ/δ agonists in rat and human hepatoma cell lines and by PPARγ and PPARβ/δ agonists in mouse and human adipocytes. Transactivation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and gel shift experiments identified a functional PPAR response element within intron 3 of the FIAF gene. At the protein level, in human and mouse blood plasma, FIAF was found to be present both as the native protein and in a truncated form. Differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes was associated with the production of truncated FIAF, whereas in human white ...

Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(iii)...Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(iii)...

3-disubstituted chromans in the presence of a chiral N,N′-dioxide/Sc(OTf)3 complex. High enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee), ... Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(III) ... Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(III) ... 3-disubstituted chromans in the presence of a chiral N,N′-dioxide/Sc(OTf)3 complex. High enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee), ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/qo/c7qo00323d

Synthesis of chromans viaPd-catalyzed alkene carboetherification reactions - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)Synthesis of chromans viaPd-catalyzed alkene carboetherification reactions - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)

2-disubstituted chromans viaPd-catalyzed carboetherification reactions between aryl/alkenyl halides and 2-(but-3-en-1-yl) ... Synthesis of chromans viaPd-catalyzed alkene. carboetherification reactions A. F. Ward, Y. Xu and J. P. Wolfe, Chem. Commun., ... A new method for the construction of 2-substituted and 2,2-disubstituted chromans viaPd-catalyzed carboetherification reactions ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2012/cc/c1cc15880e

Patent US6693122 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google PatentsPatent US6693122 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google Patents

Novel chromans and chromenes. EP0120427B1. Mar 17, 1984. Dec 21, 1988. Beecham Group Plc. 3,4-Dihydro-thiaoxo-1-pyrrolidinyl-or ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6693122?dq=6978253

Dr. Leroy Shervington | Staff Profile | University of Central LancashireDr. Leroy Shervington | Staff Profile | University of Central Lancashire

Synthesis of Chromans".. 1992-1993 City and Guild 730 teaching qualification for Further Education, the D33 Assessors Award. ... propan-1-ols and converting them to the corresponding chromans under the influence of rhodium catalyst. His first postdoctoral ...
more infohttps://www.uclan.ac.uk/staff_profiles/dr_leroy_shervington.php

TNO Repository search for: subject:Retinoic acidTNO Repository search for: subject:'Retinoic acid'

Chemicals/CAS: Benzoates; Chromans; Cycloheximide, 66-81-9; DNA, Complementary; Oligonucleotides, Antisense; Protein Synthesis ... Chromans · Cycloheximide · DNA, Complementary · Endothelium, Vascular · Gene Expression Regulation · Humans · Molecular ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Retinoic%20acid%22

Chromane - WikipediaChromane - Wikipedia

Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. Chromene (benzopyran) Media related to benzodihydropyrans at Wikimedia ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromane

Patent US5840475 - Photothermographic element for providing a viewable retained image - Google PatentsPatent US5840475 - Photothermographic element for providing a viewable retained image - Google Patents

... chromans such as 2,2-dimethyl-7-t-butyl-6-hydroxychroman; 1,4-dihydropyridines such as 2,6-dimethoxy-3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4- ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5840475?dq=5708422

Thieme E-Books & E-Journals - Synfacts / Aktuelle AusgabeThieme E-Books & E-Journals - Synfacts / Aktuelle Ausgabe

Asymmetric Synthesis of Chromans Bearing Oxindole Scaffolds * Volltext * HTML * PDF (114 kb) ...
more infohttps://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/issue/10.1055/s-006-32846?lang=de

JTV-506, a new K(ATP) channel opener, relaxes pulmonary artery isolated from monocrotaline-treated pulmonary hypertensive rats....JTV-506, a new K(ATP) channel opener, relaxes pulmonary artery isolated from monocrotaline-treated pulmonary hypertensive rats....

