Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The Proteidae family of permanently larval aquatic salamanders. It consists of two living genera - Necturus (mudpuppy) of the eastern United States and Proteus (the European olm).
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Small bodies containing chromaffin cells occurring outside of the adrenal medulla, most commonly near the sympathetic ganglia and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.

A novel ubiquitously expressed alpha-latrotoxin receptor is a member of the CIRL family of G-protein-coupled receptors. (1/697)

Poisoning with alpha-latrotoxin, a neurotoxic protein from black widow spider venom, results in a robust increase of spontaneous synaptic transmission and subsequent degeneration of affected nerve terminals. The neurotoxic action of alpha-latrotoxin involves extracellular binding to its high affinity receptors as a first step. One of these proteins, CIRL, is a neuronal G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in the regulation of secretion. We now demonstrate that CIRL has two close homologs with a similar domain structure and high degree of overall identity. These novel receptors, which we propose to name CIRL-2 and CIRL-3, together with CIRL (CIRL-1) belong to a recently identified subfamily of large orphan receptors with structural features typical of both G-protein-coupled receptors and cell adhesion proteins. Northern blotting experiments indicate that CIRL-2 is expressed ubiquitously with highest concentrations found in placenta, kidney, spleen, ovary, heart, and lung, whereas CIRL-3 is expressed predominantly in brain similarly to CIRL-1. It appears that CIRL-2 can also bind alpha-latrotoxin, although its affinity to the toxin is about 14 times less than that of CIRL-1. When overexpressed in chromaffin cells, CIRL-2 increases their sensitivity to alpha-latrotoxin stimulation but also inhibits Ca2+-regulated secretion. Thus, CIRL-2 is a functionally competent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin. Our findings suggest that although the nervous system is the primary target of low doses of alpha-latrotoxin, cells of other tissues are also susceptible to the toxic effects of alpha-latrotoxin because of the presence of CIRL-2, a low affinity receptor of the toxin.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/697)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (3/697)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy. (4/697)

We have observed secretory granules beneath the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. Using evanescent-field excitation by epiillumination, we have illuminated a thin layer of cytosol where cells adhere to glass coverslips. Up to 600 frames could be recorded at diffraction-limited resolution without appreciable photodynamic damage. We localized single granules with an uncertainty of approximately 30 nm and tracked their motion in three dimensions. Granules in resting cells wander randomly as if imprisoned in a cage that leaves approximately 70 nm space around a granule. The "cage" itself moves only slowly (D = 2 x 10(-12) cm2/s). Rarely do granules arrive at or depart from the plasma membrane of resting cells. Stimulation increases lateral motion only slightly. After the plasma membrane has been depleted of granules by exocytosis, fresh granules can be seen to approach it at an angle. The method will be useful for exploring the molecular steps preceding exocytosis at the level of single granules.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity of catecholamine secretion and ion fluxes in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (5/697)

The effects of temperature on ion fluxes and catecholamine secretion that are mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), and voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) were investigated using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. When the chromaffin cells were stimulated with DMPP, a nicotinic cholinergic agonist, or 50 mM K+, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation reached a peak and decreased more slowly at lower temperatures. The DMPP-induced responses were more sensitive to temperature changes compared to high K+-induced ones. In the measurement of intracellular sodium concentrations ([Na+]i), it was found that nicotinic stimulation required a longer time to attain the maximal level of [Na+]i at lower temperatures. In addition, the VSSCs-mediated [Na+]i increase evoked by veratridine was also reduced as the temperature decreased. The measurement of [3H]norepinephrine (NE) secretion showed that the secretion within the first 3 min evoked by DMPP or high K+ was greatest at 37 degrees C. However, at 25 degrees C, the secretion evoked by DMPP, but not that by the 50 mM K+, was greater after 10 min of stimulation. This data suggest that temperature differentially affects the activity of nAChRs, VSCCs, and VSSCs, resulting in differential [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i elevation, and in the [3H]NE secretion by adrenal chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly downregulates nicotinic receptor function and slowly raises intracellular Ca2+ in rat chromaffin cells in vitro. (6/697)

Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via intracellular second messenger-mediated phosphorylation, the action of this peptide on neuronal-type nAChRs remains unknown. Using neuronal nAChRs of rat chromaffin cells in vitro we studied the effect of CGRP, which is physiologically present in adrenal medulla, on membrane currents and [Ca2+]i transients elicited by nicotine. Our main novel observation was that CGRP (either bath-applied or focally applied for a few seconds or even co-applied with nicotine for a few milliseconds) selectively and rapidly blocked nAChRs (a phenomenon unlikely caused by intracellular messengers in view of its speed) without affecting GABA receptors. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was independent of [Ca2+]i or membrane potential and not accompanied by baseline current changes. Like the competitive antagonist N,N,N-trimethyl-1-(4-trans-stilbenoxy)-2-propilammonium, CGRP induced a rightward, parallel shift of the nicotine dose-response curve; during co-application of these blockers the nicotine dose-ratio value was the sum of the values obtained with each antagonist alone. The block by CGRP was insensitive to the receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 but mimicked by CGRP1-7. Persistent application of CGRP slowly increased [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon independent from external Ca2+, thus implying Ca2+ release from internal stores, and suppressed by hCGRP8-37. CGRP1-7 had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i. We propose that the 1-7 amino acid sequence of CGRP was responsible for the direct, rapid block of nAChRs, whereas the full-length peptide molecule was necessary for the delayed rise in internal Ca2+ potentially able to trigger phosphorylation-dependent modulation of nicotinic receptor function.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/697)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. (8/697)

Evanescent-wave excitation was used to visualize individual fluorescently labelled vesicles in an optical slice near the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used for directing a laser beam under a supracritical angle on to the glass-water interface on top of which the cells are grown. Whereas epi-illumination images appeared blurred and structureless, evanescent-wave excitation highlighted acridine orange-labelled vesicles as individual pinpoints. Three-dimensional (3D) trajectories of individual vesicles were obtained from time-resolved image stacks and used to characterize vesicles in terms of their average fluorescence F and mobility, expressed here as the 3D diffusion coefficient D(3). Based on the single-vesicle analysis, two groups of vesicles were identified. Transitions between these states were studied before and after stimulation of exocytosis by repetitive or maintained membrane depolarizations by elevated extracellular [K+]. Findings were interpreted as sequential transitions between the previously characterized pools of vesicles preceding the fusion step. The observed approach of vesicles to their docking sites was not explained in terms of free diffusion: most vesicles moved unidirectionally as if directed to their binding sites at the plasma membrane. Vesicle mobility at the membrane was low, such that the sites of docking and fusion were in close vicinity. Both the rim region and confined areas in the centre of the footprint region were the site of intense vesicle trafficking.  (+info)

Symptoms of pheochromocytoma can include:

* Rapid heartbeat
* High blood pressure
* Sweating
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Headaches
* Nausea and vomiting

If left untreated, pheochromocytoma can lead to complications such as heart failure, stroke, and even death. Therefore, it is important that individuals who experience any of the above symptoms seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Treatment options for pheochromocytoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, medication to manage symptoms, and in some cases, radiation therapy. In rare cases, the tumor may recur after treatment, so regular monitoring is necessary to ensure that any new symptoms are detected early on.

