Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Dopamine beta-HydroxylasePhenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Para-Aortic Bodies: Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Enterochromaffin Cells: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).Paraganglia, Chromaffin: Small bodies containing chromaffin cells occurring outside of the adrenal medulla, most commonly near the sympathetic ganglia and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Annexin A7: An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.

Action potentials in the rat chromaffin cell and effects of acetylcholine. (1/442)

1. Electrophysiological properties of the rat chromaffin cell were studied using intracellular recording techniques. 2. The resting potential in the chromaffin cell was -49 +/- 6 mV (mean +/- S.D., n = 14) in standard saline containing 10 mM-Ca whereas that in Na-free saline was -63 +/- 9 mV (n = 17). At rest, the membrane has a substantial Na permeability. 3. Action potentials were evoked by passing current through the recording electrode. In standard saline the major fraction of the action potential disappeared either upon omission of external Na ions from standard saline or addition of 1 muM tetrodotoxin (TTX). We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell are due mainly to an increase in the permeability of the membrane to Na ions. 4. Small but significant regenerative action potentials were observed in Na-free saline, and when Ca in Na-free saline was replaced by Ba, prolonged action potentials occurred. We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell also have a Ca component. 5. Iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh) produced a transient membrane depolarization in standard saline. 6. Spontaneous action potentials were recorded extracellularly by microsuction electrodes. They occurred at a rate of 0-05-0-1/sec in almost all cells. 7. When the perfusion fluid contained 3 x 10(-7) M to 10(-4) M ACh the spike frequency increased up to about 2/sec. This stimulatory effect of ACh was blocked by 10(-7) M atropine but not by 10(-3) M hexamethonium nor by 10(-5) M-d-tubocurarine. 8. The importance of Ca entry during action potentials for catecholamine secretion is discussed  (+info)

Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells. (2/442)

1. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce biogenic amines which are transported into secretory vesicles by one of two proton-amine exchangers, vesicular monoamine transporters type 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and 2). We report here the presence of VMAT1 in rat gastrin (G) cells and the relevance of VMAT1 function for the modulation of progastrin processing by biogenic and dietary amines. 2. In immunocytochemical studies VMAT1, but not VMAT2, was localized to subpopulations of G cells and enterochromaffin (EC) cells; neither was found in antral D cells. The expression of VMAT1 in antral mucosa was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which revealed an mRNA band of approximately 3.2 kb, and by Western blot analysis, which revealed a major protein of 55 kDa. 3. In pulse-chase labelling experiments, the conversion of the amidated gastrin G34 to G17 was inhibited by biogenic amine precursors (L-DOPA and 5-hydroxytryptophan). This inhibition was stereospecific and sensitive to reserpine (50 nM), which blocks VMAT1 and VMAT2, but resistant to tetrabenazine, which is a selective inhibitor of VMAT2. 4. Dietary amines such as tyramine and tryptamine also inhibited G34 cleavage. This effect was associated with a loss of the electron-dense core of G cell secretory vesicles. It was not stereospecific or reserpine sensitive, but was correlated with hydrophobicity. 5. Thus rat antral G cells can express VMAT1; transport of biogenic amines into secretory vesicles by VMAT1 is associated with inhibition of G34 cleavage, perhaps by raising intravesicular pH. Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH.  (+info)

Subcellualr distribution of protein carboxymethylase and its endogenous substrates in the adrenal medulla: possible role in excitation-secretion coupling. (3/442)

Protein carboxymethylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein O-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.24) transfers a methyl group from S-adenoxyl-L-methionine to carboxyl side chains of proteins to form labile protein-methyl esters which, thus, neutralize negative charges. This enzyme was examined for its possible participation in excitation-secretion coupling in the adrenal medulla. Protein carboxymethylase has a specific activity several times higher in the adrenal medulla than in the adrenal cortex; also, the medulla has a higher concentration of methyl-acceptor proteins. In the adrenal medulla, 97% of the enzyme was localized in the cytosol. Of the various subcellular fractions of the medulla, the catecholamine-containing chromaffin vesicles had the highest concentrations of substrat(s) for protein carboxymethylase. Carboxymethylation of proteins in intact chromaffin vesicles results in stripping of methylated protein(s) from the membranes. Thus, protein carboxymethylase appears to be involved in the neutralization of charges on the surface of chromaffin vesicles and in the release of surface proteins; both phenomena are likely to be required for exocytosis.  (+info)

Desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors does not impede catecholamine secretion during acute hypoxia in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/442)

Experiments were performed on adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in vivo using chronically cannulated fish and in situ using a perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation (i) to characterise the desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors and (ii) to assess the ability of fish to secrete catecholamines during acute hypoxia with or without functional nicotinic receptors. Intra-arterial injection of nicotine (6.0x10(-)(7 )mol kg(-)(1)) caused a rapid increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels; the magnitude of this response was unaffected by an injection of nicotine given 60 min earlier. Evidence for nicotinic receptor desensitisation, however, was provided during continuous intravenous infusion of nicotine (1.3x10(-)(5 )mol kg(-)(1 )h(-)(1)) in which plasma catecholamine levels increased initially but then returned to baseline levels. To ensure that the decline in circulating catecholamine concentrations during continuous nicotine infusion was not related to changes in storage levels or altered rates of degradation/clearance, in situ posterior cardinal vein preparations were derived from fish previously experiencing 60 min of saline or nicotine infusion. Confirmation of nicotinic receptor desensitisation was provided by demonstrating that the preparations derived from nicotine-infused fish were unresponsive to nicotine (10(-)(5 )mol l(-)(1)), yet remained responsive to angiotensin II (500 pmol kg(-)(1)). The in situ experiments demonstrated that desensitisation of the nicotinic receptor occurred within 5 min of receptor stimulation and that resensitisation was established 40 min later. The ability to elevate plasma catecholamine levels during acute hypoxia (40-45 mmHg; 5.3-6.0 kPa) was not impaired in fish experiencing nicotinic receptor desensitisation. Indeed, peak plasma adrenaline levels were significantly higher in the desensitised fish during hypoxia than in controls (263+/-86 versus 69+/-26 nmol l(-)(1); means +/- s.e.m., N=6-9). Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate that activation of preganglionic sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres and the resultant stimulation of nicotinic receptors is not the sole mechanism for eliciting catecholamine secretion during hypoxia.  (+info)

Tumours of the adrenal gland and paraganglia. (5/442)

This classification is arranged in two parts in order to take into account the different origins, structures, and functions of the cortex and medulla. The tabular classification is a simplified version of that suggested for adrenal tumours in man, and includes cortical adenoma and carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, chemodectoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma, and neuroblastoma. A detailed functional classification is not given, since the hormonal activity of many adrenal tumours in animals is less well known than it is in man. Of the tumour-like lesions listed, cortical hyperplasia is particularly important in several species.  (+info)

