Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen structurally related to stilbestrol. It is used, usually as the cream, in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.
A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.

Recombinant SFD isoforms activate vacuolar proton pumps. (1/429)

The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow.  (+info)

Early requirement for alpha-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells. (2/429)

NSF and alpha-SNAP have been shown to be required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis. However, the exact requirement for NSF and alpha-SNAP in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway remains controversial. We performed a study on the kinetics of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells using high time resolution capacitance measurement and electrochemical amperometry, combined with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ as a fast stimulus. alpha-SNAP, a C-terminal mutant of alpha-SNAP, and NEM were assayed for their effects on secretion kinetics. Two kinetically distinct components of catecholamine release can be observed upon fast step-like elevation of [Ca2+]i. One is the exocytotic burst, thought to represent the readily releasable pool of vesicles. Following the exocytotic burst, secretion proceeds slowly at maintained high [Ca2+]i, which may represent vesicle maturation/recruitment, i.e. some priming steps after docking. alpha-SNAP increased the amplitude of both the exocytotic burst and the slow component but did not change their kinetics, which we examined with millisecond time resolution. In addition, NEM only partially inhibited the slow component without altering the exocytotic burst, fusion kinetics and the rate of endocytosis. These results suggest a role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in priming granules for release at an early step, but not modifying the fusion of readily releasable granules.  (+info)

Sympathomimetic effects of MIBG: comparison with tyramine. (3/429)

Because nothing is known about whether metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has tyramine-like actions, the sympathomimetic effects of MIBG were determined in the isolated rabbit heart and compared with those of tyramine. METHODS: Spontaneously beating rabbit hearts were perfused with Tyrode's solution (Langendorff technique; 37 degrees C; 26 mL/min), and the heart rate as well as the norepinephrine and dopamine overflow into the perfusate was measured before and after doses of MIBG or tyramine (0.03-10 micromol) given as bolus injections (100 microL) into the aortic cannula. Km and Vmax values for the neuronal uptake (uptake1) of 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were obtained in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells. The Ki of MIBG for inhibition of the 3H-catecholamine uptake mediated by the vesicular monoamine transporter was determined in membrane vesicles obtained from bovine chromaffin granules and compared with the previously reported Ki value for tyramine determined under identical experimental conditions. RESULTS: By producing increases in heart rate and norepinephrine overflow, both compounds had dose-dependent sympathomimetic effects in the rabbit heart. MIBG was much less effective than tyramine in increasing heart rate (maximum effect 59 versus 156 beats/min) and norepinephrine overflow (maximum effect 35 versus 218 pmol/g). Tyramine also caused increases in dopamine overflow, whereas MIBG was a poor dopamine releaser. At a dose of 10 micromol, the increase in heart rate lasted more than 60 min after MIBG and about 20 min after tyramine injection. Accordingly, the norepinephrine overflow caused by 10 micromol MIBG and tyramine declined with half-lives of 57.8 and 2.2 min, respectively. The effects of both drugs were drastically reduced in hearts exposed to 2 micromol/L desipramine. The kinetic parameters characterizing the saturation of neuronal uptake by 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were similar for the two compounds: Km values of MIBG and tyramine were 1.6 and 1.7 micromol/L, respectively, and Vmax values of MIBG and tyramine were 43 and 37 pmol/mg protein/min, respectively. However, in inhibiting the vesicular 3H-catecholamine uptake, MIBG was eight times less potent than tyramine. CONCLUSION: MIBG is much less effective than tyramine as an indirect sympathomimetic agent. This is probably a result of its relatively low affinity for the vesicular monoamine transporter and explains the relatively poor ability of the drug to mobilize norepinephrine stored in synaptic vesicles. The long duration of MIBG action results primarily from the drug not being metabolized by monoamine oxidase. The sympathomimetic effects of MIBG described here are not likely to come into play in patients given diagnostic or common therapeutic doses of radioiodinated MIBG.  (+info)

nSec-1 (munc-18) interacts with both primed and unprimed syntaxin 1A and associates in a dimeric complex on adrenal chromaffin granules. (4/429)

The target-SNARE syntaxin 1A is an essential component of the core machinery required for regulated exocytosis (where SNARE is the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor). Syntaxin 1A interacts with a variety of other proteins, two of which, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) have been suggested to impart a conformational rearrangement on this protein during a reaction referred to as priming. We have studied the effect of the primed state on the binding properties of syntaxin 1A and we have confirmed that primed syntaxin 1A no longer associated with alpha-SNAP or its cognate vesicle-SNARE, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP). Under such conditions, however, it retained the ability to bind to nSec-1. It has been demonstrated that nSec-1, a regulatory protein also involved in neuronal exocytosis, binds syntaxin 1A with high affinity in vitro, although evidence for this physical interaction occurring in vivo has proven elusive. We analysed the subcellular distribution of these two proteins in fractions from bovine adrenal medulla and detected syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 in both plasma membrane and chromaffin-granule fractions. Using a cross-linking approach with chromaffin-granule membranes we detected a putative dimeric complex composed of approx. 54% total granule membrane nSec-1 and approx. 30% total syntaxin 1A. The results of this study therefore suggest the possibility of nSec-1 interactions with primed syntaxin 1A and demonstrate a potentially significant interaction of syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 on the membranes of chromaffin granules.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of endopin 1, a novel serpin localized to neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells. Inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases by endopin 1. (5/429)

Serpins represent a diverse class of endogenous protease inhibitors that regulate important biological functions. In consideration of the importance of regulated proteolysis within secretory vesicles for the production of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, this study revealed the molecular identity of a novel serpin, endopin 1, that is localized to neurosecretory vesicles of neuropeptide-containing chromaffin cells (chromaffin granules). Endopin 1 of 68-70 kDa was present within isolated chromaffin granules. Stimulated cosecretion of endopin 1 with chromaffin granule components, [Met]enkephalin and a cysteine protease known as "prohormone thiol protease," demonstrated localization of endopin 1 to functional secretory vesicles. Punctate, discrete immunofluorescence cellular localization of endopin 1 in chromaffin cells was consistent with its secretory vesicle localization. Endopin 1 contains a unique reactive site loop with Arg as the predicted P1 residue, suggesting inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases; indeed, trypsin was potently inhibited (K(i(app)) of 5 nM), and plasmin was moderately inhibited. Although endopin 1 possesses homology with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin, chymotrypsin was not inhibited. Moreover, endopin 1 inhibited the chromaffin granule prohormone thiol protease (involved in proenkephalin processing). These results suggest a role for the novel serpin, endopin 1, in regulating basic residue-cleaving proteases within neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Comparison of cysteine string protein (Csp) and mutant alpha-SNAP overexpression reveals a role for csp in late steps of membrane fusion in dense-core granule exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. (6/429)

Assembly of the SNARE complex and its disassembly caused by the action of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) and NSF is crucial for the maintenance of vesicular traffic, including fusion of regulated exocytotic vesicles. Various other proteins may also have important roles in the processes leading to membrane fusion via interaction with the SNARE proteins, including the secretory vesicle cysteine string protein (Csp). Here we have examined the effect of overexpression of a dominant negative alpha-SNAP mutant or Csp on exocytosis of dense-core granules in single chromaffin cells monitored using amperometry to detect released catecholamine. Exocytosis of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived dense-core granules was substantially inhibited by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A). The amplitude and characteristics of the individual release events were unaffected by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A), consistent with an essential role for alpha-SNAP in early steps of priming but not in the fusion process. In contrast, Csp overexpression, which also inhibited the extent of exocytosis, also modified the kinetics of the individual release events seen as an increase in the rise time and a broadening of the residual amperometric spikes in Csp-transfected cells. These results suggest that unlike alpha-SNAP, Csp plays a key role in the protein interactions close to the fusion process or fusion pore opening during Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis.  (+info)

A pleckstrin homology domain specific for phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and fused to green fluorescent protein identifies plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P2 as being important in exocytosis. (7/429)