Overall, while pheochromocytoma is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition, prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Some common types of adrenal gland neoplasms include:

1. Adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignancy that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma: A benign tumor that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that arises in the inner part of the adrenal medulla and produces excessive amounts of hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that arises in the sympathetic nervous system, often near the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of adrenal gland neoplasms can include:

* Weight gain or weight loss
* High blood pressure
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Palpitations

Diagnosis of adrenal gland neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as hormone level assessments. Treatment options vary depending on the type and size of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.

Chromaffin Cells UC-San Diego Chromaffin Cell and Hypertension Research A Primer on Chromaffin Cells Rat Chromaffin cells ... Chromaffin cells also settle near the vagus nerve and carotid arteries. In lower concentrations, extra-adrenal chromaffin cells ... Paraganglia are clusters of either chromaffin cells or glomus cells near sympathetic ganglia. List of human cell types derived ... A tumor arising from these cells is called neuroblastoma. 2) Chromaffin cells (or pheochromocytes): These cells will migrate to ...
"Chromaffin cells: the peripheral brain". Molecular Psychiatry. 17 (4): 354-358. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.176. PMID 22249377. " ... He discovered that despite being produced by a dispersed mass of fat cells, leptin is secreted in a highly organised manner ...
Cell Biology of the Chromaffin Cell. Spain: Instituto Teófilo Hernando. (Ion channels, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). ... "Choline as a tool to evaluate nicotinic receptor function in chromaffin cells" (PDF). In Borges R, Gandía L (eds.). ... "Rat alpha3/beta4 subtype of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stably expressed in a transfected cell line: pharmacology ... alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta4 stably expressed in HEK293 cells". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 284 ( ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... Lallier TE (1991). "Cell lineage and cell migration in the neural crest". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 615: 158-71. doi:10.1111/j.1749 ... Some cells remain in the sclerotome to form the dorsal root ganglia Other Migration Locations: Proximal to the spinal cord and ... The trunk neural crest lies between the vagal and sacral neural crest and gives rise to two groups of cells. One group migrates ...
The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ... Enterochromaffin and enterochromaffin-like cells, both being enteroendocrine cells, are also considered neuroendocrine cells ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ...
"Interleukin-1 in adrenal chromaffin cells". Neuroscience. 30 (3): 805-10. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90171-1. PMID 2788829. S2CID ... "Cytokines in neuronal cell types. Review". Neurochem Int. 22 (5): 435-44. doi:10.1016/0197-0186(93)90038-7. PMID 8485449. S2CID ... who had the disease and or were vaccinated with the old whole-cell vaccine, and attached these antigenic peptides onto the ...
"Hypoxia-regulated catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells". Cell and Tissue Research. 372 (2): 433-441. doi:10.1007/s00441- ...
Catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells is particularly sensitive to L-type currents, associated with Cav1.3. ... Cav1.3 are densely expressed in chromaffin cells. The low-voltage activation and slow inactivation of these channels makes them ... "Cav1.3 and Cav1.2 channels of adrenal chromaffin cells: emerging views on cAMP/cGMP-mediated phosphorylation and role in ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. CACNA1D+protein,+human at the US National ...
... cells, neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal medulla. Chromophil cells, hormone producing cells showing chromaffin ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chromaffin. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ... Several activators of the signaling pathway increase cell yield. Cultured mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line): These cells ... Hes3+ cells can be isolated and placed in culture where they exhibit stem cell properties. In culture and in vivo, Hes3+ cells ... Human embryonic stem cells Mouse neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. An individual signal ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, ... Formation Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... Some[who?] believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used ... M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, inhibition of voltage-gated ...
"NPY regulates catecholamine secretion from human adrenal chromaffin cells". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... Cell. 101 (4): 365-76. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80847-8. PMID 10830164. S2CID 6496567. Connor JH, Weiser DC, Li S, Hallenbeck ... "HOX11 interacts with protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 and disrupts a G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint". Nature. 385 (6615): 454-8. ...
Nucifora PG, Fox AP (1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates rapid endocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells". J Neurosci. 19 ... In activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, JAK1 mediates autocrine IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine activation via a ... 2004). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases in the human genome". Cell. 117 (6): 699-711. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.018. PMID ... initially in the principal piece of the cell and subsequently in the midpiece. Transitions in the phases of the cell cycle are ...
Further work was done in chromaffin cells to investigate catecholamine release from large dense core vesicles. Any analyte that ... December 1991). "Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells ... "Nicotinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion from individual chromaffin cells. Chemical evidence for exocytosis". The ... In order to record vesicle fusion, a carbon fiber electrode is brought close to the cell. The electrode is held at a positive ...
... to measure release of adrenaline from adrenal chromaffin cells. They showed that the quantal event at dopamine synapses ... Regulation of cytosolic catecholamines in chromaffin cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (13): 5835-5845. doi:10.1523/ ... Sulzer works on basal ganglia and dopamine neurons, brain cells of central importance in translating will to action. His team ...
The interrenal and chromaffin cells are located within the head kidney. The spleen is found in nearly all vertebrates. It is a ... The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that from puberty into old age, develop into sperm cells (also known ... ISBN 978-0-03-910284-5. Gaber and Abdel-maksoud, Wafaa and Fatma (2019). "Interrenal tissue, chromaffin cells and corpuscles of ... Mauthner cells are not the only identified neurons in fish-there are about 20 more types, including pairs of "Mauthner cell ...
