Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).
A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (1/1004)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Acute troglitazone action in isolated perfused rat liver. (2/1004)

1. The thiazolidinedione compound, troglitazone, enhances insulin action and reduces plasma glucose concentrations when administered chronically to type 2 diabetic patients. 2. To analyse to what extent thiazolidinediones interfere with liver function, we examined the acute actions of troglitazone (0.61 and 3.15 microM) on hepatic glucose and lactate fluxes, bile secretion, and portal pressure under basal, insulin- and/or glucagon-stimulated conditions in isolated perfused rat livers. 3. During BSA-free perfusion, high dose troglitazone increased basal (P < 0.01), but inhibited glucagon-stimulated incremental glucose production by approximately 75% (10.0 +/- 2.5 vs control: 40.0 +/- 7.2 micromol g liver(-1), P < 0.01). In parallel, incremental lactate release rose approximately 6 fold (13.1 +/- 5.9 vs control: 2.2 +/- 0.8 mmol g liver(-1), P < 0.05), while bile secretion declined by approximately 67% [0.23 +/- 0.02 vs control: 0.70 +/- 0.05 mg g liver(-1) min(-1)), P < 0.001]. Low dose troglitazone infusion did not enhance the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon-stimulated glucose production, but rapidly increased lactate release (P < 0.0005) and portal venous pressure (+0.17 +/- 0.07 vs +0.54 +/- 0.07 cm buffer height, P < 0.0001). 4. These results indicate that troglitazone exerts both insulin-like and non-insulin-like hepatic effects, which are blunted by addition of albumin, possibly due to troglitazone binding.  (+info)

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. (3/1004)

gamma-Tocotrienol (gamma-T3), a naturally occurring analog of tocopherol (vitamin E), has been shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect in animals and humans. Unlike tocopherol, it has also been shown to reduce plasma apoB levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism of action of gamma-T3 on hepatic modulation of apoB production using cultured HepG2 cells as the model system. HepG2 cells preincubated with gamma-T3 were initially shown to inhibit the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a maximum 86+/-3% inhibition at 50 micromol/L observed within 6 hours. gamma-T3, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the uptake of [14C]glycerol into pools of cellular triacylglycerol and phospholipid relative to untreated control. The rate of apoB synthesis and secretion was then studied by an [35S]methionine pulse-labeling experiment and quantified by immunoprecipitating apoB on chasing up to 3 hours. An average reduction of 24+/-3% in labeled apoB in the media was apparent with gamma-T3 despite a 60+/-2% increase in apoB synthesis. Fractionation of secreted apoB revealed a relatively denser lipoprotein particle, suggesting a less stable particle. Using a digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell system, the effects of gamma-T3 on apoB translocation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum were further investigated. The generation of a specific N-terminal 70-kDa proteolytic fragment proved to be a sensitive measure of the rate of apoB translocation and degradation. The abundance of this fragment increased significantly in gamma-T3-treated cells relative to untreated control cells (50+/-21%) after 2 hours of chase. In addition, the presence of gamma-T3 resulted in an average decrease of 64+/-8% in intact apoB. Taken together, the data suggest that gamma-T3 stimulates apoB degradation possibly as the result of decreased apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apoB into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.  (+info)

Hemodynamic basis for the acute cardiac effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. (4/1004)

Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione used for the treatment of NIDDM and potentially for other insulin-resistant disease states. Troglitazone has recently been shown to increase cardiac output and stroke volume in human subjects. These actions are thought to be mediated by the reduction of peripheral resistance, but a potential direct effect on cardiac function has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the direct cardiac hemodynamic effects of troglitazone in isolated perfused rat hearts. Five groups of hearts were studied. Hearts were tested under isovolumetric contraction with a constant coronary flow, and troglitazone (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 micromol) was administered by bolus injection. Peak isovolumetric left ventricular pressure (LVPmax), peak rate of rise of LVP (dP/dt(max)), and peak rate of fall of LVP (dP/dt(min)) were significantly increased 1 min after troglitazone administration in a dose-dependent manner, while the heart rate (HR) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). HR was then fixed by pacing and/or CPP was fixed with nitroprusside to eliminate any effect of the two variables on the action of troglitazone. With constant HR and/or constant CPP, the effect of troglitazone on LVPmax, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min) was still unchanged. In addition, the positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, and negative chronotropic actions of troglitazone were not influenced even when hearts were pretreated with prazosin, propranolol, or nifedipine. In conclusion, troglitazone has direct positive inotropic, positive lusitropic, negative chronotropic, and coronary artery dilating effects. The inotropic and chronotropic actions of troglitazone are not mediated via adrenergic receptors or calcium channels. These findings have important clinical implications for diabetic patients with congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release. (5/1004)

We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis.  (+info)

Induction of solid tumor differentiation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone in patients with liposarcoma. (6/1004)