Kinetically distinct steps can be distinguished in the secretory response from neuroendocrine cells with slow ATP-dependent priming steps preceding the triggering of exocytosis by Ca(2+). One of these priming steps involves the maintenance of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P(2)) through lipid kinases and is responsible for at least 70% of the ATP-dependent secretion observed in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is usually thought to reside on the plasma membrane. However, because phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is an integral chromaffin granule membrane protein, PtdIns-4,5-P(2) important in exocytosis may reside on the chromaffin granule membrane. In the present study we have investigated the localization of PtdIns-4,5-P(2) that is involved in exocytosis by transiently expressing in chromaffin cells a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that specifically binds PtdIns-4, 5-P(2) and is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The PH-GFP protein predominantly associated with the plasma membrane in chromaffin cells without any detectable association with chromaffin granules. Rhodamine-neomycin, which also binds to PtdIns-4,5-P(2), showed a similar subcellular localization. The transiently expressed PH-GFP inhibited exocytosis as measured by both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques. The results indicate that the inhibition was at a step after Ca(2+) entry and suggest that plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is important for exocytosis. Expression of PH-GFP also reduced calcium currents, raising the possibility that PtdIns-4,5-P(2) in some manner alters calcium channel function in chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates a late step of exocytosis. (8/429)

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the late phase of exocytosis have been studied, by amperometry, on Ba(2+)-stimulated chromaffin cells. Acute incubation with NO or NO donors (sodium nitroprusside, spermine-NO, S-nitrosoglutathione) produced a drastic slowdown of the granule emptying. Conversely, cell treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) or with NO scavengers (methylene blue, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium) accelerated the extrusion of catecholamines from chromaffin granules, suggesting the presence of a NO modulatory tone. The incubation with phosphodiesterase inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or zaprinast) or with the cell-permeant cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP, mimicked the effects of NO, suggesting the involvement of the guanylate cyclase cascade. NO effects were not related to changes in intracellular Ba(2+). NO did not modify the duration of feet. Effects were evident even on pre-fusioned granules, observed under hypertonic conditions, suggesting that the fusion pore is not the target for NO, which probably acts by modifying the affinity of catecholamines for the intragranular matrix. NO could modify the synaptic transmitter efficacy through a novel mechanism, which involves the regulation of the emptying of secretory vesicles.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Proenkephalin processing enzyme with specificity toward paired basic residues purified from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. The solubilized membrane proteins could be resolved into several bands by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (alkaline and acid gel systems). Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. The various membrane proteins of bovine chromaffin granules were separated by filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Two major membrane proteins (A and B) were obtained in purified form. Treatment of protein A with 2-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis resulted in two more rapidly migrating subunits, whereas protein B was unaffected by mercaptoethanol treatment. The amino acid compositions of the two purified proteins were determined. They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules.. ...
Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. The protein (apparent molecular mass 67 kDa; pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. This domain contains both the epitope for the monoclonal antibody cgm67 and the calmodulin-binding site. The 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of this fragment are identical to part of the rat p65 sequence.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H+-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules. AU - Nelson, H.. AU - Mandiyan, S.. AU - Noumi, T.. AU - Morihama, Y.. AU - Miedel, M. C.. AU - Nelson, N.. PY - 1990/12/18. Y1 - 1990/12/18. N2 - A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 382 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 43,989. Hydropathy plots revealed no apparent transmembrane segments and a rather high helix content was detected. A cDNA encoding most of the C subunit of the V-ATPase of human brain was also cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene is almost identical to the bovine polypeptide with only one change of tyrosine 336 that was replaced by histidine in the human gene. Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an edible fruit originating in the Middle East, the juice of which is widely available commercially. Various parts of the fruit including the juice have been used traditionally to treat a range of ailments.. The juice and other extracts have shown a wide range of bioactivity in pre-clinical studies, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-oxidant effects.. On the basis of this research, beneficial effects are claimed in cancer, specifically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.. Few clinical trials in cancer have been conducted to date: an uncontrolled trial showed promising beneficial effects on prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in prostate cancer but subsequent randomised controlled trials have failed to show any difference between pomegranate and placebo. One small randomized clinical trial did not show an effect of pomegranate consumption on breast cancer risk.. Pomegranate juice has been widely consumed for many years. It ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin in bovine adrenal medulla and secretion of PC1 and PC2 from this tissue. AU - Kirchmair, R.. AU - Egger, C.. AU - Gee, P.. AU - Hogue-Angeletti, R.. AU - Fischer-Colbrie, R.. AU - Laslop, A.. AU - Winkler, H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Fonds zur F6rderung ,ter wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria), by the Dr. Legerlotz-Stiftung and by funds from NIH (Grant NS 22697, R.H.-A.). PY - 1992/8/31. Y1 - 1992/8/31. N2 - The subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin was determined in bovine adrenal medulla by immunoblotting of fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation. PC1 and PC2 were found to be confined to chromaffin granules whereas furin (C-terminal-peptide) was absent from these organelles. Stimulation of bovine adrenal medulla by carbamoylcholine chloride induced the secretion of PC1 and PC2. The secreted enzymes had the same molecular size as PC1 and PC2 present in ...
A partially purified preparation of norepinephrine storage particles from the rat heart was studied in vitro. The particles were found to have dopamine β-oxidase activity, indicating that norepinephrine may be formed from dopamine in the storage granules as well as taken up from the cytoplasm of the cell. ATP was found in the particles in the same molar ratio to norepinephrine as has been previously described in adrenal chromaffin granules, and could serve to form a storage complex with the amine. There were only trace amounts of catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidase in the preparation. The particles were most stable in solutions at 4°C containing sucrose, magnesium or calcium, but retained about half their catecholamine content in sucrose at 23°C for 1 hour. Norepinephrine was released from the particles into free solution in media of low tonicity or pH, in the presence of the detergent sodium deoxycholate, and by high concentrations of reserpine, tyramine and cocaine. ...
In addition to the canonical ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates and cofactors, cells contain a large number of minor nucleotides. Among these are the diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n = 2-7 [1]). Ap3A and Ap4A are the most intensively studied of these and are generally present in the soluble fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells at concentrations between 10 nM and 5 μM [2]. Platelet dense granules, adrenal chromaffin granules and certain synaptic vesicles have been reported to contain high concentrations of Ap5A and Ap6A in addition to Ap3A and Ap4A, all of which can be exocytosed following appropriate stimuli and bind to target cell purinoceptors causing a variety of physiological responses in the cardiovascular and central and peripheral nervous systems [1, 3-5]. However, although Ap6A has been detected in erythrocytes [6], there are no substantiated measurements of Ap5A and Ap6A in the soluble fraction of nucleated cells, and it is likely that they are typically ...
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare 38 different DBH ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase is shown to catalyze the oxidation of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to its cation radical in the presence of a regular substrate and molecular oxygen. The enzyme-mediated oxidation of TMPD is stoichiometrically coupled with the hydoxylation of the substrate to the corresponding enzymatic product. TMPD is kinetically well behaved as an alternate electron donor for the enzyme with a potency comparable to that of the most efficient electron donor, ascorbate. Dopamine beta-monooxygenase mediated oxidation of TMPD has been employed to design a convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme. The finding that TMPD is a well behaved facile alternate electron donor for dopamine beta-monooxygenase raises some interesting novel questions regarding the specificity and chemistry of the reduction site, which may have important implications on the reduction of active site coppers of the enzyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microsequencing of dopamine beta-monooxygenase. AU - McCafferty, B.. AU - Angeletti, R. H.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Tryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide fragments of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBH) were prepared and separated on C-8 reverse phase columns by high pressure liquid chromatography. Absorbance profiles at both 220 nm and 280 nm were monitored so that peptides with aromatic residues could be isolated. These peptides were subjected to automated Edmann degradation with a gas phase microsequencer.. AB - Tryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide fragments of dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBH) were prepared and separated on C-8 reverse phase columns by high pressure liquid chromatography. Absorbance profiles at both 220 nm and 280 nm were monitored so that peptides with aromatic residues could be isolated. These peptides were subjected to automated Edmann degradation with a gas phase microsequencer.. UR - ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Start Over You searched for: Authors International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) ✖Remove constraint Authors: International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) Languages English ✖Remove constraint Languages: English Subjects Cellular Structures ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cellular Structures ...
Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. However, bovine adrenal medulla also contain muscarini
Definition of Chromaffin cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Chromaffin cells? Meaning of Chromaffin cells as a legal term. What does Chromaffin cells mean in law?
Definition of chromaffin cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chromaffin cell? Meaning of chromaffin cell as a finance term. What does chromaffin cell mean in finance?
Buy BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble SNSR agonist. Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal…
The extent that vesicles maintain a definite identity and morphology after fusing with the plasma membrane is controversial. Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected distances between depressions if they were randomly distributed throughout the image. Random placement resulted in mean distances of 1 1.56 .001 for both image sizes). Whereas nine of 56 cells exhibited obvious punctate depressions, after high K+ activation, most of the remaining cells exhibited ripples or additional large morphological changes (e.g., Figs. 2 and 3 = 19) for 3 3 = 28) for 5 5 em /em m scans. (Fusion of one chromaffin granule should result in an increase in membrane part of 0.2 em /em m2 (5)). In contrast, the difference in area in the two scans before high K+ activation averaged ?0.04 0.13 em /em m2 for 3 3 em /em m scans and 0.01 0.12 em /em m2 for 5 5 em /em m scans. Open in a separate window Number 3? Morphological changes require both depolarization and extracellular Ca2+. ( em A Tipifarnib irreversible ...
DBH - Rabbit polyclonal antibody to Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase (dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) available from OriGene
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Patient information for EPILIM CHRONOSPHERE 500MG MODIFIED RELEASE GRANULES Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A2 (MIM 193001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause for the reduced sustained component. Further experiments showed that, in the absence of Doc2b, the ...
In general, DA, after its synthesis, is taken up and stored in specialized subcellular organelles, the storage granules, to ensure its regulated release via exocytosis. Most information about the granular transport mechanism(s) and storage mechanism(s) of DA (and monoamines in general) has been obtained by using chromaffin granules isolated from adrenal medullary cells or PC12 cells as experimental substrate (Roda et al., 1980). Thus, it is presently known that the DAergic granular transport system consists of at least two components: (1) a so-called vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), structurally distinct from the plasma membrane DA transporter, and (2) a vacuolar-type ATP-driven H+ pump, which provides the electrochemical gradient on which the transporter depends for its function (Johnson, 1988; Schuldiner, 1994). Drugs such as reserpine and tetrabenazine deplete intracellular DA stores by selectively interfering with transmitter uptake via the VMAT. In the present set of experiments, we ...
A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the visual contrast of samples for microscopy. Chromophil cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, amino acid precursors to certain hormones are accumulated and subsequently decarboxylated to the corresponding amines, for example epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine or serotonin. Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are scattered throughout the whole body, but particularly in glands such as the hypothalamus, hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid and pancreas ...
A process for making coated detergent granules by producing detergent granules and then uniformly distributing finely divided powder onto the surfaces of the detergent granules by means of an electrostatic charging and delivery system. The detergent granules are preferably glutinous (hot and/or sticky) and freely falling during application of the electrostatically charged powder particles. Detergent granules made according to this process are also covered.
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension Academic Article ...
The previous sections describe the different exocytotic responses obtained when the amount of Ca2+ entry is altered at a constant interpulse interval (200 msec). To examine whether the exocytotic response of a cell is also influenced by the time span between bouts of Ca2+ entry, we tested various interpulse intervals.. Trains of 40 msec pulses at 200 msec intervals evoked depressed responses in most cells (Figs. 3C, 4). Prolonging the interpulse interval increased the Ca2+ efficacy without significant changes to total Ca2+ entry (Fig. 8). Three examples comparing a 200 and a 1000 msec interval stimulus train within individual cells are shown in Figure 8A. Cells with strong depression during the 200 msec train showed a partial relief of depression at 1000 msec intervals (Fig. 8A,i) or followed the standard curve (Fig. 8A,ii), whereas cells with less depression often gave large responses with enhanced Ca2+ efficacy (Fig. 8A,iii). A summary of 17 experiments is presented in Figure 8B, in which the ...
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.. AU - Sabol, S. L.. AU - Dandekar, Satya. AU - Kranzler, L. S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7124494. AN - SCOPUS:0020021542. VL - 33. SP - 175. EP - 181. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Background: Hypertension is a complex trait, with deranged autonomic control of circulation. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in their biogenesis. Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion, autonomic stability of circulation, or blood pressure (BP) in the population? Methods and Results: To probe interindividual variability in CHGB, we systematically studied polymorphism across the locus by resequencing CHGB (≈6 kbp footprint spanning the promoter, 5 exons, exon/intron borders, untranslated regions) in 160 subjects (2n=320 chromosomes) of diverse biogeographic ancestries. We identified 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 22 were common. We then studied 1182 subjects drawn from the most extreme BP values in the population (highest and lowest 5th percentiles), typing 4 common polymorphisms spanning the ≈14 kbp ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens. The bootstrapping procedure indicated that the parameter estimates were very stable, thus lending greater credence to the model.. These data provide a reference for the Y-STR database in Jilin Province, and they may be valuable for population genetic analysis. Ten-year experience using a plastic, disposable curette for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.. These data provide important new insight into augmentin bambini the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis resistance in co-stimulated T cells. In chromaffin cells, ARF6 is specifically associated with the membrane of secretory chromaffin granules. Analysis of the complete ...
18 Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Most of the synthesis occurs in the adrenergic nerve ending and stored in granular vesicles called chromaffin granules close to the site of release into synaptic cleft . Biosynthesis could also occur in suprarenal medulla and other tissues. The enzyme (N-methyl transferase) which catalyses the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline occurs almost exclusively in suprarenal medulla and is therefore missing in the peripheral nerve terminals. Hence noradrenaline is the final step in the synthetic process in most adrenergic nerves. Catecholamines are sympathomimetics that contain the catechol nucleus (e.g. noradrenaline and adrenaline). Catecholamines are stored in synaptic granules in two forms in equilibrium: Bound noradrenaline with ATP and protein is the (inactive part). Free noradrenaline is released by nerve stimulation. Another portion of it is stored in the cytoplasm in free form (cytoplasmic free noradrenaline). ...
