Action potentials in the rat chromaffin cell and effects of acetylcholine. (1/442)

1. Electrophysiological properties of the rat chromaffin cell were studied using intracellular recording techniques. 2. The resting potential in the chromaffin cell was -49 +/- 6 mV (mean +/- S.D., n = 14) in standard saline containing 10 mM-Ca whereas that in Na-free saline was -63 +/- 9 mV (n = 17). At rest, the membrane has a substantial Na permeability. 3. Action potentials were evoked by passing current through the recording electrode. In standard saline the major fraction of the action potential disappeared either upon omission of external Na ions from standard saline or addition of 1 muM tetrodotoxin (TTX). We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell are due mainly to an increase in the permeability of the membrane to Na ions. 4. Small but significant regenerative action potentials were observed in Na-free saline, and when Ca in Na-free saline was replaced by Ba, prolonged action potentials occurred. We conclude that action potentials in the chromaffin cell also have a Ca component. 5. Iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh) produced a transient membrane depolarization in standard saline. 6. Spontaneous action potentials were recorded extracellularly by microsuction electrodes. They occurred at a rate of 0-05-0-1/sec in almost all cells. 7. When the perfusion fluid contained 3 x 10(-7) M to 10(-4) M ACh the spike frequency increased up to about 2/sec. This stimulatory effect of ACh was blocked by 10(-7) M atropine but not by 10(-3) M hexamethonium nor by 10(-5) M-d-tubocurarine. 8. The importance of Ca entry during action potentials for catecholamine secretion is discussed  (+info)

Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells. (2/442)

1. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce biogenic amines which are transported into secretory vesicles by one of two proton-amine exchangers, vesicular monoamine transporters type 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and 2). We report here the presence of VMAT1 in rat gastrin (G) cells and the relevance of VMAT1 function for the modulation of progastrin processing by biogenic and dietary amines. 2. In immunocytochemical studies VMAT1, but not VMAT2, was localized to subpopulations of G cells and enterochromaffin (EC) cells; neither was found in antral D cells. The expression of VMAT1 in antral mucosa was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which revealed an mRNA band of approximately 3.2 kb, and by Western blot analysis, which revealed a major protein of 55 kDa. 3. In pulse-chase labelling experiments, the conversion of the amidated gastrin G34 to G17 was inhibited by biogenic amine precursors (L-DOPA and 5-hydroxytryptophan). This inhibition was stereospecific and sensitive to reserpine (50 nM), which blocks VMAT1 and VMAT2, but resistant to tetrabenazine, which is a selective inhibitor of VMAT2. 4. Dietary amines such as tyramine and tryptamine also inhibited G34 cleavage. This effect was associated with a loss of the electron-dense core of G cell secretory vesicles. It was not stereospecific or reserpine sensitive, but was correlated with hydrophobicity. 5. Thus rat antral G cells can express VMAT1; transport of biogenic amines into secretory vesicles by VMAT1 is associated with inhibition of G34 cleavage, perhaps by raising intravesicular pH. Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH.  (+info)

Subcellualr distribution of protein carboxymethylase and its endogenous substrates in the adrenal medulla: possible role in excitation-secretion coupling. (3/442)

Protein carboxymethylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein O-methyltransferase, EC transfers a methyl group from S-adenoxyl-L-methionine to carboxyl side chains of proteins to form labile protein-methyl esters which, thus, neutralize negative charges. This enzyme was examined for its possible participation in excitation-secretion coupling in the adrenal medulla. Protein carboxymethylase has a specific activity several times higher in the adrenal medulla than in the adrenal cortex; also, the medulla has a higher concentration of methyl-acceptor proteins. In the adrenal medulla, 97% of the enzyme was localized in the cytosol. Of the various subcellular fractions of the medulla, the catecholamine-containing chromaffin vesicles had the highest concentrations of substrat(s) for protein carboxymethylase. Carboxymethylation of proteins in intact chromaffin vesicles results in stripping of methylated protein(s) from the membranes. Thus, protein carboxymethylase appears to be involved in the neutralization of charges on the surface of chromaffin vesicles and in the release of surface proteins; both phenomena are likely to be required for exocytosis.  (+info)

Desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors does not impede catecholamine secretion during acute hypoxia in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/442)

Experiments were performed on adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in vivo using chronically cannulated fish and in situ using a perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation (i) to characterise the desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors and (ii) to assess the ability of fish to secrete catecholamines during acute hypoxia with or without functional nicotinic receptors. Intra-arterial injection of nicotine (6.0x10(-)(7 )mol kg(-)(1)) caused a rapid increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels; the magnitude of this response was unaffected by an injection of nicotine given 60 min earlier. Evidence for nicotinic receptor desensitisation, however, was provided during continuous intravenous infusion of nicotine (1.3x10(-)(5 )mol kg(-)(1 )h(-)(1)) in which plasma catecholamine levels increased initially but then returned to baseline levels. To ensure that the decline in circulating catecholamine concentrations during continuous nicotine infusion was not related to changes in storage levels or altered rates of degradation/clearance, in situ posterior cardinal vein preparations were derived from fish previously experiencing 60 min of saline or nicotine infusion. Confirmation of nicotinic receptor desensitisation was provided by demonstrating that the preparations derived from nicotine-infused fish were unresponsive to nicotine (10(-)(5 )mol l(-)(1)), yet remained responsive to angiotensin II (500 pmol kg(-)(1)). The in situ experiments demonstrated that desensitisation of the nicotinic receptor occurred within 5 min of receptor stimulation and that resensitisation was established 40 min later. The ability to elevate plasma catecholamine levels during acute hypoxia (40-45 mmHg; 5.3-6.0 kPa) was not impaired in fish experiencing nicotinic receptor desensitisation. Indeed, peak plasma adrenaline levels were significantly higher in the desensitised fish during hypoxia than in controls (263+/-86 versus 69+/-26 nmol l(-)(1); means +/- s.e.m., N=6-9). Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate that activation of preganglionic sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibres and the resultant stimulation of nicotinic receptors is not the sole mechanism for eliciting catecholamine secretion during hypoxia.  (+info)

Tumours of the adrenal gland and paraganglia. (5/442)

This classification is arranged in two parts in order to take into account the different origins, structures, and functions of the cortex and medulla. The tabular classification is a simplified version of that suggested for adrenal tumours in man, and includes cortical adenoma and carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, chemodectoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma, and neuroblastoma. A detailed functional classification is not given, since the hormonal activity of many adrenal tumours in animals is less well known than it is in man. Of the tumour-like lesions listed, cortical hyperplasia is particularly important in several species.  (+info)

Ion permeability of isolated chromaffin granules. (6/442)

The passive ion permeability, regulation of volume, and internal pH of isolated bovine chromaffin granules were studied by radiochemical, potentiometric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric techniques. Chromaffin granules behave as perfect osmometers between 340 and 1,000 mosM in choline chloride, NaCl, and KCl as measured by changes in absorbance at 430 nm or from intragranular water measurements using 3H2O and [14C]polydextran. By suspending chromaffin granules in iso-osmotic media of various metal ions and selectively increasing the permeability to either the cation or the anion by intrinsically permeable ions or specific ionophores, it was possible to determine by turbidity and potentiometric measurements the permeability to the counterion. These measurements indicate that the chromaffin granule is impermeable to the cations tested (Na+, K+, and H+). Limited H+ permeability across the chromaffin granule membrane was also shown by means of the time course of pH re-equilibration after pulsed pH changes in the surrounding media. The measurement of [14C]methylamine distribution indicates that a significant deltapH exists across the membrane, inside acidic, which at an external value of 6.85 has a value of 1.16. The deltapH is relatively insensitive to changes in the composition of the external media and can be enhanced or collapsed by the addition of ionophores and uncouplers. Measurement at various values of external pH indicates an internal pH of 5.5. Use of the ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca++ and Mg++ can be accumulated against an apparent concentration gradient with calcium uptake exceeding 50 nmol/mg of protein at saturation. These measurements also show that Ca++ and Mg++ are impermeable. Measurement of catecholamine release under conditions where intravesicular calcium accumulation is maximal indicates that catecholamine release does not occur. The physiological significance of the high impermeability to ions and the existence of a large deltapH are discussed in terms of regulation of uptake, storage, and release of catecholamines in chromaffin granules.  (+info)

Release of catecholamines and dopamine beta-hydroxylase from the perfused adrenal gland of the cat. (7/442)

1. Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following splanchnic nerve stimulation or infusion of acetylcholine (ACh). 2. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (30 Hz) or perfusion with a low concentration of ACh (10-minus5 M) caused a marked release of CA in the venous effluent, but release of DBH activity was minimal while a higher concentration of ACh (10-minus 4 M) enhanced the release of CA and DBH. 3. The ratio of DBH/CA released in the perfusate by splanchnic nerve stimulation or ACh infusion was only a small fraction of the ratio in the soluble lysate of purified chromaffin vesicles. 4. Following reserpine treatment, adrenal CA levels fell to 25% of the control value in 24 hr, remained depressed on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 at 5% of the control and recovered to 60% of the control value on the 6th day. DBH activity was unchanged from the control value at 24 hr after treatment, then rose as high as 5 times the control on the 5th day and was still twice the control value on the 6th day. 5. CA secretion in response to ACh (10-minus 4 M) perfusion was reduced to 30% of the control value on the first day after reserpine treatment, while DBH secretion was unchanged. On the 2nd day, CA secretion was depressed further to 5% of the control and remained at this low level up to 5 days after treatment while DBH secretion was twice the control value at 48 hr and then on days 3, 4 and 5 rose up to 5 times the control value. On the 6th day, secretion of CA recovered to 30% of the control while DBH secretion was now twice the control. 6. Isopycnic sucrose density (discontinuous) gradient centrifugation of vesicles from adrenal glands of control cats, and of cats given reserpine 1 or 2 days perviously, indicated that new vesicles or vesicles depleted of CA by reserpine had a lower equilibrium density than the original population of vesicles. 7. These results suggest that the release of CA is quantal in nature, but the release of DBH is not necessarily coupled with it. Release of DBH by ACh from reserpinized glands suggests that the vesicles which were once involved in secretion may be re-used for synthesis and storage of CA.  (+info)

Discrimination of monoamine uptake by membranes of adrenal chromaffin granules. (8/442)

1 The accumulation of various radioactive monoamines by isolated membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin granules was measured by equilibrium dialysis. 2 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of Mg++ stimulated the uptake of all the amines tested, but the accumulation of dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), (plus or minus)-adrenaline and (plus or minus)-octopamine was greater than that of tyramine, (plus or minus)-metaraminol, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine and histamine. 3 At the higher concentration levels of the amines in the medium the ATP-dependent accumulation of dopamine, NA, adrenaline and 5-HT in the membranes reached a saturation level, whereas in the absence of the nucleotide no saturation level was attained. 4 Octopamine and 5-HT competitively inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of NA, 5 Decrease in the incubation temperature or the presence of N-ethylameimide greatly reduced the ATP-stimulated amine accumulation. Ouabain had no effect on uptake. 6 Reserpine virtually abolished the ATP-dependent uptake of dopamine, NA and 5-HT, caused a partial inhibition of the metaraminol, octopamine and tyramine accumulation, but did not interfere with the uptake of tryptamine. 7 The content of endogenous catecholamines of the membranes was changed very little by incubation of NA and 5-HT in the presence of ATP. However, the membranes lost over 80% of their endogenous amines if incubated for 30 min without ATP. 8 The ATP content of the medium progressively decreased during the incubation of granular membranes. 9 It is concluded that the membrane of adrenal chromaffin granules discriminates between the various monoamines with regard to the magnitude of their uptake and that two mechanisms of ATP-stimulated uptake, one responsive and the other resistant to reserpine, exist at the level of this membrane. The ATP-stimulated transport at the granular membrane level may be an important factor in determining the intraneuronal storage of a physiological or false neurotransmitter.  (+info)