Agonist ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma have been shown to induce terminal differentiation of normal preadipocytes and human liposarcoma cells in vitro. Because the differentiation status of liposarcoma is predictive of clinical outcomes, modulation of the differentiation status of a tumor may favorably impact clinical behavior. We have conducted a clinical trial for treatment of patients with advanced liposarcoma by using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand troglitazone, in which extensive correlative laboratory studies of tumor differentiation were performed. We report here the results of three patients with intermediate to high-grade liposarcomas in whom troglitazone administration induced histologic and biochemical differentiation in vivo. Biopsies of tumors from each of these patients while on troglitazone demonstrated histologic evidence of extensive lipid accumulation by tumor cells and substantial increases in NMR-detectable tumor triglycerides compared with pretreatment biopsies. In addition, expression of several mRNA transcripts characteristic of differentiation in the adipocyte lineage was induced. There was also a marked reduction in immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, a marker of cell proliferation. Together, these data indicate that terminal adipocytic differentiation was induced in these malignant tumors by troglitazone. These results indicate that lineage-appropriate differentiation can be induced pharmacologically in a human solid tumor.  (+info)

Inhibition of LDL oxidation in vitro but not ex vivo by troglitazone. (7/1004)

Diabetic subjects are at increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, in part because of increased oxidation of LDL, which promotes atherogenesis. Troglitazone, a new antidiabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione class, acts as an insulin sensitizer and improves hyperglycemia. Structurally, it contains a tocopherol moiety similar to vitamin E and has been shown to have antioxidant properties in vitro. Therefore, we evaluated whether troglitazone inhibited LDL oxidation both in vitro and in type 2 diabetic subjects ex vivo. Troglitazone inhibited oxidation of LDL induced by Cu2+ or 2'2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane hydrochloride (AAPH) with 50% inhibition at 1 micromol/l and 100% inhibition at 5-10 micromol/l troglitazone. The inhibition of LDL oxidation by troglitazone also was time dependent. In addition, troglitazone inhibited oxidation of 125I-labeled LDL and its subsequent uptake and degradation by macrophages. To determine whether troglitazone was incorporated into LDL particles or acted in the aqueous milieu, troglitazone was incubated overnight at 37 degrees C with LDL or plasma before LDL re-isolation. After re-isolation, LDL that was incubated with troglitazone was no longer protected from oxidation, compared with probucol-treated LDL, which remained protected. Further, [14C]troglitazone did not get incorporated into LDL. This suggests that troglitazone exerts its antioxidant effect in the aqueous milieu of LDL. Consistent with this was the observation that the lag phases of copper-induced conjugated diene formation, a measure of the susceptibility in vivo, was similar for subjects taking troglitazone (76 +/- 5 min, n = 9) to subjects not taking the drug (77 +/- 3 min, n = 11; NS). Thus, troglitazone may be of value as an aqueous-phase antioxidant in addition to its effect on glucose homeostasis.  (+info)

Agonist-inverse agonist characterization at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of L759633, L759656, and AM630. (8/1004)

We have tested our prediction that AM630 is a CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligand and also investigated whether L759633 and L759656, are CB2 receptor agonists. Binding assays with membranes from CHO cells stably transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors using [3H]-CP55940, confirmed the CB2-selectivity of L759633 and L759656 (CB2/CB1 affinity ratios = 163 and 414 respectively) and showed AM630 to have a Ki at CB2 receptors of 31.2 nM and a CB2/CB1 affinity ratio of 165. In CB2-transfected cells, L759633 and L759656 were potent inhibitors of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with EC50 values of 8.1 and 3.1 nM respectively and CB1/CB2 EC50 ratios of > 1000 and > 3000 respectively. AM630 inhibited [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to CB2 receptor membranes (EC50 = 76.6 nM), enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB2-transfected cells (5.2 fold by 1 microM), and antagonized the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in this cell line induced by CP55940. In CB1-transfected cells, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was significantly inhibited by AM630 (22.6% at 1 microM and 45.9% at 10 microM) and by L759633 at 10 microM (48%) but not 1 microM. L759656 (10 microM) was not inhibitory. AM630 also produced a slight decrease in the mean inhibitory effect of CP55940 on cyclic AMP production which was not statistically significant. We conclude that AM630 is a CB2-selective ligand that behaves as an inverse agonist at CB2 receptors and as a weak partial agonist at CB1 receptors. L759633 and L759656 are both potent CB2-selective agonists.  (+info)

This letter is written to clarify several statements in the article Update in Endocrinology [1]. First, the article stated that neutropenia may occur in up to 20% of patients receiving troglitazone. It seems that this statement is based on data from Kumar and coworkers [2]. The actual report referenced states … there was a decrease in the neutrophil count (to less than 0.9 times the lower limit of normal) in 9-20% of patients receiving troglitazone, with the highest incidences at the highest doses, although similar decreases were seen in 9% of patients on placebo. The data from the U.S. studies (n = 2510 patients), as cited in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved labeling for troglitazone, indicated that small decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit and neutrophil counts (within the normal range) were more common in troglitazone-treated patients than placebo patients and may be related to increased plasma volume seen with troglitazone treatment [3]. Troglitazone does not appear to ...