Guinea-pig hearts were perfused with varying concentrations of the norepinephrine precursors, tyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine (dopamine). With all three precursors the rate of norepinephrine synthesis increased as the concentration in the perfusion fluid increased. However, only with tyrosine were maximal rates achieved (0.2 µg/g/hr) at concentrations below 5 x 10 -4 M. The apparent Km for the overall reaction (tyrosine → norepinephrine) was found to be comparable to that observed for conversion of tyrosine to dopa by purified tyrosine hydroxylase ( 2 x 10 -5 M). These and other factors indicate that conversion of tyrosine to dopa is the rate-limiting step in the formation of norepinephrine in the sympathetic nervous system.. Although ascorbic acid has been shown to be a requirement for purified dopamine-β-oxidase activity severe seurvy did not diminish the ability of isolated heart to form norepinephrine from tyrosine or dopamine.. ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
Shelly carbonate sands represent an extreme soil type in terms of their mechanical behavior which derives from the bioclastic nature of the constituent grains. In their uncemented form, these deposits exhibit very high compressibility, which has posed a number of geotechnical engineering problems; in most cases related to the reduction in the bearing capacities of both shallow and deep foundations. Remarkable features of these carbonate sands include the complex shape and the structural weakness of the grains and the high inter and intra granular porosity. Previous studies, have quoted the interlocking of the angular shelly particles to be at the origin of their high friction angles and high initial void ratio, however, up until now, no scientific micro-scale examination has been carried out. This paper presents a non-invasive image based investigation into the grain morphology of a carbonate sand from the Persian Gulf. This sand has a median grain size of 570μm and a high CaCO3 content in the ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The indicia (see scan by clicking on the Resources link on the right side of this page) reads just Ghost, with a lot of white space on both sides of the word. The cover and later issues read as Ghosts. Steven Rowes understanding is that it was at first to be titled True Ghost Stories - thus the white space in the indicia, but then it was changed to Ghosts. When they updated the indicia they whited out True and Stories, but they forgot to add the s ...
The present application relates to a steam treated pelletized feed composition comprising a granule comprising a core and a coating wherein the core comprises an active compound and the coating comprises a salt.
OMRI Listed and EPA registered, this product contains two beneficial microbial fungi that deliver an extended range of pathogen control.
Johnson RG, Beers MF, Scarpa A (September 1982). "H+ ATPase of chromaffin granules. Kinetics, regulation, and stoichiometry". ...
Njus D, Knoth J, Zallakian M (1981). "Proton-linked transport in chromaffin granules". Current Topics in Bioenergetics. 11: 107 ...
Flatmark T, Terland O (December 1971). "Cytochrome b 561 of the bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. A high potential b-type ...
An accessory polypeptide of the H+-ATPase from chromaffin granules". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (33): 17638-42. PMID 2903164. Bonaldo ...
Stewart, L C; Klinman, J P (1988). "Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase of Adrenal Chromaffin Granules: Structure and Function". Annual ...
Duong LT, Fleming PJ (1982). "Isolation and properties of cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules". J. Biol. ... an integral protein of the chromaffin granule membrane". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (39): 22714-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.39.22714. PMID ...
... cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, ...
VMAT was first isolated and purified in bovine chromaffin granules, in both native and denatured forms. There are two types of ... 1994). "The chromaffin granule and synaptic vesicle amine transporters differ in substrate recognition and sensitivity to ... It is thought that chromaffin granules possess these heterotrimeric G-proteins which have shown to be regulatory to small clear ... VMAT1 may be found in neuroendocrine cells, particularly chromaffin and enterochromaffin granules which are largely found in ...
"Presence of tropomyosin in adrenal chromaffin cells and its association with chromaffin granule membranes". FEBS Lett. 179 (1 ...
ATPase of chromaffin granules. Kinetics, regulation, and stoichiometry". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (18): 10701-7. PMID 6213624.. ...
... and adrenal gland chromaffin cells. Within cells, carboxypeptidase E is present in the secretory granules along with its ... and characterization of a specific enkephalin-synthesizing carboxypeptidase localized to adrenal chromaffin granules". ... acts as a sorting signal for regulated secretory proteins in the trans-Golgi network of the pituitary and in secretory granules ...
1990). "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H(+)-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules". J. Biol. Chem. 265 ( ...
... of glycosylated and phosphorylated chromogranin A-derived peptide 173-194 from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin granules". ... As such, it is located in secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells such as islet beta cell secretory granules in the ... It is present in islet beta cell secretory granules. Chromogranin A is the precursor to several functional peptides including ... Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin- ...
... that causes calcium-dependent aggregation of isolated chromaffin granules". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 253 (8): 2858-66. ... was the first annexin to be discovered while searching for proteins that promote the contact and fusion of chromaffin granules ... authors used bovine adrenal glands and identified a calcium dependent protein that was responsible for aggregation of granules ...
Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the ...
Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and, thus, the release of adrenaline (and noradrenaline) into the ... VMAT1 is also responsible for transporting newly synthesized adrenaline from the cytosol back into chromaffin granules in ... it must first be shipped out of granules of the chromaffin cells. This may occur via the catecholamine-H+ exchanger VMAT1. ... Adrenaline is synthesized in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland and a small number of neurons in ...
... and characterization of a novel 9.2-kDa membrane sector-associated protein of vacuolar proton-ATPase from chromaffin granules ...
Recently, MARCKS has been implicated in the exocytosis of a number of vesicles and granules such as mucin and chromaffin. It is ...
MIBG gets absorbed by and accumulated in granules of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, as well as in pre-synaptic adrenergic ... functions to provide norepinephrine uptake at the synaptic terminals and adrenal chromaffin cells. MIBG, by bonding to NET, ... neuron granules. The process in which this occurs is closely related to the mechanism employed by norepinephrine and its ...
... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ...
1994). "Biochemistry and molecular biology of the vesicular monoamine transporter from chromaffin granules." J Exp Biol 196: ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, ... Formation Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
... cytoplasmic granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.190.190.207 - chromaffin granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.190.190.560 - ... cytoplasmic granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.207 - chromaffin granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.560 - melanosomes MeSH ...
... (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 ... Specifically, VMAT1 is found in chromaffin cells, enterochromaffin cells, and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFs). ... Chromaffin cells are responsible for releasing the catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) into systemic circulation. ...
MeSH A06.224.161 - chromaffin cells MeSH A06.224.207 - chromaffin granules MeSH A06.224.358 - enterochromaffin cells MeSH ... A06.224.365 - enterochromaffin-like cells MeSH A06.224.636 - para-aortic bodies MeSH A06.224.736 - paraganglia, chromaffin MeSH ...
Identification and Purification of a Functional Amine Transporter from Bovine Chromaffin Granules. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3961- ...
... a structure characteristic of the azurophil eukaryotic cell type Chromaffin granule, a structure characteristic of the ... A granule is a large particle or grain. It can refer to: Granule (cell biology), any of several submicroscopic structures, some ... spherical granules of material found on the surface of the planet Mars Granule (geology), a specified particle size of 2-4 ... Astrophysics and geology: Granule (solar physics), a visible structure in the photosphere of the Sun arising from activity in ...
Chromophil cells, hormone producing cells showing chromaffin granules that readily absorb chromium stains. This disambiguation ... Chromaffin may refer to: Chromaffin cells, neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal medulla. ... page lists articles associated with the title Chromaffin. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
Chromaffin granule Kurloff cell "granule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert (28 February 2018 ... The granules of platelets are classified as dense granules and alpha granules. α-Granules are unique to platelets and are the ... The granules of leukocytes are classified as azurophilic granules or specific granules. Leukocyte granules are released in ... or other granule cargos. Dense granules (also known as δ-granules) are the second most abundant platelet granules, with 3-8 per ...
... and usually they have vacuoles or granules inside their cells, storing their hormones. ... Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells. *Dopamine Chromaffin ...
... proinsulin is transported to the Golgi apparatus and enters immature insulin granules where proinsulin is cleaved to form ... and the opening of voltage gated calcium channels causing insulin granule fusion and exocytosis.[7] ... and amylin until calcium triggers exocytosis of the granule contents.[3] ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ...
胞漿顆粒(英语:Granule (cell biology)). 黑色素體 · 微粒體 · 過氧化物酶體 · 乙醛酸循環體 · 韋伯潘力氏小體(英语:Weibel-Palade body) ... Vesicular quantal size measured by amperometry at chromaffin, mast, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic beta-cells.. Journal of ... On the mechanism of electrochemical vesicle cytometry: chromaffin cell vesicles and liposomes.. Faraday discussions. 2016-12-12 ... Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release
Ultrastructurally, these granules are reported to vary in size and shape and are considered pleomorphic.[5] ... Similarly named, Chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla) share this characteristic and are histologically similar to EC cells ... The name 'enterochromaffin' comes from the Greek word "enteron" (ἔντερον), in relation to intestines, and "chromaffin" as a ...
chromaffin granule membrane. • حويصلة تشابكية. • غشاء. • حويصلة سيتوبلازمية. • تشابك عصبي. • مكون تكاملي للغشاء. • synaptic ...
