Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.MercaptoethanolCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseCalmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Cetomacrogol: Non-ionic surfactant of the polyethylene glycol family. It is used as a solubilizer and emulsifying agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, often as an ointment base, and also as a research tool.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Annexin A4: Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Recombinant SFD isoforms activate vacuolar proton pumps. (1/429)

The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow.  (+info)

Early requirement for alpha-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells. (2/429)

NSF and alpha-SNAP have been shown to be required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis. However, the exact requirement for NSF and alpha-SNAP in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway remains controversial. We performed a study on the kinetics of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells using high time resolution capacitance measurement and electrochemical amperometry, combined with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ as a fast stimulus. alpha-SNAP, a C-terminal mutant of alpha-SNAP, and NEM were assayed for their effects on secretion kinetics. Two kinetically distinct components of catecholamine release can be observed upon fast step-like elevation of [Ca2+]i. One is the exocytotic burst, thought to represent the readily releasable pool of vesicles. Following the exocytotic burst, secretion proceeds slowly at maintained high [Ca2+]i, which may represent vesicle maturation/recruitment, i.e. some priming steps after docking. alpha-SNAP increased the amplitude of both the exocytotic burst and the slow component but did not change their kinetics, which we examined with millisecond time resolution. In addition, NEM only partially inhibited the slow component without altering the exocytotic burst, fusion kinetics and the rate of endocytosis. These results suggest a role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in priming granules for release at an early step, but not modifying the fusion of readily releasable granules.  (+info)

Sympathomimetic effects of MIBG: comparison with tyramine. (3/429)

Because nothing is known about whether metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has tyramine-like actions, the sympathomimetic effects of MIBG were determined in the isolated rabbit heart and compared with those of tyramine. METHODS: Spontaneously beating rabbit hearts were perfused with Tyrode's solution (Langendorff technique; 37 degrees C; 26 mL/min), and the heart rate as well as the norepinephrine and dopamine overflow into the perfusate was measured before and after doses of MIBG or tyramine (0.03-10 micromol) given as bolus injections (100 microL) into the aortic cannula. Km and Vmax values for the neuronal uptake (uptake1) of 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were obtained in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells. The Ki of MIBG for inhibition of the 3H-catecholamine uptake mediated by the vesicular monoamine transporter was determined in membrane vesicles obtained from bovine chromaffin granules and compared with the previously reported Ki value for tyramine determined under identical experimental conditions. RESULTS: By producing increases in heart rate and norepinephrine overflow, both compounds had dose-dependent sympathomimetic effects in the rabbit heart. MIBG was much less effective than tyramine in increasing heart rate (maximum effect 59 versus 156 beats/min) and norepinephrine overflow (maximum effect 35 versus 218 pmol/g). Tyramine also caused increases in dopamine overflow, whereas MIBG was a poor dopamine releaser. At a dose of 10 micromol, the increase in heart rate lasted more than 60 min after MIBG and about 20 min after tyramine injection. Accordingly, the norepinephrine overflow caused by 10 micromol MIBG and tyramine declined with half-lives of 57.8 and 2.2 min, respectively. The effects of both drugs were drastically reduced in hearts exposed to 2 micromol/L desipramine. The kinetic parameters characterizing the saturation of neuronal uptake by 125I-MIBG and 14C-tyramine were similar for the two compounds: Km values of MIBG and tyramine were 1.6 and 1.7 micromol/L, respectively, and Vmax values of MIBG and tyramine were 43 and 37 pmol/mg protein/min, respectively. However, in inhibiting the vesicular 3H-catecholamine uptake, MIBG was eight times less potent than tyramine. CONCLUSION: MIBG is much less effective than tyramine as an indirect sympathomimetic agent. This is probably a result of its relatively low affinity for the vesicular monoamine transporter and explains the relatively poor ability of the drug to mobilize norepinephrine stored in synaptic vesicles. The long duration of MIBG action results primarily from the drug not being metabolized by monoamine oxidase. The sympathomimetic effects of MIBG described here are not likely to come into play in patients given diagnostic or common therapeutic doses of radioiodinated MIBG.  (+info)

nSec-1 (munc-18) interacts with both primed and unprimed syntaxin 1A and associates in a dimeric complex on adrenal chromaffin granules. (4/429)