Coadministration of troglitazone reduces the plasma concentrations of terfenadine and ethinyl estradiol. Because these drugs are metabolized at least in part by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), it is possible that troglitazone induces CYP3A activity, thereby reducing plasma concentrations of these agents …
Metabolites of α‐ and γ‐tocopherol, 2,5,7,8‐tetramethyl‐2‐(2′‐carboxyethyl)‐6‐hydroxychroman (α‐CEHC) and 2,7,8‐trimethyl‐2‐(β‐carboxyethyl)‐6‐hydroxychroman (γ‐CEHC), respectively, are produced in the liver and have been measured in biological fluids and tissue
ethyl 4-((N-(2,2,4,4-tetramethylchroman-6-yl)thiocarbamoyl)amino)benzoate: inhibits growth of Mycobacterium bovis; structure in first source
This is the first report on the effect of troglitazone on the gastrointestinal tract. Troglitazone is a new, orally effective antidiabetic agent that decreases plasma glucose in insulin-resistant obese and/or diabetic rodent models in which sulfonylureas are ineffective. Unfortunately, troglitazone has a propensity to cause edema, which in most instances has been reversible with the use of diuretics. A mild decrease in red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels was more prevalent in the troglitazone group than in the placebo group (Kosaka et al., 1993). We have shown that troglitazone inhibits the electrogenic bicarbonate secretion, probably via a direct action on duodenal epithelia. It is generally believed that electrogenic HCO3−secretion is accompanied by passive Na+ and water movement toward the intestinal lumen via a paracellular pathway (Powell, 1986). Troglitazone therefore may evoke a tendency to retain water in the body of patients.. Walker et al. (1998) reported that ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Piperidylmethyl-substituted chroman derivatives as active ingredients for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system by H. Heine et al.
EN FRÅGA OM TRO i Tidningsarkivet. Ett digitalt arkiv för svenska tidningar och tidskrifter. Här finns bland annat omslag och innehållstexter för EN FRÅGA OM TRO.
I just received an e-mail from someone I know. It has a file attached to it with the extension .dat and I do not know if it is OK to open it, or even what program to use to open it. He got the file...
Background:Previous studies have shown that nicotine enhances oxidative DNA damage and leads to increased lipid peroxidation, which affects embryo development. The present study investigated the effect of daily supplementation of gamma-tocotrienol on oocytes of nicotine-treated mice. Material and Method:Immature female mice (18-25 g) were divided into three groups. For 30 days, group A (control group) received saline (0.2 ml/day s.c.), group B nicotine (5 mg/kg/day s.c. in saline), and group C nicotine with gamma-tocotrienol (60 mg/kg/day p.o.). The animals were superovulated following these schedules. Results:Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the nicotine-treated oocytes appeared nonspherical with rough surface and the zona pellucida (zp) was torn and became irregular. Supplementation with gamma-tocotrienol in the nicotine-treated mice retained the spherical shape of the oocytes with intact zp; however, the surfaces of the oocytes remained irregular and rough. Transmission electron
A number of analytical methods exist for the evaluation of oxidative stress. Some of these directly measure the accumulation of oxidizing species or of oxidized products, while other methods measure the defence capacity of the organism against oxidation, which is referred to as the specific or the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Amongst these TAC methods, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assays which involve the use of radicals of compounds such as N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) or 2,2’-azinobis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), have attracted the attention of biochemists and analysts due to their operational simplicity. These methods are based upon the spectrophotometric measurement of the antioxidant activity of body fluids, herbal extracts, fruits, vegetables and other food samples and have certain limitations with regard to their application range, stability and environmental fate. In the present study we have improved upon the ...
Troglitazone (Rezulin, Resulin, Romozin, Noscal) is an antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, and a member of the drug class of the thiazolidinediones. It was prescribed for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo (Japan). In the United States, it was introduced and manufactured by Parke-Davis in the late 1990s, but turned out to be associated with an idiosyncratic reaction leading to drug-induced hepatitis. The F.D.A. medical officer assigned to evaluate troglitazone, John Gueriguian, did not recommend its approval due to potential high liver toxicity; Parke-Davis complained to the FDA and Gueriguian was subsequently removed from his post. A full panel of experts approved it in January 1997. Once the prevalence of adverse liver effects became known, troglitazone was withdrawn from the British market in December 1997, from the United States market in 2000, and from the Japanese market soon afterwards. It did not get approval in the rest of Europe. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Thiazolidinedione, Glitazone, Rosiglitazone, Avandia, Pioglitazone, Actos, Troglitazone, Rezulin.
Background: The risk of myocardial infarction, macular oedema and bone fractures associated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) has been extensively investigated. Objective: The aim of the study was to ve
We report the synthesis of new compounds 4-35 based on two different openings (A and B) of the chromane ring present in the previously identified 5-HT1A ...
FYI - I removed all the 2003 LTP packages and created a single, archived .tgz file. -Robbie (Embedded image moved to file: pic21976.jpg ...
url=http://surfingevents.com/forum/topics/buy-amaryl-online-generic-amaryl-legally-amaryl-canadian-pharmacy]amaryl thiazolidinediones[/url ...
The CD-200 is the new CD-only player from TASCAM, the professional-audio division of TEAC (footnote 1). It has unbalanced analog outputs, and RCA and optical digital outputs. The CD-200 also has a new transport, the CD-5020A, designed by TEAC for audio use.