Endocrine glands have no ducts, are vascular, and commonly have intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones. ...
KIAA0196 Specific granule deficiency; 245480; CEBPE Speech-language disorder-1; 602081; FOXP2 Spherocytosis, hereditary, type 5 ... familial chromaffin, 4; 115310; SDHB Paragangliomas 2; 601650; SDHAF2 Paragangliomas, familial nonchromaffin, 1, with or ...
... bright spots begin to appear inside the dark footprint of the chromaffin cell as a result of exocytosis of dense core granules ... More recently, the technique has been used to study exocytosis in chromaffin cells. When imaged using DIC, chromaffin cells ... Wu MM, Llobet A, Lagnado L (November 2009). "Loose coupling between calcium channels and sites of exocytosis in chromaffin ... An example of vesicle fusion in chromaffin cells using IRM is shown in movie 1. Upon stimulation with 60 mM potassium, multiple ...
The interrenal and chromaffin cells are located within the head kidney The spleen is found in nearly all vertebrates. It is a ... with granule cells and parallel fibers. In electrosensitive fish, the input from the electrosensory system goes to the dorsal ... "Interrenal tissue, chromaffin cells and corpuscles of Stannius of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)". Cite journal requires ...
The hormones are secreted from chromaffin granules; this is where the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase catalyses the conversion of ... in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin Cell and Hypertension Research A Primer on Chromaffin Cells Rat Chromaffin ... Szewczyk, A; Lobanov, NA; Kicińska, A; Wójcik, G; Nałecz, MJ (2001). "ATP-sensitive K+ transport in adrenal chromaffin granules ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ...
While all contain neurosecretory granules, only in 1-3% of cases is secretion of hormones such as catecholamines abundant ... Paragangliomas originate from paraganglia in chromaffin-negative glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest, ... which however are chromaffin-positive. The main treatment modalities are surgery, embolization and radiotherapy. Micrograph of ... comprising a small mass of neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. Serves as a common origin of abdominal paragangliomas. Vagal ...
In the developing cerebellum, reelin is expressed first in the external granule cell layer (EGL), before the granule cell ... Outside the brain, reelin is found in adult mammalian blood, liver, pituitary pars intermedia, and adrenal chromaffin cells. In ... Frotscher M, Haas CA, Förster E (June 2003). "Reelin controls granule cell migration in the dentate gyrus by acting on the ... and adrenal chromaffin cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (3): 1281-6 ...
... and prolactin Chromaffin cells (adrenal gland) Keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell) Epidermal basal cell (stem cell) ... Interneurons Basket cells Cartwheel cells Stellate cells Golgi cells Granule cells Lugaro cells Unipolar brush cells Martinotti ...
... that are named for the granules within the cells that darken after exposure to chromium salts. These cells migrate to the ... Other articles where Chromaffin granule is discussed: adrenal gland: Adrenal medulla: … ... medulla, which is composed of chromaffin tissue, so called because its cells contain granules that can be characteristically ... Chromaffin tissue secretes two hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are members of a class of compounds called ...
Chromaffin granule ghosts were induced to fuse with model membranes of different complexities from one resembling the inner ... Polylysine was able to induce fusion of chromaffin granule ghosts with plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of Ca2+. This ... Role of phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the fusion of chromaffin granules with target membranes.. Sánchez-Migallón MP1 ... Removal of membrane proteins by trypsinization of chromaffin granule ghost and/or plasma membranes increased the extent of ...
... kinase C enhances exocytosis from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. ... Three different protocols were used to show that PMA increases the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. ...
Showing Protein Chromaffin granule amine transporter (HMDBP03857). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. H B Tugal, F van Leeuwen, D K Apps, J Haywood, J H ... Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. H B Tugal, F van Leeuwen, D K Apps, J Haywood, J H ... Trypsin treatment of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which ... Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65 Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Transport of Ca2+ and Na+ across the chromaffin-granule membrane Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Bovine chromaffin-granule ghosts accumulate 45Ca2+ in a temperature- and osmotic-shock-sensitive process; the uptake is ... Transport of Ca2+ and Na+ across the chromaffin-granule membrane. J H Phillips ... there is some evidence that there may be an additional entry mechanism for Na+ across the granule membrane. ...
Syt-1 granules fused with faster kinetics than Syt-7 granules. Overall, these findings demonstrate that chromaffin granules are ... Chromaffin granules fuse at different rates and efficacies in response to Ca2+. Both Syt-1 and Syt-7 granules fuse with high ... Syt-7 granules also show a greater tendency to fuse in clusters than Syt-1 granules, and granules harboring Syt-1 travel a ... Syt-1 granules are more mobile than Syt-7 granules. We next asked whether granules bearing either Syt-1 or Syt-7 demonstrated ...
... Albanesi, Joseph P. ... Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane- ... is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. ...
The amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules has been purified in a functional state. Two isoforms with different pI ... Biochemistry and molecular biology of the vesicular monoamine transporter from chromaffin granules.. *J. P. Henry, David Botton ... The amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules has been purified in a functional state. Two isoforms with different pI ... Identification and purification of a functional amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules.. @article{ ...
Chromaffin; Chromaffin Granules/enzymology; Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism; Diseases; Drugs; Endopeptidases; Enkephalins; ... Hook, V. Y., Schiller, M. R., Azaryan, A., Tezapsidis, N. (1996). Proenkephalin-processing enzymes in chromaffin granules: ...
The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A2 (MIM 193001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
... other proteins present in the granules, such as syntaxin, contributing to the association of dynamin to chromaffin granules ( ... confirming its association with chromaffin granules. A similar distribution of dynamin in bovine chromaffin cells was ... B, Purified chromaffin granule membranes were subjected to immunoblotting with anti-Dyn, anti-DBH, and anti-Syn. C, GST alone ... Chromaffin granules were purified from the 20,000 × g pellet using 1.6 m sucrose gradients (Smith and Winkler, 1967). The ...
After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is ... N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it ... AB - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it ... abstract = "After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, ...
Zaremba S, Hogue-Angeletti R. A reliable method for assessing topographical arrangement of proteins in the chromaffin granule ... A reliable method for assessing topographical arrangement of proteins in the chromaffin granule membrane. / Zaremba, Sam; Hogue ... A reliable method for assessing topographical arrangement of proteins in the chromaffin granule membrane. In: Neurochemical ... An efficient and reliable method for preparing chromaffin granules and membranes for topographical analysis has been designed ...
... Lindner P, Neumann E, Rosenheck K (1977) ... Kinetics of permeability changes induced by electric impulses in chromaffin granules. Journal of Membrane Biology, 32(1), p 231 ... Lindner P, Neumann E, Rosenheck K. Kinetics of permeability changes induced by electric impulses in chromaffin granules. ... P. Lindner, E. Neumann, and K. Rosenheck, "Kinetics of permeability changes induced by electric impulses in chromaffin granules ...
Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their ...
... namely the Ca2+-evoked exocytosis of chromaffin granules in adrenal chromaffin cells and of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial ... Creutz, C. E. Cis-unsaturated fatty acids induce the fusion of chromaffin granules aggregated by synexin. J. Cell Biol. 91, 247 ... CHROMAFFIN GRANULES. The secretory vesicles of the adrenal medulla. They contain noradrenaline or adrenaline, a number of ... Drust, D. S. & Creutz, C. E. Aggregation of chromaffin granules by calpactin at micromolar levels of calcium. Nature 331, 88-91 ...
