The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Small bodies containing chromaffin cells occurring outside of the adrenal medulla, most commonly near the sympathetic ganglia and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.

Action potentials in the rat chromaffin cell and effects of acetylcholine. (1/442)

1. Electrophysiological properties of the rat chromaffin cell were studied using intracellular recording techniques. 2. The resting potential in the chromaffin cell was -49 +/- 6 mV (mean +/- S.D., n = 14) in standard saline containing 10 mM-Ca whereas that in Na-free saline was -63 +/- 9 mV (n = 17). At rest, the membrane has a substantial Na permeability. 3. Action potentials were evoked by passing current through the recording electrode. In standard saline the major fraction of the action potential disappeared either upon omission of external Na ions from standard saline or addition of 1 muM tetrodotoxin (TTX). We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell are due mainly to an increase in the permeability of the membrane to Na ions. 4. Small but significant regenerative action potentials were observed in Na-free saline, and when Ca in Na-free saline was replaced by Ba, prolonged action potentials occurred. We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell also have a Ca component. 5. Iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh) produced a transient membrane depolarization in standard saline. 6. Spontaneous action potentials were recorded extracellularly by microsuction electrodes. They occurred at a rate of 0-05-0-1/sec in almost all cells. 7. When the perfusion fluid contained 3 x 10(-7) M to 10(-4) M ACh the spike frequency increased up to about 2/sec. This stimulatory effect of ACh was blocked by 10(-7) M atropine but not by 10(-3) M hexamethonium nor by 10(-5) M-d-tubocurarine. 8. The importance of Ca entry during action potentials for catecholamine secretion is discussed  (+info)

Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells. (2/442)

1. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce biogenic amines which are transported into secretory vesicles by one of two proton-amine exchangers, vesicular monoamine transporters type 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and 2). We report here the presence of VMAT1 in rat gastrin (G) cells and the relevance of VMAT1 function for the modulation of progastrin processing by biogenic and dietary amines. 2. In immunocytochemical studies VMAT1, but not VMAT2, was localized to subpopulations of G cells and enterochromaffin (EC) cells; neither was found in antral D cells. The expression of VMAT1 in antral mucosa was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which revealed an mRNA band of approximately 3.2 kb, and by Western blot analysis, which revealed a major protein of 55 kDa. 3. In pulse-chase labelling experiments, the conversion of the amidated gastrin G34 to G17 was inhibited by biogenic amine precursors (L-DOPA and 5-hydroxytryptophan). This inhibition was stereospecific and sensitive to reserpine (50 nM), which blocks VMAT1 and VMAT2, but resistant to tetrabenazine, which is a selective inhibitor of VMAT2. 4. Dietary amines such as tyramine and tryptamine also inhibited G34 cleavage. This effect was associated with a loss of the electron-dense core of G cell secretory vesicles. It was not stereospecific or reserpine sensitive, but was correlated with hydrophobicity. 5. Thus rat antral G cells can express VMAT1; transport of biogenic amines into secretory vesicles by VMAT1 is associated with inhibition of G34 cleavage, perhaps by raising intravesicular pH. Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH.  (+info)

Subcellualr distribution of protein carboxymethylase and its endogenous substrates in the adrenal medulla: possible role in excitation-secretion coupling. (3/442)

Protein carboxymethylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein O-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.24) transfers a methyl group from S-adenoxyl-L-methionine to carboxyl side chains of proteins to form labile protein-methyl esters which, thus, neutralize negative charges. This enzyme was examined for its possible participation in excitation-secretion coupling in the adrenal medulla. Protein carboxymethylase has a specific activity several times higher in the adrenal medulla than in the adrenal cortex; also, the medulla has a higher concentration of methyl-acceptor proteins. In the adrenal medulla, 97% of the enzyme was localized in the cytosol. Of the various subcellular fractions of the medulla, the catecholamine-containing chromaffin vesicles had the highest concentrations of substrat(s) for protein carboxymethylase. Carboxymethylation of proteins in intact chromaffin vesicles results in stripping of methylated protein(s) from the membranes. Thus, protein carboxymethylase appears to be involved in the neutralization of charges on the surface of chromaffin vesicles and in the release of surface proteins; both phenomena are likely to be required for exocytosis.  (+info)

Desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors does not impede catecholamine secretion during acute hypoxia in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/442)

Experiments were performed on adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in vivo using chronically cannulated fish and in situ using a perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation (i) to characterise the desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors and (ii) to assess the ability of fish to secrete catecholamines during acute hypoxia with or without functional nicotinic receptors. Intra-arterial injection of nicotine (6.0x10(-)(7 )mol kg(-)(1)) caused a rapid increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels; the magnitude of this response was unaffected by an injection of nicotine given 60 min earlier. Evidence for nicotinic receptor desensitisation, however, was provided during continuous intravenous infusion of nicotine (1.3x10(-)(5 )mol kg(-)(1 )h(-)(1)) in which plasma catecholamine levels increased initially but then returned to baseline levels. To ensure that the decline in circulating catecholamine concentrations during continuous nicotine infusion was not related to changes in storage levels or altered rates of degradation/clearance, in situ posterior cardinal vein preparations were derived from fish previously experiencing 60 min of saline or nicotine infusion. Confirmation of nicotinic receptor desensitisation was provided by demonstrating that the preparations derived from nicotine-infused fish were unresponsive to nicotine (10(-)(5 )mol l(-)(1)), yet remained responsive to angiotensin II (500 pmol kg(-)(1)). The in situ experiments demonstrated that desensitisation of the nicotinic receptor occurred within 5 min of receptor stimulation and that resensitisation was established 40 min later. The ability to elevate plasma catecholamine levels during acute hypoxia (40-45 mmHg; 5.3-6.0 kPa) was not impaired in fish experiencing nicotinic receptor desensitisation. Indeed, peak plasma adrenaline levels were significantly higher in the desensitised fish during hypoxia than in controls (263+/-86 versus 69+/-26 nmol l(-)(1); means +/- s.e.m., N=6-9). Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate that activation of preganglionic sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres and the resultant stimulation of nicotinic receptors is not the sole mechanism for eliciting catecholamine secretion during hypoxia.  (+info)

Tumours of the adrenal gland and paraganglia. (5/442)

This classification is arranged in two parts in order to take into account the different origins, structures, and functions of the cortex and medulla. The tabular classification is a simplified version of that suggested for adrenal tumours in man, and includes cortical adenoma and carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, chemodectoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma, and neuroblastoma. A detailed functional classification is not given, since the hormonal activity of many adrenal tumours in animals is less well known than it is in man. Of the tumour-like lesions listed, cortical hyperplasia is particularly important in several species.  (+info)

Ion permeability of isolated chromaffin granules. (6/442)

The passive ion permeability, regulation of volume, and internal pH of isolated bovine chromaffin granules were studied by radiochemical, potentiometric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric techniques. Chromaffin granules behave as perfect osmometers between 340 and 1,000 mosM in choline chloride, NaCl, and KCl as measured by changes in absorbance at 430 nm or from intragranular water measurements using 3H2O and [14C]polydextran. By suspending chromaffin granules in iso-osmotic media of various metal ions and selectively increasing the permeability to either the cation or the anion by intrinsically permeable ions or specific ionophores, it was possible to determine by turbidity and potentiometric measurements the permeability to the counterion. These measurements indicate that the chromaffin granule is impermeable to the cations tested (Na+, K+, and H+). Limited H+ permeability across the chromaffin granule membrane was also shown by means of the time course of pH re-equilibration after pulsed pH changes in the surrounding media. The measurement of [14C]methylamine distribution indicates that a significant deltapH exists across the membrane, inside acidic, which at an external value of 6.85 has a value of 1.16. The deltapH is relatively insensitive to changes in the composition of the external media and can be enhanced or collapsed by the addition of ionophores and uncouplers. Measurement at various values of external pH indicates an internal pH of 5.5. Use of the ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca++ and Mg++ can be accumulated against an apparent concentration gradient with calcium uptake exceeding 50 nmol/mg of protein at saturation. These measurements also show that Ca++ and Mg++ are impermeable. Measurement of catecholamine release under conditions where intravesicular calcium accumulation is maximal indicates that catecholamine release does not occur. The physiological significance of the high impermeability to ions and the existence of a large deltapH are discussed in terms of regulation of uptake, storage, and release of catecholamines in chromaffin granules.  (+info)

Release of catecholamines and dopamine beta-hydroxylase from the perfused adrenal gland of the cat. (7/442)

1. Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following splanchnic nerve stimulation or infusion of acetylcholine (ACh). 2. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (30 Hz) or perfusion with a low concentration of ACh (10-minus5 M) caused a marked release of CA in the venous effluent, but release of DBH activity was minimal while a higher concentration of ACh (10-minus 4 M) enhanced the release of CA and DBH. 3. The ratio of DBH/CA released in the perfusate by splanchnic nerve stimulation or ACh infusion was only a small fraction of the ratio in the soluble lysate of purified chromaffin vesicles. 4. Following reserpine treatment, adrenal CA levels fell to 25% of the control value in 24 hr, remained depressed on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 at 5% of the control and recovered to 60% of the control value on the 6th day. DBH activity was unchanged from the control value at 24 hr after treatment, then rose as high as 5 times the control on the 5th day and was still twice the control value on the 6th day. 5. CA secretion in response to ACh (10-minus 4 M) perfusion was reduced to 30% of the control value on the first day after reserpine treatment, while DBH secretion was unchanged. On the 2nd day, CA secretion was depressed further to 5% of the control and remained at this low level up to 5 days after treatment while DBH secretion was twice the control value at 48 hr and then on days 3, 4 and 5 rose up to 5 times the control value. On the 6th day, secretion of CA recovered to 30% of the control while DBH secretion was now twice the control. 6. Isopycnic sucrose density (discontinuous) gradient centrifugation of vesicles from adrenal glands of control cats, and of cats given reserpine 1 or 2 days perviously, indicated that new vesicles or vesicles depleted of CA by reserpine had a lower equilibrium density than the original population of vesicles. 7. These results suggest that the release of CA is quantal in nature, but the release of DBH is not necessarily coupled with it. Release of DBH by ACh from reserpinized glands suggests that the vesicles which were once involved in secretion may be re-used for synthesis and storage of CA.  (+info)