The target-SNARE syntaxin 1A is an essential component of the core machinery required for regulated exocytosis (where SNARE is the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor). Syntaxin 1A interacts with a variety of other proteins, two of which, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) have been suggested to impart a conformational rearrangement on this protein during a reaction referred to as priming. We have studied the effect of the primed state on the binding properties of syntaxin 1A and we have confirmed that primed syntaxin 1A no longer associated with alpha-SNAP or its cognate vesicle-SNARE, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP). Under such conditions, however, it retained the ability to bind to nSec-1. It has been demonstrated that nSec-1, a regulatory protein also involved in neuronal exocytosis, binds syntaxin 1A with high affinity in vitro, although evidence for this physical interaction occurring in vivo has proven elusive. We analysed the subcellular distribution of these two proteins in fractions from bovine adrenal medulla and detected syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 in both plasma membrane and chromaffin-granule fractions. Using a cross-linking approach with chromaffin-granule membranes we detected a putative dimeric complex composed of approx. 54% total granule membrane nSec-1 and approx. 30% total syntaxin 1A. The results of this study therefore suggest the possibility of nSec-1 interactions with primed syntaxin 1A and demonstrate a potentially significant interaction of syntaxin 1A and nSec-1 on the membranes of chromaffin granules.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of endopin 1, a novel serpin localized to neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells. Inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases by endopin 1. (5/429)

Serpins represent a diverse class of endogenous protease inhibitors that regulate important biological functions. In consideration of the importance of regulated proteolysis within secretory vesicles for the production of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, this study revealed the molecular identity of a novel serpin, endopin 1, that is localized to neurosecretory vesicles of neuropeptide-containing chromaffin cells (chromaffin granules). Endopin 1 of 68-70 kDa was present within isolated chromaffin granules. Stimulated cosecretion of endopin 1 with chromaffin granule components, [Met]enkephalin and a cysteine protease known as "prohormone thiol protease," demonstrated localization of endopin 1 to functional secretory vesicles. Punctate, discrete immunofluorescence cellular localization of endopin 1 in chromaffin cells was consistent with its secretory vesicle localization. Endopin 1 contains a unique reactive site loop with Arg as the predicted P1 residue, suggesting inhibition of basic residue-cleaving proteases; indeed, trypsin was potently inhibited (K(i(app)) of 5 nM), and plasmin was moderately inhibited. Although endopin 1 possesses homology with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin, chymotrypsin was not inhibited. Moreover, endopin 1 inhibited the chromaffin granule prohormone thiol protease (involved in proenkephalin processing). These results suggest a role for the novel serpin, endopin 1, in regulating basic residue-cleaving proteases within neurosecretory vesicles of chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Comparison of cysteine string protein (Csp) and mutant alpha-SNAP overexpression reveals a role for csp in late steps of membrane fusion in dense-core granule exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. (6/429)

Assembly of the SNARE complex and its disassembly caused by the action of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) and NSF is crucial for the maintenance of vesicular traffic, including fusion of regulated exocytotic vesicles. Various other proteins may also have important roles in the processes leading to membrane fusion via interaction with the SNARE proteins, including the secretory vesicle cysteine string protein (Csp). Here we have examined the effect of overexpression of a dominant negative alpha-SNAP mutant or Csp on exocytosis of dense-core granules in single chromaffin cells monitored using amperometry to detect released catecholamine. Exocytosis of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived dense-core granules was substantially inhibited by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A). The amplitude and characteristics of the individual release events were unaffected by expression of alpha-SNAP(L294A), consistent with an essential role for alpha-SNAP in early steps of priming but not in the fusion process. In contrast, Csp overexpression, which also inhibited the extent of exocytosis, also modified the kinetics of the individual release events seen as an increase in the rise time and a broadening of the residual amperometric spikes in Csp-transfected cells. These results suggest that unlike alpha-SNAP, Csp plays a key role in the protein interactions close to the fusion process or fusion pore opening during Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis.  (+info)

A pleckstrin homology domain specific for phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and fused to green fluorescent protein identifies plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P2 as being important in exocytosis. (7/429)

Kinetically distinct steps can be distinguished in the secretory response from neuroendocrine cells with slow ATP-dependent priming steps preceding the triggering of exocytosis by Ca(2+). One of these priming steps involves the maintenance of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P(2)) through lipid kinases and is responsible for at least 70% of the ATP-dependent secretion observed in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is usually thought to reside on the plasma membrane. However, because phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is an integral chromaffin granule membrane protein, PtdIns-4,5-P(2) important in exocytosis may reside on the chromaffin granule membrane. In the present study we have investigated the localization of PtdIns-4,5-P(2) that is involved in exocytosis by transiently expressing in chromaffin cells a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that specifically binds PtdIns-4, 5-P(2) and is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The PH-GFP protein predominantly associated with the plasma membrane in chromaffin cells without any detectable association with chromaffin granules. Rhodamine-neomycin, which also binds to PtdIns-4,5-P(2), showed a similar subcellular localization. The transiently expressed PH-GFP inhibited exocytosis as measured by both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques. The results indicate that the inhibition was at a step after Ca(2+) entry and suggest that plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is important for exocytosis. Expression of PH-GFP also reduced calcium currents, raising the possibility that PtdIns-4,5-P(2) in some manner alters calcium channel function in chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates a late step of exocytosis. (8/429)