Ion permeability of isolated chromaffin granules. (6/442)

The passive ion permeability, regulation of volume, and internal pH of isolated bovine chromaffin granules were studied by radiochemical, potentiometric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric techniques. Chromaffin granules behave as perfect osmometers between 340 and 1,000 mosM in choline chloride, NaCl, and KCl as measured by changes in absorbance at 430 nm or from intragranular water measurements using 3H2O and [14C]polydextran. By suspending chromaffin granules in iso-osmotic media of various metal ions and selectively increasing the permeability to either the cation or the anion by intrinsically permeable ions or specific ionophores, it was possible to determine by turbidity and potentiometric measurements the permeability to the counterion. These measurements indicate that the chromaffin granule is impermeable to the cations tested (Na+, K+, and H+). Limited H+ permeability across the chromaffin granule membrane was also shown by means of the time course of pH re-equilibration after pulsed pH changes in the surrounding media. The measurement of [14C]methylamine distribution indicates that a significant deltapH exists across the membrane, inside acidic, which at an external value of 6.85 has a value of 1.16. The deltapH is relatively insensitive to changes in the composition of the external media and can be enhanced or collapsed by the addition of ionophores and uncouplers. Measurement at various values of external pH indicates an internal pH of 5.5. Use of the ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca++ and Mg++ can be accumulated against an apparent concentration gradient with calcium uptake exceeding 50 nmol/mg of protein at saturation. These measurements also show that Ca++ and Mg++ are impermeable. Measurement of catecholamine release under conditions where intravesicular calcium accumulation is maximal indicates that catecholamine release does not occur. The physiological significance of the high impermeability to ions and the existence of a large deltapH are discussed in terms of regulation of uptake, storage, and release of catecholamines in chromaffin granules.  (+info)

Release of catecholamines and dopamine beta-hydroxylase from the perfused adrenal gland of the cat. (7/442)

1. Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following splanchnic nerve stimulation or infusion of acetylcholine (ACh). 2. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (30 Hz) or perfusion with a low concentration of ACh (10-minus5 M) caused a marked release of CA in the venous effluent, but release of DBH activity was minimal while a higher concentration of ACh (10-minus 4 M) enhanced the release of CA and DBH. 3. The ratio of DBH/CA released in the perfusate by splanchnic nerve stimulation or ACh infusion was only a small fraction of the ratio in the soluble lysate of purified chromaffin vesicles. 4. Following reserpine treatment, adrenal CA levels fell to 25% of the control value in 24 hr, remained depressed on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 at 5% of the control and recovered to 60% of the control value on the 6th day. DBH activity was unchanged from the control value at 24 hr after treatment, then rose as high as 5 times the control on the 5th day and was still twice the control value on the 6th day. 5. CA secretion in response to ACh (10-minus 4 M) perfusion was reduced to 30% of the control value on the first day after reserpine treatment, while DBH secretion was unchanged. On the 2nd day, CA secretion was depressed further to 5% of the control and remained at this low level up to 5 days after treatment while DBH secretion was twice the control value at 48 hr and then on days 3, 4 and 5 rose up to 5 times the control value. On the 6th day, secretion of CA recovered to 30% of the control while DBH secretion was now twice the control. 6. Isopycnic sucrose density (discontinuous) gradient centrifugation of vesicles from adrenal glands of control cats, and of cats given reserpine 1 or 2 days perviously, indicated that new vesicles or vesicles depleted of CA by reserpine had a lower equilibrium density than the original population of vesicles. 7. These results suggest that the release of CA is quantal in nature, but the release of DBH is not necessarily coupled with it. Release of DBH by ACh from reserpinized glands suggests that the vesicles which were once involved in secretion may be re-used for synthesis and storage of CA.  (+info)

Discrimination of monoamine uptake by membranes of adrenal chromaffin granules. (8/442)

1 The accumulation of various radioactive monoamines by isolated membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin granules was measured by equilibrium dialysis. 2 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of Mg++ stimulated the uptake of all the amines tested, but the accumulation of dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), (plus or minus)-adrenaline and (plus or minus)-octopamine was greater than that of tyramine, (plus or minus)-metaraminol, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine and histamine. 3 At the higher concentration levels of the amines in the medium the ATP-dependent accumulation of dopamine, NA, adrenaline and 5-HT in the membranes reached a saturation level, whereas in the absence of the nucleotide no saturation level was attained. 4 Octopamine and 5-HT competitively inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of NA, 5 Decrease in the incubation temperature or the presence of N-ethylameimide greatly reduced the ATP-stimulated amine accumulation. Ouabain had no effect on uptake. 6 Reserpine virtually abolished the ATP-dependent uptake of dopamine, NA and 5-HT, caused a partial inhibition of the metaraminol, octopamine and tyramine accumulation, but did not interfere with the uptake of tryptamine. 7 The content of endogenous catecholamines of the membranes was changed very little by incubation of NA and 5-HT in the presence of ATP. However, the membranes lost over 80% of their endogenous amines if incubated for 30 min without ATP. 8 The ATP content of the medium progressively decreased during the incubation of granular membranes. 9 It is concluded that the membrane of adrenal chromaffin granules discriminates between the various monoamines with regard to the magnitude of their uptake and that two mechanisms of ATP-stimulated uptake, one responsive and the other resistant to reserpine, exist at the level of this membrane. The ATP-stimulated transport at the granular membrane level may be an important factor in determining the intraneuronal storage of a physiological or false neurotransmitter.  (+info)

*Stefan R. Bornstein

2000). Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in ... Professor Bornstein is known primarily for his pioneering work on the stress system. He was the first to investigate the ... 1990). Effects of Splanchnic Nerve Stimulation on the Adrenal Cortex May Be Mediated by Chromaffin Cells in a Paracrine Manner ... 1994). Intimate contact of chromaffin and cortical cells within the human adrenal gland forms the cellular basis for important ...

*Italian crested newt

The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: Neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian ... The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian ... Variability in the cardiovascular system is often due to hormonal changes, or the innervation within the system. Nerves and the ... In terms of compartmentalization of the newt's respiratory systems, the systemic (lungs) and cutaneous (skin) systems work and ...

*Emil Zuckerkandl

... chromaffin system, et al. He was married to the Galician-Austrian writer, journalist and critic Berta Szeps. The couple's house ...

*Thomas C. Südhof

Innervated by sympathetic nervous system, chromaffin cells are important in the initiation of the fight-or-flight response of ... In Göttingen Südhof worked on his doctoral thesis, in which he described the structure and function of chromaffin cells, at the ... Südhof described the structure and function of chromaffin cells which are responsible for the release of epinephrine, ...

*Chromaffin cell

"Endocrine System: adrenal gland, reticularis and medulla" Secretion Control in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin ... In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which ... Perry, SF; Capaldo, A (Nov 16, 2011). "The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ...