Discrimination of monoamine uptake by membranes of adrenal chromaffin granules. (8/442)

1 The accumulation of various radioactive monoamines by isolated membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin granules was measured by equilibrium dialysis. 2 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of Mg++ stimulated the uptake of all the amines tested, but the accumulation of dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), (plus or minus)-adrenaline and (plus or minus)-octopamine was greater than that of tyramine, (plus or minus)-metaraminol, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine and histamine. 3 At the higher concentration levels of the amines in the medium the ATP-dependent accumulation of dopamine, NA, adrenaline and 5-HT in the membranes reached a saturation level, whereas in the absence of the nucleotide no saturation level was attained. 4 Octopamine and 5-HT competitively inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of NA, 5 Decrease in the incubation temperature or the presence of N-ethylameimide greatly reduced the ATP-stimulated amine accumulation. Ouabain had no effect on uptake. 6 Reserpine virtually abolished the ATP-dependent uptake of dopamine, NA and 5-HT, caused a partial inhibition of the metaraminol, octopamine and tyramine accumulation, but did not interfere with the uptake of tryptamine. 7 The content of endogenous catecholamines of the membranes was changed very little by incubation of NA and 5-HT in the presence of ATP. However, the membranes lost over 80% of their endogenous amines if incubated for 30 min without ATP. 8 The ATP content of the medium progressively decreased during the incubation of granular membranes. 9 It is concluded that the membrane of adrenal chromaffin granules discriminates between the various monoamines with regard to the magnitude of their uptake and that two mechanisms of ATP-stimulated uptake, one responsive and the other resistant to reserpine, exist at the level of this membrane. The ATP-stimulated transport at the granular membrane level may be an important factor in determining the intraneuronal storage of a physiological or false neurotransmitter.  (+info)