Chromans (pharmacology, therapeutic use) *Hypertension, Pulmonary (drug therapy, physiopathology) *In Vitro Techniques ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed15290421.do

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Chromans Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 images ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Chromans&parentid=4177&catid=6308

Ormeloxifene - WikipediaOrmeloxifene - Wikipedia

Structure-activity relation of 3,4-diphenylchromenes and -chromans". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (2): 276-9. doi:10.1021 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ormeloxifene

US4289883A - Carbostyril compounds 
        - Google PatentsUS4289883A - Carbostyril compounds - Google Patents

2-aminomethyl-chromans US4332804A (en) 1982-06-01. 9-[2-(3-Indolyl)ethyl]-1oxa-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-ones ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US4289883

Scearce-Levie K[au] - PubMed - NCBIScearce-Levie K[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Discovery of 7-tetrahydropyran-2-yl chromans: β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors that reduce ... 8-Tetrahydropyran-2-yl chromans: highly selective beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Scearce-Levie+K%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Patent US5856490 - Aryl or heteroaryl amides of tetrahydronaphthalene, chroman, thiochroman and ... - Google PatentsPatent US5856490 - Aryl or heteroaryl amides of tetrahydronaphthalene, chroman, thiochroman and ... - Google Patents

Chromans and thiochromans with heteroarylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinoid-like biological activity. ... Chromans and thiochromans with phenylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinold-like biological activity. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US5856490

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | A Study of Palladium Catalyzed Intra/Intermolecular Cascade Cross Coupling/Cyclizations Involving...Molecules | Free Full-Text | A Study of Palladium Catalyzed Intra/Intermolecular Cascade Cross Coupling/Cyclizations Involving...

Intermolecular Twofold Carbopalladation/Cyclization Sequence to Access Chromans and Isochromans from Carbohydrates. Chem. Eur. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/5/6058/htm

Patent US4723028 - Stilbene derivatives - Google PatentsPatent US4723028 - Stilbene derivatives - Google Patents

Chromans and thiochromans with heteroarylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinoid-like biological activity. ... Chromans and thiochromans with phenylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinold-like biological activity. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4723028

The cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder were exa | Open-iThe cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder were exa | Open-i

The cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder were examined in SW620 cells or HCT-8 cells.The cellular caspase-3 activity was determined in SW620 cells (I) and
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3585143_pone.0057779.g006&req=4

TGFβ2-induced translocation of Smads2/3 from the cytos | Open-iTGFβ2-induced translocation of Smads2/3 from the cytos | Open-i

Chromans/pharmacology*. *Pigment Epithelium of Eye/drug effects/metabolism*/pathology*. *Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2254970_mv-v14-95-f10&req=4

US8779161B2 - Asenapine maleate 
        - Google PatentsUS8779161B2 - Asenapine maleate - Google Patents

Novel azaheterocyclylmethyl-chromans KR101019451B1 (en) 2011-03-07. Polymorphic forms of imatinib mesylate and processes for ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US8779161

US Patent # 6,319,640. Imaging element containing a blocked photographically useful compound - Patents.comUS Patent # 6,319,640. Imaging element containing a blocked photographically useful compound - Patents.com

... chromans such as 2,2-dimethyl-7-t-butyl-6-hydroxychroman; 1,4-dihydropyridines such as 2,6-dimethoxy-3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4- ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-6319640.html
  • Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compounds [3-(2-Bromocyclohex-2-enyloxy)prop-1-ynyl]- tert -butyl-dimethylsilane 3 , [4-(2-bromocyclohex-2-en-1-yloxy)but-2-yn-1-yloxy]tert-butyldimethylsilane 5 and dimethyl 2-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-2-(3-( tert -butyldimethylsilanyl)prop-2-ynyl)malonate 9 were prepared and subjected to palladium-catalyzed intra-intermolecular cascade cross couplings incorporating bicyclopropylidene 10 under two types of conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • After completing his BSc(Hons) at the University College Cardiff, Leroy continued his interest in chemistry by studying for PhD in organic medicinal chemistry within the same university, synthesising numerous (2-fluoropheny1) propan-1-ols and converting them to the corresponding chromans under the influence of rhodium catalyst. (uclan.ac.uk)