The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is saturable, with Km 38 microM and Vmax. 28 nmol/min per mg at 37 degrees C. Entry occurs by exchange with Ca2+ bound to the inner surface of the membrane. It is inhibited non-competitively by Na+, La3+ and Ruthenium Red (Ki 10.7 mM, 7 microM and 2 microM respectively), and competitively by Mg2+ (ki 0.9 mM). Uptake was not stimulated by ATP. Na+ induces Ca2+ efflux; Ca2+ can re-enter the ghosts by a process of Ca2+/Na+ exchange. La3+ inhibits Ca2+ efflux during Ca2+-exchange, and Ca2+ efflux induced by Na+, suggesting that Ca2+ uptake and efflux, and Ca2+/Na+ exchange, are catalysed by the same protein. Na+ enters ghosts during CA2+ efflux, but the kinetics of its entry are not exactly similar to the kinetics of Ca2+ efflux. Initially 1-2 Na+ enter per Ca2+ lost, but at equilibrium 3-4 Na+ have replaced each Ca2+. There is no evidence that either Ca2+ uptake or efflux by Ca2+/Na+ ...
Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
In a previous report, we described the ability of two secretogogues, histamine and nicotine, to stimulate additive effects on catecholamine (CA) release and synapsin II phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACC) [Firestone and Browning (1992), J. Neurochem., 58:441-447]. We hypothesized that these results were due to the combined effects on cytosolic Ca++ of the two distinct signalling pathways. We therefore examined the intracellular Ca++ signals stimulated by histamine and nicotine, alone and together. In Ca(++)-deficient medium, nicotine-stimulated signals were abolished, whereas histamine-stimulated signals were maintained, demonstrating that nicotine depended entirely on Ca++ influx for its effects. Indeed, the nicotine-stimulated signal could also be prevented using a Ca++ channel blocker, nicardipine. Further, the observation that exposure of BACC to thapsigargin reduced histamine-stimulated Ca++ signals verified that histamine mobilizes Ca++ from intracellular stores. Thus, the
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H+-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules. AU - Nelson, H.. AU - Mandiyan, S.. AU - Noumi, T.. AU - Morihama, Y.. AU - Miedel, M. C.. AU - Nelson, N.. PY - 1990/12/18. Y1 - 1990/12/18. N2 - A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 382 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 43,989. Hydropathy plots revealed no apparent transmembrane segments and a rather high helix content was detected. A cDNA encoding most of the C subunit of the V-ATPase of human brain was also cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene is almost identical to the bovine polypeptide with only one change of tyrosine 336 that was replaced by histidine in the human gene. Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
Definition of Chromaffin cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Chromaffin cells? Meaning of Chromaffin cells as a legal term. What does Chromaffin cells mean in law?
Definition of chromaffin cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chromaffin cell? Meaning of chromaffin cell as a finance term. What does chromaffin cell mean in finance?
Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. However, bovine adrenal medulla also contain muscarini
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
Other articles where Chromaffin cell is discussed: human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such as chromogranins, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y-all of which…
Buy BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble SNSR agonist. Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal…
The properties of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K+ currents and their role in defining membrane potential were studied in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Two variants of large-conductance, Ca2+ and voltage-dependent BK channels, one noninactivating and one inactivating, were largely segregated among patches. Whole-cell noninactivating and inactivating currents resulting from each of these channels were segregated among different chromaffin cells. Cell-to-cell variation in the rate and extent of whole-cell current decay was not explained by differences in cytosolic [Ca2+] regulation among cells; rather, variation was due to differences in the intrinsic properties of the underlying BK channels. About 75% of rat chromaffin cells and patches express inactivating BK current (termed BKi) while the remainder express noninactivating BK current (termed BKs). The activation time course of both currents is similar, as is the dependence of activation on [Ca2+] and membrane potential. However, deactivation of ...
Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with the catecholamine transport blocker reserpine was previously shown to increase enkephalin levels several-fold. To explore the biochemical mechanism of this effect, we examined the effect of reserpine treatment on the activities of three different peptide precursor processing enzymes: carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and the prohormone convertases (PCs) PC1/3 and PC2. Reserpine treatment increased both CPE and PC activity in extracts of cultured chromaffin cells; total protein levels were unaltered for any enzyme. Further analysis showed that the increase in CPE activity was due to an elevated Vmax, with no change in the Km for substrate hydrolysis or the levels of CPE mRNA. Reserpine activation of endogenous processing enzymes was also observed in extracts prepared from PC12 cells stably expressing PC1/3 or PC2. In vitro experiments using purified enzymes showed that catecholamines inhibited CPE, PC1/3 and PC2, with dopamine quinone the most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 245-248; (1989) J. Neurochern., in press]. The related botulinum A toxin also consists of a heavy and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The actions ofboth neurotoxins on exocytosis were presently compared using streptolysin O-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. Addition of dithiothreitollowered the effective doses to values below 5 nM. Under the same conditions, the effective doses of tetanus toxin were decreased by a factor of five. This indicates that the interchain S-S bond of botulinum A toxin must also be split before the neurotoxin can exert its effect on exocytosis. ...
Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels exhibit functional diversity not explained by known splice variants of the single Slo α-subunit. Here we describe an accessory subunit (β3) with homology to other β-subunits of BK channels that confers inactivation when it is coexpressed with Slo. Message encoding the β3 subunit is found in rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) cells and adrenal chromaffin cells, both of which express inactivating BK channels. Channels resulting from coexpression of Slo α and β3 subunits exhibit properties characteristic of native inactivating BK channels. Inactivation involves multiple cytosolic, trypsin-sensitive domains. The time constant of inactivation reaches a limiting value ∼25-30 msec at Ca2+ of 10 μm and positive activation potentials. Unlike Shaker N-terminal inactivation, but like native inactivating BK channels, a cytosolic channel blocker does not compete with the native inactivation process. Finally, the β3 subunit confers a ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide is stored by atrial myocytes in secretory granules, known as atrial specific granules, and is released from these granules by exocytosis. We have isolated a group of atrial proteins by affinity chromatography that bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner. The two major proteins isolated (32.5 kd and 67 kd) are calcium-binding proteins and have been identified as annexins V and VI by immunoblotting with specific antisera. The calcium dependence of their binding to atrial specific granules has been characterized in vitro and indicates that this interaction takes place at micromolar levels of calcium. In addition, the group of proteins isolated includes another calcium-binding protein of 20 kd, as well as GTP-binding proteins of 22 to 26 kd. Membrane interactions during exocytosis are presumably mediated by the interaction of specific proteins with the granule membrane. The properties of the proteins described here, and their ability to bind to ...
Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause for the reduced sustained component. Further experiments showed that, in the absence of Doc2b, the ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
In addition to the canonical ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates and cofactors, cells contain a large number of minor nucleotides. Among these are the diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n = 2-7 [1]). Ap3A and Ap4A are the most intensively studied of these and are generally present in the soluble fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells at concentrations between 10 nM and 5 μM [2]. Platelet dense granules, adrenal chromaffin granules and certain synaptic vesicles have been reported to contain high concentrations of Ap5A and Ap6A in addition to Ap3A and Ap4A, all of which can be exocytosed following appropriate stimuli and bind to target cell purinoceptors causing a variety of physiological responses in the cardiovascular and central and peripheral nervous systems [1, 3-5]. However, although Ap6A has been detected in erythrocytes [6], there are no substantiated measurements of Ap5A and Ap6A in the soluble fraction of nucleated cells, and it is likely that they are typically ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. Even though deletion of synaptotagmin-1 abolishes fast exocytosis in chromaffin cells, it reduces overall secretion by only 20% because of the persistence of slow exocytosis. Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. Synaptotagmin-7 has a higher Ca(2+) affinity and slower binding kinetics than synaptotagmin-1, matching the proposed properties for the second, slower Ca(2+) sensor. Here, we examined Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in chromaffin cells from KO mice lacking synaptotagmin-7, and from knockin mice containing normal levels of a mutant synaptotagmin-7 whose C(2)B domain does not bind Ca(2+). In both types of mutant chromaffin cells, Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis was decreased dramatically. Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.. AU - Sabol, S. L.. AU - Dandekar, Satya. AU - Kranzler, L. S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 7124494. AN - SCOPUS:0020021542. VL - 33. SP - 175. EP - 181. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Since the work of Katz, Douglas, and their collaborators almost half a century ago (Katz, 1969), a central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], resulting from Ca2+ influx, triggers exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that the rise in [Ca2+] occurs in a microdomain within the vicinity (i.e., at a distance of 200-300 nm in chromaffin cells) of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels (García et al., 2006; Neher and Sakaba, 2008). This finding raises the possibility of other microdomains where a rise in focal [Ca2+] might mediate other processes, allowing Ca2+ to subserve several functions without cross talk. This possibility receives further support from the study of Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ sparks are focal Ca2+ transients found in striated and smooth muscle and mediated by RYRs (Cheng and Lederer, 2008). In striated muscle, they are the quanta or building blocks that make up a global increase in [Ca2+] to trigger contraction (Csernoch, ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells are excitable neuroendocrine cells that have been widely used as a simple model of neurosecretion. In vivo, acetylcholine released from preganglionic neurons binds to nicotinic receptors, which are Na+ ionophores, causing Na+ influx that depolarizes the plasma membrane. Depolarization in turn causes voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) to open, leading to an influx of Ca2+ that activates the fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane, resulting in catecholamine release that occurs within milliseconds. This Ca2+-dependent secretory process is referred to as exocytosis. Previous investigations exploring the potential for nanosecond electric pulses (NEPs) to serve as a novel bioelectric stimulus of neurosecretion in chromaffin cells have shown that in chromaffin cells exposed to 5 ns, 5 MV/m electric pulses, catecholamine release is stimulated in a manner that relies on Ca2+ influx via VGCCs. The goal of the present study was to further understand this novel ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