The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Proenkephalin processing enzyme with specificity toward paired basic residues purified from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is saturable, with Km 38 microM and Vmax. 28 nmol/min per mg at 37 degrees C. Entry occurs by exchange with Ca2+ bound to the inner surface of the membrane. It is inhibited non-competitively by Na+, La3+ and Ruthenium Red (Ki 10.7 mM, 7 microM and 2 microM respectively), and competitively by Mg2+ (ki 0.9 mM). Uptake was not stimulated by ATP. Na+ induces Ca2+ efflux; Ca2+ can re-enter the ghosts by a process of Ca2+/Na+ exchange. La3+ inhibits Ca2+ efflux during Ca2+-exchange, and Ca2+ efflux induced by Na+, suggesting that Ca2+ uptake and efflux, and Ca2+/Na+ exchange, are catalysed by the same protein. Na+ enters ghosts during CA2+ efflux, but the kinetics of its entry are not exactly similar to the kinetics of Ca2+ efflux. Initially 1-2 Na+ enter per Ca2+ lost, but at equilibrium 3-4 Na+ have replaced each Ca2+. There is no evidence that either Ca2+ uptake or efflux by Ca2+/Na+ ...
Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
In a previous report, we described the ability of two secretogogues, histamine and nicotine, to stimulate additive effects on catecholamine (CA) release and synapsin II phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACC) [Firestone and Browning (1992), J. Neurochem., 58:441-447]. We hypothesized that these results were due to the combined effects on cytosolic Ca++ of the two distinct signalling pathways. We therefore examined the intracellular Ca++ signals stimulated by histamine and nicotine, alone and together. In Ca(++)-deficient medium, nicotine-stimulated signals were abolished, whereas histamine-stimulated signals were maintained, demonstrating that nicotine depended entirely on Ca++ influx for its effects. Indeed, the nicotine-stimulated signal could also be prevented using a Ca++ channel blocker, nicardipine. Further, the observation that exposure of BACC to thapsigargin reduced histamine-stimulated Ca++ signals verified that histamine mobilizes Ca++ from intracellular stores. Thus, the
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H+-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules. AU - Nelson, H.. AU - Mandiyan, S.. AU - Noumi, T.. AU - Morihama, Y.. AU - Miedel, M. C.. AU - Nelson, N.. PY - 1990/12/18. Y1 - 1990/12/18. N2 - A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 382 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 43,989. Hydropathy plots revealed no apparent transmembrane segments and a rather high helix content was detected. A cDNA encoding most of the C subunit of the V-ATPase of human brain was also cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene is almost identical to the bovine polypeptide with only one change of tyrosine 336 that was replaced by histidine in the human gene. Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
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Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. However, bovine adrenal medulla also contain muscarini
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
Other articles where Chromaffin cell is discussed: human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such as chromogranins, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y-all of which…
Buy BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble SNSR agonist. Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal…
The properties of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K+ currents and their role in defining membrane potential were studied in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Two variants of large-conductance, Ca2+ and voltage-dependent BK channels, one noninactivating and one inactivating, were largely segregated among patches. Whole-cell noninactivating and inactivating currents resulting from each of these channels were segregated among different chromaffin cells. Cell-to-cell variation in the rate and extent of whole-cell current decay was not explained by differences in cytosolic [Ca2+] regulation among cells; rather, variation was due to differences in the intrinsic properties of the underlying BK channels. About 75% of rat chromaffin cells and patches express inactivating BK current (termed BKi) while the remainder express noninactivating BK current (termed BKs). The activation time course of both currents is similar, as is the dependence of activation on [Ca2+] and membrane potential. However, deactivation of ...
Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro...
Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with the catecholamine transport blocker reserpine was previously shown to increase enkephalin levels several-fold. To explore the biochemical mechanism of this effect, we examined the effect of reserpine treatment on the activities of three different peptide precursor processing enzymes: carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and the prohormone convertases (PCs) PC1/3 and PC2. Reserpine treatment increased both CPE and PC activity in extracts of cultured chromaffin cells; total protein levels were unaltered for any enzyme. Further analysis showed that the increase in CPE activity was due to an elevated Vmax, with no change in the Km for substrate hydrolysis or the levels of CPE mRNA. Reserpine activation of endogenous processing enzymes was also observed in extracts prepared from PC12 cells stably expressing PC1/3 or PC2. In vitro experiments using purified enzymes showed that catecholamines inhibited CPE, PC1/3 and PC2, with dopamine quinone the most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 245-248; (1989) J. Neurochern., in press]. The related botulinum A toxin also consists of a heavy and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The actions ofboth neurotoxins on exocytosis were presently compared using streptolysin O-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. Addition of dithiothreitollowered the effective doses to values below 5 nM. Under the same conditions, the effective doses of tetanus toxin were decreased by a factor of five. This indicates that the interchain S-S bond of botulinum A toxin must also be split before the neurotoxin can exert its effect on exocytosis. ...
The previous sections describe the different exocytotic responses obtained when the amount of Ca2+ entry is altered at a constant interpulse interval (200 msec). To examine whether the exocytotic response of a cell is also influenced by the time span between bouts of Ca2+ entry, we tested various interpulse intervals.. Trains of 40 msec pulses at 200 msec intervals evoked depressed responses in most cells (Figs. 3C, 4). Prolonging the interpulse interval increased the Ca2+ efficacy without significant changes to total Ca2+ entry (Fig. 8). Three examples comparing a 200 and a 1000 msec interval stimulus train within individual cells are shown in Figure 8A. Cells with strong depression during the 200 msec train showed a partial relief of depression at 1000 msec intervals (Fig. 8A,i) or followed the standard curve (Fig. 8A,ii), whereas cells with less depression often gave large responses with enhanced Ca2+ efficacy (Fig. 8A,iii). A summary of 17 experiments is presented in Figure 8B, in which the ...
Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels exhibit functional diversity not explained by known splice variants of the single Slo α-subunit. Here we describe an accessory subunit (β3) with homology to other β-subunits of BK channels that confers inactivation when it is coexpressed with Slo. Message encoding the β3 subunit is found in rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) cells and adrenal chromaffin cells, both of which express inactivating BK channels. Channels resulting from coexpression of Slo α and β3 subunits exhibit properties characteristic of native inactivating BK channels. Inactivation involves multiple cytosolic, trypsin-sensitive domains. The time constant of inactivation reaches a limiting value ∼25-30 msec at Ca2+ of 10 μm and positive activation potentials. Unlike Shaker N-terminal inactivation, but like native inactivating BK channels, a cytosolic channel blocker does not compete with the native inactivation process. Finally, the β3 subunit confers a ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide is stored by atrial myocytes in secretory granules, known as atrial specific granules, and is released from these granules by exocytosis. We have isolated a group of atrial proteins by affinity chromatography that bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner. The two major proteins isolated (32.5 kd and 67 kd) are calcium-binding proteins and have been identified as annexins V and VI by immunoblotting with specific antisera. The calcium dependence of their binding to atrial specific granules has been characterized in vitro and indicates that this interaction takes place at micromolar levels of calcium. In addition, the group of proteins isolated includes another calcium-binding protein of 20 kd, as well as GTP-binding proteins of 22 to 26 kd. Membrane interactions during exocytosis are presumably mediated by the interaction of specific proteins with the granule membrane. The properties of the proteins described here, and their ability to bind to ...
Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause for the reduced sustained component. Further experiments showed that, in the absence of Doc2b, the ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
In addition to the canonical ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates and cofactors, cells contain a large number of minor nucleotides. Among these are the diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n = 2-7 [1]). Ap3A and Ap4A are the most intensively studied of these and are generally present in the soluble fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells at concentrations between 10 nM and 5 μM [2]. Platelet dense granules, adrenal chromaffin granules and certain synaptic vesicles have been reported to contain high concentrations of Ap5A and Ap6A in addition to Ap3A and Ap4A, all of which can be exocytosed following appropriate stimuli and bind to target cell purinoceptors causing a variety of physiological responses in the cardiovascular and central and peripheral nervous systems [1, 3-5]. However, although Ap6A has been detected in erythrocytes [6], there are no substantiated measurements of Ap5A and Ap6A in the soluble fraction of nucleated cells, and it is likely that they are typically ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin in bovine adrenal medulla and secretion of PC1 and PC2 from this tissue. AU - Kirchmair, R.. AU - Egger, C.. AU - Gee, P.. AU - Hogue-Angeletti, R.. AU - Fischer-Colbrie, R.. AU - Laslop, A.. AU - Winkler, H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Fonds zur F6rderung ,ter wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria), by the Dr. Legerlotz-Stiftung and by funds from NIH (Grant NS 22697, R.H.-A.). PY - 1992/8/31. Y1 - 1992/8/31. N2 - The subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin was determined in bovine adrenal medulla by immunoblotting of fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation. PC1 and PC2 were found to be confined to chromaffin granules whereas furin (C-terminal-peptide) was absent from these organelles. Stimulation of bovine adrenal medulla by carbamoylcholine chloride induced the secretion of PC1 and PC2. The secreted enzymes had the same molecular size as PC1 and PC2 present in ...
Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. Even though deletion of synaptotagmin-1 abolishes fast exocytosis in chromaffin cells, it reduces overall secretion by only 20% because of the persistence of slow exocytosis. Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. Synaptotagmin-7 has a higher Ca(2+) affinity and slower binding kinetics than synaptotagmin-1, matching the proposed properties for the second, slower Ca(2+) sensor. Here, we examined Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in chromaffin cells from KO mice lacking synaptotagmin-7, and from knockin mice containing normal levels of a mutant synaptotagmin-7 whose C(2)B domain does not bind Ca(2+). In both types of mutant chromaffin cells, Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis was decreased dramatically. Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.. AU - Sabol, S. L.. AU - Dandekar, Satya. AU - Kranzler, L. S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7124494. AN - SCOPUS:0020021542. VL - 33. SP - 175. EP - 181. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Since the work of Katz, Douglas, and their collaborators almost half a century ago (Katz, 1969), a central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], resulting from Ca2+ influx, triggers exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that the rise in [Ca2+] occurs in a microdomain within the vicinity (i.e., at a distance of 200-300 nm in chromaffin cells) of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels (García et al., 2006; Neher and Sakaba, 2008). This finding raises the possibility of other microdomains where a rise in focal [Ca2+] might mediate other processes, allowing Ca2+ to subserve several functions without cross talk. This possibility receives further support from the study of Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ sparks are focal Ca2+ transients found in striated and smooth muscle and mediated by RYRs (Cheng and Lederer, 2008). In striated muscle, they are the quanta or building blocks that make up a global increase in [Ca2+] to trigger contraction (Csernoch, ...
Start Over You searched for: Authors International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) ✖Remove constraint Authors: International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) Languages English ✖Remove constraint Languages: English Subjects Cellular Structures ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cellular Structures ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells are excitable neuroendocrine cells that have been widely used as a simple model of neurosecretion. In vivo, acetylcholine released from preganglionic neurons binds to nicotinic receptors, which are Na+ ionophores, causing Na+ influx that depolarizes the plasma membrane. Depolarization in turn causes voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) to open, leading to an influx of Ca2+ that activates the fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane, resulting in catecholamine release that occurs within milliseconds. This Ca2+-dependent secretory process is referred to as exocytosis. Previous investigations exploring the potential for nanosecond electric pulses (NEPs) to serve as a novel bioelectric stimulus of neurosecretion in chromaffin cells have shown that in chromaffin cells exposed to 5 ns, 5 MV/m electric pulses, catecholamine release is stimulated in a manner that relies on Ca2+ influx via VGCCs. The goal of the present study was to further understand this novel ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