*Hes3 signaling axis

July 2014). "A defined, controlled culture system for primary bovine chromaffin progenitors reveals novel biomarkers and ... Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ... Cultured bovine chromaffin progenitor cells: Several activators of the signaling pathway increase cell yield. Cultured mouse ...

*Enterochromaffin-like cell

The name is derived from their location in the enteric system and their chromaffin-like staining pattern in histologic sections ... Enterochromaffin cell Chromaffin cell Enterochromaffin-like Cells at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

It is expressed in noradrenergic nerve terminals of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in chromaffin cells ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual ... The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... ...

*Neurohormone

... neurosecretory cells connected to the central nervous system. The synthesis, storage (in chromaffin cells) and release of ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ... Unsicker K, Huber K, Schütz G, Kalcheim C (Jun-Jul 2005). "The chromaffin cell and its development". Neurochemical Research. 30 ... The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ...

*Carboxypeptidase E

... is found in brain and throughout the neuroendocrine system, including the endocrine pancreas, pituitary, and ... purification and characterization of a specific enkephalin-synthesizing carboxypeptidase localized to adrenal chromaffin ... adrenal gland chromaffin cells. Within cells, carboxypeptidase E is present in the secretory granules along with its peptide ...

*Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PIPKIγ knockout in chromaffin cell and in central nerve system , PIPKIγ knockdown in beta cell lines , and over-expression of ... A comparative study of acylation systems of phospholipids in rat and the fish species Seriola quinqueradiata". Eur J Biochem. ... found that the application of PI-specific phospholipase C into digitonin-permeablized chromaffin cells decreased PI levels, and ... 2005). "Plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate level regulates the releasable vesicle pool size in chromaffin ...

*Aortic body

When a distinction is made, the "aortic bodies" are chemoreceptors which regulate the circulatory system, while the "paraaortic ... bodies" are the chromaffin cells which manufacture catecholamines. It measures changes in blood pressure and the composition of ...

*Paraganglioma

... functioning as part of the sympathetic nervous system (a branch of the autonomic nervous system). These cells normally act as ... which however are chromaffin-positive. Most paragangliomas are either asymptomatic or present as a painless mass. While all ... Given the fact that they originate from cells of the orthosympathetic system, paragangliomas are closely related to ... comprising a small mass of neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. Serves as a common origin of abdominal paragangliomas. Glomus ...

*Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... Some believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Muscarinic acetylcholine ...

*Catecholamine

... produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system ... Dopamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is largely produced in neuronal cell bodies in two ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual ... Two catecholamines, norepinephrine and dopamine, act as neuromodulators in the central nervous system and as hormones in the ...

*Sympathoadrenal system

... electrical impulses carried by the nervous system are converted to a chemical response in the adrenal gland. Chromaffin cells ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, ... The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organism's "fight or ...

*Stress in early childhood

The SAM system is a part of the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. These systems are responsible for ... In humans, there are chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands (medulla) that get stimulated through the sympathetic nervous ... If the situation is not as severe, toxic stress will still alter the stress response system. The changes in the system will ... Brain circuits and testosterone's systems are formed and activated in early life. These neurobiological systems of the body ...

*Autonomic nervous system

Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... The enteric nervous system is the intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal system. It has been described as "the Second ... The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that ... The sympathetic nervous system is often considered the "fight or flight" system, while the parasympathetic nervous system is ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

VMAT was first isolated and purified in bovine chromaffin granules, in both native and denatured forms. There are two types of ... Much research regarding the effects of altered VMATs on biological systems is still ongoing. The two VMAT isoforms are: VMAT1 ... 1994). "The chromaffin granule and synaptic vesicle amine transporters differ in substrate recognition and sensitivity to ... In the 1970s, scientists such as Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work ...

*Adrenal gland

The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... The HPA axis is an example of a negative feedback system, in which cortisol itself acts as a direct inhibitor of both CRH and ... The HPA axis also interacts with the immune system through increased secretion of ACTH at the presence of certain molecules of ... Formation Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential ...

*Adrenal tumor

These include the glucocorticoids which are critical for regulation of blood sugar and the immune system, as well as response ... Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells similar to the chromaffin cells of the mature adrenal medulla. ... chromaffin) cells which produce and release epinephrine (adrenaline) into the bloodstream in response to activation of the ... sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma are the two most important tumors which arise from the adrenal ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter 1

SIFs are interneurons associated with the sympathetic nervous system which are managed by dopamine. VMAT1 is found in both ... Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 ... MAXHOM alignment was determined using the "profile-fed neural network systems from Heidelberg" (PHD) program. The main ... Specifically, VMAT1 is found in chromaffin cells, enterochromaffin cells, and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFs). ...

*DOC2B

... chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland and beta cells in the pancreas. In the central nervous system, Doc2b contributes to the ...

*Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

FSCV is used to study dynamics of exocytosis of noradrenaline and adrenaline from chromaffin cells; release of serotonin from ... ISBN 978-3-527-30250-5. Wightman, R. M. (2006). "Probing Cellular Chemistry in Biological Systems with Microelectrodes". ... Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells ( ... and can only be used with select molecules in biological systems. In spite of this, there have been methods developed to ...

*Postganglionic nerve fibers

In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The ... Another notable structure is the medulla of the adrenal gland, where chromaffin cells function as modified post-ganglionic ... Like other components of the sympathetic nervous system, all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ...

