Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseVeratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Para-Aortic Bodies: Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.Enterochromaffin Cells: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Proteidae: The Proteidae family of permanently larval aquatic salamanders. It consists of two living genera - Necturus (mudpuppy) of the eastern United States and Proteus (the European olm).Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Annexin A7: An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsFlunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Ambystomatidae: A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Interrenal Gland: Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Munc18 Proteins: A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Synaptotagmins: A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Nisoldipine: A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.rab3A GTP-Binding Protein: The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Mecamylamine: A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Paraganglia, Chromaffin: Small bodies containing chromaffin cells occurring outside of the adrenal medulla, most commonly near the sympathetic ganglia and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Microchip Analytical Procedures: The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.

A novel ubiquitously expressed alpha-latrotoxin receptor is a member of the CIRL family of G-protein-coupled receptors. (1/697)

Poisoning with alpha-latrotoxin, a neurotoxic protein from black widow spider venom, results in a robust increase of spontaneous synaptic transmission and subsequent degeneration of affected nerve terminals. The neurotoxic action of alpha-latrotoxin involves extracellular binding to its high affinity receptors as a first step. One of these proteins, CIRL, is a neuronal G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in the regulation of secretion. We now demonstrate that CIRL has two close homologs with a similar domain structure and high degree of overall identity. These novel receptors, which we propose to name CIRL-2 and CIRL-3, together with CIRL (CIRL-1) belong to a recently identified subfamily of large orphan receptors with structural features typical of both G-protein-coupled receptors and cell adhesion proteins. Northern blotting experiments indicate that CIRL-2 is expressed ubiquitously with highest concentrations found in placenta, kidney, spleen, ovary, heart, and lung, whereas CIRL-3 is expressed predominantly in brain similarly to CIRL-1. It appears that CIRL-2 can also bind alpha-latrotoxin, although its affinity to the toxin is about 14 times less than that of CIRL-1. When overexpressed in chromaffin cells, CIRL-2 increases their sensitivity to alpha-latrotoxin stimulation but also inhibits Ca2+-regulated secretion. Thus, CIRL-2 is a functionally competent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin. Our findings suggest that although the nervous system is the primary target of low doses of alpha-latrotoxin, cells of other tissues are also susceptible to the toxic effects of alpha-latrotoxin because of the presence of CIRL-2, a low affinity receptor of the toxin.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/697)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (3/697)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy. (4/697)

We have observed secretory granules beneath the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. Using evanescent-field excitation by epiillumination, we have illuminated a thin layer of cytosol where cells adhere to glass coverslips. Up to 600 frames could be recorded at diffraction-limited resolution without appreciable photodynamic damage. We localized single granules with an uncertainty of approximately 30 nm and tracked their motion in three dimensions. Granules in resting cells wander randomly as if imprisoned in a cage that leaves approximately 70 nm space around a granule. The "cage" itself moves only slowly (D = 2 x 10(-12) cm2/s). Rarely do granules arrive at or depart from the plasma membrane of resting cells. Stimulation increases lateral motion only slightly. After the plasma membrane has been depleted of granules by exocytosis, fresh granules can be seen to approach it at an angle. The method will be useful for exploring the molecular steps preceding exocytosis at the level of single granules.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity of catecholamine secretion and ion fluxes in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (5/697)

The effects of temperature on ion fluxes and catecholamine secretion that are mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), and voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) were investigated using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. When the chromaffin cells were stimulated with DMPP, a nicotinic cholinergic agonist, or 50 mM K+, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation reached a peak and decreased more slowly at lower temperatures. The DMPP-induced responses were more sensitive to temperature changes compared to high K+-induced ones. In the measurement of intracellular sodium concentrations ([Na+]i), it was found that nicotinic stimulation required a longer time to attain the maximal level of [Na+]i at lower temperatures. In addition, the VSSCs-mediated [Na+]i increase evoked by veratridine was also reduced as the temperature decreased. The measurement of [3H]norepinephrine (NE) secretion showed that the secretion within the first 3 min evoked by DMPP or high K+ was greatest at 37 degrees C. However, at 25 degrees C, the secretion evoked by DMPP, but not that by the 50 mM K+, was greater after 10 min of stimulation. This data suggest that temperature differentially affects the activity of nAChRs, VSCCs, and VSSCs, resulting in differential [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i elevation, and in the [3H]NE secretion by adrenal chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly downregulates nicotinic receptor function and slowly raises intracellular Ca2+ in rat chromaffin cells in vitro. (6/697)

Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via intracellular second messenger-mediated phosphorylation, the action of this peptide on neuronal-type nAChRs remains unknown. Using neuronal nAChRs of rat chromaffin cells in vitro we studied the effect of CGRP, which is physiologically present in adrenal medulla, on membrane currents and [Ca2+]i transients elicited by nicotine. Our main novel observation was that CGRP (either bath-applied or focally applied for a few seconds or even co-applied with nicotine for a few milliseconds) selectively and rapidly blocked nAChRs (a phenomenon unlikely caused by intracellular messengers in view of its speed) without affecting GABA receptors. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was independent of [Ca2+]i or membrane potential and not accompanied by baseline current changes. Like the competitive antagonist N,N,N-trimethyl-1-(4-trans-stilbenoxy)-2-propilammonium, CGRP induced a rightward, parallel shift of the nicotine dose-response curve; during co-application of these blockers the nicotine dose-ratio value was the sum of the values obtained with each antagonist alone. The block by CGRP was insensitive to the receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 but mimicked by CGRP1-7. Persistent application of CGRP slowly increased [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon independent from external Ca2+, thus implying Ca2+ release from internal stores, and suppressed by hCGRP8-37. CGRP1-7 had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i. We propose that the 1-7 amino acid sequence of CGRP was responsible for the direct, rapid block of nAChRs, whereas the full-length peptide molecule was necessary for the delayed rise in internal Ca2+ potentially able to trigger phosphorylation-dependent modulation of nicotinic receptor function.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/697)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. (8/697)

Evanescent-wave excitation was used to visualize individual fluorescently labelled vesicles in an optical slice near the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used for directing a laser beam under a supracritical angle on to the glass-water interface on top of which the cells are grown. Whereas epi-illumination images appeared blurred and structureless, evanescent-wave excitation highlighted acridine orange-labelled vesicles as individual pinpoints. Three-dimensional (3D) trajectories of individual vesicles were obtained from time-resolved image stacks and used to characterize vesicles in terms of their average fluorescence F and mobility, expressed here as the 3D diffusion coefficient D(3). Based on the single-vesicle analysis, two groups of vesicles were identified. Transitions between these states were studied before and after stimulation of exocytosis by repetitive or maintained membrane depolarizations by elevated extracellular [K+]. Findings were interpreted as sequential transitions between the previously characterized pools of vesicles preceding the fusion step. The observed approach of vesicles to their docking sites was not explained in terms of free diffusion: most vesicles moved unidirectionally as if directed to their binding sites at the plasma membrane. Vesicle mobility at the membrane was low, such that the sites of docking and fusion were in close vicinity. Both the rim region and confined areas in the centre of the footprint region were the site of intense vesicle trafficking.  (+info)