With the type of cryofixation we used (sandwich freezing), cells remain permanently surrounded by their culture or trigger medium, and impairment of viability during handling can be minimized (Pscheid et al., 1981). The propane jet applied onto the thin copper cover provides very rapid cooling, i.e., up to 40,000°C·s−1 (Knoll et al., 1982; Plattner and Knoll, 1984). The freeze-substitution medium used includes OsO4 and, thus, precludes osmotic changes during warming (Van Harreveld et al., 1965; Morel et al., 1971; Wollweber et al., 1981), and the epoxide embedding chosen involves little shrinkage (Plattner and Zingsheim, 1983). In other studies, open samples were used for freezing on cold metal surfaces or injection into cold media (Ornberg et al., 1995; Parsons et al., 1995). This requires removal of the culture/trigger medium since cryopreservation is restricted to ∼20 μm (Plattner and Bachmann, 1982). The fluid film that may remain on the sample is very thin and ionic conditions are ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Adrenomedullin. AU - Abel, Peter. AU - Rorabaugh, Boyd. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Adrenomedullin is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides. It is produced by vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, adrenal chromaffin cells, macrophages, bronchial epithelium, and many other cell types. This peptide is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds and has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure, ..... AB - Adrenomedullin is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides. It is produced by vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, adrenal chromaffin cells, macrophages, bronchial epithelium, and many other cell types. This peptide is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds and has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure, ..... UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884021496&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
The differentiation of neuronal cell progenitors depends on complex interactions between intrinsic cellular programs and environmental cues. Such interactions have recently been explored using an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, MAH. These studies have revealed that depolarizing conditions, in combination with exposure to FGF, can induce responsiveness to NGF. Here we report that CNTF, which utilizes an intracellular signaling pathway distinct from that of both FGF and NGF, can collaborate with FGF to promote efficiently the differentiation of MAH progenitor cells to a stage remarkably reminiscent of NGF-dependent, postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells into sympathetic neurons ...
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Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms of chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines. Pheochromocytoma is a rare disorder that presents challenges for the anesthesiologist. By some estimates, 25 to 50 percent of hospital deaths of patients with unmana
Health expenditure, private (% of GDP) in South Africa was reported at 4.5537 % in 2014, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. South Africa - Health expenditure, private (% of GDP) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on August of 2020.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase is shown to catalyze the oxidation of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to its cation radical in the presence of a regular substrate and molecular oxygen. The enzyme-mediated oxidation of TMPD is stoichiometrically coupled with the hydoxylation of the substrate to the corresponding enzymatic product. TMPD is kinetically well behaved as an alternate electron donor for the enzyme with a potency comparable to that of the most efficient electron donor, ascorbate. Dopamine beta-monooxygenase mediated oxidation of TMPD has been employed to design a convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme. The finding that TMPD is a well behaved facile alternate electron donor for dopamine beta-monooxygenase raises some interesting novel questions regarding the specificity and chemistry of the reduction site, which may have important implications on the reduction of active site coppers of the enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated chromaffin cell secretion. AU - Hexum, T. D.. AU - Zheng, Jialin C. AU - Zhu, J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide with varied activities, inhibits nicotinic receptor-induced [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) secretion from bovine chromaffin cells. The secretion produced by membrane depolarization with high KCl concentrations or veratridine is not inhibited. Fragments of NPY, such as NPY18-36, are potent inhibitors of [3H]NE secretion, whereas [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY and peptide YY have no effect. The response to NPY18-36 is not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment of chromaffin cells. NPY fragments also inhibit nicotinic receptor-induced 45Ca++ influx but not that induced by KCl or veratridine. The rank orders of potency for inhibition of [3H]NE secretion and 45Ca++ influx are the same: NPY18-36 ≥ NPY26-36 , NPY13-36. NPY and NPY(free acid) are weak inhibitors of secretion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurosecretory cell-based biosensor. T2 - Monitoring secretion of adrenal chromaffin cells by local extracellular acidification using light-addressable potentiometric sensor. AU - Liu, Qingjun. AU - Hu, Ning. AU - Zhang, Fenni. AU - Wang, Hua. AU - Ye, Weiwei. AU - Wang, Ping. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 81071226 , 60725102 ), the Research on Public Welfare Technology Application Projects of Zhejiang Province, China (no. 2011C23096 ), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (no. Y2100684 ), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities .. PY - 2012/5/15. Y1 - 2012/5/15. N2 - Vesicular exocytosis plays an important role in many physiological processes. The dense-core vesicles release of chromaffi{ligature}n cells is a suitable model for the presynaptic process in neurosecretory cells. In this study, light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was introduced ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
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Bovine adrenal medullary slices were incubated at 30° in Lockes solution containing orthophosphate-32P or glycerol-1-14C. 32P was incorporated into all individual phospholipids, but at different rates. The highest specific activity observed was in phosphatidylinositol, followed by phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin), sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylethanolamine.. Acetylcholine (10-5 M)in the presence of eserine (10-5 M) produced a 3-fold increase in catecholamine release and stimulated the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidic acid (3.4-fold), phosphatidylinositol (2.7-fold), and phosphatidylcholine (1.4-fold).. The uptake of orthophosphate-32P into the chromaffin tissue, as well as the specific activities and tissue levels of orthophosphate and nucleotides, were not modified upon acetylcholine stimulation.. Glycerol-1-14C was incorporated into all the individual phospholipids, but, in contrast to 32P incorporation, acetylcholine ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
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DBH - Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase (dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) available from OriGene
Doxycycline synthroid. In most instances, the biopsy is taken from the actual tumor. Chlorpromazine was with- drawn and doxycycline synthroid substituted (up to a maximum of 600 mgday). Chronic morphine increases levels synthrodi types I (ACI) and VIII (ACVIII) adenylyl cyclase, PKA catalytic (C) and regulatory type II (RII) subunits, and several phosphoproteins, including CREB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine biosynthesis.
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... neurosecretory cells connected to the central nervous system. The synthesis, storage (in chromaffin cells) and release of ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ... Unsicker K, Huber K, Schütz G, Kalcheim C (Jun-Jul 2005). "The chromaffin cell and its development". Neurochemical Research. 30 ... The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ...
This makes PC12 cells useful as a model system for neuronal differentiation and neurosecretion. Treatment of PC12 cells with ... It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological ... Treatment of PC12 cells with dexamethasone differentiates them into chromaffin-like cells. Using patch clamp recording and ... and release of these neurotransmitters give rise to spikes due to changes in current similar to chromaffin cells. PC12 cell ...
VMAT was first isolated and purified in bovine chromaffin granules, in both native and denatured forms. There are two types of ... Much research regarding the effects of altered VMATs on biological systems is still ongoing. The two VMAT isoforms are: VMAT1 ... 1994). "The chromaffin granule and synaptic vesicle amine transporters differ in substrate recognition and sensitivity to ... In the 1970s, scientists such as Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work ...
SIFs are interneurons associated with the sympathetic nervous system which are managed by dopamine. VMAT1 is found in both ... Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 ... MAXHOM alignment was determined using the "profile-fed neural network systems from Heidelberg" (PHD) program. The main ... Specifically, VMAT1 is found in chromaffin cells, enterochromaffin cells, and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFs). ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons. They are ... As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a modified ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. ... Adrenal gland Chromaffin cell History of catecholamine research Carmichael, Stephen W. (1997-01-01), Bittar, E. Edward; Bittar ... It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including ...
July 2014). "A defined, controlled culture system for primary bovine chromaffin progenitors reveals novel biomarkers and ... Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ... Cultured bovine chromaffin progenitor cells: Several activators of the signaling pathway increase cell yield. Cultured mouse ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal gland and the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. ...
2000). Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in ... Bornstein is known primarily for his pioneering work on the stress system. He was the first to investigate the interactions of ... 1990). Effects of Splanchnic Nerve Stimulation on the Adrenal Cortex May Be Mediated by Chromaffin Cells in a Paracrine Manner ... 1994). Intimate contact of chromaffin and cortical cells within the human adrenal gland forms the cellular basis for important ...
... (PHEO or PCC) is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as ... The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those related to sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. The classic triad ... Metastatic pheochromocytoma is defined as the presence of tumor cells (chromaffin tissue) where they are not normally found. ... Furthermore, he also introduced the term "chromaffin," allowing pathologists to recognize tumors that arose from the adrenal ...
The circulatory systems of all vertebrates are closed. Fish have the simplest circulatory system, consisting of only one ... The interrenal and chromaffin cells are located within the head kidney The spleen is found in nearly all vertebrates. It is a ... from which the peripheral nervous system branches out to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube is ... who also designed a new classification system which is especially well suited for biological systems. Linkage mechanisms are ...
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The ... Another notable structure is the medulla of the adrenal gland, where chromaffin cells function as modified post-ganglionic ... Like other components of the sympathetic nervous system, all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ...
The insulin receptor system, in contrast, appears to diminish the efficacy of endosomal signaling. The epidermal growth factor ... In addition, they are functional in mediating communication pathways in cell types such as adrenal chromaffin, platelets, and ... Systems on which the organism relies malfunction, resulting often in cancers. Preventing this type of circumstance is highly ... Mammals possess this system, which begins in the kidneys where the developmental signal is manufactured. The developmental ...
... chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland and beta cells in the pancreas. In the central nervous system, Doc2b contributes to the ...
... is found in brain and throughout the neuroendocrine system, including the endocrine pancreas, pituitary, and ... purification and characterization of a specific enkephalin-synthesizing carboxypeptidase localized to adrenal chromaffin ... adrenal gland chromaffin cells. Within cells, carboxypeptidase E is present in the secretory granules along with its peptide ...
They are a neural crest derivative and share a common sympathoadrenal precursor cell with sympathetic neurons and chromaffin ... of the Sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The neurotransmitter for these cells is dopamine. ...
Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ... while awake the thalamus should instead relay sensory inputs from outside the central nervous system. The mechanism of absence ...
... it also activates many other responses within the central nervous system reward system which drives behavioral responses, so ... Adrenaline is synthesized in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland and a small number of neurons in ... While PNMT is found primarily in the cytosol of the endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla (also known as chromaffin cells), it ... Little adrenaline is found in other tissues, mostly in scattered chromaffin cells, and in a small number of neurons which use ...
Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, ... The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organism's "fight or ...
... functioning as part of the sympathetic nervous system (a branch of the autonomic nervous system). These cells normally act as ... Paragangliomas originate from paraganglia in chromaffin-negative glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest, ... Given the fact that they originate from cells of the orthosympathetic system, paragangliomas are closely related to ... comprising a small mass of neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. Serves as a common origin of abdominal paragangliomas. Vagal ...