*Pheochromocytoma

... (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or ... tumors that originate in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are named based upon the primary anatomical site of ... The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, including: Skin sensations ... severely high blood pressure that impairs one or more organ systems (formerly called "malignant hypertension"). This ...
The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is saturable, with Km 38 microM and Vmax. 28 nmol/min per mg at 37 degrees C. Entry occurs by exchange with Ca2+ bound to the inner surface of the membrane. It is inhibited non-competitively by Na+, La3+ and Ruthenium Red (Ki 10.7 mM, 7 microM and 2 microM respectively), and competitively by Mg2+ (ki 0.9 mM). Uptake was not stimulated by ATP. Na+ induces Ca2+ efflux; Ca2+ can re-enter the ghosts by a process of Ca2+/Na+ exchange. La3+ inhibits Ca2+ efflux during Ca2+-exchange, and Ca2+ efflux induced by Na+, suggesting that Ca2+ uptake and efflux, and Ca2+/Na+ exchange, are catalysed by the same protein. Na+ enters ghosts during CA2+ efflux, but the kinetics of its entry are not exactly similar to the kinetics of Ca2+ efflux. Initially 1-2 Na+ enter per Ca2+ lost, but at equilibrium 3-4 Na+ have replaced each Ca2+. There is no evidence that either Ca2+ uptake or efflux by Ca2+/Na+ ...
Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
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Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
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The properties of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K+ currents and their role in defining membrane potential were studied in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Two variants of large-conductance, Ca2+ and voltage-dependent BK channels, one noninactivating and one inactivating, were largely segregated among patches. Whole-cell noninactivating and inactivating currents resulting from each of these channels were segregated among different chromaffin cells. Cell-to-cell variation in the rate and extent of whole-cell current decay was not explained by differences in cytosolic [Ca2+] regulation among cells; rather, variation was due to differences in the intrinsic properties of the underlying BK channels. About 75% of rat chromaffin cells and patches express inactivating BK current (termed BKi) while the remainder express noninactivating BK current (termed BKs). The activation time course of both currents is similar, as is the dependence of activation on [Ca2+] and membrane potential. However, deactivation of ...
Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with the catecholamine transport blocker reserpine was previously shown to increase enkephalin levels several-fold. To explore the biochemical mechanism of this effect, we examined the effect of reserpine treatment on the activities of three different peptide precursor processing enzymes: carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and the prohormone convertases (PCs) PC1/3 and PC2. Reserpine treatment increased both CPE and PC activity in extracts of cultured chromaffin cells; total protein levels were unaltered for any enzyme. Further analysis showed that the increase in CPE activity was due to an elevated Vmax, with no change in the Km for substrate hydrolysis or the levels of CPE mRNA. Reserpine activation of endogenous processing enzymes was also observed in extracts prepared from PC12 cells stably expressing PC1/3 or PC2. In vitro experiments using purified enzymes showed that catecholamines inhibited CPE, PC1/3 and PC2, with dopamine quinone the most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 245-248; (1989) J. Neurochern., in press]. The related botulinum A toxin also consists of a heavy and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The actions ofboth neurotoxins on exocytosis were presently compared using streptolysin O-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. Addition of dithiothreitollowered the effective doses to values below 5 nM. Under the same conditions, the effective doses of tetanus toxin were decreased by a factor of five. This indicates that the interchain S-S bond of botulinum A toxin must also be split before the neurotoxin can exert its effect on exocytosis. ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide is stored by atrial myocytes in secretory granules, known as atrial specific granules, and is released from these granules by exocytosis. We have isolated a group of atrial proteins by affinity chromatography that bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner. The two major proteins isolated (32.5 kd and 67 kd) are calcium-binding proteins and have been identified as annexins V and VI by immunoblotting with specific antisera. The calcium dependence of their binding to atrial specific granules has been characterized in vitro and indicates that this interaction takes place at micromolar levels of calcium. In addition, the group of proteins isolated includes another calcium-binding protein of 20 kd, as well as GTP-binding proteins of 22 to 26 kd. Membrane interactions during exocytosis are presumably mediated by the interaction of specific proteins with the granule membrane. The properties of the proteins described here, and their ability to bind to ...
In addition to the canonical ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates and cofactors, cells contain a large number of minor nucleotides. Among these are the diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n = 2-7 [1]). Ap3A and Ap4A are the most intensively studied of these and are generally present in the soluble fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells at concentrations between 10 nM and 5 μM [2]. Platelet dense granules, adrenal chromaffin granules and certain synaptic vesicles have been reported to contain high concentrations of Ap5A and Ap6A in addition to Ap3A and Ap4A, all of which can be exocytosed following appropriate stimuli and bind to target cell purinoceptors causing a variety of physiological responses in the cardiovascular and central and peripheral nervous systems [1, 3-5]. However, although Ap6A has been detected in erythrocytes [6], there are no substantiated measurements of Ap5A and Ap6A in the soluble fraction of nucleated cells, and it is likely that they are typically ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. Even though deletion of synaptotagmin-1 abolishes fast exocytosis in chromaffin cells, it reduces overall secretion by only 20% because of the persistence of slow exocytosis. Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. Synaptotagmin-7 has a higher Ca(2+) affinity and slower binding kinetics than synaptotagmin-1, matching the proposed properties for the second, slower Ca(2+) sensor. Here, we examined Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in chromaffin cells from KO mice lacking synaptotagmin-7, and from knockin mice containing normal levels of a mutant synaptotagmin-7 whose C(2)B domain does not bind Ca(2+). In both types of mutant chromaffin cells, Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis was decreased dramatically. Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, ...
Since the work of Katz, Douglas, and their collaborators almost half a century ago (Katz, 1969), a central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], resulting from Ca2+ influx, triggers exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that the rise in [Ca2+] occurs in a microdomain within the vicinity (i.e., at a distance of 200-300 nm in chromaffin cells) of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels (García et al., 2006; Neher and Sakaba, 2008). This finding raises the possibility of other microdomains where a rise in focal [Ca2+] might mediate other processes, allowing Ca2+ to subserve several functions without cross talk. This possibility receives further support from the study of Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ sparks are focal Ca2+ transients found in striated and smooth muscle and mediated by RYRs (Cheng and Lederer, 2008). In striated muscle, they are the quanta or building blocks that make up a global increase in [Ca2+] to trigger contraction (Csernoch, ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
With the type of cryofixation we used (sandwich freezing), cells remain permanently surrounded by their culture or trigger medium, and impairment of viability during handling can be minimized (Pscheid et al., 1981). The propane jet applied onto the thin copper cover provides very rapid cooling, i.e., up to 40,000°C·s−1 (Knoll et al., 1982; Plattner and Knoll, 1984). The freeze-substitution medium used includes OsO4 and, thus, precludes osmotic changes during warming (Van Harreveld et al., 1965; Morel et al., 1971; Wollweber et al., 1981), and the epoxide embedding chosen involves little shrinkage (Plattner and Zingsheim, 1983). In other studies, open samples were used for freezing on cold metal surfaces or injection into cold media (Ornberg et al., 1995; Parsons et al., 1995). This requires removal of the culture/trigger medium since cryopreservation is restricted to ∼20 μm (Plattner and Bachmann, 1982). The fluid film that may remain on the sample is very thin and ionic conditions are ...