Chromaffin granule Kurloff cell "granule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert (28 February 2018 ... cell organelle of plant cell (the others-vacuole and nucleoplasm). It serves as small container of starch in plant cell. In ... The granules of certain cells, such as natural killer cells, contain components which can lead to the lysis of neighboring ... Insulin granules are secretory granules, which can release their contents from the cell into the bloodstream. The beta cells in ...
When imaged using DIC, chromaffin cells appear as round cells with small protrusions. When the same cell is imaged using IRM, ... bright spots in the top cell in the right panel). An example of vesicle fusion in chromaffin cells using IRM is shown in movie ... Light that is not reflected by the glass will travel into the cell and be reflected by the cell membrane. Three situations can ... More recently, the technique has been used to study exocytosis in chromaffin cells. ...
This cell line was first cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976. It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell ... Treatment of PC12 cells with dexamethasone differentiates them into chromaffin-like cells. Using patch clamp recording and ... and release of these neurotransmitters give rise to spikes due to changes in current similar to chromaffin cells. PC12 cell ... PC12 cells treated for 10-14 days with nerve growth factor had no release of vesicles from the cell body which indicates the ...
... cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, ... Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are ... A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the ... Cells, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ...
The adrenal medulla is the innermost part of the adrenal gland and contains neural crest derived chromaffin cells which secrete ... It includes two populations of cells; glomus (type I) cells and sustentacular (type II) cells. Glomus cells are derived from ... body retinal pigment epithelium embryonic stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells mesenchymal stem cells The first cell-based ... Thus, cell transplantation has focused on various dopamine producing cells throughout the body. fetal ventral mesencephalic ...
Fujimoto T, Lee K, Miwa S, Ogawa K (1991). "Immunocytochemical localization of fodrin and ankyrin in bovine chromaffin cells in ... "Ankyrin-Tiam1 interaction promotes Rac1 signaling and metastatic breast tumor cell invasion and migration". J. Cell Biol. 150 ( ... Cell. 14 (3): 1138-48. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0411. ISSN 1059-1524. PMC 151585. PMID 12631729. Bennett V, Baines AJ (2001). " ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ...
Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. Adrenal pheochromocytomas are ... They are essentially of two types: (1) chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and (2) nonchromaffin or ... Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia ... The largest chromaffin paraganglion is the organ of Zuckerkandl, it is probably the largest source of circulating ...
"Rat Chromaffin cells primary cultures: Standardization and quality assessment for single-cell assays". Protocol Exchange. doi: ... cells Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition. Cell- ... These cells may be cells isolated from a donor organism (primary cells) or an immortalised cell line. The cells are bathed in a ... Plant cell lines Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell) Other species cell ...
"Synergism between toxin-gamma from Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and veratridine in chromaffin cells". The American ... Tityustoxin causes cell depolarization, activating Na+ channels and increasing the Na+ uptake that can affect Ca2+ uptake and ... This causes cell depolarization that opens calcium channels allowing the influx of Ca2+, triggering ACh release. Both the ...
Burgoyne, RD; Norman, KM (1985). "Presence of tropomyosin in adrenal chromaffin cells and its association with chromaffin ... In the initial studies, transformation of rat embryo fibroblast cell line REF-52 and of normal rat kidney cells led to ... Nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms function in all cells, both muscle and nonmuscle cells, and are involved in a range of cellular ... These studies have been extended to a number of cell types with similar results. Extensive studies in neuronal cells, ...
In chromaffin cells taipoxin showed the ability to enter the cells via Ca2+ independent mechanisms. There it enhanced ... "Taipoxin induces F-actin fragmentation and enhances release of catecholamines in bovine chromaffin cells". Journal of ... catecholamine release in depolarizing cells by disassembling F-actin in the cytoskeletal barrier. This could lead to a vesicle ...
"Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").[citation needed] In response to increased ... However, together with other data on neuroendocrine properties of zona glomerulosa cells, NCAM expression may reflect a ...
VMAT1 is found in chromaffin cells, enterochromaffin cells, and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFs). Chromaffin cells are ... VMATs are found in a variety of cell types throughout the body, however, VMAT1 is found exclusively in neuroendocrine cells, in ... VMAT1 also has effects on the modulation of gastrin processing in G cells. These intestinal endocrine cells process amine ... This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). LDCVs are 70-200 nm in size and exist throughout the ...
Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into ... Glucose, a necessary source of energy for cells, can undergo an increase in production due to elevated secretion of epinephrine ... Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a ... Metabolism, or the processes within living cells or organisms to maintain life, is affected by the sympathoadrenal system, ...
... (PHEO or PCC) is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as ... Metastatic pheochromocytoma is defined as the presence of tumor cells (chromaffin tissue) where they are not normally found. ... When a tumor composed of the same cells as a pheochromocytoma develops outside the adrenal gland, it is referred to as a ... Furthermore, he also introduced the term "chromaffin," allowing pathologists to recognize tumors that arose from the adrenal ...
Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ... Cav1.2 channels are arranged in cluster of eight, on average, in the cell membrane. When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which ... Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions (Ca2+) into the cell upon membrane polarization (see membrane potential and ... Cav1.2 is widely expressed in the smooth muscle, pancreatic cells, fibroblasts, and neurons. However, it is particularly ...
The subunit encoded by the KCNMB2 gene is expressed in various endocrine cells, including pancreas and adrenal chromaffin cells ... and voltage-dependent BK channels in adrenal chromaffin cells and rat insulinoma tumor cells". J. Neurosci. 19 (13): 5255-64. ...
"Antimigraine dotarizine blocks P/Q Ca2+ channels and exocytosis in a voltage-dependent manner in chromaffin cells". European ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons. They are ... Adrenal gland Chromaffin cell History of catecholamine research Carmichael, Stephen W. (1997-01-01), Bittar, E. Edward; Bittar ... It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including ... Because the ANS, specifically the sympathetic division, exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells, the hormone release ...
Rodríguez Del Castillo A; Vitale ML; Trifaró JM (1992). "Ca2+ and pH determine the interaction of chromaffin cell scinderin ... During cell stimulation, calcium channels open allowing calcium ions to enter the secretory cell. Increase in intracellular ... 2005). "Barrier role of actin filaments in regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. S2CID 11683986. Ehre C, Rossi AH, Abdullah LH, et al. ( ...
Ameloblast Neuron Glia Schwann cell Satellite glial cell Chromaffin cell Glomus cell Melanocyte Nevus cell Merkel cell ... Mural cell Pneumocyte Type I cell Type II cell Club cell Goblet cell Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell Enteroendocrine cell G cell ... Hepatic stellate cell Cholecystocyte Centroacinar cell Pancreatic stellate cell alpha cell beta cell delta cell PP cell (F cell ... cell Gastric chief cell Parietal cell Foveolar cell Enteroendocrine cell Gastric inhibitory polypeptide S cell Delta cell ...