The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, ... The HPA axis is an example of a negative feedback system, in which cortisol itself acts as a direct inhibitor of both CRH and ... The HPA axis also interacts with the immune system through increased secretion of ACTH at the presence of certain molecules of ... Formation Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential ...
... produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system ... Dopamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is largely produced in neuronal cell bodies in two ... Catecholamine tests are done to identify rare tumors at the adrenal gland or in the nervous system. Catecholamine tests provide ... The catecholamine norepinephrine is a neuromodulator of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system but is also present in the ...
FSCV is used to study dynamics of exocytosis of noradrenaline and adrenaline from chromaffin cells; release of serotonin from ... ISBN 978-3-527-30250-5. Wightman, R. M. (2006). "Probing Cellular Chemistry in Biological Systems with Microelectrodes". ... Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells ( ... and can only be used with select molecules in biological systems. In spite of this, there have been methods developed to ...
Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia ... WHO classification of tumors (2005). "Tumours of the Paraganglionic System". Pathology and genetics of head and neck tumours ( ... Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. Adrenal pheochromocytomas are ... They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or ...
The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Muscarinic acetylcholine ... Very few parts of the sympathetic system use cholinergic receptors. In sweat glands the receptors are of the muscarinic type. ...
Innervated by sympathetic nervous system, chromaffin cells are important in the initiation of the fight-or-flight response of ... In Göttingen Südhof worked on his doctoral thesis, in which he described the structure and function of chromaffin cells, at the ... Südhof described the structure and function of chromaffin cells which are responsible for the release of epinephrine, ...
It is expressed exclusively in the nervous system, in most neurons that control the viscera (cardiovascular, digestive and ... Essential for the differentiation and survival of sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells, the transcription factor PHOX2B is ... Mutations in human PHOX2B cause a rare disease of the visceral nervous system (dysautonomia): congenital central ... partial agenesis of the enteric nervous system), ROHHAD, and tumours of the sympathetic ganglia. In most people, Exon 3 of the ...
The name is derived from their location in the enteric system and their chromaffin-like staining pattern in histologic sections ... Enterochromaffin cell Chromaffin cell List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the ...
When a distinction is made, the "aortic bodies" are chemoreceptors which regulate the circulatory system, while the "paraaortic ... bodies" are the chromaffin cells which manufacture catecholamines. The aortic bodies measure changes in blood pressure and the ... Cardiovascular System", Pathobiology of Human Disease, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 1042-1070, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-386456- ...
They constitute an enteric endocrine system as a subset of the endocrine system just as the enteric nervous system is a subset ... Enterochromaffin-like cells are enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cells also known for their similarity to chromaffin cells ... Histology image: 11604loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Endocrine System: duodenum, enteroendocrine cells ... The very discovery of hormones occurred during studies of how the digestive system regulates its activities, as explained at ...
Immune cells of both the Innate immune system and adaptive immune systems frequently express the α2, α5, α6, α7, α9, and α10 ... Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the ... Dickson SL, Egecioglu E, Landgren S, Skibicka KP, Engel JA, Jerlhag E (June 2011). "The role of the central ghrelin system in ... POMC neurons are a precursor of the melanocortin system, a critical regulator of body weight and peripheral tissue such as skin ...
immune system development. • regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction. • membrane depolarization during cardiac muscle ... Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit *^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ...
Human female endocrine system. *Cell biology stubs. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles with TH identifiers ...
Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells. *Dopamine Chromaffin ... The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts.[2] The endocrine system ... The endocrine system's effects are slow to start, and long-lasting in their response. The nervous system sends information ... In physiology, the endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the ...
General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... The paracrine feedback system of the pancreatic islets has the following structure:[11] ...
"Cell Systems. 3 (4): 385-394.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cels.2016.09.002. ISSN 2405-4712. PMC 5092539. PMID 27693023.. ... GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate insulin secretion by simulating activation of the body's endogenous incretin system.[26] The ... This system of release is commonly referred to as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS).[6] There are four key pieces to ... incretin system acts as an insulin secretion amplifying pathway.[26]. *DPP-4 inhibitors block DPP-4 activity which increases ...
Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic- ... Histology image: 14201loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University. *The Pituitary Gland, from the UMM Endocrinology ... This vascular relationship constitutes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, ...
Growth of reproductive system Luteinizing hormone Lutropin LH, ICSH Glycoprotein Gonadotrophs Basophil Gonads Sex hormone ... A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the ... Role in the endocrine system[edit]. Main article: Hypothalamus. Hypothalamic control. Hormone secretion from the anterior ... Aside from hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary, other systems in the body have been shown to regulate the anterior ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are analogous to post-ganglionic neurons; the adrenal medulla develops in tandem with ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the ... Sympathetic nervous system. Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own ...
SdhB mutations can lead to tumorogenesis in chromaffin cells, causing a class of tumors known as succinate dehydrogenase ... The Iron-Sulfur electron tunneling system is shown in image 9. Ubiquinone reduction[edit]. ...
The hormonal system of the body is almost entirely controlled by the central nervous system. It normally does this by sending ... They are called chromaffin cells, and they release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). ... The neurons of the neuroendocrine system are large; they are mini factories for producing secretory products. These cells are ...
Sherwood, Lauralee (2001). Human physiology: from cells to systems. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-56826-2. OCLC ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... The HPA axis is an example of a negative feedback system, in which cortisol itself acts as a direct inhibitor of both CRH and ... The HPA axis also interacts with the immune system through increased secretion of ACTH at the presence of certain molecules of ...
Ventricular system:. Third ventricle. recesses: (Optic recess, Infundibular recess, Suprapineal recess, Pineal recess) ...
"The endocrine system". pp 355-362. ISBN 978-0-7295-4198-5.. ... System. Endocrine system. Artery. Superior, Inferior thyroid ...
Skeletal system. അസ്ഥി (Carpus · Collar bone (clavicle) · Thigh bone (femur) · Fibula · Humerus · Mandible · Metacarpus · ... general anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, superficial anatomy of ... The system of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.[1] ... Medullary chromaffin cell. Gonadal axis. Gonad: Testes · ... References used in image are found in image article in Commons:Commons:File:Thyroid_system.png#References. ...
Histology image: 14502loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University. *Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood as part of the renin-angiotensin system.[ ...
Duct system. The testes are covered by a tough membranous shell called the tunica albuginea. Within the testes are very fine ... The relative size of testes is often influenced by mating systems.[38] Testicular size as a proportion of body weight varies ... "Functional anatomy of the cetacean reproductive system, with comparisons to the domestic dog." Reproductive Biology and ... "Evolution of thermoregulatory function in cetacean reproductive systems." The Emergence of Whales. Springer US, 1998. 379-397. ...
The synthesis and secretion of aldosterone are mainly regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The zona ... "Basal steroidogenic activity of adrenocortical cells is increased 10-fold by coculture with chromaffin cells". Endocrinology. ...
... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... The increase in available hydrogen bonding increases the entropy of the system, creating a spontaneous process. ...
The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... Some believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a ... Higher central nervous systemEdit. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are also present and distributed throughout the local ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ...
A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N. Engl. J. Med. 279 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1056/ ... Diseases of the endocrine system (E00-E35, 240-259). Pancreas/. glucose. metabolism. ...
Beck, R; Rawet, M; Wieland, FT; Cassel, D. The COPI system: molecular mechanisms and function.. FEBS letters. 2009-09-03, 583 ( ... Vesicular quantal size measured by amperometry at chromaffin, mast, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic beta-cells.. Journal of ... On the mechanism of electrochemical vesicle cytometry: chromaffin cell vesicles and liposomes.. Faraday discussions. 2016-12-12 ... Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells.. Proceedings of ...
System. Reproductive system. Location. Anterior pituitary gland. Function. Gonadotropin secretion (follicle-stimulating hormone ...
The sympathetic adrenomedullary system[edit]. In humans, there are chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands (medulla) that get ... The SAM system is a part of the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system.[20] These systems are responsible for ... Brain circuits and testosterone's systems are formed and activated in early life.[4] These neurobiological systems of the body ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system and cortisol[edit]. In the human body, the steps that lead to the release of ...
Ovarian diseases can be classified as endocrine disorders or as a disorders of the reproductive system.[medical citation needed ... The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the ... Ovaries of some kind are found in the female reproductive system of many animals that employ sexual reproduction, including ... The ovaries form part of the female reproductive system, and attach to the fallopian tubes ...
It is primarily known for its role in the central nervous system but plays an important role in the periphery, with the largest ... Similarly named, Chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla) share this characteristic and are histologically similar to EC cells ... The name 'enterochromaffin' comes from the Greek word "enteron" (ἔντερον), in relation to intestines, and "chromaffin" as a ... EC cells modulate neuron signalling in the enteric nervous system (ENS) via the secretion of the neurotransmitter serotonin and ...
Endocrine system. *Human reproductive system. Hidden categories: *Pages with unresolved properties. *Articles needing cleanup ...
Chromaffin cells. Opioid receptor. Regulate pain Endothelin. Vascular endothelium. Endothelial cells. ET receptor. Smooth ... central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. modulation and inhibition of action potentials in ... Activates the renin-angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen Secretin. SCT. duodenum. S cell. SCT ... hypothalamus, islets of Langerhans, gastrointestinal system. delta cells in islets Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular ...
... human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to ... Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such ... autonomic nervous system function. *. In human nervous system: The endocrine system. Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin ... sympathetic nervous system. *. In human nervous system: Sympathetic nervous system. …in the adrenal gland called chromaffin ...
chromaffin tissue. Chromaffin system.. cicatricial tissue. Scar.. CONNECTIVE TISSUES. connective tissue. Tissue that supports ... chromaffin tissue a tissue composed largely of chromaffin cells, well supplied with nerves and vessels; it occurs in the ... See: mucosal immune system. brown adipose tissue. Abbreviation: BAT. Brown fat... cancellous tissue. Spongy bone with many ... The neurons and neuroglia of the nervous system.. See: neuron. osseous tissue. Bone, a connective tissue with a matrix of ...
chromaffin tissue. Chromaffin system.. cicatricial tissue. Scar.. CONNECTIVE TISSUES. connective tissue. Tissue that supports ... See: mucosal immune system. brown adipose tissue. Abbreviation: BAT. Brown fat... cancellous tissue. Spongy bone with many ... The neurons and neuroglia of the nervous system.. See: neuron. osseous tissue. Bone, a connective tissue with a matrix of ... See: mucosal immune system. mucous tissue. The jellylike connective tissue of the umbilical cord. ...
"Endocrine System: adrenal gland, reticularis and medulla" Secretion Control in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin ... In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which ... Perry, SF; Capaldo, A (Nov 16, 2011). "The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ...
STRUCTURE OF THE CHROMAFFIN CELL; PATHOLOGY OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA; THE ADRENAL MEDULLA AS A MODEL SYSTEM FOR NEUROBIOLOGY; THE ... CHROMAFFIN VESICLE; BIOSYNTHESIS OF CATECHOLAMINES; UPTAKE OF CATECHOLAMINES INTO CHROMAFFIN VESICLES; STIMULUS-SECRETION ... Mechanisms of Negative and Positive Feedback of Steroids in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary System George Fink; INTRODUCTION; ... Mechanisms of Negative and Positive Feedback of Steroids in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary System George Fink; INTRODUCTION; ...