The differentiation of neuronal cell progenitors depends on complex interactions between intrinsic cellular programs and environmental cues. Such interactions have recently been explored using an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, MAH. These studies have revealed that depolarizing conditions, in combination with exposure to FGF, can induce responsiveness to NGF. Here we report that CNTF, which utilizes an intracellular signaling pathway distinct from that of both FGF and NGF, can collaborate with FGF to promote efficiently the differentiation of MAH progenitor cells to a stage remarkably reminiscent of NGF-dependent, postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells into sympathetic neurons ...
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Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms of chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines. Pheochromocytoma is a rare disorder that presents challenges for the anesthesiologist. By some estimates, 25 to 50 percent of hospital deaths of patients with unmana
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase is shown to catalyze the oxidation of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to its cation radical in the presence of a regular substrate and molecular oxygen. The enzyme-mediated oxidation of TMPD is stoichiometrically coupled with the hydoxylation of the substrate to the corresponding enzymatic product. TMPD is kinetically well behaved as an alternate electron donor for the enzyme with a potency comparable to that of the most efficient electron donor, ascorbate. Dopamine beta-monooxygenase mediated oxidation of TMPD has been employed to design a convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme. The finding that TMPD is a well behaved facile alternate electron donor for dopamine beta-monooxygenase raises some interesting novel questions regarding the specificity and chemistry of the reduction site, which may have important implications on the reduction of active site coppers of the enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated chromaffin cell secretion. AU - Hexum, T. D.. AU - Zheng, Jialin C. AU - Zhu, J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide with varied activities, inhibits nicotinic receptor-induced [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) secretion from bovine chromaffin cells. The secretion produced by membrane depolarization with high KCl concentrations or veratridine is not inhibited. Fragments of NPY, such as NPY18-36, are potent inhibitors of [3H]NE secretion, whereas [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY and peptide YY have no effect. The response to NPY18-36 is not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment of chromaffin cells. NPY fragments also inhibit nicotinic receptor-induced 45Ca++ influx but not that induced by KCl or veratridine. The rank orders of potency for inhibition of [3H]NE secretion and 45Ca++ influx are the same: NPY18-36 ≥ NPY26-36 , NPY13-36. NPY and NPY(free acid) are weak inhibitors of secretion ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
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Bovine adrenal medullary slices were incubated at 30° in Lockes solution containing orthophosphate-32P or glycerol-1-14C. 32P was incorporated into all individual phospholipids, but at different rates. The highest specific activity observed was in phosphatidylinositol, followed by phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin), sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylethanolamine.. Acetylcholine (10-5 M)in the presence of eserine (10-5 M) produced a 3-fold increase in catecholamine release and stimulated the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidic acid (3.4-fold), phosphatidylinositol (2.7-fold), and phosphatidylcholine (1.4-fold).. The uptake of orthophosphate-32P into the chromaffin tissue, as well as the specific activities and tissue levels of orthophosphate and nucleotides, were not modified upon acetylcholine stimulation.. Glycerol-1-14C was incorporated into all the individual phospholipids, but, in contrast to 32P incorporation, acetylcholine ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
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Doxycycline synthroid. In most instances, the biopsy is taken from the actual tumor. Chlorpromazine was with- drawn and doxycycline synthroid substituted (up to a maximum of 600 mgday). Chronic morphine increases levels synthrodi types I (ACI) and VIII (ACVIII) adenylyl cyclase, PKA catalytic (C) and regulatory type II (RII) subunits, and several phosphoproteins, including CREB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine biosynthesis.
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Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microsequencing of dopamine beta-monooxygenase. AU - McCafferty, B.. AU - Angeletti, R. H.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide fragments of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBH) were prepared and separated on C-8 reverse phase columns by high pressure liquid chromatography. Absorbance profiles at both 220 nm and 280 nm were monitored so that peptides with aromatic residues could be isolated. These peptides were subjected to automated Edmann degradation with a gas phase microsequencer.. AB - Tryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide fragments of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBH) were prepared and separated on C-8 reverse phase columns by high pressure liquid chromatography. Absorbance profiles at both 220 nm and 280 nm were monitored so that peptides with aromatic residues could be isolated. These peptides were subjected to automated Edmann degradation with a gas phase microsequencer.. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for bovine carboxypeptidase E. AU - Fricker, Lloyd D.. AU - Evans, Chris J.. AU - Esch, Fred S.. AU - Herbert, Edward. PY - 1986/12/1. Y1 - 1986/12/1. N2 - Carboxypeptidase E (enkephalin convertase) was first identified as the carboxypeptidase B-like enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of enkephalin in bovine adrenal chromaffin granules1. A similar enzyme is present in many brain regions1,2 and in purified secretory granules from rat pituitary3 and rat insulinoma4. Within the secretory granules, carboxypeptidase E (CPE) activity is found in both a soluble and a membrane-bound form1, which differ slightly in relative molecular mass (Mr)5. Here, to investigate whether the CPE activities in the various tissues are produced from a single gene, purified CPE was partially sequenced and oligonucleotide probes were used to isolate a clone encoding CPE from a bovine pituitary complementary DNA library. This cDNA hybridizes to bovine pituitary poly(A)+ ...
Primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells provide large quantities of a homogeneous population of target cells for nerve growth factor (NGF) and, thus, are a suitable system for studying the molecular mechanism of action of NGF. In this study, we have shown that NGF mediates the specific induction of the key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme which catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine, is also induced by NGF. We have compared NGF-mediated TH and AChE induction and have provided pharmacological evidence that TH induction involves a post-transcriptional, polyadenylation-dependent event (blockable by 9-beta-arabinofuranosyladenine but not by alpha- amanitin), whereas AChE induction requires transcription (blockable by alpha-amanitin). DBH and PNMT appear to be regulated via the same mechanism as TH. The time course of TH induction is ...
We used the perforated-patch technique to examine the relationship between Ca2+ entry and exocytosis of large dense-cored vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Exocytosis evoked by single-step depolarizations was monitored by capacitance detection. Ca2+ entry was varied by changing external calcium concentration, stepping to different test potentials, depolarizing for different durations, or applying blockers of specific calcium channel subtypes. Regardless of protocol, the amount of exocytosis was strictly related to the integral of the voltage-clamped calcium current, raised to a power of approximately 1.5. Thus, despite the complexities of transient and nonuniform changes in submembrane calcium concentration produced by voltage-gated calcium entry, the calcium dependence of large dense-cored vesicle fusion under conditions of minimal stimulation is well approximated by a simple transfer function of summed calcium entry.
We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
The coupling between divalent cations and exocytosis of large dense- cored vesicles (LDCV) was studied with capacitance-detection techniques in nerve terminals of the rat neurohypophysis (NHP) and bovine chromaffin cells. Ba2+ substitution for Ca2+ produced kinetically distinct responses in the two preparations. In NHP terminals, Ba2+ ions behave as weak substitutes for Ca2+. Exocytotic events occur principally during depolarizing pulses, i.e., events are "stimulus- coupled" to Ba2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Stimulus- coupled exocytosis apparently requires elevated submembrane cation concentrations that dissipate rapidly on hyperpolarization-induced Ca(2+)-channel closure. Intracellular dialysis of NHP terminals with Ba2+ does not evoke exocytosis, nor does it interfere with depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx and exocytosis. In chromaffin cells, Ba2+ ions evoke a small quantity of stimulus-coupled secretion, but the dominant response is an additional pronounced poststimulus ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