Previous studies have demonstrated low vitamin E concentrations in infants at birth, and deficient levels in preterm and low birth weight newborns. Low vitamin E has been associated with an increased risk of hemolytic anemia, detrimental fibroplasias, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and thrombocytosis. It was suggested to supplement pregnant women with vitamin E in order to increase fetal stores, but studies have found that while supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal plasma concentrations, it does not increase the fetal vitamin E concentrations. Thus, the transfer of vitamin E across the placenta is limited. Studies of placental tissue demonstrate that the placenta expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes that are involved in vitamin E metabolism, suggesting that it might actively metabolize this nutrient, and thus prevent vitamin E accumulation in the fetal tissues. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine vitamin E metabolites, carboxyethyl hydroxychromans (α- and γ-CEHC), in umbilical
Recent research has revealed that targeting mitochondrial bioenergetic metabolism is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. Key to successful implementation of this chemotherapeutic strategy is the use of new and improved mitochondria-targeted cationic agents that selectively inhibit energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, while exerting little or no long-term cytotoxic effect in normal cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and alterations in bioenergetic metabolism induced by mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analog (Mito-chromanol, Mito-ChM) and its acetylated ester analog (Mito-ChMAc). Assays of cell death, colony formation, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular and tissue concentrations of tested compounds, and in vivo tumor growth were performed. Both Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc selectively depleted intracellular ATP and caused prolonged inhibition of ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells, but not in non-cancerous cells. These
Recently mitochondria in cancer cells have emerged as the Achilles heel for tumour destruction. Anti-cancer agents specifically targeting cancer cell mitochondria are referred to as mitocans. These compounds act by destabilising these organelles, unleashing their apoptogenic potential, resulting in the efficient death of malignant cells and suppression of tumour growth. Importantly, at least some mitocans are selective for cancer cells, and these are represented by the group of redox-silent vitamin E analogues, epitomised by a-tocopheryl succinate (a-TOS). This compound has proven itself in pre-clinical models to be an efficient anti-cancer agent, targeting complex II of the respiratory chain to displace ubiquinone binding. We propose that disrupting the electron flow of mitochondrial complex II results in generation of superoxide, triggering mitochondrial destabilisation and initiation of apoptotic pathways. Moreover, a-TOS is selective for cancer cells with their reduced anti-oxidant ...
Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR) and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM); which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC) generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TM
Global Market Report of 1,1,4,4,6-Pentamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (CAS 6683-48-3) aims at providing comprehensive data on 1,1,4,4,6-Pentamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc.). It captures 1,1,4,4,6-Pentamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene market trends, pays close attention to 1,1,4,4,6-Pentamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene manufacturers and consumers ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of uncoupling protein-2 mRNA by troglitazone in the pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. AU - Shimabukuro, Michio. AU - Zhou, Yan Ting. AU - Lee, Young H. AU - Unger, Roger H. PY - 1997/8/18. Y1 - 1997/8/18. N2 - Because troglitazone, like leptin, lowers the triglyceride (TG) content of pancreatic islets, we searched for other leptinomimetic actions. Leptin upregulates the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) mRNA in islets of normal rats, but has no effect in islets of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats with mutated leptin receptors. We report here that troglitazone also increases the UCP-2/β-actin mRNA ratio by 115% in wild type ZDF rats and by 400% in obese ZDF rats.. AB - Because troglitazone, like leptin, lowers the triglyceride (TG) content of pancreatic islets, we searched for other leptinomimetic actions. Leptin upregulates the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) mRNA in islets of normal rats, but has no effect in islets of obese ...
Purpose : The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a critical role in lipid homeostasis in the retina. A growing body of evidence suggests that dysfunctional lipid metabolism, accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and inflammasome activation are associated with RPE dysfunction and the pathogenesis of dry AMD. We have previously shown that ox-LDL is cytotoxic for RPE by inflammasome-mediate pyroptosis. We hypothesize that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) will increase lipid metabolism and suppress inflammation, and thereby rescue RPE cells from ox-LDL induced cell death. Methods : ARPE-19 and/or primary human fetal RPE cells were treated for 48 hours with a range of concentrations of ox-LDL in the presence or absence of different agonists that selectively activate the three different PPAR isoforms: PPAR-α (fenofibrate 30 μM), PPAR-γ (troglitazone 0.55 μM), and PPAR-β/δ (bezafibrate 60 μM). Cell death was measured by lactate ...
EIPA-modulated retrograde movement of lysosomes depended on the activity of Rab7, a GTPase known to traffic late endosomes and lysosomes towards the nucleus (Johansson et al., 2007) and the Rab7 effector RILP, which is similar to the mechanism of Troglitazone-induced retrograde lysosome trafficking (Steffan and Cardelli, 2010). In fact, lysosomes in Rab7-KD- and DN-RILP-expressing cells were more peripherally located than in vector control cells. Also, HGF-induced invasion by Rab7-KD cells was not blocked by EIPA, in contrast to control cells. Finally, Fig. 6 demonstrates that Rab7-KD cells were more invasive and secreted more cathepsin B than control cells in the absence of HGF. We conclude that a more peripheral cellular location of lysosomes may be important in regulating invasion, and that EIPA blocks invasion by stimulating retrograde lysosome transport or preventing anterograde movement.. In support of this idea, overexpression of WT-RILP induced lysosome aggregation near the nucleus and ...
Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on ...
In the present placebo-controlled study, we report that the increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal after 3 months of troglitazone treatment was associated with an increased Ser473 phosphorylation of PKB at basal and clamp insulin concentrations. Because our study population consisted of insulin-resistant subjects with a genetic background for type 2 diabetes but normal glucose tolerance, the treatment did not alter the plasma glucose concentration. The observed increases of PKB phosphorylation and glucose disposal were therefore independent of a normalization of plasma glucose levels that by itself could have lead to a normalization of insulin signaling and action (29-31).. PKB has been proposed to be an intermediate in the signaling pathway by which insulin, among other things, controls glucose uptake (17, 19, 20). Although there remains some controversy with respect to the exact role of PKB in the insulin signaling toward glucose uptake (38, 39), strong lines of evidence indicate that ...
The insulin-sensitizing compound troglitazone has evolved into a promising therapeutic agent for type II diabetes. It improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein metabolic profiles and lowers blood pressure in humans and rodents. Because troglitazone has insulinlike effects on a number of tissues, we hypothesized that it may reduce vascular tone through stimulation of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) production or by diminution of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Our results show that troglitazone decreases norepinephrine-induced contractile responses in the rat tail artery, an effect not reversed by the NO inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In contrast, troglitazone significantly inhibited L-type Ca2+ currents in freshly dissociated rat tail artery and aortic VSMCs and in cultured VSMCs. The data suggest that troglitazone attenuates vascular contractility via a mechanism involving VSMC [Ca2+]i but independent from endothelial generation of ...
S. W. Leonard and Traber, M., Measurement of the vitamin E metabolites, carboxyethly hydroxychromans (CEHCs), in biological samples, in Current Protocols in Toxicology, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006, pp. 7.8.1-7.8.12. ...
yTrolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, mg Trolox/g tea (Trolox is a water soluble analogue of vitamin E).. Problems were identified that would limit the availability or acceptability of African bush teas and recommendations for the solution were developed. Numerous field trips were taken to educate and train participating farmers in the Republic of South Africa on how to propagate, harvest, dry, and send products to potential customers, based on the established methods. Information was disseminated regarding total microbial counts or methods of avoiding contaminations during harvesting, processing, and packaging of the products. Lack of well-trained African partners who understand the issues of quality and standards for the preparation of the raw material from the ground up was another problem that was identified during this work. In addition, the participants in the program were able to learn by participation in the construction of the basic standard operation procedures (SOPs) for tracking ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands are insulin sensitizers, widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A consistent observation in preclinical species is the development of cardiac hypertrophy after short-term treatment with these agents. The mechanisms for this hy …
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Liver function should be checked before initiating pioglitazone and periodically thereafter based on clinical judgement. It should not be initiated in anyone with ALT , 2.5 times the upper limit of normal or with other evidence of liver disease ...
Raymond Queneaus Zazie dans le métro is the funniest book ever written in, and about, the French language. When it came out in 1959, it
ratio-Pioglitazone: Pioglitazone is a member of the family of medications known as thiazolidinediones. It is used to lower high blood sugar associated with type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone help insulin to work more effectively.
Were focusing on the lifes work of thousands of amazingly talented individuals in an archival, enjoyably readable format. The collected edition is a big deal.. TRO has the potential to be a really amazing resource. I like to think it already is.. And I want to be open about how the site operates every step of the way. So thats why Im sharing all this with you guys.. TRO has started to be come a real community, with forum discussions and a steady stream of review submissions. Not to mention much needed advice. Some of you have also asked me about a donation button (and I guess I should probably figure out how that works very soon.). I appreciate your friendship and help. Its amazing to see this little dream take shape. The participation keeps me going.. The next few months might be a little bumpy as I do whatever I have to to survive - taking odd jobs, selling stuff I dont really need, getting serious about selling my own art, trying to launch a separate local business - but TRO is a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Troglitazone) has potent antitumor effect against human prostate cancer both in vitro and in vivo. AU - Kubota, Tetsuya. AU - Koshizuka, Kozo. AU - Williamson, Elizabeth A.. AU - Asou, Hiroya. AU - Said, Jonathan W.. AU - Holden, Stuart. AU - Miyoshi, Isao. AU - Koeffler, H. Phillip. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/8/1. Y1 - 1998/8/1. N2 - Troglitazone, a thiazolidinedione derivative, is a widely used antidiabetic drug that binds and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and enhances insulin sensitivity. It induces differentiation of adipocytes, which highly express PPARγ. We report that human prostate cancer cells expressed PPARγ at prominent levels and normal prostate tissues had very low expression. Dose-response clonogenic assays of the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line with troglitazone showed an antiproliferative effect (ED50, 3 x 10-7 M) and ...