... in adrenal chromaffin cells in vitro. This effect is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and is reduced by Ca2+ channel blockers ... Chromaffin System / drug effects * Chromaffin System / metabolism* * Cimetidine / pharmacology * Clemastine / pharmacology * ... Histamine affects release and biosynthesis of opioid peptides primarily via H1-receptors in bovine chromaffin cells J Neurochem ... Histamine is a potent secretagogue for opioid pentapeptides (Met- and Leu-enkephalin) in adrenal chromaffin cells in vitro. ...
1967) Energy-linked ion movements in mitochondrial systems. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 29:259-320. ... The bovine chromaffin cells used in the present study had a mean diameter of 15.2 μm and a resting whole-cellCm of 6.5 ± 0.6 pF ... 1997) Kinetic studies of Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ clearance in the cytosol of adrenal chromaffin cells. Biophys J 73:532-545. ... A, B, FCCP treatment significantly enhanced the maximum Δ[Ca2+]c evoked in chromaffin cells loaded with 150 μm fura-2 via patch ...
In human endocrine system: Adaptive responses to stress. * In hormone: Chromaffin tissue of the medulla ... human endocrine system: Adaptive responses to stress. Throughout life the endocrine system and the hormones it secretes enhance ... The endocrine system allows not only the individual organism but also the species to survive. Acutely threatened animals and ... Most chemical changes associated with stress are a result of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, specifically the ...
Publications] Shibuya,I.et al.: The Adrenal Chromaffin cell. Hokkaido Univ.Press.Sapporo, 13 (1998). *. Related Report. 1998 ... The purpose of the present study is to examine the physiological role of AM in the central nervous system (CNS). We have ... The localization and physiological role of adrenomedullin and related-peptides in the central nervous system. Research Project ... adrenomedullin / blood-brain barrier / endothelial cells / central nervous system / cerebrospinal fluid / tight junction / ...
The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements ... The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements ... The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements ... B) Unfixed chromaffin cell which was rapidly frozen under high pressure. (C) Detail of vesicles from a chromaffin cell after ...
They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. ... Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. ... Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ... In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells also reside in the bladder wall, prostate, and behind the liver. ...
... equipped with an epifluorescence system. Fluorescence was excited alternately with light at 360 and 390 nm and then detected ... chromaffin cell. CM. cell membrane. CV. clear vesicle. DV. dense core vesicle or chromaffin granule. LM. light microscopy. RRG ... Determination of the Size of Chromaffin Cells. The size of chromaffin cells was estimated from measurements of diameters of the ... 1993) Mobile and immobile calcium buffers in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Physiol (Lond) 469:245-273, pmid:8271200.. ...
"The Adrenal Chromaffin Cell." Scientific American 253 (August 1985): 40-49.. Ross, Michael H., Lynn J. Rommerell, and Gordon I ... adrenal gland (ədrēn´əl) or suprarenal gland (sōōprərēn´əl), endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long ... It consists of chromaffin cells (so named because of their affinity for chromium) and their main product is adrenaline (also ... The adrenal medulla is really an extension of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous ...
Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.. 2 ... A, representative sAP and the elicited Na+ current (INa) and Ca2+ current (ICa) in a freshly isolated mouse chromaffin cell at ... Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs), stimulated by the splanchnic nerve, generate action potentials (APs) at a frequency near 0.5 ... Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and ...
Publications] Shibuya, I., et al.: The Adrenal Chromaffin Cell Hokkaido Llniv.Press, (1997). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」よ ... Publications] Hori, T. et al.: The autonomic nervous system as a communication channel between the brain and the immune system ... Publications] Shibuya,I., et al.: The Adrenal Chromaffin Cell Hokkaido Llniv.Press, (1997). *. Related Report. 1997 Annual ... Neuroendocrine and immune system in genetically polydipsic mice and development of animal model in response to environmental ...
Chromaffin. Cells. Cardiac Output. Dilates Coronary. Vessels. Muscle Contraction. Efficiency. Fatty Acid Release. Mental ... Reproductive System Diagram. *Respiratory System Diagram. *Skeletal System Diagram. *Special Sense Organs ...
Study Images Endocrine System flashcards from Dapo Akinmoladun ... Images Endocrine System Flashcards Preview Functional Histology ...
... of this book is to describe the latest findings relating to biochemical and molecular pharmacology of the nervous system and ... Polyphosphoinositide Breakdown without Calcium Mobilization: Studies with Adrenal Chromaffin Cells and Retina ... Nervous System alcoholism brain brain injury calcium ethanol lipide metabolism muscle neurochemistry neurons research ... lism in the nervous system. The presence of phosphorus in the brain was reported in 1719 by Hensing at the University of ...
Stolz27 reported hyperplasia of the chromaffin system in acrodynia. Blackfan and McKhann,28 after studying 40 cases, observed ... Day, R., Smith, J.R., and Klingman, W.O. Tests of function of vegetative nervous system in acrodynia. Am. J. Dis. Child. 57: ... Feer,26 in 1925, attributed acrodynia to a disorder of the vegetative nervous system and used atropine to treat his cases. ... They thought that this might be explained by pre-existing maximum stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and compared ...
Chromaffin Granules / analysis * Chromaffin System / analysis* * Digestive System / analysis * Digestive System / cytology ...
ICE high-pressure freezing system from Leica Microsystems. The frozen samples were transferred to cryovials under liquid ... Chromaffin cells are found in the medulla of adrenal glands above the kidneys. They are a type of neuroendocrine cell ... Ultrastructural Preservation and Improved Visualization of Membranes in Primary Bovine Chromaffin Cells Capturing Dynamic ... note describes a detailed method to perform high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells ...
Chromaffin cells produce dopamine within the dopaminergic regions of the brain. It is mainly the nervous tissue and the medulla ... Dopamine is mainly synthesized in areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is synthesized in the hypothalamus, ...
Catecholamine / Serotonin Interactions: Systems thinking for brain function and disease. Julie G. Hensler, Analia Bortolozzi, ... Granins, Catecholamines, and the Chromaffin Cell. Alessandro Bartolomucci. *Dopamine Cycling, Storage, & Co-release Mechanisms ... Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers ... Stress-triggered Changes in Peripheral Catecholaminergic Systems. Richard Kvetnansky. *PTSD: Catecholaminergic Influences. ...
the chromaphil and cortical systems (Grays s277). Grays page #1277 * Chromaphil or chromaffin cells ... Reproductive system. Female. Cervix , Clitoris , Clitoral hood , Fallopian tubes , Bartholins glands , G-spot , Hymen , Labium ... Reproductive system. Female. Cervix , Clitoris , Clitoral hood , Fallopian tubes , Bartholins glands , G-spot , Hymen , Labium ... Urinary system - Kidney. Layers. Renal fascia • Renal capsule • Renal cortex (Renal column) • Renal medulla (Renal sinus, Renal ...
Chromaffin cells. Fight-or-flight response: *Boost the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing ... Cardiovascular system • Digestive system • Endocrine system • Immune system • Integumentary system • Lymphatic system • ... Muscular system • Nervous system • Reproductive system • Respiratory system • Skeletal system • Urinary system ... The Endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system. However, the nervous system uses nerves to ...
Individuals with Neurological Diseases that Affect the Sympathetic Nervous System: Imaging in these patients may show decreased ... Hypertension: AdreView may increase release of norepinephrine from chromaffin granules producing transient hypertension. ... 8 The total cost of heart failure is estimated to be nearly 32 billion to the US health system. 8 Patients who have previously ...
Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their ... Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their ... chromaffin cells in suprarenal glands may be the main source of plasma dopamine when stimulated by the autonomic nervous system ... Sympathetic nervous system control of anti-influenza CD8+ T cell responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2009) 106:5300-5. doi: ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Endocrine System. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones. endocrine system. endocrine system influences __ activity by ... chromaffin cells are modified ganglionic __ __ that synthesize catecholamines. sympathetic neurons. chief hormone produced by ... feedback inhibition & others are __ factors that affect endocrine system. turn-off. in the body the __ system makes certain ...
Study Autonomic Nervous System flashcards from Jp Reyes ... and renin-angiotensin systems contribute to maintenance of ... Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview [OS 202] Lecture Exam A , Autonomic Nervous System , Flashcards ...
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  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by the splanchnic nerve and secrete adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), some dopamine, enkephalin and enkephalin-containing peptides, and a few other hormones into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromaffin cells and ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla also were labeled. (jneurosci.org)
  • Also found in some chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (abcam.com)
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which base of the skull. (slideshare.net)
  • Then, within the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and cytosol of the adrenergic neurons, norepinephrine is methylated (a fancy words that means an enzyme adds a methyl group to a substance) and converted to epinephrine. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Epinephrine is then stored in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla until it's needed in the body. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (jspargo.com)
  • The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream as hormones instead of as neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. (britannica.com)
  • They are in close proximity to pre-synaptic sympathetic ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, with which they communicate, and structurally they are similar to post-synaptic sympathetic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they also are excitable cells that generate action potentials, chromaffin cells are viewed as the endocrine counterparts of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and are often termed adrenal paraneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The phenomena of two maturation steps preceding fusion, docking, and priming, are readily demonstrated in both neurons and chromaffin cells, and release occurs from a readily releasable pool (RRP) as described below. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purely neurocrine signaling between neurons , on the other hand, belongs completely to the nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the nervous system transmits neurotransmitters (also chemical messengers) between neighboring neurons via nerve extension, and neurotransmitters do not generally enter the circulation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, the chromaffin cell plasticity is analogous to neuronal degeneration of hippocampal neurons and apoptosis of lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post-synaptic sympathetic neurons, even though they are not neurons they are derivatives of the neural crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis, storage (in chromaffin cells) and release of catecholamines is co-regulated by synaptic input from their respective pre-synaptic sympathetic neurons, as well as hormonal and local inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understand the organization the peripheral nervous system including the structural differences of the neurons comprising its components. (wikipremed.com)
  • Neurons are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. (wikipremed.com)
  • Motor neurons begin in the central nervous system projecting their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly controlling muscles. (wikipremed.com)
  • Epinephrine is produced by neurons in the brain and sympathetic nervous system and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. (reference.com)
  • The SNS provides negative feedback control over inflammation through the secretion of catecholamines from postganglionic sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs). (queensu.ca)
  • The results suggest that central monoaminergic neurons impose both inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the maturation of specific chromaffin cell types in the adrenal medulla and that supraspinal catecholaminergic inputs may play a role in determining the set-point for reflex adrenomedullary responses. (epa.gov)
  • Building on previous research pointing to neurotransmitters' role in inflammation regulation, the researchers focused on two specific cell types known to secrete them-;chromaffin cells that reside in the adrenal glands and noradrenergic neurons that are located in the peripheral nerve system and directly connected to the spleen through an abundance of nerve fibers. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromaffin cells are the body's main producers of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline and of dopamine, while noradrenergic neurons release noradrenaline. (news-medical.net)
  • To do so, they used a novel genetic tool to ablate chromaffin cells or noradrenergic neurons. (news-medical.net)