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the late phase of exocytosis have been studied, by amperometry, on Ba(2+)-stimulated chromaffin cells. Acute incubation with NO or NO donors (sodium nitroprusside, spermine-NO, S-nitrosoglutathione) produced a drastic slowdown of the granule emptying. Conversely, cell treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (a NO synthase inhibitor) or with NO scavengers (methylene blue, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium) accelerated the extrusion of catecholamines from chromaffin granules, suggesting the presence of a NO modulatory tone. The incubation with phosphodiesterase inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or zaprinast) or with the cell-permeant cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP, mimicked the effects of NO, suggesting the involvement of the guanylate cyclase cascade. NO effects were not related to changes in intracellular Ba(2+). NO did not modify the duration of feet. Effects were evident even on pre-fusioned granules, observed under hypertonic conditions, suggesting that the fusion pore is not the target for NO, which probably acts by modifying the affinity of catecholamines for the intragranular matrix. NO could modify the synaptic transmitter efficacy through a novel mechanism, which involves the regulation of the emptying of secretory vesicles.  (+info)

  • Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. (
  • Polylysine was able to induce fusion of chromaffin granule ghosts with plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of Ca2+. (
  • Chromaffin granule ghosts were induced to fuse with model membranes of different complexities from one resembling the inner monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane to one composed solely of pure phosphatidylserine. (
  • Interestingly, considerably low (microM) Ca2+ concentrations were able to induce fusion of chromaffin granule ghosts with diacylglycerol containing phosphatidylserine vesicles in the presence of polylysine. (
  • Role of phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the fusion of chromaffin granules with target membranes. (
  • The role of phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the fusion of chromaffin granules with target membranes was investigated in vitro, monitoring the mixing of membrane lipids with the octadecyl rhodamine B fluorescence dequenching assay. (
  • Removal of membrane proteins by trypsinization of chromaffin granule ghost and/or plasma membranes increased the extent of polylysine induced fusion. (
  • Our results indicate that acidic phospholipid-like phosphatidylserine may have an important role in the process of fusion and suggest that diacylglycerol, as a destabilizing lipid, may have a role by itself in promoting exocytosis in chromaffin cells. (
  • Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. (
  • Two polypeptide fragments derived from subunit E of V-ATPase from chromaffin granules were sequenced and found to be identical to the predicted amino acid sequence of this subunit from bovine kidney. (
  • Biochemistry and molecular biology of the vesicular monoamine transporter from chromaffin granules. (
  • Long term stimulation changes the vesicular monoamine transporter content of chromaffin granules. (
  • Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. (
  • Electric field pulses, ranging in intensity from 20 to 50 kV/cm and in duration from 10 to 40 [mu]sec, caused a transient increase in the membrane permeability of chromaffin granules from the bovine adrenal medulla, that led to partial release of granule soluble constituents. (
  • Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that external ascorbate is the sole source of reducing equivalents for D beta M monooxygenation and that internal soluble ascorbate (or dopamine) may not directly reduce or mediate the reduction of membrane-bound D beta M in resealed granule ghosts. (
  • Sometimes, however, a normal spike was accompanied by only a transient increase in membrane capacitance, indicating that the connection between granule lumen and the outside, or fusion pore, had opened and closed again ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Abstract Quantitative time-lapse evanescent-wave imaging of individual fluorescently labelled chromaffin granules was used for kinetic analysis of granule trafficking through a is similar to 300-nm (1/e[sup optical section beneath the plasma membrane. (
  • Syt-7 granules also show a greater tendency to fuse in clusters than Syt-1 granules, and granules harboring Syt-1 travel a greater distance before fusion than those with Syt-7, suggesting that there is spatial and fusion-site heterogeneity among the two granule populations. (
  • Our results show that liposomes and chromaffin granules fuse with GUVs containing activated SNAREs with only few milliseconds delay between docking and fusion. (
  • It is concluded that a significant fraction of chromaffin granules re-seal after exocytosis, and retain those proteins that leave granules slowly. (
  • Rather, Monte Carlo simulations, based on the experimental DV size distribution, indicate that the overall statistics of granule placement in the vicinity of the CM is dominated by the constraints of an almost densely packed space, such that specific interactions, through which only a small fraction of the granule population undergo, cannot be discerned. (
  • Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. (
  • The lack of a significant change in membrane-bound cytochrome b561 and the small increase in dopamine beta-hydroxylase suggest that the higher levels of secretory components in SHRSP are not simply caused by an increase in the number of chromaffin granules, but possibly by a selective increase in the secretory content of these organelles providing a larger package for quantal release by exocytosis. (