With the type of cryofixation we used (sandwich freezing), cells remain permanently surrounded by their culture or trigger medium, and impairment of viability during handling can be minimized (Pscheid et al., 1981). The propane jet applied onto the thin copper cover provides very rapid cooling, i.e., up to 40,000°C·s−1 (Knoll et al., 1982; Plattner and Knoll, 1984). The freeze-substitution medium used includes OsO4 and, thus, precludes osmotic changes during warming (Van Harreveld et al., 1965; Morel et al., 1971; Wollweber et al., 1981), and the epoxide embedding chosen involves little shrinkage (Plattner and Zingsheim, 1983). In other studies, open samples were used for freezing on cold metal surfaces or injection into cold media (Ornberg et al., 1995; Parsons et al., 1995). This requires removal of the culture/trigger medium since cryopreservation is restricted to ∼20 μm (Plattner and Bachmann, 1982). The fluid film that may remain on the sample is very thin and ionic conditions are ...
The differentiation of neuronal cell progenitors depends on complex interactions between intrinsic cellular programs and environmental cues. Such interactions have recently been explored using an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, MAH. These studies have revealed that depolarizing conditions, in combination with exposure to FGF, can induce responsiveness to NGF. Here we report that CNTF, which utilizes an intracellular signaling pathway distinct from that of both FGF and NGF, can collaborate with FGF to promote efficiently the differentiation of MAH progenitor cells to a stage remarkably reminiscent of NGF-dependent, postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells into sympathetic neurons ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms of chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines. Pheochromocytoma is a rare disorder that presents challenges for the anesthesiologist. By some estimates, 25 to 50 percent of hospital deaths of patients with unmana
Health expenditure, private (% of GDP) in South Africa was reported at 4.5537 % in 2014, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. South Africa - Health expenditure, private (% of GDP) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href= target=blank>World Bank|/a> on August of 2020.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase is shown to catalyze the oxidation of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to its cation radical in the presence of a regular substrate and molecular oxygen. The enzyme-mediated oxidation of TMPD is stoichiometrically coupled with the hydoxylation of the substrate to the corresponding enzymatic product. TMPD is kinetically well behaved as an alternate electron donor for the enzyme with a potency comparable to that of the most efficient electron donor, ascorbate. Dopamine beta-monooxygenase mediated oxidation of TMPD has been employed to design a convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme. The finding that TMPD is a well behaved facile alternate electron donor for dopamine beta-monooxygenase raises some interesting novel questions regarding the specificity and chemistry of the reduction site, which may have important implications on the reduction of active site coppers of the enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated chromaffin cell secretion. AU - Hexum, T. D.. AU - Zheng, Jialin C. AU - Zhu, J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide with varied activities, inhibits nicotinic receptor-induced [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) secretion from bovine chromaffin cells. The secretion produced by membrane depolarization with high KCl concentrations or veratridine is not inhibited. Fragments of NPY, such as NPY18-36, are potent inhibitors of [3H]NE secretion, whereas [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY and peptide YY have no effect. The response to NPY18-36 is not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment of chromaffin cells. NPY fragments also inhibit nicotinic receptor-induced 45Ca++ influx but not that induced by KCl or veratridine. The rank orders of potency for inhibition of [3H]NE secretion and 45Ca++ influx are the same: NPY18-36 ≥ NPY26-36 , NPY13-36. NPY and NPY(free acid) are weak inhibitors of secretion ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare 38 different DBH ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at!
Bovine adrenal medullary slices were incubated at 30° in Lockes solution containing orthophosphate-32P or glycerol-1-14C. 32P was incorporated into all individual phospholipids, but at different rates. The highest specific activity observed was in phosphatidylinositol, followed by phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin), sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylethanolamine.. Acetylcholine (10-5 M)in the presence of eserine (10-5 M) produced a 3-fold increase in catecholamine release and stimulated the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidic acid (3.4-fold), phosphatidylinositol (2.7-fold), and phosphatidylcholine (1.4-fold).. The uptake of orthophosphate-32P into the chromaffin tissue, as well as the specific activities and tissue levels of orthophosphate and nucleotides, were not modified upon acetylcholine stimulation.. Glycerol-1-14C was incorporated into all the individual phospholipids, but, in contrast to 32P incorporation, acetylcholine ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
DBH - Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase (dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) available from OriGene
Doxycycline synthroid. In most instances, the biopsy is taken from the actual tumor. Chlorpromazine was with- drawn and doxycycline synthroid substituted (up to a maximum of 600 mgday). Chronic morphine increases levels synthrodi types I (ACI) and VIII (ACVIII) adenylyl cyclase, PKA catalytic (C) and regulatory type II (RII) subunits, and several phosphoproteins, including CREB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine biosynthesis.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Muscarinic acetylcholine ... Very few parts of the sympathetic system use cholinergic receptors. In sweat glands the receptors are of the muscarinic type. ...
Innervated by sympathetic nervous system, chromaffin cells are important in the initiation of the fight-or-flight response of ... In Göttingen Südhof worked on his doctoral thesis, in which he described the structure and function of chromaffin cells, at the ... Südhof described the structure and function of chromaffin cells which are responsible for the release of epinephrine, ...
They are a neural crest derivative and share a common sympathoadrenal precursor cell with sympathetic neurons and chromaffin ... of the Sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The neurotransmitter for these cells is dopamine. ...
The name is derived from their location in the enteric system and their chromaffin-like staining pattern in histologic sections ... Enterochromaffin cell Chromaffin cell List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the ...
... chromaffin system, et al. He was married to the Galician-Austrian writer, journalist and critic Berta Szeps. The couple's house ...
Fibrocyte Digestive system Interstitial cell of Cajal Angioblast → Endothelial cell Mesangial cell Intraglomerular ... Gonadotrope Corticotrope Thyrotrope Somatotrope Lactotroph Ameloblast Neuron Glia Schwann cell Satellite glial cell Chromaffin ...
No 2 The Autonomic Nervous System and Chromaffin Tissue in Hagfishes The Changing Visual System: Maturation and Aging in the ... Central Nervous System Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Biology of the Cyclostomes Hagfish - Cronodon Evolutionary ...
Catecholamine secretions typically follows sympathetic nervous stimulation in adults, but in a fetus, this system for secretion ... Nurse, Colin A.; Salman, Shaima; Scott, Angela L. (2018-05-01). "Hypoxia-regulated catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells ... they revert to this non-neurogenic catecholamine release system. Mutations in the TH gene, especially in the tetramerization ...
"Endocrine System: adrenal gland, reticularis and medulla" Secretion Control in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin ... In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which ... Perry, SF; Capaldo, A (Nov 16, 2011). "The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ...
Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, ... The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organism's "fight or ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... The enteric nervous system is the intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal system. It has been described as "the Second ... The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that ... The sympathetic nervous system is often considered the "fight or flight" system, while the parasympathetic nervous system is ...
Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia ... WHO classification of tumors (2005). "Tumours of the Paraganglionic System". Pathology and genetics of head and neck tumours ( ... Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. Adrenal pheochromocytomas are ... They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are analogous to post-ganglionic neurons; the adrenal medulla develops in tandem with ... the others being the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system functions to ... The sympathetic nervous system is described as being antagonistic to the parasympathetic nervous system which stimulates the ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are analogous to post-ganglionic neurons; the adrenal medulla develops in tandem with ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the ... Sympathetic nervous system. Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own ...
The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... Some believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a ... Higher central nervous systemEdit. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are also present and distributed throughout the local ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ...
Sherwood, Lauralee (2001). Human physiology: from cells to systems. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-56826-2. OCLC ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... The HPA axis is an example of a negative feedback system, in which cortisol itself acts as a direct inhibitor of both CRH and ... The HPA axis also interacts with the immune system through increased secretion of ACTH at the presence of certain molecules of ...
The synthesis and secretion of aldosterone are mainly regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The zona ... "Basal steroidogenic activity of adrenocortical cells is increased 10-fold by coculture with chromaffin cells". Endocrinology. ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons.[1] They are ... As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a modified ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system.[2] ... These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). These adrenal ... Because the ANS, specifically the sympathetic division, exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells, the hormone release ...
Major endocrine systems[edit]. The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several ... The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an ... A neuroendocrine system has been observed in all animals with a nervous system and all vertebrates have a hypothalamus- ... In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The study of the endocrine system and ...
Histology image: 14502loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University. *Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood as part of the renin-angiotensin system.[ ...
The role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system has been less ... Nucifora PG, Fox AP (1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates rapid endocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells". J Neurosci. 19 ... Many studies demonstrating high levels of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases in the central nervous system have ... The major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system are the glutamate receptors. These receptors can ...
A group of leukocytes, called granulocytes, contain granules and play an important role in the immune system. The granules of ... Chromaffin granule Kurloff cell "granule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert (28 February 2018 ... which may be associated with the dense tubular system. A specific type of granule found in the pancreas is an insulin granule. ...
Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells. *Dopamine Chromaffin ... The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts.[2] The endocrine system ... The endocrine system's effects are slow to start, and long-lasting in their response. The nervous system sends information ... In physiology, the endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the ...
The hormonal system of the body is almost entirely controlled by the central nervous system. It normally does this by sending ... They are called chromaffin cells, and they release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). ... The neurons of the neuroendocrine system are large; they are mini factories for producing secretory products. These cells are ...
The sympathetic adrenomedullary system[edit]. In humans, there are chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands (medulla) that get ... The SAM system is a part of the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system.[20] These systems are responsible for ... Brain circuits and testosterone's systems are formed and activated in early life.[4] These neurobiological systems of the body ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system and cortisol[edit]. In the human body, the steps that lead to the release of ...
It is primarily known for its role in the central nervous system but plays an important role in the periphery, with the largest ... Similarly named, Chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla) share this characteristic and are histologically similar to EC cells ... EC cells modulate neuron signalling in the enteric nervous system (ENS) via the secretion of the neurotransmitter serotonin and ... The name 'enterochromaffin' comes from the Greek word "enteron" (ἔντερον), in relation to intestines, and "chromaffin" as a ...
A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N. Engl. J. Med. 279 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1056/ ... Diseases of the endocrine system (E00-E35, 240-259). Pancreas/. glucose. metabolism. ...
Beck, R; Rawet, M; Wieland, FT; Cassel, D. The COPI system: molecular mechanisms and function.. FEBS letters. 2009-09-03, 583 ( ... Vesicular quantal size measured by amperometry at chromaffin, mast, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic beta-cells.. Journal of ... On the mechanism of electrochemical vesicle cytometry: chromaffin cell vesicles and liposomes.. Faraday discussions. 2016-12-12 ... Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells.. Proceedings of ...
... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... The increase in available hydrogen bonding increases the entropy of the system, creating a spontaneous process. ...
"Endocrine System: adrenal gland, reticularis and medulla" Secretion Control in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin ... In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which ... Perry, SF; Capaldo, A (Nov 16, 2011). "The autonomic nervous system and chromaffin tissue: neuroendocrine regulation of ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ...
Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, ... The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organisms "fight or ...
Many second messenger systems, cytoskeletal elements, and other agents can modify stimulus-secretion coupling of large dense- ... Chromaffin cell culture. Adult bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were prepared by collagenase digestion as described inVitale et ... In summary, bovine chromaffin cells recorded in perforated patch mode appear to be much more effective at clamping [Ca2+]i ... Most chromaffin cells have a repertoire of Ca2+-exocytosis relationships. A limitation of the present study is that enhanced ...
Some chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla were positive for Y1R. The problem of the specificity of the Y1R-LI is evaluated using ... Digestive System / blood supply * Digestive System / metabolism * Digestive System / ultrastructure * Endocrine System / blood ...
As such, chromaffin cells represent a fundamental neuroendocrine component of the sympathetic nervous system. G protein coupled ... In vertebrate nervous systems,… (more). ▼ Myelin is a multilamellar sheath made by specialized glial cells that iteratively ... In chromaffin cells isolated from wild-type mice, PGE2 produced a robust potentiation of secretion that was primarily due to a ... The ?2AR and AT1aR are GPCRs that are involved the regulation of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems. The ?2AR is ...
At this passage, he notably were to understand some system on crisis and BE some Pathology constantly on the science. download ... occipital theory in fatal search bibliography: a chromaffin. harte and corticosteroid under high transsexual scientists. blood ... Quantum Nonlinear Integrable Systems: Law and glucose - Covering both online and reading sentences, new DRAMATIC insecticides ... seeds, and the red: the British adolescent chromosome? The uterine article of systems. usual Fever 2 download a companion to ...
... and augmented catecholamine exocytosis by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Likewise, sciatic nerve injury is associated ... work was to consider neuropathic pain as a stressor capable of originating a response of the sympathoadrenomedullary system ... in the splanchnic nerve-chromaffin cell junction, increased expression of plasma membrane nicotinic receptors, ... antiallodynic effect that is probably related to the inhibition of the synthesis and release of adrenaline by chromaffin cells ...
The authors also review and discuss mechanisms of fusion pore regulation in response to different stimulations in chromaffin ... over the actual high-density lipoprotein concentration in mediating favorable effects on the cardiovascular system. ...
An in vitro experiment for assaying central nervous system penetration (PAMPA-BBB; parallel artificial membrane permeability ... exposure of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma or chromaffin cells to O/R constitutes a good model of oxidative stress, having its origin in ... thus reaching their biological targets in the central nervous system. In conclusion, by causing a moderate isosteric ... "CGP37157 not only failed against the O/R exposure, but in fact augmented cell-damaging effects of O/R in chromaffin cells.27 ...
Manual of Human Embryology II 1912: Nervous System , Chromaffin Organs and Suprarenal Bodies , Sense-Organs , Digestive Tract ... 4. The Sympathetic Nervous System. CHAPTER XV. By E. Zuckerkandl. The Development of the Chromaffin Organs and of the ... The development of the blood, the vascular system, and the spleen in Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. ( ... The development of the blood, the vascular system, and the spleen in Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. ( ...
A simplified system for producing recombinant adenoviruses.. Recombinant adenoviruses present a versatile system for gene ... PC12 cells grown with or with out NGF include dense core chromaffin-like granules as much as 350 nm in diameter. The NGF- ... In addition, cells handled with solely the reagent was assayed for host-cell viability utilizing the WST-Eight system and ... This system ought to expedite the method of producing and testing recombinant adenoviruses for a selection of functions. ...
In addition, cells handled with solely the reagent was assayed for host-cell viability utilizing the WST-Eight system and ... PC12 cells grown with or with out NGF include dense core chromaffin-like granules as much as 350 nm in diameter. The NGF- ... Here, we describe a mannequin "system" to appraise the practical contributions of these genes to breast cancer subsets. In ... The PC12 cell line needs to be a helpful mannequin system for neurobiological and neurochemical research. ...
Alterations in the cell-cell adhesion system are closely associated with cell invasion and metastasis in many malignancies, ... highly vascularized tumors that originate from neural-crest-derived chromaffin cells. These tumors are subdivided as either ...
Saicić Z.S., Mijalković D.N., Nikolić A.L. Effect of thyroxine on antioxidant defense system in the liver of different aged ... and protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cultured porcine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Neuropeptides. 1996; 30 (2): ... Ronan P.J., Summers C.H. Molecular signaling and translational significance of the corticotropin releasing factor system. Prog ... Kino T., Charmandari E., Chrousos G.P. Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System. Handbook of ...
Administrative Committee on Coordination (UN Committee; United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination). ... Adrenal Chromaffin Cell. ACC. Active Accessibility Core Component. ACC. Access Command. ACC. Automatic Call Center. ...
11) During a pre-exocytotic stage, chromaffin granules are found in juxtaposition to the plasma membrane and separated from it ... and one that is pretty much built-in by our education system unfortunately," he said this weekend. But in an instance of ...
... nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as well as chromaffin cell cultures in adrenal glands. Washed and sterilized animal ... Performed qPCRs using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR system, Extracted DNA from blood, bone marrow, and ... Responsible for training all students on laboratory systems, Forecast and maintain material costs for laboratory budget, ...
NIPS: Neural Information Processing Systems, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 28, 3070-3078. ... Cav1.3 channels as key regulators of neuron-like firings and catecholamine release in chromaffin cells. Current Molecular ... NIPS: Neural Information Processing Systems, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 2015, 1540-1548. ... Algorithms for algebraic path properties in concurrent systems of constant treewidth components, IST Austria, 24p. ...
IEEE International 3D System Integration Conference (3DIC) Nov 22--28, Erice, Italy International School on Bioelectromagnetism ... International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology Nov 15--22, Ljubljana, Slovenia Electroporation-Based Technologies and ...
Dual-luciferase assays Dual-luciferase assays were performed using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega) as ... The SMART-seq2 data in the chromaffin cell differentiation was used from13 (GEO; "type":"entrez-geo","attrs":"text message":" ... some armed forces and regional systems have got issued their very own instructions also.3, 4, 5 This post testimonials and ... demonstrate its make use of on multiple released datasets and specialized systems, reveal the branching lineage tree from the ...
Gastrointestinal difefrenze Entero-chromaffin cells where r k reductase inhibitors, related with the sweetbread or relating to ... See also preclude the mucosal inflammation of 0. 5 gm, or pneumonia or acquired dyslexia, catalexia, central nervous system on ...
The drug protects the cells responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system. These cells ... The release of epinephrine from the chromaffin granules of the adrenal medulla into the bloodstream in response to neural ... Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and, thus, the release of adrenaline (and noradrenaline) into the ... a component of the cellular microtubular transport system. One week later, he develops skeletal muscle weakness. An alteration ...
Premise: pathogen-immune system intervention mediates cell damage resulting in disruption to key areas of the brains internal ... In the adrenal medulla a long pre-ganglionic fibre (via a splanchnic nerve)(28) stimulates the chromaffin cells to release ... Immune system activation and ensuing interaction with foreign protein can damage brain tissues and persist as chronic disease. ... The Hippocampus mediates between the cingulate gyrus of the limbic system and the hypothalamus.. Given such evidence, I ...
This space helps connected by a interested ulceration piace, namely for due tools, for which the system happens by button( 1869 ... In personalities to online chromaffin 3( doku. Type-A epidemic bony violation. The amazing oxidation and hydrogen ke expression ...
In the test systems used no mutagenic effect could be demonstrated.. Studies of carcinogenic effects of iobenguane have not ... The uptake of iobenguane in the chromaffin granules might, in theory, cause rapid noradrenalin secretion which can induce a ... As a consequence of a functional similarity between adrenergic neurons and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla ...
Succinate dehydrogenase-deficiency in a chromaffin cell model retains metabolic fitness through the maintenance of ... Ex vivo metabolite profiling of paediatric central nervous system tumours reveals prognostic markers. Scientific Rep, (2019). 9 ...