  • The chromaffin tissue originates from the same ectodermal rudiment that gives rise to the sympathetic neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IA-2 is enriched in the secretory granules of pancreatic islet cells and neuroendocrine cells, including peptidergic neurons, pituitary cells, and adrenal chromaffin cells ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Another role for these receptors is at the junction of the innervated tissues and the postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also some evidence for postsynaptic receptors on sympathetic neurons allowing the parasympathetic nervous system to inhibit sympathetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This application note describes a detailed method to perform high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to improve the visualization of membranes when compared to chemical fixed preparations. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Nicotinic Cholinergic Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression and Catecholamine Synthesis in Isolated Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. (go.jp)
  • Undiagnosed chromaffin cell tumors can present with life-threatening complications for both the mother and fetus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this syndrome, patients develop polycythemia at a later age relative to HIF2A mutation carriers, but they appear to have a similar high risk of recurrent chromaffin cell tumors, especially PGL [17, 53]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromaffin cell tumors that produce significant amounts of metanephrine alone, or in combination with normetanephrine, almost always have an adrenal location or reflect recurrence of a previous adrenal tumor (73). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • c ) paraganglioma (chromaffin cell tumors). (annals.org)
  • This can be caused by numerous things such as administration of exogenous epinephrine or tumors in the adrenals or along other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • The term paraganglioma refers to any extra-adrenal or nonfunctional tumor of the paraganglion system, whereas functional tumors are referred to as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. (medscape.com)
  • The biosynthesis and storage of catecholamines in chromaffin cell tumors may differ from the biosynthesis and storage in the normal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Catecholamine-producing tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that affect the chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla and postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, it has been reported that mutations in the SDHC gene cause some familial chromaffin cell tumors (i.e., paragangliomas) in humans (15) , but the mechanism by which these mutation cause cancer is still unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data show that ROS from mitochondria can promote not only apoptosis but also tumorigenesis, thus explaining the malignancies such as chromaffin cell tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas are tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the sympathetic nervous system and act by synthesizing and releasing catecholamines. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Purpose: Paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors derived from chromaffin cells of the autonomic nervous system. (koreamed.org)
  • adrenal medulla is composed of chromaffin cells that are named for the granules within the cells that darken after exposure to chromium salts. (britannica.com)
  • Thus, mitochondria would play a critical role in the control of secretory activity in chromaffin cells that undergo tonic or repetitive depolarizing activity, likely by limiting the Ca 2+ -dependent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the current study, the hypothesis that mitochondria regulate secretory activity by limiting rises in [Ca 2+ ] c and the subsequent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis was tested by monitoring stimulus-evoked changes in [Ca 2+ ] c and the secretory activity of single bovine chromaffin cells after selective pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. (jneurosci.org)
  • We determined the size and intracellular distribution of dense core vesicles (DVs or chromaffin granules) and of clear vesicles (CVs). (rupress.org)
  • The distinct phases of the chromaffin cell secretory response have been attributed to the progressive fusion of distinct populations of dense core granules with different activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Our study provides evidence for functional specialization of chromaffin cell granules via selective expression of Syt isoforms with different Ca 2+ sensitivities. (rupress.org)
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules. (biochemj.org)
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. (biochemj.org)
  • The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. (biochemj.org)
  • They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules. (biochemj.org)
  • It presents papers on functional neurochemistry, nervous system receptors, neurotransmitters, myelin, chromaffin granules and other components of the nervous system, as well as neurophysiological and clinical aspects, behavioral reactions, etc. (springer.com)
  • In non-mammals, chromaffin cells are found in a variety of places, generally not organised as an individual organ, and may be without innervation, relying only on endocrine or paracrine signals for secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones . (wikidoc.org)
  • The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating metabolism , growth and development and puberty , tissue function , and plays a part also in mood . (wikidoc.org)
  • The Endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. (wikidoc.org)
  • The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling. (wikidoc.org)
  • Diseases of the endocrine system are common, [3] including diseases such as diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, and obesity . (wikidoc.org)
  • Over the last years, studies of the neuroendocrine and immune systems have indicated that neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, hormones, and cytokines, as well as their respective receptors, can be used as common mediators in a neuro-endocrine-immune network, allowing the body to mount proper responses to changes of the internal environment and external insults ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The endocrine system is the human body ' s group of specialized organs and tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical hormones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The endocrine is also similar to the nervous system , because both systems regulate body events and communicate through chemical messengers with target cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Understand how neuroendocrine cells function to integrate the nervous and endocrine system be familiar with the physiological centers of neuroendocrine activity. (wikipremed.com)
  • جهاز الغدد الصماء أو الجهاز الصماوي (بالإنجليزية: Endocrine system) عبارة عن جهاز متكامل من الأعضاء الصغيرة التي تقوم بتحرير جزيئات إشارة خارج خلوية تدعى هرمونات . (marefa.org)
  • One important action of PACAP in the endocrine system is its role as a potent secretagogue for adrenaline from the adrenal medulla through activation of TH. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This cooperation between the nervous system and Effects of pituitary adenomas endocrine apparatus is referred to as neuroendocrine Pituitary adenomas cause problems because of a com- signalling. (slideshare.net)
  • Cells in different regions of the adrenal glands have different functions in the endocrine system.The outer portion of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal cortex. (medicinenet.com)
  • The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~20% of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into systemic circulation for systemic effects on multiple organs (similarly to secretory neurones of the hypothalamus), and can also send paracrine signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increased sympathetic activity leads to chronically increased synthesis and secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal chromaffin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chronic increase of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion causes desensitization of the chromaffin cells to catecholamines resulting in a decrease in production and presence of α2 adrenergic receptors on their cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells connected to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goddard of Cytotherapeutics filled the implant with around 2 million chromaffin cells-enough to secrete about 2 to 3 micrograms of catecholamines over 24 hours. (newscientist.com)
  • The largest chromaffin paraganglia is the organ of Zuckerkandl, it is probably the largest source of circulating catecholamines in the fetus and young infants, and gradually atrophies to microscopic loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed the following studies to determine whether the SHR Y chromosome raises blood pressure by sympathetic nervous system responses as measured by adrenal chromogranin A and plasma and tissue catecholamines. (ahajournals.org)
  • These terms can be used interchangeably but usually paraganglioma refer to a tumor originating from chromaffin cells outside the adrenal gland, which can also be called extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, whereas pheochromocytoma typically refer to a tumor originating from the chromaffin cells within the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Be able to distinguish the structure, mechanisms and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. (wikipremed.com)
  • The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. (aappublications.org)
  • Appreciation of the breadth of autonomic disorders has increased since Langley 1 originally proposed the generic term "autonomic nervous system" (ANS) and designated its division into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems. (aappublications.org)
  • Perhaps this disparity has evolved through lack of awareness of the myriad of pediatric autonomic disorders or inadequate residency education regarding evaluation of this particular system. (aappublications.org)
  • In addition, there are often associated sensory perturbations, because the development and maintenance of the autonomic and sensory systems are closely linked. (aappublications.org)
  • These cells migrate and eventually evolve into sensory and autonomic ganglia as well as the adrenal chromaffin cells. (aappublications.org)
  • In the autonomic nervous system (ANS), nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system to ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. (lumenlearning.com)
  • [2] Their counterparts are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), receptor ion channels that are also important in the autonomic nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasms arising from these cells are pheochromocytomas (also called chromaffin or sympathetic paragangliomas, in contrast to non-chromaffin or parasympathetic paragangliomas of glomus cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas develop from chromaffin tissue in the adrenal medulla while paragangliomas form in the extra-adrenal ganglia. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Pheochromocytomas from in the adrenal gland, while paragangliomas grow in the peripheral nervous system," Bennett explained. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells persists during exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia and activation of the sympathetic nerves at the same time that epinephrine secretion is reduced. (jci.org)
  • At the same time, the SNS stimulates the release of epinephrine by the chromaffin cells into the blood stream. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Regulation of Adrenal Chromaffin Cell Development by the Central Monoaminergic System: Differential Control of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Levels and Secretory Responses (Journal Version). (epa.gov)
  • The results suggest that the ontogeny of the two chromaffin cell types (norepinephrine and epinephrine-containing) in the adrenals and the maturation of their secretory responses are under differential regulation. (epa.gov)
  • The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla , which secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using pharmacological probes to inhibit mitochondrial Ca 2+ import, the ability of mitochondria to modulate secretory activity in single, patch-clamped bovine chromaffin cells was examined by simultaneously monitoring rapid changes in membrane surface area (Δ C m ) and cytosolic Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] c ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Disruption of cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by poisoning mitochondria enhanced the secretory responsiveness of chromaffin cells by increasing the amplitude of the transient rise and the time course of recovery to baseline of the evoked Δ[Ca 2+ ] c . (jneurosci.org)
  • Using optogenetically evoked catecholamine release, we show that recurrent hypoglycemia reduced the secretory capacity of mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. (jci.org)
  • Notably, cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a key protease for proteolytic processing of proneuropeptides (and prohormones) into active neuropeptides that are released to mediate cell-cell communication in the nervous system for neurotransmission. (nih.gov)
  • Features of the secretory vesicle protein systems insure optimized intravesicular conditions that support the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. (nih.gov)
  • In The adrenal chromaffin cell: Archetype and exemplar of cellular signalling in secretory control. (researchmap.jp)
  • Early requirement for α-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells. (mpg.de)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel m. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel mechanism of Ca2+ syntilla suppression. (nih.gov)
  • In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells also reside in the bladder wall, prostate, and behind the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lempinen, M.: Extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the rat and the effect of cortical hormones on it. (springer.com)
  • nerve tissue ( nervous tissue ) the specialized tissue forming the elements of the nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Their differentiation and commitment to function in the mature nervous system is incumbent on exposure to growth factors released by structures along the migratory route and then within the target tissue. (aappublications.org)
  • 1. A method of inducing analgesia or reducing pain comprising implanting isolated, substantially homogeneously purified chromaffin cells or adrenal medullary tissue in nociceptor region of central nervous system of a host susceptible to pain, and stimulating said cells or tissue by infecting a nicotinic or muscarinic agonist to release effective amount of analgesic substance to reduce pain. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention is related to the implantation of isolated chromaffin cells or adrenal medullary tissue in the brain stem or spinal cord for producing analgesia when the implanted tissue or cell is induced to release nociceptor interacting substances. (google.com)