T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; CD3D Severe combined immunodeficiency, T cell-negative, B-cell/ ... familial chromaffin, 4; 115310; SDHB Paragangliomas 2; 601650; SDHAF2 Paragangliomas, familial nonchromaffin, 1, with or ... T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; PTPRC Severe combined immunodeficiency, T-cell negative, B-cell/ ... FLCN Renal cell carcinoma; 144700; DIRC2 Renal cell carcinoma; 144700; HNF1A Renal cell carcinoma; 144700; RNF139 Renal cell ...
PIPKIγ knockout in chromaffin cell and in central nerve system , PIPKIγ knockdown in beta cell lines , and over-expression of ... Small GTPases Cell Attachment Cell-Cell Interaction Change in cell volume Cell differentiation state Cell stress Strachan T, ... found that the application of PI-specific phospholipase C into digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells decreased PI levels, ... 5-bisphosphate level regulates the releasable vesicle pool size in chromaffin cells". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (10): 2557- ...
Rodríguez Del Castillo A, Vitale ML, Trifaró JM (Nov 1992). "Ca2+ and pH determine the interaction of chromaffin cell scinderin ... and in muscle cells at costamere structures, or transverse points of cell-cell adhesion that run perpendicular to the long axis ... The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell ... Gamma-actin is widely expressed in cellular cytoskeletons of many tissues; in adult striated muscle cells, gamma-actin is ...
The receptor dissociates once it nears the cell's membrane which creates an aqueous ferric Fe(III) ion that can either be used ... Flatmark T, Terland O (December 1971). "Cytochrome b 561 of the bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. A high potential b-type ... Once the complex is reduced, it must be then re-oxidized in proximity to the cell membrane because it contains binding sites ... Srai SK, Bomford A, McArdle HJ (June 2002). "Iron transport across cell membranes: molecular understanding of duodenal and ...
... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... chromaffin granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.560 - melanosomes MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.585 - microbodies MeSH A11.284. ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... hela cells MeSH A11. - kb cells MeSH A11. - hl-60 cells MeSH A11. - ht29 cells ...
Enterochromaffin-like cells are enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cells also known for their similarity to chromaffin cells ... Enterochromaffin cells are enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cells with a close similarity to adrenomedullary chromaffin cells ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell secreting histamine. Located in the jejunum, N cells ... Different from the Microfold cells (M cells) that are in Peyer's patches. Secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are ...
... a structure characteristic of the azurophil eukaryotic cell type Chromaffin granule, a structure characteristic of the ... Granule cell, a neuron with a small cell body Grain (disambiguation) Granulation (disambiguation) Granulometry (disambiguation ... It can refer to: Granule (cell biology), any of several submicroscopic structures, some with explicable origins, others noted ... chromophil eukaryotic cell type. Astrophysics and geology: Granule (solar physics), a visible structure in the photosphere of ...
... and adrenal gland chromaffin cells. Within cells, carboxypeptidase E is present in the secretory granules along with its ... leading to beta-cell dysfunction (hyperproinsulinemia) and increased beta-cell apoptosis (via an increase in ER stress). ... "Translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis and proinsulin conversion in the pancreatic beta-cell". Seminars in Cell & ... Cell. 88 (1): 73-83. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81860-7. PMID 9019408. S2CID 18629145. Maeda K, Okubo K, Shimomura I, Mizuno K, ...
E-ATPases are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyze a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP. Examples include ecto-ATPases, ... Njus D, Knoth J, Zallakian M (1981). "Proton-linked transport in chromaffin granules". Current Topics in Bioenergetics. 11: 107 ... An important example is the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ATPase) that maintains the cell membrane potential. Another example is ... Transmembrane ATPases import metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that can hinder ...
Enterochromaffin cell Chromaffin cell List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa ... The most important inhibitor of the ECL cell is somatostatin from oxyntic D cells. Enterochromaffin-like cells also produce ... They are also considered a type of enteroendocrine cell. ECL cells synthesize and secrete histamine. These cells are stimulated ...
... in bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells: release in response to stimulation". Journal of Neurochemistry. 49 (6 ...
Inflammatory cells are not seen in the stroma and dysplasia is not present in the neural tissues.[citation needed] Without ... A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N. Engl. J. Med. 279 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1056/ ... Calcitonin is produced by the "C" cells of the thyroid, which, because they are always hyperplastic or malignant in MEN2B, ... Mucosal neuromas are made up of nerve cells, often with thickened perineurium, intertwined with one another in a plexiform ...
"Activation of p53 and the pro-apoptotic p53 target gene PUMA during depolarization-induced apoptosis of chromaffin cells". Exp ... "PUMA regulates intestinal progenitor cell radiosensitivity and gastrointestinal syndrome". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (6): 576-83. doi: ... PUMA inducers target cancer or tumor cells, while PUMA inhibitors can be targeted to normal, healthy cells to help alleviate ... Cell. 123 (4): 641-53. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.029. PMID 16286009. S2CID 13472437. Overview of all the structural ...
... and the cell membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Peroxisomes are one form of vacuole found in the cell that ... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... including cell recognition and cell-cell adhesion. Glycoproteins are integral proteins. They play an important role in the ... Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, have a unique lipid composition. The bilayer of red blood cells is composed of cholesterol ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A Mouse for All Reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Duong LT, Fleming PJ (1982). "Isolation and properties of cytochrome b561 from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules". J. Biol. ... Cell Res. 287 (2): 272-81. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00061-2. PMID 12837283. Vargas JD, Herpers B, McKie AT, et al. (2003). " ... "Stromal cell-derived receptor 2 and cytochrome b561 are functional ferric reductases". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1651 (1-2): 116- ...
Novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid IG20 facilitates exocytosis in chromaffin cells through the regulation of sodium channels  ... Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model ... With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action ... Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model ...
"Chromaffin Cells" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromaffin Cells" was a major or minor topic of these ... Temperature sensitivity of catecholamine secretion and ion fluxes in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Mol Cells. 1999 Feb 28; 9 ... "Chromaffin Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Neomycin inhibits catecholamine secretion by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J ...
New insights about non-neurogenic excitability revealed by MEA recordings from rat adrenal chromaffin cells. ...