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Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Looking for aortic paraganglion? Find out information about aortic paraganglion. A structure in vertebrates belonging to the chromaffin system and found on the front of the abdominal aorta near the mesenteric arteries. Also known as... Explanation of aortic paraganglion
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Inhibition by tramadol of muscarinic receptor-induced responses in cultured adrenal medullary cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing cloned M〈sub〉1〈/sub〉 ...
The intestinal enterochromaffin cell (EC) compartment expands in response to acute injury, microbial infection and colitis to produce serotonin (5-hydroxytrypta...
On the Convergence of Bio-, Information-, Enrivonmental-, Energy-, Space- and Nano-Technolgies: Effect of Morphine and Bupivacaine on Nicotine-Induced Catecholamine Secretion from Encapsulated Chromaffin Cells
The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A2 (MIM 193001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
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Kinetics of changes of enterochromaffin cells appears to be related with definite antiblastic properties inherent to melatonin and serotonin ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens. The bootstrapping procedure indicated that the parameter estimates were very stable, thus lending greater credence to the model.. These data provide a reference for the Y-STR database in Jilin Province, and they may be valuable for population genetic analysis. Ten-year experience using a plastic, disposable curette for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.. These data provide important new insight into augmentin bambini the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis resistance in co-stimulated T cells. In chromaffin cells, ARF6 is specifically associated with the membrane of secretory chromaffin granules. Analysis of the complete ...
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
Study Flashcards On Physio: Endocrine - Adrenal Medulla and Cortex at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Fasting is a good spiritual cleansing tool as it decreases production of serotonin in the enterochromaffin cells in the lining of the stomach and intestines. Serotonin is the neurotransmitter that blocks emotions from surfacing. About 95 % of the bodies serotonin is produced in these areas.. Thus with the emotional blocks removed, unresolved emotional wounds in the soul surface to be cleansed. Beware as it is often overwhelming for many and causes a psychological addiction to food (especially carbs)if the flood of emotions is overwhelming.. ...
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During exocytosis, the fusion pore expands to allow release of neurotransmitters and hormones to the extracellular space. To understand the process of synaptic transmission, it is of outstanding importance to know the properties of the fusion pore and how these properties affect the release process. Many proteins have been implicated in vesicle fusion; however, there is little evidence for proteins involved in fusion pore expansion. Myosin II has been shown to participate in the transport of vesicles and, surprisingly, in the final phases of exocytosis, affecting the kinetics of catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells as measured by amperometry. Here, we have studied single vesicle exocytosis in chromaffin cells overexpressing an unphosphorylatable form (T18AS19A RLC-GFP) of myosin II that produces an inactive protein by patch amperometry. This method allows direct determination of fusion pore expansion by measuring its conductance, whereas the release of catecholamines is recorded ...
18 Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Most of the synthesis occurs in the adrenergic nerve ending and stored in granular vesicles called chromaffin granules close to the site of release into synaptic cleft . Biosynthesis could also occur in suprarenal medulla and other tissues. The enzyme (N-methyl transferase) which catalyses the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline occurs almost exclusively in suprarenal medulla and is therefore missing in the peripheral nerve terminals. Hence noradrenaline is the final step in the synthetic process in most adrenergic nerves. Catecholamines are sympathomimetics that contain the catechol nucleus (e.g. noradrenaline and adrenaline). Catecholamines are stored in synaptic granules in two forms in equilibrium: Bound noradrenaline with ATP and protein is the (inactive part). Free noradrenaline is released by nerve stimulation. Another portion of it is stored in the cytoplasm in free form (cytoplasmic free noradrenaline). ...
Catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as pheochromocytomas and catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas (extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas), respectively. Becaus
Chris Fleming shared his paranormal experiences growing up as a sensitive, and also talked about the ghost investigations hes conducted asone of the hosts of the cable TV series Dead Famous.
In previous studies it has been shown that both bradykinin and histamine increase the formation of H-3-labeled inositol phosphates in adrenal chromaffin cells prelabelled with [H-3]inositol and that both these agonists stimulate release of catecholamines by a mechanism dependent on extracellular calcium. Here, we have used mass assays of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] to investigate changes in levels of these two candidates as second messengers in response to stimulation with bradykinin and histamine. Bradykinin increased the mass of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 despite the failure in earlier studies with [H-3]inositol-labelled cells to observe a bradkinin-mediated increase in content of [H-3]InsP4. Bradykinin elicited a very rapid increase in level of Ins(1,4,5)P3, which was maximal at 5-10 s and then rapidly decreased to a small but sustained elevation at 2 min. The bradykinin-elicited Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 response increased to a maximum at ...
Catecholamine secretion from neonatal adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) in response to episodes of asphyxia during birth leads to physiological changes that facilitate air breathing. The ability of AMCs to respond to hypoxia disappears postnatally concurrently with maturation of cholinergic innervation, and prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with decreased hypoxia-induced catecholamine secretion and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Buttigieg et al., who previously showed that chronic nicotine exposure interferes with the response of neonatal rat AMCs to hypoxia, explored the underlying mechanism. Hypoxia leads to inhibition of large-conductance and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and of delayed rectifier K+ channels in AMCs; however, pharmacological analysis indicated that prenatal nicotine exposure did not affect K+ currents mediated by these channels, and immunocytochemical analysis confirmed their presence in AMCs from the nicotine-exposed pups. ...
The intestine tells the brain about the contents of the gut. But insights into the molecular mechanics of this gut-brain conversation have been stalled by technical limitations. Now, examinations of a key type of gut sensory cell within mouse intestinal organoids and tissue sections have revealed which molecular signals activate these so-called enterochromaffin cells, and how the cells relay the compounds presence to the central nervous system. The findings are reported today (June 22) in Cell.. "It really is stellar work," says anatomist and neuroscientist John Cryan of University College Cork in Ireland who was not involved in the work. "Its asking a big question, and using state of the art tools [to find answers] . . . Its a tour de force.". The big question to which Cryan refers is, what is the function of enterochromaffin cells? "Weve known that these cells are really important but weve lacked the tools to study them," he says, "Theyve been a real black box.". Enterochromaffin cells ...
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the visual contrast of samples for microscopy. Chromophil cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, amino acid precursors to certain hormones are accumulated and subsequently decarboxylated to the corresponding amines, for example epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine or serotonin. Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are scattered throughout the whole body, but particularly in glands such as the hypothalamus, hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid and pancreas ...
A benign or malignant tumor that is derived from chromaffin cells and is usually associated with paroxysmal or sustained hypertension. Often found on the adrenal gland but may rarely occur elsewhere in the body. These types of tumors are generally benign (non-cancerous) with less than 10 percent being cancer.