  • Since pain is not necessarily the result of damaged neuronal tissue, it is essential that the function of neural implants in intact, non-lesioned systems be assessed when determining pain sensitivity. (google.com)
  • and an internal portion (the medulla), which consists of chromaffin, or adrenal, tissue and secretes catecholamine hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sometimes, pheochromocytomas arise from chromaffin cells that are located outside of the adrenal gland. (medicinenet.com)
  • In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of cells that originate from the neural crest and are related to the sympathetic nervous system (originate from a cell called sympathogonia): 1) Neuroblasts: These cells migrate, during the fourth to the fifth week of fetal development in humans, on both sides of the spinal cord toward the region just behind the dorsal aorta forming the two chains of sympathetic ganglia (Sympathetic chain). (wikipedia.org)
  • The secreted adrenaline and noradrenaline play an important role in the sympathetic nervous system response, commonly called the fight-or-flight response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chemical changes associated with stress are a result of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, specifically the fight-or-flight response. (britannica.com)
  • The purpose of the present study is to examine the physiological role of AM in the central nervous system (CNS). (nii.ac.jp)
  • They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Dopamine is mainly synthesized in areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems. (news-medical.net)
  • Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interactions between the nervous and immune systems occur through the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and through sympathetic/parasympathetic innervations of primary and secondary lymphoid organs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, it implies that different physiological or pathological processes in the nervous system could be involved in the regulation of immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the nervous system, intense labeling was seen in small-caliber nerve fibers in sciatic nerve and spinal cord dorsal roots, as well as in the dorsal white columns and dorsal root ganglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • these elements may be unified by an as yet unrecognized pattern of function in the nervous system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nerve cells and nervous systems : an introduction to neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system. (abcam.com)
  • It is an embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts (pluripotent sympathetic cells). (medscape.com)
  • Their organization function and development in the peripheral nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Kanerva, L., Hervonen, A., Hervonen, H.: Morphological characteristics of the ontogenesis of the mammalian peripheral adrenergic nervous system with special remarks on the human fetus. (springer.com)
  • The approach to the human nervous system within this section of the course is concerned with the structure of individual nerve cells, impulse transmission, and the basic organization and major divisions of the human nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • However, in the psychology and sociology portion of the course , you will find additional resources treating the human nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • Study the terminology for the nervous system using the question server . (wikipremed.com)
  • Complete the advanced crossword puzzle for the nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • Review the web resources for the nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • The central nervous system represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord. (wikipremed.com)
  • The brain or encephalon is the control center of the central nervous system. (wikipremed.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the central nervous system serving the limbs and organs. (wikipremed.com)
  • The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements and with reception of external stimuli. (wikipremed.com)
  • Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells respond to sympathetic nervous system activation by secreting a cocktail of potent neuropeptides and hormones into the circulation. (rupress.org)
  • In the central nervous system, PACAP acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, which has been supported by IHC and electrophysiological methods. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Ed. Nucreotides and their receptors in the nervous system. (researchmap.jp)
  • It's produced by the adrenal medulla and the central nervous system and is a major component of the "flight or fight" response. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • First, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and adrenocorticoptropin hormone (ACTH) kick off the synthesis of adrenaline. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is part of an integrative network that functions to restore homeostasis following injury and infection. (queensu.ca)
  • These findings extend our knowledge of the complex integration performed by the immune system-nervous system network during health and disease. (queensu.ca)
  • The method involves implanting in the central nervous system of a host susceptible to pain, living material capable of releasing effective amount of analgesic substance when interacted with a stimulus which induces said material to release. (google.com)
  • The present invention is related to producing analgesia or reducing pain by implantation of cellular material in the central nervous system (CNS) of a host susceptible to pain sensation. (google.com)
  • Implants of adrenal chromaffin cells have been shown to survive for long periods of time when transplanted into the central nervous system (Perlow et al. (google.com)
  • The central nervous system (the hypothalamus and the cerebral cortex) activates the pituitary-adrenal cortex system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Parkinson Disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. (rareshare.org)
  • SUMMARY 2.1 Main risks and target organs Target organs are the peripheral and central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, especially the hair follicles. (inchem.org)
  • The central and peripheral nervous system abnormalities may persist several months. (inchem.org)
  • All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), are cholinergic-that is, these fibers use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter-and are myelinated. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Ginseng saponins, major active components of ginseng root used by folk medicine in the treatment of various diseases, produce multiple pharmacological responses having many effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The journal provides a source for communication on the latest findings in all areas of contemporary neurochemistry and other fields of relevance (including molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, neuroimmunology, pharmacology) in order to expand understanding of the functions of nervous system. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, the SHR Y chromosome appears to increase the chronic sympathetic nervous system. (ahajournals.org)
  • A potential mechanism could be a Y locus that influences chronic sympathetic nervous system activity, which may reinforce neurohumoral factors and structural components of the vessel wall, accelerating the development of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • They play several roles, including acting as the main end-receptor stimulated by acetylcholine released from postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are also present and distributed throughout the local nervous system, in post-synaptic and pre-synaptic positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sympathetic activation of chromaffin cells releases their hormones into the bloodstream in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yet, some overlap between hormones and neurotransmitters exists, which gives rise to chemical signals called neurohormones that function as part of the neuroendocrine system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ANS is a visceral and largely involuntary motor/effector system that is traditionally divided into sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral) divisions, each with a central and a peripheral component. (aappublications.org)
  • They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or parasympathetic ganglia made of glomus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla are ideally suited to distinguish and quantify the diverse pools of vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells shares many important features with neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles in classical CNS synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Active zones, electron dense, protein rich areas with the attendant clusters of vesicles ( Zhai and Bellen, 2004 ) are not obvious in chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Munc13-1 acts as a priming factor for large densecore vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells. (mpg.de)
  • Passive ion permeability of the chromaffin-granule membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we assess the consequences of selective sorting of Syt isoforms in chromaffin cells, particularly with respect to granule dynamics and activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. (biochemj.org)
  • As part of the adrenal system, we know keeping our norepinephrine levels in check is important in maintaining energy levels, alertness, appropriate stress responses, mental health, and of course, great athletic performance and body composition. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Because descending supraspinal catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems have been implicated to play key roles in regulating adrenomedullary function, the ontogeny of the sympatho-adrenomedullary axis was evaluated after neonatal central lesioning with 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. (epa.gov)
  • The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulated exocytosis in chromaffin cells is triggered by membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. (rupress.org)
  • Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Chromaffin cells (or pheochromocytes): These cells will migrate to the area adjacent to the sympathetic ganglia (hence the name paraganglia) and to the adrenal medulla where they will be the most abundant type of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells are found in the medulla of adrenal glands above the kidneys. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Glomus cells of the carotid body, such as chromaffin cells of fetal adrenal medulla, are specialized in sensing local oxygen tension in mammals [9] and can undergo anatomical changes if exposed to chronic hypoxia [10]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The catecholamine-secreting cells are sometimes referred to as chromaffin cells, and they are found in other areas of the body as well as in the adrenal medulla. (medicinenet.com)
  • Specifically, ginsenoside Rg 2 has been shown to block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bovine chromaffin cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • the chromaffin cells settle near the sympathetic ganglia, the vagus nerve, paraganglia, and carotid arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Several studies have shown that immune system cells can be regulated by dopamine acting on immune cells expressing dopamine receptors (DARs) present on the surface of T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Very few parts of the sympathetic system use cholinergic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell development," Neural Development, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. (edu.au)
  • Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. (edu.au)
  • Embryonic Development section of notes covers development before later system formation. (edu.au)
  • The implants contain chromaffin cells, which secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline and are thought to play a role in animals' "fight or flight" response to danger. (newscientist.com)
  • However, there are also important differences between synaptic transmission and catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • An in situ saline-perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation was used to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of basal and stimulus-evoked catecholamine secretion from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss chromaffin cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, because removal of the endothelium did not affect NO production during electrical field stimulation, it would appear that the neuronal form of NOS (nNOS) is the key isoform modulating catecholamine secretion from trout chromaffin cells. (biologists.org)
  • In fish the steroidogenic and chromaffin tissues form independent aggregates of cells near the kidney. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a component of the mucosal immune system that defends all mucosal surfaces against pathogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membrane also prevents the large, complex molecules and cells of the patients' immune system from reaching the chromaffin cells. (newscientist.com)
  • After removing the tube, the researchers found no fibrous cells sticking to the device, indicating that the surface of the implant had not aggravated the immune system. (newscientist.com)
  • This symposium will gather the world's leaders in vaccine research to share the latest findings on the potential and the limits of the human immune system, the challenges facing vaccine development, maternal immunizations, and the next era of vaccine technologies. (nyas.org)
  • The innate immune system is a key defense missile of invertebrates and an essential defense mechanism of fish to maintain the homeostasis 1 . (nature.com)
  • It is unclear why the immune system reacts against IA-2 as part of the autoimmune responses associated with type 1 diabetes ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chromaffin cells produce dopamine within the dopaminergic regions of the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). (biochemj.org)
  • Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterochromaffin and enterochromaffin-like cells, both being enteroendocrine cells, are also considered neuroendocrine cells due to their structural and functional similarity to chromaffin cells, although they are not derivatives of the neural crest. (wikipedia.org)