Labnodes is a system for organizing people, labs and their science. ... Evidence for paracrine signaling between macrophages and bovine adrenal chromaffin cell Ca(2+) channels.. Currie KP, Zhou Z, ...
Differential role of PKC-epsilon in calcium influx and exocytosis in chromaffin cells ... Open Access System for Information Sharing. All. Title. Author. Subject. Login Library Help. ...
13 Urinogenital System , 14 Suprarenal System , 15 Nervous System , 16 Organs of Special Sense , 17 Post-natal , Figures ... Online Editor - Organs of Zuckerkandl, a chromaffin body derived from neural crest located at the bifurcation of the aorta or ... 13 Urinogenital System , 14 Suprarenal System , 15 Nervous System , 16 Organs of Special Sense , 17 Post-natal , Figures ... The Suprarenal System of Organs. To the suprarenal system a number of bodies of peculiar structure, probably concerned with ...
Ventricular system:. Third ventricle. recesses: (Optic recess, Infundibular recess, Suprapineal recess, Pineal recess) ...
Therefore, despite the evidence for a high degree of selfing, the beetle pollination system of M. obovata has been selected ... of extract and ingredients isolated from Magnolia obovata thunberg on catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin ...
The development of the chromaffin organs and of the suprarenal bodies pp157-179 in Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human ...
  • Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. (
  • They are in close proximity to pre-synaptic sympathetic ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, with which they communicate, and structurally they are similar to post-synaptic sympathetic neurons. (
  • Since they also are excitable cells that generate action potentials, chromaffin cells are viewed as the endocrine counterparts of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and are often termed adrenal paraneurons. (
  • The phenomena of two maturation steps preceding fusion, docking, and priming, are readily demonstrated in both neurons and chromaffin cells, and release occurs from a readily releasable pool (RRP) as described below. (
  • Thus, the chromaffin cell plasticity is analogous to neuronal degeneration of hippocampal neurons and apoptosis of lymphocytes. (
  • Purely neurocrine signaling between neurons , on the other hand, belongs completely to the nervous system . (
  • However, the nervous system transmits neurotransmitters (also chemical messengers) between neighboring neurons via nerve extension, and neurotransmitters do not generally enter the circulation. (
  • Understand the organization the peripheral nervous system including the structural differences of the neurons comprising its components. (
  • Neurons are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. (
  • Motor neurons begin in the central nervous system projecting their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly controlling muscles. (
  • Epinephrine is produced by neurons in the brain and sympathetic nervous system and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. (
  • Then, within the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and cytosol of the adrenergic neurons, norepinephrine is methylated (a fancy words that means an enzyme adds a methyl group to a substance) and converted to epinephrine. (
  • Building on previous research pointing to neurotransmitters' role in inflammation regulation, the researchers focused on two specific cell types known to secrete them-;chromaffin cells that reside in the adrenal glands and noradrenergic neurons that are located in the peripheral nerve system and directly connected to the spleen through an abundance of nerve fibers. (
  • Chromaffin cells are the body's main producers of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline and of dopamine, while noradrenergic neurons release noradrenaline. (
  • To do so, they used a novel genetic tool to ablate chromaffin cells or noradrenergic neurons. (
  • The results suggest that central monoaminergic neurons impose both inhibitory and facilitatory influences on the maturation of specific chromaffin cell types in the adrenal medulla and that supraspinal catecholaminergic inputs may play a role in determining the set-point for reflex adrenomedullary responses. (
  • The enteric nervous system has over 500 million neurons and more than 40 distinct neurotransmitters. (
  • The chromaffin tissue originates from the same ectodermal rudiment that gives rise to the sympathetic neurons. (
  • IA-2 is enriched in the secretory granules of pancreatic islet cells and neuroendocrine cells, including peptidergic neurons, pituitary cells, and adrenal chromaffin cells ( 2 ). (
  • The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream as hormones instead of as neurotransmitters. (
  • Another role for these receptors is at the junction of the innervated tissues and the postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • There is also some evidence for postsynaptic receptors on sympathetic neurons allowing the parasympathetic nervous system to inhibit sympathetic effects. (
  • Specifically, mouse transgenic knockout studies indicate that transient expression of achaete-scute homolog-1 (termed MASH1) in neural precursor cells is necessary for establishment of a subset of autonomic, olfactory, and enteric neurons, and adrenal chromaffin cells ( 1 , 6 ). (
  • Neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) receive information from the external environment and carry signals to and from the brain and spinal cord, which constitute the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Undiagnosed chromaffin cell tumors can present with life-threatening complications for both the mother and fetus. (
  • In this syndrome, patients develop polycythemia at a later age relative to HIF2A mutation carriers, but they appear to have a similar high risk of recurrent chromaffin cell tumors, especially PGL [17, 53]. (
  • Chromaffin cell tumors that produce significant amounts of metanephrine alone, or in combination with normetanephrine, almost always have an adrenal location or reflect recurrence of a previous adrenal tumor (73). (
  • c ) paraganglioma (chromaffin cell tumors). (
  • This can be caused by numerous things such as administration of exogenous epinephrine or tumors in the adrenals or along other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • The term paraganglioma refers to any extra-adrenal or nonfunctional tumor of the paraganglion system, whereas functional tumors are referred to as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. (
  • The biosynthesis and storage of catecholamines in chromaffin cell tumors may differ from the biosynthesis and storage in the normal medulla. (
  • Catecholamine-producing tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that affect the chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla and postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Recently, it has been reported that mutations in the SDHC gene cause some familial chromaffin cell tumors (i.e., paragangliomas) in humans (15) , but the mechanism by which these mutation cause cancer is still unknown. (
  • These data show that ROS from mitochondria can promote not only apoptosis but also tumorigenesis, thus explaining the malignancies such as chromaffin cell tumors. (
  • Pheochromocytomas are tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the sympathetic nervous system and act by synthesizing and releasing catecholamines. (
  • Their cells are usually chromaffin-negative and tumors arising from these structures are usually non functionnal. (
  • adrenal medulla is composed of chromaffin cells that are named for the granules within the cells that darken after exposure to chromium salts. (
  • Thus, mitochondria would play a critical role in the control of secretory activity in chromaffin cells that undergo tonic or repetitive depolarizing activity, likely by limiting the Ca 2+ -dependent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis. (
  • In the current study, the hypothesis that mitochondria regulate secretory activity by limiting rises in [Ca 2+ ] c and the subsequent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis was tested by monitoring stimulus-evoked changes in [Ca 2+ ] c and the secretory activity of single bovine chromaffin cells after selective pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. (
  • We determined the size and intracellular distribution of dense core vesicles (DVs or chromaffin granules) and of clear vesicles (CVs). (
  • medulla, which is composed of chromaffin tissue, so called because its cells contain granules that can be characteristically coloured by certain reagents. (
  • The distinct phases of the chromaffin cell secretory response have been attributed to the progressive fusion of distinct populations of dense core granules with different activation kinetics. (
  • Our study provides evidence for functional specialization of chromaffin cell granules via selective expression of Syt isoforms with different Ca 2+ sensitivities. (
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules. (
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. (
  • The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. (
  • They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules. (
  • We have purified cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules by reverse phase chromatography and have determined internal amino acid sequences from peptides. (
  • Cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin granules has been purified by fast protein liquid chromatography chromatofocusing. (
  • Cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin granules was purified in octylglucoside by hydrophobic chromatography. (
  • It presents papers on functional neurochemistry, nervous system receptors, neurotransmitters, myelin, chromaffin granules and other components of the nervous system, as well as neurophysiological and clinical aspects, behavioral reactions, etc. (
  • In non-mammals, chromaffin cells are found in a variety of places, generally not organised as an individual organ, and may be without innervation, relying only on endocrine or paracrine signals for secretion. (
  • This cooperation between the nervous system and Effects of pituitary adenomas endocrine apparatus is referred to as neuroendocrine Pituitary adenomas cause problems because of a com- signalling. (
  • The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones . (
  • The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating metabolism , growth and development and puberty , tissue function , and plays a part also in mood . (
  • The Endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system . (
  • However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. (
  • The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling. (
  • Diseases of the endocrine system are common, [3] including diseases such as diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, and obesity . (
  • Over the last years, studies of the neuroendocrine and immune systems have indicated that neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, hormones, and cytokines, as well as their respective receptors, can be used as common mediators in a neuro-endocrine-immune network, allowing the body to mount proper responses to changes of the internal environment and external insults ( 1 ). (
  • The endocrine system is the human body ' s group of specialized organs and tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical hormones. (
  • The endocrine is also similar to the nervous system , because both systems regulate body events and communicate through chemical messengers with target cells. (
  • Understand how neuroendocrine cells function to integrate the nervous and endocrine system be familiar with the physiological centers of neuroendocrine activity. (
  • جهاز الغدد الصماء أو الجهاز الصماوي (بالإنجليزية: Endocrine system) عبارة عن جهاز متكامل من الأعضاء الصغيرة التي تقوم بتحرير جزيئات إشارة خارج خلوية تدعى هرمونات . (
  • One important action of PACAP in the endocrine system is its role as a potent secretagogue for adrenaline from the adrenal medulla through activation of TH. (
  • Cells in different regions of the adrenal glands have different functions in the endocrine system.The outer portion of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal cortex. (
  • The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~20% of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into systemic circulation for systemic effects on multiple organs (similarly to secretory neurones of the hypothalamus), and can also send paracrine signals. (
  • This increased sympathetic activity leads to chronically increased synthesis and secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal chromaffin cells. (