Autonomic function in hypertension; role of genetic variation at the catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin BAutonomic function in hypertension; role of genetic variation at the catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin B

The effect of A-261T on CHGB expression was confirmed in chromaffin cells by site-directed mutagenesis on transfected CHGB ... Autonomic, Catecholamine, Epidemiology, Gene expression, Genetics, Hypertension, Nervous system National Category Medical and ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:317372

Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体(ab27956)Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体(ab27956)

Cytoplasmic vesicle , secretory vesicle , chromaffin granule lumen and Cytoplasmic vesicle , secretory vesicle membrane. ... of central nervous system dysfunction. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-antibody-ab27956.html

Adipose tissue | definition of adipose tissue by Medical dictionaryAdipose tissue | definition of adipose tissue by Medical dictionary

chromaffin tissue. Chromaffin system.. cicatricial tissue. Scar.. CONNECTIVE TISSUES. connective tissue. Tissue that supports ... chromaffin tissue a tissue composed largely of chromaffin cells, well supplied with nerves and vessels; it occurs in the ... See: mucosal immune system. brown adipose tissue. Abbreviation: BAT. Brown fat... cancellous tissue. Spongy bone with many ... The neurons and neuroglia of the nervous system.. See: neuron. osseous tissue. Bone, a connective tissue with a matrix of ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adipose+tissue

Bone tissue | definition of bone tissue by Medical dictionaryBone tissue | definition of bone tissue by Medical dictionary

chromaffin tissue. Chromaffin system.. cicatricial tissue. Scar.. CONNECTIVE TISSUES. connective tissue. Tissue that supports ... See: mucosal immune system. brown adipose tissue. Abbreviation: BAT. Brown fat... cancellous tissue. Spongy bone with many ... The neurons and neuroglia of the nervous system.. See: neuron. osseous tissue. Bone, a connective tissue with a matrix of ... See: mucosal immune system. mucous tissue. The jellylike connective tissue of the umbilical cord. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Bone+tissue

The Structure of Cytochrome b561, a Secretory Vesicle-Specific Electron Transport Protein - PubMedThe Structure of Cytochrome b561, a Secretory Vesicle-Specific Electron Transport Protein - PubMed

Chromaffin System / analysis *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Isolation and Properties of Cytochrome b561 From Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Granules LT Duong et al. J Biol Chem 257 (15), 8561- ... In summary, ascorbic acid serves as a one-electron donor for dopamine beta-hydroxylase in chromaffin vesicles and probably for ... An Identical Cytochrome b561 Is Present in Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Vesicles and Posterior Pituitary Neurosecretory Vesicles ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2460342/

Hypertension: A Symptom, Not a Disease - Naturopathic Doctor News and ReviewHypertension: A Symptom, Not a Disease - Naturopathic Doctor News and Review

Frank E. Relationships between the chromaffin system and the chronic hypertension of humans? Dtsch Arch Klin Med. 1911;103:397- ...
more infohttp://ndnr.com/cardiopulmonary-medicine/hypertension-a-symptom-not-a-disease/

CV: Jan OhlbergerCV: Jan Ohlberger

The chromaffin system of the beluga sturgeon Huso huso (Chondrostei): histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural ... Gallo, V.P.; Accordi, F.; Ohlberger, J.; Civinini, A. (2004). The chromaffin system of the beluga sturgeon Huso huso ( ... Gallo, V.P.; Accordi, F.; Ohlberger, J.; Civinini, A. (2004). The chromaffin system of the beluga sturgeon Huso huso ( ... Graduate research project within the Young Scientists Summer Program at the International Institute for Applied Systems ...
more infohttps://www.etis.ee/CV/Jan_Ohlberger

Book - Manual of Human Embryology 17-9 - EmbryologyBook - Manual of Human Embryology 17-9 - Embryology

... a derivative of the chromaffin system, a paraganglion (A. Kohn; see the chapter on that system), and the anlage seen by various ... Manual of Human Embryology II: Nervous System , Chromaffin Organs and Suprarenal Bodies , Sense-Organs , Digestive Tract and ... The persistence of portions of the branchial system of cavities may give rise to branchiogenic fistulae, cysts, and tumors (see ... Schaffer, J., and Rabl, H. : Das thyreothymische System des Maulwurfs und der Spitzmaus. I. Morphologie und Histologic by J. ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Manual_of_Human_Embryology_17-9

Book - Manual of Human Embryology 15 - EmbryologyBook - Manual of Human Embryology 15 - Embryology

114). The vascular system is richly developed in them. The chromaffin bodies of the plexuses are in no way homologous with the ... Manual of Human Embryology II: Nervous System , Chromaffin Organs and Suprarenal Bodies , Sense-Organs , Digestive Tract and ... That it belongs to the chromaffin system was recognized by H. Stilling. Before his time this organ had variously been ... The Development of the Chromaffin Organs and of the Suprarenal Bodies *1.1 Chromaffin Bodies in the Ganglia of the Abdominal ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Manual_of_Human_Embryology_15

Edme Vulpian, French neurologist - Stock Image C036/0190 - Science Photo LibraryEdme Vulpian, French neurologist - Stock Image C036/0190 - Science Photo Library

Vulpian discovered the chromaffin system of the adrenal gland, and studied the action of drugs such as curare, strychnine and ... chromaffin system, comparative anatomy, curare, doctor, drugs action, edme felix alfred vulpian, endocrine system, ... Vulpian discovered the chromaffin system of the adrenal gland, and studied the action of drugs such as curare, strychnine and ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/853439/view

A Randomised Study to Compare Metal Ion Release and Long-term Performance of the Pinnacle™ Cup With a Ceramic-on-Metal or a...A Randomised Study to Compare Metal Ion Release and Long-term Performance of the Pinnacle™ Cup With a Ceramic-on-Metal or a...

In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS. ... Endocrine System. The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. ... Pinnacle™ Acetabular System, Pinnacle™ Acetabular System. Location. Klinikum Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Garmisch-Partenkirchen. ... Multi-Center Comparative Trial of the ASR™-XL Acetabular Cup System vs. the Pinnacle™ Metal- on- Metal Total Hip System ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/78304/A-Randomised-Study-to-Compare-Metal-Ion-Release-and-Long-term-Performance.html

Predictors of recurrence of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a multicenter study in Piedmont, Italy.  - PubMed - NCBIPredictors of recurrence of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a multicenter study in Piedmont, Italy. - PubMed - NCBI

Chromaffin system; Endocrine hypertension; Genetic testing; Paraganglioma; Pheochromocytoma. PMID:. 31586159. DOI:. 10.1038/ ... patients with a family history of chromaffin tissue neoplasms, mutations in susceptibility genes, larger tumors and higher ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=183230

CNTF, FGF, and NGF collaborate to drive the terminal differentiation of MAH cells into postmitotic neurons.CNTF, FGF, and NGF collaborate to drive the terminal differentiation of MAH cells into postmitotic neurons.