Our previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce cell migration through the induction of cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) in human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone and the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin at clinically achievable concentrations on ATC cell migration. Combined treatment with 5 μM troglitazone and 1 μM lovastatin exhibited no cytotoxicity but significantly inhibited EGF-induced migration, as determined using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Cotreatment with troglitazone and lovastatin altered the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) -related marker gene expression of the cells; specifically, E-cadherin expression increased and vimentin expression decreased. In addition, cotreatment reduced the number of filopodia, which are believed to be involved in
Enzymatic hydrolysis of Blue shark skin using Protamex (TM) was evaluated seeking optimal process conditions. The influence of temperature (45 to 65 degrees C), pH (6.8 to 8), and enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S; 1% to 5%) on the responses of degree of hydrolysis and protein recovery were determined and process optimization was performed looking for maximum value of the responses. Optimum conditions were established (T = 51 degrees C, E/S = 4%, and pH = 7.1) and model validation was accomplished by triplicate. Under these conditions protein hydrolysates were prepared and characterized by their amino acid composition, peptide size distribution, and antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A degree of hydrolysis of 19.3% and protein recovery of 90.3% were obtained at optimal conditions. Chemical score indicated that the hydrolysate supplies minimal essential amino acid requirements for adults. Molecular weight of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds. AU - Chang, Su Feng. AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. AU - Yen, Gow Chin. PY - 2008/1/15. Y1 - 2008/1/15. N2 - The antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of extracts from Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit (ODHF) and its active compounds on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ODHF in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assays were in the order of seed , peel , pulp. The lag time of conjugated diene formation in Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was increased by incubation of LDL with various methanolic extracts of ODHF. The methanolic extracts from seed, peel and pulp prolonged the lag time compared to control (154.1 min) to 514.8, 163.9 and 190.2 min, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Among the extracts, seed extracts of ...
As a minor component of vitamin E, tocotrienols were evident in exhibiting biological activities such as neuroprotection, radio-protection, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering properties which are not shared by tocopherols. However, available data on the therapeutic window of tocotrienols remains controversial. It is important to understand the absorption and bioavailability mechanisms before conducting in-depth investigations into the therapeutic efficacy of tocotrienols in humans. In this review, we updated current evidence on the bioavailability of tocotrienols from human studies. Available data from five studies suggested that tocotrienols may reach its target destination through an alternative pathway despite its low affinity for α-tocopherol transfer protein. This was evident when studies reported considerable amount of tocotrienols detected in HDL particles and adipose tissues after oral consumption. Besides, plasma concentrations of tocotrienols were shown to be higher when
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT) is a member of the vitamin E family. Our preliminary studies indicated that it protected mice from lethal irradiation, so we hypothesized that GT might be a radiation sensitizing agent for tumors. To test this, we induced prostate tumors by injecting PC3 cells into nude BALB/c mice. When the tumors were about 5 mm in diameter, mice were injected subcutaneously with 400 mg/kg gamma-tocotrienol and irradiated 24 h later at the site of the tumor with a dose of 12 Gy (60) Cobalt. Tumor size was monitored for 24 days after radiation. Tumor tissues as well as normal tissues like rectum, kidney, and liver were monitored for lipid peroxidation on day 4 and day 24 after radiation. The results indicated that the size of the tumors was reduced by almost 40%, but only in GT-treated and irradiated mice. In unstimulated and Fe-stimulated lipid peroxidation groups, lipid peroxidation in the tumors from irradiated mice increased to 135% and 150%, respectively, four days after irradiation ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah].
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MP-513 (Teneligliptin) in combination with thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) in patients with type 2 Diabetes for 12 weeks administration and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MP-513 in combination with thiazolidinedione with an extension treatment for up to 52 weeks ...
Compounds of the formula ##STR1## where the symbols have the meaning defined in the specification have retinoid-like biological activity.
Video created by Universität von Kopenhagen for the course Diabetes - a Global Challenge. Have you ever thought how to develop a antidiabetic agent? Professor Birgitte Holst will take you through some potential drug targets and how to use ...
Shop our Tocotrienols at FreePeople.com. Share style pics with FP Me, and read & post reviews. Free shipping worldwide - see site for details.
Product Page for Delta-Fraction Tocotrienols 125 mg 30 Softgels made by nutricology offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re P e te r P u la y D e p a rtm e n t o f C h e m is try a n d B io c h e m is try, U n iv e rs ity o f A rk a n s a s, F a
Ashok Krishnaswami, MD, FACC; Shalini Ravi-Kumar, MD; John M Lewis, MD Fall 2010 - Volume 14 Number 3 Abstract A large number of cardiology clinical trials have mortality as an endpoint unless adequate surrogate endpoints are available. Alt
2011 (Swedish)In: Motståndets möjligheter: Filosofiska repliker till Eberhard Herrmann / [ed] Lena Edlund et al, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag , 2011, 57-73 p.Chapter in book (Other academic) ...
T00845 (acav,adh,amin,apom,arn,arx,asoc,ato,bacs,balt,bara,barw,bcae,bko,camg,cmb,def,fln,frm,gli,gtm,lagl,les,lzy,mbov,mee,ntp,ntt,parb,part,pcx,pht,ppoa,ptu,rhu,sbj,sgv,slau,smal,sphd,sscu,sya,tpaf,trl : calculation not yet completed ...