Forebrain and midbrain astrocytes promote neuritogenesis in cultured chromaffin cells Authors: Colombo, Jorge A. , Napp, Mónica ... Abstract: Adrenal chromaffin cells from immature or adult rats were grown in one of the following in vitro conditions: (1) on ... Additionally, evidence is offered that adult chromaffin cells show a reduced responsiveness towards such astroglial factor(s). ... Surviving E17.5 grafts contained immunoreactive BrdU cells. E12.5 grafts could survive without immunoreactive BrdU cells. ...
These tumors arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Ten percent of cases may be familial, and 10% might be ... These tumors arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Presentation of the pheochromocytoma varies with the ... However, many adrenal glands are removed en bloc as part of a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. ... The most widely accepted theory is adrenocortical cell metaplasia and growth due to an insult to the adrenal gland (eg, ...
Chromaffin Cell Research in the New Millennium" - TIPS 23:53. 2011. Press releases - ,40: JAMA, Internal Medicine News, CNN, ... Nature Cell Biology, J. Cell Biology, Cell, European J. Biochemistry, FASEB J., J. Pharmacological Sciences, Endocrine, J. Cell ... 12th International Conference on Chromaffin Cell Biology, La Palma, Canary Islands. 2004. *7th NIH-JHU Workshop on protein ... 15th International Conference on Chromaffin Cell Biology, Merida, Mexico. *14th World Congress on Advances in Oncology, ...
Electron probe microanalysis of the subcellular compartments of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Comparison of chromaffin ... RESP18, a homolog of the luminal domain IA-2, is found in dense core vesicles in pancreatic islet cells and is induced by high ... Cells containing aragonite crystals mediate responses to gravity in Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa), an animal lacking neurons ... The nanometer scale of biological electron microscopy lies between the realms of live-cell optical microscopy and atomic-scale ...
... selectively inhibits nicotinic-stimulated catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells and noradrenergic neurons (IC50 ∽ ...
Doreian, B.W. ``Molecular Regulation of the Exocytic Mode in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the ... and neuropeptide release in mouse chromaffin cells is regulated by myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate and myosin II ... Mol Biol Cell. 20(13):3142-54, 2009 Jul; hereafter referred to as the ``Mol Biol Cell paper. ... more cells had been tested for each condition when only 9-18 cells had been tested for each condition. ...
... cells. We provide evidence for the existence of intracellular calcium stores that respond to muscarinic activation of the cells ... We conclude that the cells have developed the most important mechanisms governing cytosolic calcium homeostasis. This is the ... We propose that the observed spontaneous calcium transients may contribute to mechanisms involved in cell proliferation, ... we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line ...
Paragangliomas - arise from chromaffin cells outside the adrenal gland (extra-adrenal tissue) and are found in the abdomen, ... Pheochromocytomas - arise from chromaffin cells located within the adrenal glands. *Both produce catecholamines - epinephrine, ...
4. New insights into the genetics of familial chromaffin cell tumors.. Koch CA; Vortmeyer AO; Zhuang Z; Brouwers FM; Pacak K. ...
cell answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... chromaffin cell. chromaffin cell. chromaffin cell. A cell that produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines. The cells are ... null cell. null cell. null cell. 1. A large lymphocyte without the cell markers of either a T cell or a B cell. Natural killer ... embryonic stem cell. embryonic stem cell. embryonic stem cell. ABBR: ES cell A cell from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst ...
Hyperplasia is defined as a focal to diffuse increase in cell number. Hyperplasia is generally focal, though diffuse ... Vitamin D3, lactose, and xylitol stimulate chromaffin cell proliferation in the rat adrenal medulla. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 140 ... Cortical hyperplasia (increased cell numbers) and cortical hypertrophy (increased cell size) can often be concurrent lesions in ... The hyperplastic lesion (H) has an increased number of cells that are smaller than adjacent normal cortical cells (NC). ...
Cell Communication/physiology*; Chromaffin Cells/chemistry*; Chromaffin Cells/drug effects; Chromaffin Cells/metabolism; ... by GC-TOF with LC-MS Illustrates Secretion of 9 Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules from Sympathoadrenal Chromaffin Cells in the ... Chromaffin/chemistry; Paraganglia, Chromaffin/drug effects; Paraganglia, Chromaffin/metabolism; Signal Transduction/drug ... The CG neurotransmitters were constitutively secreted from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells in culture. Nicotine- and KCl- ...
We provisionally categorized the adrenal gland as nerve tissue because of the presence of chromaffin cells in the medulla of ... mice were injected with cells from the brainstem of a normal cow. The presence of PrPres in the brains of all mice used in the ...
Chromaffin Cells Preferred Concept UI. M0028920. Scope Note. Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of ... Chromaffin Cells Preferred Term Term UI T057957. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1997). ... Chromaffin System (1967-1996). Enterochromaffin Cells (1977-1995). Public MeSH Note. 97. History Note. 97. Date Established. ... Chromaffin Cells. Tree Number(s). A06.224.161. A11.299. Unique ID. D019439. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ...
... normal differentiation trajectories from Schwann cell precursors over intermediate states to neuroblasts or chromaffin cells ... Modeling single-cell transcriptional states in dendritic cells and additional hematopoietic cell types uncovers rich cell-type ... Hi-C requires millions of cells as input and, as genome organization varies from cell to cell, a limitation of Hi-C is that it ... Single cell analysis of rare circulating tumor cells allows for accurate liquid biopsy and detection of malignant plasma cells ...
O2 is the new powerful and ideal transfection kit designed for primary and hard-to-transfect cells. ... Embryonic stem cells. DNA. Magnetofectamine O2. Srinivasan SP., Cell Death Discov. 2022 Nov 5;8(1):447. ... Magnetofectamine O2 Transfection Kit for Primary Cells. Sizes :. *MTX2-1000 Starting Kit: 1 super Magnetic Plate (MF1000) + 250 ... Magnetofectamine™ O2 is the new powerful and ideal transfection kit designed for primary and hard-to-transfect cells. The ...
1967) Histochemical studies of the relationship of chromaffin cell and adrenergic nerve fibers to the cardiac ganglia of ... Current records shown in A correspond to cell 1 (top records) and cell 11 (bottom records). Cells are plotted in the order of ... As we show, some of the cells shared the same pharmacological profile (i.e., cells 4 and 7 and cells 10 and 11). Each of the ... varied from cell to cell. Whole-cell current responses of two different neurons to agonist applications are shown in Figure 1A ...