  • This chronic increase of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion causes desensitization of the chromaffin cells to catecholamines resulting in a decrease in production and presence of α2 adrenergic receptors on their cell membrane. (
  • Chromaffin tissue secretes two hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines. (
  • Goddard of Cytotherapeutics filled the implant with around 2 million chromaffin cells-enough to secrete about 2 to 3 micrograms of catecholamines over 24 hours. (
  • The control of intractable pain through transplanted of chromaffin cells has been recently reported where the analgesic effects are principally due to the production of opioid peptides and catecholamines (CAs) by the chromaffin cells. (
  • The largest chromaffin paraganglia is the organ of Zuckerkandl, it is probably the largest source of circulating catecholamines in the fetus and young infants, and gradually atrophies to microscopic loci. (
  • Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • We performed the following studies to determine whether the SHR Y chromosome raises blood pressure by sympathetic nervous system responses as measured by adrenal chromogranin A and plasma and tissue catecholamines. (
  • In chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, nicotine binds to the ganglion-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is composed of alpha 3 (CHRNA3) and beta 4 (CHRNB4) subunits. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla , which secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. (
  • nerve tissue ( nervous tissue ) the specialized tissue forming the elements of the nervous system. (
  • Lempinen, M.: Extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the rat and the effect of cortical hormones on it. (
  • Their differentiation and commitment to function in the mature nervous system is incumbent on exposure to growth factors released by structures along the migratory route and then within the target tissue. (
  • 1. A method of inducing analgesia or reducing pain comprising implanting isolated, substantially homogeneously purified chromaffin cells or adrenal medullary tissue in nociceptor region of central nervous system of a host susceptible to pain, and stimulating said cells or tissue by infecting a nicotinic or muscarinic agonist to release effective amount of analgesic substance to reduce pain. (
  • More particularly, the present invention is related to the implantation of isolated chromaffin cells or adrenal medullary tissue in the brain stem or spinal cord for producing analgesia when the implanted tissue or cell is induced to release nociceptor interacting substances. (
  • Since pain is not necessarily the result of damaged neuronal tissue, it is essential that the function of neural implants in intact, non-lesioned systems be assessed when determining pain sensitivity. (
  • and an internal portion (the medulla), which consists of chromaffin, or adrenal, tissue and secretes catecholamine hormones. (
  • Pheochromocytomas develop from chromaffin tissue in the adrenal medulla while paragangliomas form in the extra-adrenal ganglia. (
  • Chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla are ideally suited to distinguish and quantify the diverse pools of vesicles. (
  • Large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells shares many important features with neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles in classical CNS synapses. (
  • Active zones, electron dense, protein rich areas with the attendant clusters of vesicles ( Zhai and Bellen, 2004 ) are not obvious in chromaffin cells. (
  • Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from the chromaffin vesicles into the bloodstream, which leads to increased heart rate and blood pressure and elevation of blood glucose level. (
  • Notably, cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a key protease for proteolytic processing of proneuropeptides (and prohormones) into active neuropeptides that are released to mediate cell-cell communication in the nervous system for neurotransmission. (
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel m. (
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel mechanism of Ca2+ syntilla suppression. (
  • Using optogenetically evoked catecholamine release, we show that recurrent hypoglycemia reduced the secretory capacity of mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. (
  • These terms can be used interchangeably but usually paraganglioma refer to a tumor originating from chromaffin cells outside the adrenal gland, which can also be called extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, whereas pheochromocytoma typically refer to a tumor originating from the chromaffin cells within the adrenal gland. (
  • However, there are also important differences between synaptic transmission and catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells. (
  • An in situ saline-perfused posterior cardinal vein preparation was used to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of basal and stimulus-evoked catecholamine secretion from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss chromaffin cells. (
  • However, because removal of the endothelium did not affect NO production during electrical field stimulation, it would appear that the neuronal form of NOS (nNOS) is the key isoform modulating catecholamine secretion from trout chromaffin cells. (
  • demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells persists during exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia and activation of the sympathetic nerves at the same time that epinephrine secretion is reduced. (
  • Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of morphine or bupivacaine on the secretion of nicotine-induced CAs from encapsulated chromaffin cells over a period of 180 min. (
  • Using pharmacological probes to inhibit mitochondrial Ca 2+ import, the ability of mitochondria to modulate secretory activity in single, patch-clamped bovine chromaffin cells was examined by simultaneously monitoring rapid changes in membrane surface area (Δ C m ) and cytosolic Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] c ). (
  • Disruption of cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by poisoning mitochondria enhanced the secretory responsiveness of chromaffin cells by increasing the amplitude of the transient rise and the time course of recovery to baseline of the evoked Δ[Ca 2+ ] c . (
  • As for neurotransmitter release at synapses, catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells requires the concerted action of protein complexes that mobilize the secretory vesicle to the release site, fuse the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane, empty its content, and retrieve the vesicle membrane for recycling. (
  • Features of the secretory vesicle protein systems insure optimized intravesicular conditions that support the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. (
  • In The adrenal chromaffin cell: Archetype and exemplar of cellular signalling in secretory control. (
  • Regulation of Adrenal Chromaffin Cell Development by the Central Monoaminergic System: Differential Control of Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Levels and Secretory Responses (Journal Version). (
  • The results suggest that the ontogeny of the two chromaffin cell types (norepinephrine and epinephrine-containing) in the adrenals and the maturation of their secretory responses are under differential regulation. (
  • Neoplasms arising from these cells are pheochromocytomas (also called chromaffin or sympathetic paragangliomas, in contrast to non-chromaffin or parasympathetic paragangliomas of glomus cells). (
  • Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. (
  • Pheochromocytomas from in the adrenal gland, while paragangliomas grow in the peripheral nervous system," Bennett explained. (
  • First, we showed that synaptophysin and dynamin interact in chromaffin granule-rich fractions and that this interaction relies on the C terminal of synaptophysin. (
  • Here we assess the consequences of selective sorting of Syt isoforms in chromaffin cells, particularly with respect to granule dynamics and activation kinetics. (
  • Passive ion permeability of the chromaffin-granule membrane. (
  • Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. (
  • Be able to distinguish the structure, mechanisms and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. (
  • The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. (
  • Appreciation of the breadth of autonomic disorders has increased since Langley 1 originally proposed the generic term "autonomic nervous system" (ANS) and designated its division into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems. (
  • Perhaps this disparity has evolved through lack of awareness of the myriad of pediatric autonomic disorders or inadequate residency education regarding evaluation of this particular system. (
  • In addition, there are often associated sensory perturbations, because the development and maintenance of the autonomic and sensory systems are closely linked. (
  • These cells migrate and eventually evolve into sensory and autonomic ganglia as well as the adrenal chromaffin cells. (
  • In the autonomic nervous system (ANS), nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system to ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers. (
  • In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. (
  • [2] Their counterparts are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), receptor ion channels that are also important in the autonomic nervous system . (
  • Hitherto, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system were regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. (
  • Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. (
  • Paraganglia form a system formed by widely dispersed collections of specialized neural crest cells that arise in association with the segmental or collateral autonomic ganglia throughout the body. (
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by the splanchnic nerve and secrete adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), some dopamine, enkephalin and enkephalin-containing peptides, and a few other hormones into the blood stream. (
  • Sympathetic activation of chromaffin cells releases their hormones into the bloodstream in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (
  • As part of the sympathoadrenal system, these chemicals act rapidly and dispel quickly as opposed to the longer lasting effect of hormones. (
  • Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells respond to sympathetic nervous system activation by secreting a cocktail of potent neuropeptides and hormones into the circulation. (
  • Yet, some overlap between hormones and neurotransmitters exists, which gives rise to chemical signals called neurohormones that function as part of the neuroendocrine system. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract and the enteric nervous system are a rich source of hormones that perform critical functions. (
  • The enteric nervous system, neurotransmitters and gut hormones are intimately involved with the gut immune system, microbiome and diet . (
  • In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells also reside in the bladder wall, prostate, and behind the liver. (
  • This application note describes a detailed method to perform high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to improve the visualization of membranes when compared to chemical fixed preparations. (
  • Nicotinic Cholinergic Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression and Catecholamine Synthesis in Isolated Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. (
  • Sometimes, pheochromocytomas arise from chromaffin cells that are located outside of the adrenal gland. (
  • In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the adrenal medulla. (
  • There are two types of cells that originate from the neural crest and are related to the sympathetic nervous system (originate from a cell called sympathogonia): 1) Neuroblasts: These cells migrate, during the fourth to the fifth week of fetal development in humans, on both sides of the spinal cord toward the region just behind the dorsal aorta forming the two chains of sympathetic ganglia (Sympathetic chain). (
  • The secreted adrenaline and noradrenaline play an important role in the sympathetic nervous system response, commonly called the fight-or-flight response. (
  • They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest . (
  • The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is crucial in an organism's physiological response to outside stimuli. (
  • When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which activate the adrenal medulla through acetylcholine. (
  • These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the thoracic spinal chord. (