Complications like allergies, swelling, heart failure happen due to side-effects of medications. Find out when should diabetics should not take tzds.
Profilová stránka súčasného poslanca Európskeho parlamentu - História pôsobenia v Parlamente obsahuje členstvo v politických skupinách, vnútroštátnych stranách, parlamentných výboroch a delegáciách, ako aj parlamentné činnosti v predchádzajúcich volebných obdobiach a vyhlásenie o finančných záujmoch z predchádzajúceho volebného obdobia
Term a ddefnyddir o fewn mathemateg a gwyddor cyfrifiadur yw algorithm. Maen diffinio set o weithrediadau iw perfformio un cam ar y tro. Gall algorithmau berfformio tasgau cyfrif, prosesu data, ac/neu dasgau rhesymu awtomatig. Gellir defnyddior term yn anffurfiol i ddisgrifio pob rhaglen gyfrifiadurol, ond yn dechnegol, dylid defnyddio algorithm ond i ddisgrifio rhaglen y bydd yn sicr, yn y diwedd, o ddod i derfyn y dasg.[1] ...
LEYLA and MEJNUNTranslated by Sofi Nuri LXVIIIHerein is set forth the Epilogue to this Section of the Story of Leyla and Mejnun.With so roach zest and fervour prayed MejnunA guerdon asking for his tro
Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. Chromene (benzopyran) Media related to benzodihydropyrans at Wikimedia ...
Structure-activity relation of 3,4-diphenylchromenes and -chromans". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (2): 276-9. doi:10.1021 ...
"Chromans, hericenones F, G and H from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum". Phytochemistry. 32 (1): 175-178. 1992-12-23. doi: ... "Chromans, hericenones F, G and H from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum". Phytochemistry. 32: 175-178. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92) ...
... rapid cyclisation reactions producing flavans and chromans occur. This is the source of Dianin's compound in the mixture, and ...
... chromans MeSH D03.438.150.240.190 - catechin MeSH D03.438.150.240.225 - centchroman MeSH D03.438.150.266 - chromones MeSH ... chromans MeSH D03.830.219.240.190 - catechin MeSH D03.830.219.240.225 - centchroman MeSH D03.830.219.266 - chromones MeSH ...
... chromans, an aromatic compound believed to be markers of salinity. Therefore, this decrease in Pr/Ph should indicate an ...
2-disubstituted chromans viaPd-catalyzed carboetherification reactions between aryl/alkenyl halides and 2-(but-3-en-1-yl) ... Synthesis of chromans viaPd-catalyzed alkene. carboetherification reactions A. F. Ward, Y. Xu and J. P. Wolfe, Chem. Commun., ... A new method for the construction of 2-substituted and 2,2-disubstituted chromans viaPd-catalyzed carboetherification reactions ...
8-Tetrahydropyran-2-yl chromans: highly selective beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors. * ... 8-Tetrahydropyran-2-yl Chromans: Highly Selective Beta-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) Inhibitors.. ...
3-disubstituted chromans in the presence of a chiral N,N′-dioxide/Sc(OTf)3 complex. High enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee), ... Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(III) ... Asymmetric synthesis of chromans via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization catalysed by an N,N′-dioxide scandium(III) ... 3-disubstituted chromans in the presence of a chiral N,N′-dioxide/Sc(OTf)3 complex. High enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee), ...
... catalysed reaction of allylic alcohols and phenols produces chromans regioselectively via a one-pot Friedel-Crafts allylation/ ... Gold(I)-catalysed one-pot synthesis of chromans using allylic alcohols and phenols. ... A gold(I)-catalysed reaction of allylic alcohols and phenols produces chromans regioselectively via a one-pot Friedel-Crafts ...
Novel chromans and chromenes. EP0120427B1. Mar 17, 1984. Dec 21, 1988. Beecham Group Plc. 3,4-Dihydro-thiaoxo-1-pyrrolidinyl-or ...
Chromans / therapeutic use* * Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy* * Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism ...
Chromans / adverse effects* * Chromans / therapeutic use * Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications* * Diabetes Mellitus, Type ...
See ch. Romans 4:1-12. As to the construction here, it is best to regard ἀλλὰ καὶ … ἔχουσα … ἡμῶν as a sentence begun but ... The places are, ch. Romans 1:25, ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, ὅς ἐστιν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν,-and 2 ... See ch. Romans 10:3; Romans 10:5, and note; and compare Johns coming ἐν ὁδῷ δικαιοσύνης, Matthew 21:32), arrived not at [ ... and ch. Romans 13:13, where the meaning is not exactly the same though cognate) by one man (in the former case, the children ...
The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Chromans and Tocopherols. Ellis, Gwynn P.. 476,20€ ...
Domino Reactions for The Synthesis of Chromans And Dioxins. Domino Reactions in The Synthesis of Chiroptical Switches. INDEX OF ...