Chromaffin System A06.224.161 Chromaffin Cells A06.224.161.500 Chromaffin Granules A06.224.358 Enterochromaffin Cells A06.224. ... THP-1 Cells A11. U937 Cells A11.251.210.200 CHO Cells A11.251.210.505 L Cells (Cell Line) A11.251.210.520 LLC- ... Granulosa Cells A11.436.329.500 Cumulus Cells A11.436.334 HEK293 Cells A11.436.340 HeLa Cells A11.436.340.500 KB Cells A11.436. ... Chromaffin Cells A11.299.500 PC12 Cells A11.329 Connective Tissue Cells A11.329.114 Adipocytes A11.329.114.125 Adipocytes, ...
... diffusion and swelling pressure governs individual vesicular exocytotic events during release of adrenaline by chromaffin cells ... Zorec R. Zorec R. Cell Calcium. 2018 Jul;73:53-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2018.03.004. Epub 2018 Mar 29. Cell Calcium. 2018. PMID ... Zorec R, Wu LG. Zorec R, et al. Cell Calcium. 2023 Jun;112:102737. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2023.102737. Epub 2023 Apr 6. Cell ... Mol Biol Cell. 2019 Jul 22;30(16):1882-1889. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E19-02-0107. Mol Biol Cell. 2019. PMID: 31322997 Free PMC article ...
The THP-1 cell line is widely used for studying macrophage functions and for analyzing host cell-pathogen interactions. We ... This study provides a rational basis for the use of the Vitamin C- THP-1 cell model, to study biochemical and cellular ... Modulatory effects of vitamin C on THP-1 cells were revealed by differential expression of genes starting from 8 h onwards ... Cell cycle and Extracellular matrix organization, and THP-1 specific responses, namely, Regulation of gene expression and ...
It arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Clinical presentation includes headaches, palpitations, chest and ... T Cell Lymphoma,T-Cell Lymphoma,T-Cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma,T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma,T-Cell and NK-Cell Non- ... Large Cell Type,Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Lung, Large Cell Type,Clear Cell Lung Carcinoma, Large Cell Type A large cell lung ... Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma,Conventional (Clear Cell) Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma,Conventional (Clear Cell) Renal Cell ...
... and masses of chromaffin cells. (3) The formation of the anterior and posterior nerve-roots. (4) The differentiation of the ... From the cells of the lateral plates are formed the lining endothelial cells of the great serous cavities of the body-the ... The Intermediate Cell Tracts.-The intermediate cell tracts are the rudiments of the internal organs of the genital system and ... According to this view the muscle cells are formed from the innermost cells and the incurved margins of the plates. ...
... biology and that led to the realization that as excited as I was about my own research about the biology of chromaffin cells ... The old model was that when the cells were growing on glucose there were these hypothetical repressors. When the cells ran out ... As I say, if there had not been the civil war in Ghana I would have gone off and studied sickle cell disease in Ghana and had a ... We worried about how cyclic AMP was going to get into the cells, whether the experiments were going to work, but we just put it ...
Chromaffin Cells - Preferred Concept UI. M0028920. Scope note. Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of ... Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete ... Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic ... Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic ...
... several neurosecretory cell types, bone and car tilage of the face, and adrenal chromaffin cells. Because of the migratory ... Neural crest-derived cell types include neurons and supportive cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, ... Neural crest cells emigrate from the dorsal neural tube shortly after tube closure. From this site of origin, they migrate ... The Cell Surface in Development and Cancer. Developmental Biology: A Comprehensive Synthesis. No.3. Plenum Press , New York, NY ...
  • Guest Editor: J. Molecular Neuroscience: Special Issue on the Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology, 2012, Beijing, China. (nih.gov)
  • However, no reports describe changes in calcium regulation specifically in human midbrain-derived stem cells during their development to neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of the whole-cell pharmacology of these neurons showed a diversity of responses to the agonists acetylcholine, nicotine, cytisine, and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, suggesting that a heterogeneous population of nicotinic receptor classes, or subtypes, is expressed by individual neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We used single-cell RT-PCR to examine nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit mRNA expression by individual neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We now show that the whole-cell nicotinic agonist pharmacology of intracardiac parasympathetic neurons varies dramatically among individual neurons, and we provide evidence of single-channel behavior suggesting a heterogeneous population of nAChRs on these neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neural crest-derived cell types include neurons and supportive cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, several neurosecretory cell types, bone and car tilage of the face, and adrenal chromaffin cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Catestatin can inhibit catecholamine release from chromaffin cells and adrenergic neurons. (istinye.edu.tr)
  • Exocytosis and endocytosis are two fundamental cellular processes in nearly all cells, including neurons. (nih.gov)
  • These tumors arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • 4. New insights into the genetics of familial chromaffin cell tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Synexin is a 47 000 M r calcium-binding protein, initially discovered in the bovine adrenal medulla, which binds to granule membranes and to inner aspects of chromaffin cell plasma membranes. (silverchair.com)
  • Synexin causes chromaffin granules to aggregate, and such aggregates can be caused to fuse in the additional presence of arachidonic acid. (silverchair.com)
  • Inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion by Dryobalanops aromatica in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Temperature sensitivity of catecholamine secretion and ion fluxes in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Neomycin inhibits catecholamine secretion by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Differential inhibition of catecholamine secretion by amitriptyline through blockage of nicotinic receptors, sodium channels, and calcium channels in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Metabolomics Analyses of 14 Classical Neurotransmitters by GC-TOF with LC-MS Illustrates Secretion of 9 Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules from Sympathoadrenal Chromaffin Cells in the Presence of Lithium. (nih.gov)
  • In chromaffin cells, induces long-lasting increase of intracellular calcium concentrations and neuroendocrine secretion (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Involved in the control of glucose homeostasis, induces insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • 3. Falsified the quantification for the effect of blebbistatin on catecholamine release as determined by patch clamp analysis in Figure 22 of the Dissertation by stating that 14 cells had been assayed when only 8 cells had been assayed. (nih.gov)
  • Park T, Bae S, Choi S, Kang B, Kim K. Inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and calcium channels by clozapine in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (childrensmercy.org)
  • This interaction that relies on specific Ca(v)3.2 molecular determinants, not only modulates T-type channel activity, but was also found essential to support low-threshold exocytosis upon Ca(v)3.2 channel expression in MPC 9/3L-AH chromaffin cells. (inserm.fr)
  • His laboratory investigates the fundamental process of exocytosis and endocytosis, such ashow the fusion pore opens, expands, constricts, or close, how membrane curvature is generated, how endocytosis is initiated and mediated, how synaptic transmission is controlled by different modes of exocytosis, endocytosis and by calcium channels at nerve terminals and neuroendocrine cells. (nih.gov)