The uptake of calcium by isolated chromaffin granules of the adrenal medulla.. Fitzpatrick S, Waisman DM., Mol Cell Biochem 155 ... Uptake of calcium by chromaffin granules in vitro.. Kostron H, Winkler H, Geissler D, Konig P., J. Neurochem. 28(3), 1977 PMID ... Interaction of chromaffin granules with plasma membranes mediated by Ca2+ and Mg2+-ATP using self-generating gradients of ... Transport of Ca2+ and Na+ across the chromaffin-granule membrane.. Phillips JH., Biochem. J. 200(1), 1981 PMID: 7332540 ...
Rapid SNARE-mediated fusion of liposomes and chromaffin granules with giant unilamellar vesicles. ... Rapid SNARE-mediated fusion of liposomes and chromaffin granules with giant unilamellar vesicles. Witkowska, A., & Jahn, R. ( ... Our results show that liposomes and chromaffin granules fuse with GUVs containing activated SNAREs with only few milliseconds ... chromaffin granules with giant unilamellar vesicles. Biophysical Journal, 113(6), 1251-1259. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2017.03.010. ...
chromaffin granule (anatomy). adrenal gland: Adrenal medulla: … that are named for the granules within the cells that darken ... chromaffin cell (anatomy). human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which ... Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such ...
Selective recapture of secretory granule components after full collapse exocytosis in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. ... a selective sorting of granule membrane components is facilitated by the physical preservation of the granule membrane entity ... As the composition of the granule membrane is very different from that of the plasma membrane, a precise sorting process of ... During kiss-and-run and cavicapture modes, the granule membrane is maintained in an omega shape, whereas it completely merges ...
ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Chromaffin Granules Medicine & Life ... Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding the C subunit of H+-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules. / Nelson, H.; Mandiyan, S.; ... N2 - A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a ... AB - A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a ...
Catecholamine release from chromaffin granules is unchanged in TRP mutants. A, Schematic drawing of the experimental setup. B, ... A-C, Wild-type chromaffin cells and dko cells expressing either SybII or the WWAA mutant exhibit SybII-positive granules ( ... We found that deletion or substitution of these Trp residues reduces the pool size of primed chromaffin granules, but leaves ... Membrane-proximal Trp residues are not essential for rapid transmitter discharge from chromaffin granules. To determine the ...
Njus, D.; Knoth, J.; Zallakian, M. (1981). "Proton-linked transport in chromaffin granules". Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 11: 107-147. ...
... and smaller liposomes or purified secretory granules with high te ...
The reduction of membrane-bound dopamine beta-monooxygenase in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts. Is intragranular ascorbic ... catalyzed conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine has been investigated in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts. The rate of ... The weak D beta M reductant, 6-amino-L-ascorbic acid, was found to be a good external reductant for granule ghosts. The outcome ... may not directly reduce or mediate the reduction of membrane-bound D beta M in resealed granule ghosts. ...
Protein kinase C enhances exocytosis from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory ... from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. Neuron, 16(6), 1209-1220. ... kinase C enhances exocytosis from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Uptake of the neurotoxin, 4-methylphenylpyridinium, into chromaffin granules and ... Uptake of the neurotoxin, 4-methylphenylpyridinium, into chromaffin granules and synaptic vesicles: A proton gradient drives ...
Johnson RG, Beers MF, Scarpa A (September 1982). "H+ ATPase of chromaffin granules. Kinetics, regulation, and stoichiometry". ...
  • Identification and purification of a functional amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{SternBach1990IdentificationAP, title={Identification and purification of a functional amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The amine transporter from bovine chromaffin granules has been purified in a functional state. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the fate of secretory granule membrane after full fusion exocytosis remains uncertain. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cysteine string protein (CSP) is an insulin secretory granule-associated protein regulating beta-cell exocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1989 ). The primary structure of human secretogranin II, a widespread tyrosine-sulfated secretory granule protein that exhibits low pH-and calcium-induced aggregation. (biologists.org)
  • Since fodrin-, caldesmon- and alpha-actinin-binding sites exist on secretory granule membranes, actin filaments can also link secretory granules. (biologists.org)
  • Role of phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the fusion of chromaffin granules with target membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The role of phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the fusion of chromaffin granules with target membranes was investigated in vitro, monitoring the mixing of membrane lipids with the octadecyl rhodamine B fluorescence dequenching assay. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of membrane proteins by trypsinization of chromaffin granule ghost and/or plasma membranes increased the extent of polylysine induced fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Chromaffin granule ghosts were induced to fuse with model membranes of different complexities from one resembling the inner monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane to one composed solely of pure phosphatidylserine. (nih.gov)
  • The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. (biochemj.org)
  • pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. (biochemj.org)
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules. (biochemj.org)
  • Membranes of chromaffin granules were isolated from the adrenal glands of four different species. (biochemj.org)
  • Two major protein components appeared to be common to the chromaffin granule membranes of ox, horse, pig and man. (biochemj.org)
  • An efficient and reliable method for preparing chromaffin granules and membranes for topographical analysis has been designed to meet the following criteria. (elsevier.com)
  • Composition and transport function of membranes of chromaffin granules. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Here, we investigated the mechanisms governing endocytosis of collapsed granule membranes by following internalization of antibodies labeling the granule membrane protein, dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) in cultured chromaffin cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Lysis of chromaffin granules by phospholipase A_2treated plasma membranes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our results indicate that acidic phospholipid-like phosphatidylserine may have an important role in the process of fusion and suggest that diacylglycerol, as a destabilizing lipid, may have a role by itself in promoting exocytosis in chromaffin cells. (nih.gov)
  • Regulated exocytosis in chromaffin cells is triggered by membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. (rupress.org)
  • A single amino acid near the C terminus of the synaptosomeassociated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is essential for exocytosis in chromaffin cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Polylysine was able to induce fusion of chromaffin granule ghosts with plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of Ca2+. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, considerably low (microM) Ca2+ concentrations were able to induce fusion of chromaffin granule ghosts with diacylglycerol containing phosphatidylserine vesicles in the presence of polylysine. (nih.gov)
  • Rapid SNARE-mediated fusion of liposomes and chromaffin granules with giant unilamellar vesicles. (mpg.de)
  • Here we have established, to our knowledge, a new platform for monitoring SNARE-mediated docking and fusion between giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and smaller liposomes or purified secretory granules with high temporal and spatial resolution. (mpg.de)
  • Here, we show that substitution of two highly conserved tryptophan residues within the juxtamembrane domain (JMD) of the vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin II (SybII) profoundly impairs priming of granules in mouse chromaffin cells without altering catecholamine release from single vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Synaptic vesicles and chromaffin granules. (abcam.com)
  • Chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla are ideally suited to distinguish and quantify the diverse pools of vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells shares many important features with neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles in classical CNS synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Active zones, electron dense, protein rich areas with the attendant clusters of vesicles ( Zhai and Bellen, 2004 ) are not obvious in chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We determined the size and intracellular distribution of dense core vesicles (DVs or chromaffin granules) and of clear vesicles (CVs). (rupress.org)
  • May accumulate ATP and other nucleotides in secretory vesicles such as adrenal chromaffin granules and synaptic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Triggered exocytosis and endocytosis have different requirements for calcium and nucleotides in permeabilized bovine chromaffin cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Membrane recapture and early triggered secretion from the newly formed endocytotic compartment in bovine chromaffin cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Calcium homeostasis in digitonin-permeabilized bovine chromaffin cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We have analyzed ultrathin sections from isolated bovine chromaffin cells grown on plastic support, after fast freezing, by quantitative electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • that are named for the granules within the cells that darken after exposure to chromium salts. (britannica.com)