Synthesis of Chromans".. 1992-1993 City and Guild 730 teaching qualification for Further Education, the D33 Assessors Award. ... propan-1-ols and converting them to the corresponding chromans under the influence of rhodium catalyst. His first postdoctoral ...
Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. Chromene (benzopyran) Media related to benzodihydropyrans at Wikimedia ...
Chemicals/CAS: Benzoates; Chromans; Cycloheximide, 66-81-9; DNA, Complementary; Oligonucleotides, Antisense; Protein Synthesis ... Chromans · Cycloheximide · DNA, Complementary · Endothelium, Vascular · Gene Expression Regulation · Humans · Molecular ...
... chromans such as 2,2-dimethyl-7-t-butyl-6-hydroxychroman; 1,4-dihydropyridines such as 2,6-dimethoxy-3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4- ...
Asymmetric Synthesis of Chromans Bearing Oxindole Scaffolds * Volltext * HTML * PDF (114 kb) ...
Structure-activity relation of 3,4-diphenylchromenes and -chromans". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (2): 276-9. doi:10.1021 ...
Chromans (pharmacology, therapeutic use) *Hypertension, Pulmonary (drug therapy, physiopathology) *In Vitro Techniques ...
Categories: Chromans Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 images ...
Palladium-Catalyzed Carbene Insertions: Synthesis of Natural Indano[2,1-c]chromans and Asymmetric Synthesis of C-N Bonds ... Read more about Palladium-Catalyzed Carbene Insertions: Synthesis of Natural Indano[2,1-c]chromans and Asymmetric Synthesis of ...
2-aminomethyl-chromans US4332804A (en) 1982-06-01. 9-[2-(3-Indolyl)ethyl]-1oxa-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-ones ...
thou standest] See on ch. Romans 5:2.. Romans 11:21. For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare ... Ch. Romans 11:1-10. Meanwhile the rejection of Israel never was, nor is, total: a remnant believes, and so abides in covenant. ... On "reconciliation," see on ch. Romans 5:1; Romans 5:11.. life from the dead] i.e. a vast and intense revival of true religion ... goodness] See on ch. Romans 2:4.. severity] In the special sense of summary sternness. The word is akin to that rendered " ...
Kawagishi, H.; Ando, M.; Shinba, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Yoshida, S.; Ojima, F.; Ishiguro, Y.; Ukai, N.; Furukawa, S. Chromans, ...
Chromans substituted with pharmaceutical action SE438359B (en) 1985-04-15. Multiple-row roller bearing ...
Discovery of 7-tetrahydropyran-2-yl chromans: β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors that reduce ... 8-Tetrahydropyran-2-yl chromans: highly selective beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors. ...
Chromans and thiochromans with heteroarylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinoid-like biological activity. ... Chromans and thiochromans with phenylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinold-like biological activity. ...
Intermolecular Twofold Carbopalladation/Cyclization Sequence to Access Chromans and Isochromans from Carbohydrates. Chem. Eur. ...
Chromans and thiochromans with heteroarylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinoid-like biological activity. ... Chromans and thiochromans with phenylethynyl substituents at the 7-position having retinold-like biological activity. ...
The cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder were examined in SW620 cells or HCT-8 cells.The cellular caspase-3 activity was determined in SW620 cells (I) and
Chromans/pharmacology*. *Pigment Epithelium of Eye/drug effects/metabolism*/pathology*. *Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology* ...
Keywords:Tocopherols, tocopheramine, vitamin E, isotopic labeling, chromans. Abstract: 2,2,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-6-chromanylamine- ...
  • A new method for the construction of 2-substituted and 2,2-disubstituted chromans via Pd-catalyzed carboetherification reactions between aryl /alkenyl halides and 2-(but-3-en-1-yl)phenols is described. (rsc.org)
  • An enantioselective tandem Friedel-Crafts alkylation-hemiketalization between electron-rich phenols and α,β-unsaturated ketoesters gave a direct approach to chiral 2,3-disubstituted chromans in the presence of a chiral N , N ′-dioxide/Sc(OTf) 3 complex. (rsc.org)
  • A gold(I)-catalysed reaction of allylic alcohols and phenols produces chromans regioselectively via a one-pot Friedel-Crafts allylation/intramolecular hydroalkoxylation sequence. (pasteur.fr)
  • Such compounds are sometimes described as chromans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compounds [3-(2-Bromocyclohex-2-enyloxy)prop-1-ynyl]- tert -butyl-dimethylsilane 3 , [4-(2-bromocyclohex-2-en-1-yloxy)but-2-yn-1-yloxy]tert-butyldimethylsilane 5 and dimethyl 2-(2-bromocyclohex-2-enyl)-2-(3-( tert -butyldimethylsilanyl)prop-2-ynyl)malonate 9 were prepared and subjected to palladium-catalyzed intra-intermolecular cascade cross couplings incorporating bicyclopropylidene 10 under two types of conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • After completing his BSc(Hons) at the University College Cardiff, Leroy continued his interest in chemistry by studying for PhD in organic medicinal chemistry within the same university, synthesising numerous (2-fluoropheny1) propan-1-ols and converting them to the corresponding chromans under the influence of rhodium catalyst. (uclan.ac.uk)