  • Membranes of secretory vesicles fuse with each other and with plasma membranes during exocytosis in many different cell types. (silverchair.com)
  • Doreian, B.W. ``Molecular Regulation of the Exocytic Mode in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. (nih.gov)
  • The classical small molecule neurotransmitters are essential for cell-cell signaling in the nervous system for regulation of behaviors and physiological functions. (nih.gov)
  • The lab is constantly seeking highly talented and motivated postdoctoral candidates with experience in molecular biology (e.g., knockdown or knockout), cell biology (e.g., live-cell fluorescence imaging), electron microscopy, and/or electrophysiology. (nih.gov)
  • The lab is also seeking graduate students majored in Neurobiology, Cell Biology, Pharmacology, Genetics, and Biomedical Engineering, with an interest in exo- and endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • He currently serves as monitoring editor for the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB). (nih.gov)
  • A somatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: APUD cell Any of the constituent cells of a diffuse neuroendocrine system, having metabolic pathways that make and utilize serotonin (5-HT). (tabers.com)
  • We used three preparations, the giant calyx of Held nerve terminal, the cultured hippocampal synapse and the neuroendocrine adrenal chromaffin cell. (nih.gov)
  • Preformed Ω-profile closure and kiss-and-run mediate endocytosis and diverse endocytic modes in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. (uam.es)
  • WHO, 2001) Malignant C45929 Acidophil Stem Cell Pituitary Gland Adenoma Acidophil Stem Cell Adenoma An infrequent pituitary gland adenoma composed of cells showing immunoreactivity for prolactin and less often growth hormone. (nih.gov)
  • Code Preferred Term Synonyms Definition Neoplastic Status C7419 Acanthoma A benign skin neoplasm composed of epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Acinic Cell Carcinoma A malignant glandular epithelial neoplasm consisting of secretory cells forming acinar patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Single-cell analysis shows that differential activity of DNMT3A and DNMT3B combines with replication-linked methylation turnover to increase epigenetic plasticity in gastrulation. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Our approach also complements cryo_EM of isolated frozen-hydrated supramolecular assemblies, which is difficult to apply to intact eukaryotic cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients and oscillations have been reported in various tissues of nonhuman and human origin but not in human midbrain-derived stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (tabers.com)
  • Interplay between membrane dynamics, diffusion and swelling pressure governs individual vesicular exocytotic events during release of adrenaline by chromaffin cells. (nih.gov)
  • Neural crest cells emigrate from the dorsal neural tube shortly after tube closure. (caltech.edu)
  • Because of the migratory ability of neural crest cells and the diversity of crest derivatives, this transient embryonic structure provides an important model system for studying interactions involved in cell movement and differentiation. (caltech.edu)
  • Previously, a Rab6-mediated exocytic pathway has been shown to be involved in Grk trafficking in germ-line cells during oogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels act as a major pathway for calcium entry near the resting membrane potential in a wide range of neuronal cell types. (inserm.fr)
  • The coordinated differentiation of progenitor cells into specialized cell types and their spatial organization into distinct domains is central to embryogenesis. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We provide evidence for the existence of intracellular calcium stores that respond to muscarinic activation of the cells, having sensitivity for ryanodine and thapsigargin possibly reflecting IP 3 receptor activity and the presence of ryanodine receptors and calcium ATPase pumps. (hindawi.com)
  • Chromaffin Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Representative examples include the acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas and the acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120 to 150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (tabers.com)
  • 1. Either of two types of epithelial cells lining the alveoli of the lung. (tabers.com)
  • Type I cells are simple, thin squamous epithelial cells. (tabers.com)
  • 2. In the mammary glands, the milk-secreting epithelial cells, which are activated during lactation. (tabers.com)
  • For mammalian cells, typical internal concentrations include 140 mM K+, 5 to 15 mM Na+, 5 to 15 mM Cl-, and a pH of 7.2, which can be significantly different from their concentrations outside the cell. (tabers.com)
  • COMMON COMPONENTS AND ORGANELLES OF HUMAN CELLS Individual mammalian cells are usually microscopic, typically ranging from 5 to 50 µm in diameter. (tabers.com)
  • The nanometer scale of biological electron microscopy lies between the realms of live-cell optical microscopy and atomic-scale structural tools of x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, both of which-unlike EM-require extraction and purification of cellular components. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium is a versatile intracellular messenger controlling a wide range of cellular processes [ 1 - 3 ] including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and general gene transcription [ 4 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In both the cortex and medulla, rare mitotic figures may be present, but the hyperplastic cells typically lack features of cellular atypia. (nih.gov)
  • CombiMag, a magnetic formulation based on the Magnetofection™ technology, binds to MTX transfection reagent/DNA complexes and under the application of a magnetic field concentrates the genetic material onto cells and promotes cellular uptake. (ozbiosciences.com)
  • This study provides a rational basis for the use of the Vitamin C- THP-1 cell model, to study biochemical and cellular responses to stresses, including infection with M. tuberculosis and other intracellular pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vesicle trafficking plays a crucial role in the establishment of cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including axis-pattern formation in the developing egg chamber of Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Using confocal microfluorimetry, we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line undergoing proliferation and neuronal differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • We propose that the observed spontaneous calcium transients may contribute to mechanisms involved in cell proliferation, phenotypic differentiation, and general cell maturation. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been reported that the mechanisms that regulate spontaneous calcium oscillations in stem cells may change during their transition from proliferation to differentiation and maturation [ 27 , 30 - 33 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The present investigation was initially performed in order to study spontaneous calcium signaling in human midbrain-derived stem cells undergoing neuronal differentiation [ 34 - 37 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that identical calcium-regulating mechanisms operate during the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human midbrain-derived stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we compare rabbit and mouse time-resolved differentiation trajectories to revisit this model at single cell resolution. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We modeled gastrulation dynamics using hundreds of embryos sampled between gestation days 6.0-8.5, and compare the species using a new framework for time-resolved single-cell differentiation-flows analysis. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • NCI05) Malignant C40367 Acinic Cell Breast Carcinoma A breast adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of serous (acinic cell) differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na+ current, 40% in Ca2+-dependent K+ current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K+ current. (uam.es)