Since the work of Katz, Douglas, and their collaborators almost half a century ago (Katz, 1969), a central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], resulting from Ca2+ influx, triggers exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that the rise in [Ca2+] occurs in a microdomain within the vicinity (i.e., at a distance of 200-300 nm in chromaffin cells) of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels (García et al., 2006; Neher and Sakaba, 2008). This finding raises the possibility of other microdomains where a rise in focal [Ca2+] might mediate other processes, allowing Ca2+ to subserve several functions without cross talk. This possibility receives further support from the study of Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ sparks are focal Ca2+ transients found in striated and smooth muscle and mediated by RYRs (Cheng and Lederer, 2008). In striated muscle, they are the quanta or building blocks that make up a global increase in [Ca2+] to trigger contraction (Csernoch, ...
Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. Even though deletion of synaptotagmin-1 abolishes fast exocytosis in chromaffin cells, it reduces overall secretion by only 20% because of the persistence of slow exocytosis. Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. Synaptotagmin-7 has a higher Ca(2+) affinity and slower binding kinetics than synaptotagmin-1, matching the proposed properties for the second, slower Ca(2+) sensor. Here, we examined Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in chromaffin cells from KO mice lacking synaptotagmin-7, and from knockin mice containing normal levels of a mutant synaptotagmin-7 whose C(2)B domain does not bind Ca(2+). In both types of mutant chromaffin cells, Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis was decreased dramatically. Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, ...
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...
Definition of Chromaffin cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Chromaffin cells? Meaning of Chromaffin cells as a legal term. What does Chromaffin cells mean in law?
Definition of chromaffin cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chromaffin cell? Meaning of chromaffin cell as a finance term. What does chromaffin cell mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated chromaffin cell secretion. AU - Hexum, T. D.. AU - Zheng, Jialin C. AU - Zhu, J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide with varied activities, inhibits nicotinic receptor-induced [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) secretion from bovine chromaffin cells. The secretion produced by membrane depolarization with high KCl concentrations or veratridine is not inhibited. Fragments of NPY, such as NPY18-36, are potent inhibitors of [3H]NE secretion, whereas [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY and peptide YY have no effect. The response to NPY18-36 is not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment of chromaffin cells. NPY fragments also inhibit nicotinic receptor-induced 45Ca++ influx but not that induced by KCl or veratridine. The rank orders of potency for inhibition of [3H]NE secretion and 45Ca++ influx are the same: NPY18-36 ≥ NPY26-36 , NPY13-36. NPY and NPY(free acid) are weak inhibitors of secretion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
The properties of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K+ currents and their role in defining membrane potential were studied in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Two variants of large-conductance, Ca2+ and voltage-dependent BK channels, one noninactivating and one inactivating, were largely segregated among patches. Whole-cell noninactivating and inactivating currents resulting from each of these channels were segregated among different chromaffin cells. Cell-to-cell variation in the rate and extent of whole-cell current decay was not explained by differences in cytosolic [Ca2+] regulation among cells; rather, variation was due to differences in the intrinsic properties of the underlying BK channels. About 75% of rat chromaffin cells and patches express inactivating BK current (termed BKi) while the remainder express noninactivating BK current (termed BKs). The activation time course of both currents is similar, as is the dependence of activation on [Ca2+] and membrane potential. However, deactivation of ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of ACTH, renin, angiotensin II, and various precursors on biosynthesis of aldosterone by adrenal slices.. AU - Kaplan, Norman M. AU - BARTER, F. C.. PY - 1962/4. Y1 - 1962/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0001053852&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0001053852&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 14453776. AN - SCOPUS:0001053852. VL - 41. SP - 715. EP - 724. JO - Journal of Clinical Investigation. JF - Journal of Clinical Investigation. SN - 0021-9738. ER - ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
Video articles in JoVE about adrenal glands include A Novel Method: Super-selective Adrenal Venous Sampling, Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Mouse Adipose Tissue Collection and Processing for RNA Analysis, Imaging Plasma Membrane Deformations With pTIRFM, An Alternant Method to the Traditional NASA Hindlimb Unloading Model in Mice, Pre-Conditioning the Airways of Mice with Bleomycin Increases the Efficiency of Orthotopic Lung Cancer Cell Engraftment, 5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat, Isolation and Transplantation of Different Aged Murine Thymic Grafts., In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis, Receptor Autoradiography Protocol for the Localized Visualization of Angiotensin II Receptors, Murine Prostate Micro-dissection