  • medulla, which is composed of chromaffin tissue, so called because its cells contain granules that can be characteristically coloured by certain reagents. (britannica.com)
  • Protein kinase C enhances exocytosis from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells respond to sympathetic nervous system activation by secreting a cocktail of potent neuropeptides and hormones into the circulation. (rupress.org)
  • Here we assess the consequences of selective sorting of Syt isoforms in chromaffin cells, particularly with respect to granule dynamics and activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Upon depolarization of cells expressing fluorescent Syt isoforms using elevated K + , we find that Syt-7 granules fuse with faster kinetics than Syt-1 granules, irrespective of stimulation strength. (rupress.org)
  • Upon introduction of Ca 2+ into permeabilized cells, Syt-7 granules fuse with fast kinetics and high efficacy, even at low Ca 2+ levels (e.g., when cells are weakly stimulated). (rupress.org)
  • Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of amperometric measurements of quantal catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • As for neurotransmitter release at synapses, catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells requires the concerted action of protein complexes that mobilize the secretory vesicle to the release site, fuse the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane, empty its content, and retrieve the vesicle membrane for recycling. (jneurosci.org)
  • To get additional insight into this mechanism, we characterized the interaction between synaptophysin and dynamin in chromaffin cells, and, taking advantage of the carbon-fiber amperometry technique, we studied how the disruption of the association between these proteins affects individual exocytotic events. (jneurosci.org)
  • PC12 cells synthesize catecholamines (primarily dopamine) and acetylcholine (ACh), store each in different granules and exhibit a Ca ++ -sensitive, depolarization-induced secretion of each (8,9,15,19). (springer.com)
  • Quantitative evaluation of the immunoreaction revealed that most of the 5-HT-IR in the cytoplasm of EC cells (60%) was located over the dense cores of the secretory granules. (nih.gov)
  • Since they also are excitable cells that generate action potentials, chromaffin cells are viewed as the endocrine counterparts of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and are often termed adrenal paraneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sympathetic activation of chromaffin cells releases their hormones into the bloodstream in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • The phenomena of two maturation steps preceding fusion, docking, and priming, are readily demonstrated in both neurons and chromaffin cells, and release occurs from a readily releasable pool (RRP) as described below. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, there are also important differences between synaptic transmission and catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparison of cysteine string protein (Csp) and mutant alpha-SNAP overexpression reveals a role for csp in late steps of membrane fusion in dense-core granule exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Measurement of exocytosis by amperometry in adrenal chromaffin cells: effects of clostridial neurotoxins and activation of protein kinase C on fusion pore kinetics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Located in storage granules of secretory cells, and active in processing of protein hormones and bioactive peptides. (genome.jp)
  • We have tested whether this view applies to secretory granules in intact PC-12 cells. (pnas.org)
  • When the release of catecholamine from chromaffin cells was simultaneously detected as an amperometric spike, the spike occurred almost precisely while exocytosis increased the cell surface area in a step ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In chromaffin cells, horseradish peroxidase appeared in organelles indistinguishable from granules soon after the stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • The adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCC) transition to the neuronal phenotype is known to occur in asthma, as evidenced by degranulation of chromaffin granules, decline of epinephrine (EPI) and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase (PNMT), and obvious alterations in cellular architecture. (hindawi.com)
  • Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCC) are the primary cells that secrete EPI [ 6 , 7 ], and are thus important elements of the neuroendocrine system. (hindawi.com)
  • did morphometric analyses on melanotrophs and chromaffin cells. (rupress.org)
  • Similarly, Bittner and Holz (1992) found a time- dependent priming effect of Ca 2+ in permeabilized chromaffin cells. (rupress.org)
  • The most studied chromogranin is CgA, which was first isolated from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla as a single polypeptide chain of 439 amino acids and 10 dibasic cleavage sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sphingomyelin derivatives increase the frequency of microvesicle and granule fusion in chromaffin cells. (us.es)
  • Stimulation of Insulin Release by Glucose Is Associated With an Increase in the Number of Docked Granules in the β-Cells of Rat Pancreatic Islets. (ebscohost.com)
  • Through the combined imaging of NPY-mRFP with the vesicle marker phosphatase-on-the-granule-of-insulinoma-enhanced GFP (phogrin-EGFP), we demonstrate next that the majority of exocytosis occurs in primary rat β-cells by transient "cavity recapture" (cavicapture) ( 17 , 27 ) exocytosis rather than complete fusion, in line with previous studies in clonal β-cells ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In a study of rat adrenal chromaffin cells, which have dense-core secretory granules, Chen et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • Surprisingly, five of the identified CSPGs are traditionally defined as prohormones (cholecystokinin, chromogranin A, neuropeptide W, secretogranin-1, and secretogranin-3), typically stored and secreted from granules of endocrine cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla synthesize, store and secrete catecholamines. (biologists.org)
  • These cells contain numerous electron-dense secretory granules which discharge their contents into the extracellular space by exocytosis. (biologists.org)
  • In bacterial toxin-permeabilized chromaffin cells, experiments using actin-perturbing agents such as cytochalasin D and DNAase I suggest that exocytosis is in part controlled by the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • This alkaloid was also detected in the secretion medium of primary chromaffin cells in culture following nicotinic stimulation. (medscimonit.com)
  • Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Epinephrine is synthesized via methylation of the primary distal amine of norepinephrine by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the cytosol of adrenergic neurons and cells of the adrenal medulla (so-called chromaffin cells). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For norepinephrine to be acted upon by PNMT in the cytosol, it must first be shipped out of granules of the chromaffin cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • v-SNAREs control priming stability and fusion of chromaffin granules. (mpg.de)
  • They are very similar to that of the total membrane proteins but significantly different from that of the chromogranins, the soluble proteins of chromaffin granules. (biochemj.org)
  • A soluble and secretory hormone proteins of chromaffin granules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biochemistry and molecular biology of the vesicular monoamine transporter from chromaffin granules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we observed that after full collapse, DBH remains clustered on the plasma membrane with other specific granule markers and is subsequently internalized through vesicular structures composed mainly of granule components. (pasteur.fr)
  • Long term stimulation changes the vesicular monoamine transporter content of chromaffin granules. (sppin.fr)
  • Sometimes, however, a normal spike was accompanied by only a transient increase in membrane capacitance, indicating that the connection between granule lumen and the outside, or fusion pore, had opened and closed again ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cargo release was imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of lumen-targeted probes (neuropeptide Y [NPY]-pH-insensitive yellow fluorescent protein [NPY-Venus] or NPY-monomeric red fluorescent protein), while the fate of the vesicle membrane was reported simultaneously with phosphatase-on-the-granule-of-insulinoma-enhanced green fluorescent protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rab27A and its effector MyRIP link secretory granules to F-actin and control their motion towards release sites. (sppin.fr)
  • Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether and when granules re-sealed. (elsevier.com)
  • Whereas neuro-peptide Y was lost from granules in seconds, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and the membrane protein phogrin remained at the granule site for over 1 min, thus providing markers for postexocytic granules. (pnas.org)
  • When tPA was imaged simultaneously with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a cytosolic marker, the volume occupied by the granule appeared as a dark spot where it excluded CFP. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, treatments expected to interfere with the endocytic protein dynamin caused amperometric spikes to broaden and their charge to increase, suggesting that dynamin caused granules to reseal before they discharged all their catecholamine ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chromogranins A, an acidic glycoprotein, comprises about 50% of the total protein of the granule matrix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal medulla chromaffin granules has been purified by fast protein liquid chromatography chromatofocusing. (nih.gov)