Chromaffin System * Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor * Fibroblast Growth Factors * Intermediate Filaments * Membrane Potentials ... We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication71405

Noticias selección ValdeandemágicoNoticias selección Valdeandemágico

1160 CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM. 1161 CHROMAFFIN (CHROMOPLASMA). 1162 CHROMAFFIN CELLS. 1163 CHROMAFFIN TISSUE. 1164 CHROMAFFIN TISSUE ... 445 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. 446 AVALAMABAKA KAPH. 447 AWAKEN. 448 AXILLA. 449 AXILLARY ARTERY. 450 AXILLARY GLANDS. 451 ... 1000 CELLS CHROMAFFIN. 1001 CELLS CLEAR. 1002 CELLS EPIDERMIC. 1003 CELLS EPITHELIAL. 1004 CELLS KUPFFER. 1005 CELLS NEVUS ... 1022 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. 1023 CERATO. 1024 CEREBRAL PALSY. 1025 CEREBRAL PARESIS. 1026 CEREBRAL SCLEROSIS. 1027 CERIUM. ...
more infohttp://noticiasseleccionvaldeandemagico.blogspot.com/2015/06/geometric-cards-any-substance-can-be.html

Proliferation of capsular stem cells induced by ACTH in the rat adrenal cortex.Proliferation of capsular stem cells induced by ACTH in the rat adrenal cortex.

20547474 - The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of catech.... 7711264 - Time course of ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Proliferation-capsular-stem-cells-induced/12530684.html

Stefan R. Bornstein - WikipediaStefan R. Bornstein - Wikipedia

2000). Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in ... Professor Bornstein is known primarily for his pioneering work on the stress system. He was the first to investigate the ... 1990). Effects of Splanchnic Nerve Stimulation on the Adrenal Cortex May Be Mediated by Chromaffin Cells in a Paracrine Manner ... 1994). Intimate contact of chromaffin and cortical cells within the human adrenal gland forms the cellular basis for important ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_R._Bornstein

What Is the Chemical Formula for Adrenaline? | Reference.comWhat Is the Chemical Formula for Adrenaline? | Reference.com

Epinephrine is produced by neurons in the brain and sympathetic nervous system and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. The ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/chemical-formula-adrenaline-fce74341166aa0e3

Italian crested newt - WikipediaItalian crested newt - Wikipedia

The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: Neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian ... The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian ... Variability in the cardiovascular system is often due to hormonal changes, or the innervation within the system. Nerves and the ... In terms of compartmentalization of the newts respiratory systems, the systemic (lungs) and cutaneous (skin) systems work and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_crested_newt

Topics - CLOSER - UCL WikiTopics - CLOSER - UCL Wiki

... included are the chromaffin system and the neurosecretory systems. (MeSH). 3.8. 10308. Hemic and immune systems Hemic = ... Endocrine system The systems of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In ... relating to the blood or circulatory system. (Oxford online). Immune system = the organs responsible for immunity. The primary ... Nervous system The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the ...
more infohttps://wiki.ucl.ac.uk/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=65203792

NAVER 학술정보 >...NAVER 학술정보 >...

Adrenal Gland Neoplasms, diagnosis, Adult, Chromaffin System, Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Hypertension, etiology, Male, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Nederlands+Tijdschrift+voor+Geneeskunde+126%EA%B6%8C+31%ED%98%B8

Protein Kinase C-Dependent Phosphorylation of Synaptosome-Associated Protein of 25 kDa at Ser187 Potentiates Vesicle...Protein Kinase C-Dependent Phosphorylation of Synaptosome-Associated Protein of 25 kDa at Ser187 Potentiates Vesicle...

We overexpressed the mutants by using the Semliki Forest virus system in bovine chromaffin cells (Ashery et al., 1999). GFP was ... 1999) An efficient method for infection of adrenal chromaffin cells using the Semliki Forest virus gene expression system. Eur ... 2000) Munc13-1 acts as a priming factor for large dense-core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells. EMBO J 19:3586-3596. ... In previous models of the chromaffin cell (Heinemann et al., 1993; Voets et al., 1999;Ashery et al., 2000) it was assumed that ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/21/9278?ijkey=ada1806e4e8f93cd9a72141755f151f91937e03c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Parcourir les catégories - lookformedical.comParcourir les catégories - lookformedical.com

In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS. ... Névroglie 0 questions The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to ... Système Endocrine 2 questions The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory ... During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/fr/categories/anatomie/cellules/cellules-souches/myoblastes/myoblastes-squelettiques

Parcourir les catégories - lookformedical.comParcourir les catégories - lookformedical.com

In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS. ... Névroglie 0 questions The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to ... Réticulum Endoplasmique 0 questions A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum ... Système Endocrine 2 questions The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory ...
more infohttps://lookformedical.com/answers/fr/categories/anatomie/cellules/structures-cellulaires/espace-intracellulaire/cytoplasme/structures-cytoplasmiques/organites/v%C3%A9sicules-cytoplasmiques/v%C3%A9sicules-de-transport

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Vascular Inflammation and RemodelingThe Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Vascular Inflammation and Remodeling

J. M. Wang, D. Slembrouck, J. Tan et al., "Presence of cellular renin-angiotensin system in chromaffin cells of bovine adrenal ... D. B. Landry, L. L. Couper, S. R. Bryant, and V. Lindner, "Activation of the NF-κB and Iκ B system in smooth muscle cells after ... S. Oparil and E. Haber, "The renin angiotensin system. I," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 291, no. 8, pp. 389-401, ... S. Oparil and E. Haber, "The renin angiotensin system (Second of two parts)," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 291, no ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2014/689360/ref/
  • That the increased bloodpressure produced by suprarenal extract is due to the chromaffin medullary substance of the glands has been definitely proved by A. Biedl and J. Wiesel, who worked with the purely chromaffin aortic bodies of man. (edu.au)
  • In humans, the digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory glands (liver, bilary tract and pancreas). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The systems of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), one of the most important hormonal systems, oversees the functions of cardiovascular, renal, and adrenal glands by regulating blood pressure, fluid volume, and sodium and potassium balance [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, as synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis has recently been suggested as an important mechanism in fostering a mitotic block in mice and humans by keeping cyclin B expression levels stable 9,10 , this system enabled us to analyze cyclin B proteolysis as one element of a balanced equilibrium 6 . (jove.com)
  • As early as in 1956, Leonald T. Skeggs suggested the development of drugs to regulate renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), and since then an array of inhibitors have been developed. (hindawi.com)
  • To study how the SAC interferes with APC/C-dependent proteolysis of cyclin B during mitosis in unperturbed cell populations, we established a histone H2-GFP-based system which allowed the simultaneous monitoring of metaphase alignment of mitotic chromosomes and proteolysis of cyclin B 6 . (jove.com)
  • The sea star, Patiria miniata , is gaining prevalence as a model system for these types of studies which were previously performed almost exclusively in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus . (jove.com)
  • Professor Bornstein is known primarily for his pioneering work on the stress system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because descending supraspinal catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems have been implicated to play key roles in regulating adrenomedullary function, the ontogeny of the sympatho-adrenomedullary axis was evaluated after neonatal central lesioning with 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. (epa.gov)
  • The primary objective of this investigation is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the ASR™-XL Acetabular Cup System compared to the Pinnacle™ Acetabular Cup with a 2. (bioportfolio.com)