  • Electrical impulses carried by the sympathetic nervous system are converted to a chemical response in the adrenal gland. (
  • These sympathoadrenal functions show the combined responses of the central nervous system on a multitude of external stimuli. (
  • These chemicals are created by the adrenal glands after receiving neuronal signals from the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Increased activity of the adrenal nerves is done through the receptors for the corticotropin-releasing factor within the ganglia within the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • The purpose of the present study is to examine the physiological role of AM in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • Interactions between the nervous and immune systems occur through the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and through sympathetic/parasympathetic innervations of primary and secondary lymphoid organs. (
  • Furthermore, it implies that different physiological or pathological processes in the nervous system could be involved in the regulation of immune response. (
  • One of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system. (
  • It is an embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts (pluripotent sympathetic cells). (
  • Their organization function and development in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • Kanerva, L., Hervonen, A., Hervonen, H.: Morphological characteristics of the ontogenesis of the mammalian peripheral adrenergic nervous system with special remarks on the human fetus. (
  • The approach to the human nervous system within this section of the course is concerned with the structure of individual nerve cells, impulse transmission, and the basic organization and major divisions of the human nervous system. (
  • However, in the psychology and sociology portion of the course , you will find additional resources treating the human nervous system. (
  • Study the terminology for the nervous system using the question server . (
  • Complete the advanced crossword puzzle for the nervous system. (
  • Review the web resources for the nervous system. (
  • The central nervous system represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord. (
  • The brain or encephalon is the control center of the central nervous system. (
  • The peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the central nervous system serving the limbs and organs. (
  • The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements and with reception of external stimuli. (
  • When nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream, and it can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • In the central nervous system, PACAP acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, which has been supported by IHC and electrophysiological methods. (
  • Ginseng saponins, major active components of ginseng root used by folk medicine in the treatment of various diseases, produce multiple pharmacological responses having many effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. (
  • Ed. Nucreotides and their receptors in the nervous system. (
  • It's produced by the adrenal medulla and the central nervous system and is a major component of the "flight or fight" response. (
  • First, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and adrenocorticoptropin hormone (ACTH) kick off the synthesis of adrenaline. (
  • The method involves implanting in the central nervous system of a host susceptible to pain, living material capable of releasing effective amount of analgesic substance when interacted with a stimulus which induces said material to release. (
  • The present invention is related to producing analgesia or reducing pain by implantation of cellular material in the central nervous system (CNS) of a host susceptible to pain sensation. (
  • Implants of adrenal chromaffin cells have been shown to survive for long periods of time when transplanted into the central nervous system (Perlow et al. (
  • In the gut, the microbiome communicates with the rest of the body via pathways in the enteric nervous system , a neural web so sophisticated that it's often called the second brain. (
  • In fact, the major neurotransmitters of the body are primarily in the enteric nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Approximately 95% of the serotonin and 50% of the dopamine in humans are in the enteric nervous system. (
  • The nerves connecting the central and enteric nervous systems are an obvious pathway for communication between the two. (
  • The central nervous system (the hypothalamus and the cerebral cortex) activates the pituitary-adrenal cortex system. (
  • Parkinson Disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. (
  • All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), are cholinergic-that is, these fibers use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter-and are myelinated. (
  • The journal provides a source for communication on the latest findings in all areas of contemporary neurochemistry and other fields of relevance (including molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, neuroimmunology, pharmacology) in order to expand understanding of the functions of nervous system. (
  • A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. (
  • In conclusion, the SHR Y chromosome appears to increase the chronic sympathetic nervous system. (
  • A potential mechanism could be a Y locus that influences chronic sympathetic nervous system activity, which may reinforce neurohumoral factors and structural components of the vessel wall, accelerating the development of hypertension. (
  • They play several roles, including acting as the main end-receptor stimulated by acetylcholine released from postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system . (
  • The somatic nervous system uses a nicotinic receptor to acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (
  • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are also present and distributed throughout the local nervous system, in post-synaptic and pre-synaptic positions. (
  • The achaete-scute genes encode essential transcription factors in normal Drosophila and vertebrate nervous system development. (
  • Mechanisms regulating achaete-scute homolog expression outside of Drosophila are presently unclear, either in the context of the developing nervous system or in normal or neoplastic cells with NE features. (
  • Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors homologous to the Drosophila achaete-scute complex (AS-C) are critical to nervous system development in multiple organisms ( 1 - 9 ). (
  • The present study demonstrates that, through practicing techniques learned in a short-term training program, the sympathetic nervous system and immune system can indeed be voluntarily influenced. (
  • Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. (
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. (
  • The nervous system consists of two parts that differ in their physiology and function. (
  • The ANS is a visceral and largely involuntary motor/effector system that is traditionally divided into sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral) divisions, each with a central and a peripheral component. (
  • They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or parasympathetic ganglia made of glomus cells. (
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (
  • Resection of chromaffin cell tumor will completely relieve the symptoms. (
  • Chemodectoma - is a benign, chromaffin-negative tumor of the chemoreceptor system (also called a carotid body tumor, or an aortic-body tumor). (
  • Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals. (
  • Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland . (
  • citation needed] The two main chemical messengers of the sympathoadrenal system are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline respectively). (
  • As part of the adrenal system, we know keeping our norepinephrine levels in check is important in maintaining energy levels, alertness, appropriate stress responses, mental health, and of course, great athletic performance and body composition. (
  • 2) Chromaffin cells (or pheochromocytes): These cells will migrate to the area adjacent to the sympathetic ganglia (hence the name paraganglia) and to the adrenal medulla where they will be the most abundant type of cells. (
  • Chromaffin cells are found in the medulla of adrenal glands above the kidneys. (
  • Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into the blood as circulating messenger. (
  • Glomus cells of the carotid body, such as chromaffin cells of fetal adrenal medulla, are specialized in sensing local oxygen tension in mammals [9] and can undergo anatomical changes if exposed to chronic hypoxia [10]. (
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which base of the skull. (
  • Also found in some chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (
  • Epinephrine is then stored in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla until it's needed in the body. (
  • The catecholamine-secreting cells are sometimes referred to as chromaffin cells, and they are found in other areas of the body as well as in the adrenal medulla. (
  • In fish the steroidogenic and chromaffin tissues form independent aggregates of cells near the kidney. (
  • a component of the mucosal immune system that defends all mucosal surfaces against pathogens. (
  • Glucocorticoids also are in effect during times of stress for the sympathoadrenal system, but provide an inhibitory function for the protection of the body from its own immune system. (
  • The glucocorticoids work to inhibit reactions produced from the immune system during times of stress that could cause damage within the body. (
  • Several studies have shown that immune system cells can be regulated by dopamine acting on immune cells expressing dopamine receptors (DARs) present on the surface of T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The membrane also prevents the large, complex molecules and cells of the patients' immune system from reaching the chromaffin cells. (
  • After removing the tube, the researchers found no fibrous cells sticking to the device, indicating that the surface of the implant had not aggravated the immune system. (
  • This symposium will gather the world's leaders in vaccine research to share the latest findings on the potential and the limits of the human immune system, the challenges facing vaccine development, maternal immunizations, and the next era of vaccine technologies. (
  • As the body's primary interface with the external environment, the gut is where more than 90% of immune system activity takes place. (
  • It is unclear why the immune system reacts against IA-2 as part of the autoimmune responses associated with type 1 diabetes ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Specifically, ginsenoside Rg 2 has been shown to block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bovine chromaffin cells. (
  • Very few parts of the sympathetic system use cholinergic receptors. (
  • Some believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. (
  • The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. (
  • Regulated exocytosis in chromaffin cells is triggered by membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. (
  • The implants contain chromaffin cells, which secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline and are thought to play a role in animals' "fight or flight" response to danger. (
  • the chromaffin cells settle near the sympathetic ganglia, the vagus nerve, paraganglia, and carotid arteries. (
  • Persistent expression of BMP-4 in embryonic chick adrenal cortical cells and its role in chromaffin cell development," Neural Development, vol. (
  • Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. (
  • Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. (
  • Embryonic Development section of notes covers development before later system formation. (
  • citation needed] In the brain, reception of a signal for a stressor by the hypothalamus leads to an increase in activity of the sympathoadrenal system, essentially within the nerves that send signals to the adrenal glands. (
  • The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes the excitation of the nerves that innervate the skeletal muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, causing an increase in force production by the skeletal muscles along with accelerated heart rate and breathing rate, respectively. (
  • It includes bacteria, viruses, yeasts and fungi that interact with the body's systems, helping with digestion, immune response and a vast array of less-well-known bodily functions. (
  • Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. (
  • The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). (