  • Other key reactions move molecules and molecular complexes within the cell, sometimes changing the shape of the cell. (tabers.com)
  • We demonstrate that the embryonic limb undergoes a complex multiscale reorganization upon perturbation of one of its spatial organizing centers, including the loss of specific cell populations, alterations of preexisting cell states' molecular identities, and changes in their relative spatial distribution. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Our study shows how multidimensional single-cell, spatially resolved molecular atlases can allow the deconvolution of spatial identity and cell fate and reveal the interconnected genetic networks that regulate organogenesis and its reorganization upon genetic alterations. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We used a variety of advanced techniques, including confocal imaging, super-resolution STED imaging, super-resolution STORM imaging, molecular biological techniques, electron microscopy, and advanced electrophysiological techniques (e.g., whole-cell current and capacitance recordings, cell-attached single channel current and capacitance recordings). (nih.gov)
  • Molecular mechanics underlying flat-to-round membrane budding in live secretory cells. (nih.gov)
  • Binding to its receptor activates G proteins and stimulates adenylate cyclase in pituitary cells. (nih.gov)
  • We provisionally categorized the adrenal gland as nerve tissue because of the presence of chromaffin cells in the medulla of the gland. (cdc.gov)
  • Acinar Adenocarcinoma of the Lung A morphologic variant of lung adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of acinar structures composed of columnar or cuboidal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Human leukocytes and cultured cells of leukocyte origin can accumulate vitamin C (vit C) to millimolar concentrations, which is significantly above that in circulating blood where it is estimated to be in the range of about 50-100 μM, and of this at least 95% is in the reduced form [ 1 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A modified nerve cell in the retina that has dendrites but no axon. (tabers.com)
  • It transmits a signal to an adjacent nerve or muscle cell by binding to receptors on the target cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • cAMP, or cyclic adenosine monophosphate -- A form of AMP, generated from ATP by adenylyl cyclase in response to the stimulation of many types of cell-surface receptors, used frequently as a second messenger in eukaryotics (cells containing one nucleus) and in catabolite repression in prokaryotes (cells containing no nucleus). (nih.gov)
  • Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells. (nih.gov)
  • Synexin also mediates the direct fusion of liposomes and chromaffin granule ghosts. (silverchair.com)
  • 4. Falsified the Pearson's cross-correlation analysis in Figure 7 of the Mol Biol Cell paper and in Figure 25 of the Dissertation, used to calculate the degree of spatial correlation between pan-chromogranin A/B (CgA/B) and the endosomal membrane, by stating that 20 or more cells had been tested for each condition when only 9-18 cells had been tested for each condition. (nih.gov)
  • Ascorbate is a cytosolic antioxidant and free radical scavenger that operates in concert with lipid-soluble membrane antioxidants, such asα-tocopherol or carotene, and may increase the ability of cells to cope with reactive oxygen metabolites generated by their activated phagocytic apparatus [ 8 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Visualization of Membrane Pore in Live Cells Reveals a Dynamic-Pore Theory Governing Fusion and Endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • The infiltrating immune cells via IL-6-pSTAT3 immune-hepatocyte crosstalk cause the depletion of a master metabolic regulator, HNF4a, consequently leading to systemic metabolic changes that promote breast and pancreatic cancer proliferation and a worse outcome. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Antibody -- Any of the protein molecules produced by specialized immune system cells (B cells) that can recognize and bind to a particular foreign antigen. (nih.gov)
  • At the cephalic end of the embryonic area the medial margins of the mesodermal sheets fuse together across the median plane, forming a transverse bar of mesodermal cells which may be called the pericardial mesoderm (Fig. 48), because the pericardial sac, which envelops the heart, is afterwards developed from it. (co.ma)
  • The septum of cells at the lateral border of the embryonic area on each side, which, for a time, separates the embryonic from the extra-embryonic coelom, soon disappears, and the cœlom then forms a continuous cavity (Fig. 37). (co.ma)
  • We find that systemic inflammation induced by the cancer leads to liver infiltration of myeloid cells at early extrahepatic carcinogenesis. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Leukemia Basophilic A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the immature cells differentiate towards basophils. (nih.gov)
  • Acute Leukemia of Indeterminate Lineage An acute leukemia in which the blasts lack sufficient evidence to classify as myeloid or lymphoid or they have morphologic and/or immunophenotypic characteristics of both myeloid and lymphoid cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Falsified the quantification of immunofluorescence for the ratio of phosphorylated to unphosphorylated MARCKS protein in response to different stimuli in Figure 2 of the Mol Biol Cell paper and in Figure 12 of the Dissertation by falsifying the sample number as n=15. (nih.gov)
  • grk mRNA and protein are localized at the posterior of the oocyte during early oogenesis to activate EGFR signaling in the posterior follicle cells, which in turn send a mysterious signal back to initiate AP axis formation in the oocyte. (sdbonline.org)
  • This finding is based on the study of a newly identified hypomorphic allele of Syx1A whose germ-line clones have defective dorsal follicle-cell specification and abnormal Grk protein localization after stage 7. (sdbonline.org)
  • Although no defect was detected in Syx1A clones in Grk posterior localization and signaling to activate EGFR in the posterior follicle cells, it cannot be ruled out that that Syx1A has no role in the posterior localization of Grk protein. (sdbonline.org)
  • Cell-free system -- A mixture of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear components from cells used for in vitro protein synthesis, transcription, DNA replication, or other purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Also stimulates mast cell release of histamine via a separate mechanism. (fishersci.com)
  • A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells. (uam.es)
  • Sequential compound fusion and kiss-and-run mediate exo- and endocytosis in excitable cells. (nih.gov)
  • New insights about non-neurogenic excitability revealed by MEA recordings from rat adrenal chromaffin cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • We performed a genome-wide temporal gene expression and functional enrichment analysis of THP-1 cells treated with 100 μM of vit C, a physiologically relevant concentration of the vitamin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When generating somatic daughter cells, karyokinesis uses a process called mitosis, which produces daughter cells with a full complement of chromosomes. (tabers.com)
  • 1. An enteroendocrine cell that produces glucagon and is found in the pancreatic islets. (tabers.com)
  • We identify multiple transcription factors whose expression patterns are predominantly associated with cell type specification or spatial position, suggesting two parallel yet highly interconnected regulatory systems. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Located predominantly in cell nuclei, it is composed of two chains of nucleotides--deoxyribose and phosphate backbones with side chains of purine (adenine or guanine) or pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) bases projecting inward. (nih.gov)