  • In PI4KII mutants, mucin-containing glue granules failed to reach normal size, with glue protein aberrantly accumulating in enlarged Rab7-positive late endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Our genetic analysis of PI4KII in flies thus reveals a novel role for PI4KII in regulating the fidelity of granule protein trafficking in secretory tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Four of these genes are novel while the others code for translocon-associated proteins, a lumenal cysteine protease of the endoplasmic reticulum, prohormone-processing enzymes, members of the granin family and a transmembrane protein presumably involved in the assembly and/or specific functioning of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase from secretory granules. (biologists.org)
  • 1993 ). Protein targeting to dense-core secretory granules. (biologists.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. (elsevier.com)
  • The reduction of membrane-bound dopamine beta-monooxygenase in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts. (wichita.edu)
  • The role of internal and external reductants in the dopamine beta-monooxygenase (D beta M)-catalyzed conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine has been investigated in resealed chromaffin granule ghosts. (wichita.edu)
  • The weak D beta M reductant, 6-amino-L-ascorbic acid, was found to be a good external reductant for granule ghosts. (wichita.edu)
  • Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that external ascorbate is the sole source of reducing equivalents for D beta M monooxygenation and that internal soluble ascorbate (or dopamine) may not directly reduce or mediate the reduction of membrane-bound D beta M in resealed granule ghosts. (wichita.edu)
  • However, a significant part of the cytoplasmic 5-HT-IR (40%) was located outside the dense cores of the secretory granules which suggests that different forms of 5-HT storage may exist. (nih.gov)
  • Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. (duke.edu)
  • Electric field pulses, ranging in intensity from 20 to 50 kV/cm and in duration from 10 to 40 [mu]sec, caused a transient increase in the membrane permeability of chromaffin granules from the bovine adrenal medulla, that led to partial release of granule soluble constituents. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The distinct phases of the chromaffin cell secretory response have been attributed to the progressive fusion of distinct populations of dense core granules with different activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • It is concluded that a significant fraction of chromaffin granules re-seal after exocytosis, and retain those proteins that leave granules slowly. (elsevier.com)
  • Rather, Monte Carlo simulations, based on the experimental DV size distribution, indicate that the overall statistics of granule placement in the vicinity of the CM is dominated by the constraints of an almost densely packed space, such that specific interactions, through which only a small fraction of the granule population undergo, cannot be discerned. (rupress.org)
  • Characteristics of the Chromaffin Granule Aspartic Proteinase Involved in Proenkephalin Processing," J. of Neurochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • This mechanism may be referred to as granule cavity recapture, "cavicapture" ( 1 , 2 ), or granule recapture. (pnas.org)
  • Three experimental approaches support granule recapture. (pnas.org)
  • Chromaffin tissue secretes two hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines. (britannica.com)
  • After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • When exocytosis caused the acidic granule interior to neutralize, GFP-phogrin at first brightened and later dimmed again as the interior separated from the extracellular space and reacidified. (pnas.org)
  • This activity required mild acidic pH and suggests that the CS-side chains may also influence the self-assembly of chromogranin A in vivo giving a possible explanation to previous observations that chromogranin A has an inherent property to assemble in the acidic milieu of secretory granules. (mcponline.org)
  • Purification and Characteristics of the Candidate Prohormone Processing Proteases PC2 and PC1/3 from Bovine Adrenal Medulla Chromaffin Granules," J. Biol. (patentgenius.com)
  • ARF6 has also been implicated in the regulation of exocytosis of chromaffin granules ( 19 ) and recently in insulin stimulation of Glut 4 translocation ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Three granule proteins were labeled with fluorescent proteins in different colors, and two-color evanescent-field microscopy was used to view single granules during and after exocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • In the first, exocytosis of single granules was detected as step increases in membrane capacitance, an assay of cell surface area. (pnas.org)
  • The third approach was based on imaging single granules ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Abstract Quantitative time-lapse evanescent-wave imaging of individual fluorescently labelled chromaffin granules was used for kinetic analysis of granule trafficking through a is similar to 300-nm (1/e[sup 2]) optical section beneath the plasma membrane. (ebscohost.com)
  • Syt-7 granules also show a greater tendency to fuse in clusters than Syt-1 granules, and granules harboring Syt-1 travel a greater distance before fusion than those with Syt-7, suggesting that there is spatial and fusion-site heterogeneity among the two granule populations. (rupress.org)
  • Our results show that liposomes and chromaffin granules fuse with GUVs containing activated SNAREs with only few milliseconds delay between docking and fusion. (mpg.de)
  • However, the greatest functional difference between granule populations is their responsiveness to Ca 2+ . (rupress.org)
  • Ca2+-induced exocytosis in individual human neutrophils: high- and low-affinity granule populations and submaximal responses. (ebscohost.com)
  • Our study provides evidence for functional specialization of chromaffin cell granules via selective expression of Syt isoforms with different Ca 2+ sensitivities. (rupress.org)
  • The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spot remained even after tPA reported exocytosis, indicating that granules failed to flatten into the cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • In lactotropes, exocytosis caused granule matrices to bind the externally applied dye FM1-43, and some granules retained the dye after it was washed from the cell ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • In PC-12 cell membrane patches, exocytosis caused some granules to take up and sequester an extracellular marker, indicating that the interior of the granule had transiently connected to the external space ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopy and quantitative stereological techniques were used to study the dynamics of the docked granule pool in the rat pancreatic β-cell. (ebscohost.com)
  • The mean number of granules per β-cell was 11,136. (ebscohost.com)
  • Proceedings of Session VII of the Tenth International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology, held August 25-28, 1999, in Bergen, Norway, and a post-symposium workshop on Chromogranins: from Fundamental Physiology to Clinical Aspects, held August 28, 1999, on board the coastal steamer MS Richard With. (weltbild.de)
  • The subplasmalemmal area of the chromaffin cell is characterized by the presence of a highly organized cytoskeletal network. (biologists.org)
  • Dr. Yannick Goumon demonstrated the presence of morphine 6 glucuronide inside the bovine chromaffin cell secretory granules. (medscimonit.com)
  • Myrip couples the capture of secretory granules by the actin-rich cell cortex and their attachment to the plasma membrane. (sppin.fr)
  • Synaptotagmin-7 enhances calcium-sensing of chromaffin cell granules and slows discharge of granule cargos. (harvard.edu)
  • Functional segregation of granule pools may depend on selective sorting of synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and synaptotagmin-7 (Syt-7), which our previous work showed are rarely cosorted to the same granule. (rupress.org)
  • Altogether, these results suggest that after full collapse exocytosis, a selective sorting of granule membrane components is facilitated by the physical preservation of the granule membrane entity on the plasma membrane. (pasteur.fr)
  • The lack of a significant change in membrane-bound cytochrome b561 and the small increase in dopamine beta-hydroxylase suggest that the higher levels of secretory components in SHRSP are not simply caused by an increase in the number of chromaffin granules, but possibly by a selective increase in the secretory content of these organelles providing a larger package for quantal release by exocytosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies on Mg2+-dependent ATPase in bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The assignment of the Ca2+-ATPase activity of chromaffin granules to the proton translocating ATPase. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A cDNA encoding subunit C of the V-ATPase from bovine chromaffin granules was cloned and sequenced. (elsevier.com)
  • Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence of this subunit from bovine kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • A novel accessory subunit for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase from chromaffin granules. (wikipathways.org)
  • H. von Grafenstein and E. Neumann, "ATP-stimulated accumulation of calcium by chromaffin granules and mitochondria from the adrenal medulla", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 117, 1983, pp. 245-251. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • First, we showed that synaptophysin and dynamin interact in chromaffin granule-rich fractions and that this interaction relies on the C terminal of synaptophysin. (jneurosci.org)
  • During kiss-and-run and cavicapture modes, the granule membrane is maintained in an omega shape, whereas it completely merges with the plasma membrane during full-collapse mode. (pasteur.fr)
  • Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. (duke.edu)