The differentiation of neuronal cell progenitors depends on complex interactions between intrinsic cellular programs and environmental cues. Such interactions have recently been explored using an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, MAH. These studies have revealed that depolarizing conditions, in combination with exposure to FGF, can induce responsiveness to NGF. Here we report that CNTF, which utilizes an intracellular signaling pathway distinct from that of both FGF and NGF, can collaborate with FGF to promote efficiently the differentiation of MAH progenitor cells to a stage remarkably reminiscent of NGF-dependent, postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells into sympathetic neurons ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
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During exocytosis, the fusion pore expands to allow release of neurotransmitters and hormones to the extracellular space. To understand the process of synaptic transmission, it is of outstanding importance to know the properties of the fusion pore and how these properties affect the release process. Many proteins have been implicated in vesicle fusion; however, there is little evidence for proteins involved in fusion pore expansion. Myosin II has been shown to participate in the transport of vesicles and, surprisingly, in the final phases of exocytosis, affecting the kinetics of catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells as measured by amperometry. Here, we have studied single vesicle exocytosis in chromaffin cells overexpressing an unphosphorylatable form (T18AS19A RLC-GFP) of myosin II that produces an inactive protein by patch amperometry. This method allows direct determination of fusion pore expansion by measuring its conductance, whereas the release of catecholamines is recorded ...
Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 245-248; (1989) J. Neurochern., in press]. The related botulinum A toxin also consists of a heavy and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The actions ofboth neurotoxins on exocytosis were presently compared using streptolysin O-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. Addition of dithiothreitollowered the effective doses to values below 5 nM. Under the same conditions, the effective doses of tetanus toxin were decreased by a factor of five. This indicates that the interchain S-S bond of botulinum A toxin must also be split before the neurotoxin can exert its effect on exocytosis. ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
MUNC18-1 (also known as STXBP1) is an essential protein for docking and fusion of secretory vesicles. Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) lacking MUNC18-1 show impaired secretory vesicle docking, but also mistargeting of SNARE protein syntaxin1 and an abnormally dense submembrane F-actin network. Here, we tested the contribution of both these phenomena to docking and secretion defects in MUNC18-1-deficient MCCs. We show that an abnormal F-actin network and syntaxin1 targeting defects are not observed in Snap25- or Syt1-knockout (KO) MCCs, which are also secretion deficient. We identified a MUNC18-1 mutant (V263T in β-sheet 10) that fully restores syntaxin1 targeting but not F-actin abnormalities in Munc18-1-KO cells. MUNC18-2 and -3 (also known as STXBP2 and STXBP3, respectively), which lack the hydrophobic residue at position 263, also did not restore a normal F-actin network in Munc18-1-KO cells. However, these proteins did restore the normal F-actin network when a hydrophobic residue was ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
The coupling between divalent cations and exocytosis of large dense- cored vesicles (LDCV) was studied with capacitance-detection techniques in nerve terminals of the rat neurohypophysis (NHP) and bovine chromaffin cells. Ba2+ substitution for Ca2+ produced kinetically distinct responses in the two preparations. In NHP terminals, Ba2+ ions behave as weak substitutes for Ca2+. Exocytotic events occur principally during depolarizing pulses, i.e., events are "stimulus- coupled" to Ba2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Stimulus- coupled exocytosis apparently requires elevated submembrane cation concentrations that dissipate rapidly on hyperpolarization-induced Ca(2+)-channel closure. Intracellular dialysis of NHP terminals with Ba2+ does not evoke exocytosis, nor does it interfere with depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx and exocytosis. In chromaffin cells, Ba2+ ions evoke a small quantity of stimulus-coupled secretion, but the dominant response is an additional pronounced poststimulus ...
Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Wegenhorst, U.; Stecher, B.; Spicher, K.; Rosenthal, W. und Gratzl, Manfred (1992): Exocytosis from permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is differently modulated by guanosine 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Evidence for the involvement of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 284: S. 321-326 [PDF, 3MB] ...
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Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
On the Convergence of Bio-, Information-, Enrivonmental-, Energy-, Space- and Nano-Technolgies: Effect of Morphine and Bupivacaine on Nicotine-Induced Catecholamine Secretion from Encapsulated Chromaffin Cells
The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
With the type of cryofixation we used (sandwich freezing), cells remain permanently surrounded by their culture or trigger medium, and impairment of viability during handling can be minimized (Pscheid et al., 1981). The propane jet applied onto the thin copper cover provides very rapid cooling, i.e., up to 40,000°C·s−1 (Knoll et al., 1982; Plattner and Knoll, 1984). The freeze-substitution medium used includes OsO4 and, thus, precludes osmotic changes during warming (Van Harreveld et al., 1965; Morel et al., 1971; Wollweber et al., 1981), and the epoxide embedding chosen involves little shrinkage (Plattner and Zingsheim, 1983). In other studies, open samples were used for freezing on cold metal surfaces or injection into cold media (Ornberg et al., 1995; Parsons et al., 1995). This requires removal of the culture/trigger medium since cryopreservation is restricted to ∼20 μm (Plattner and Bachmann, 1982). The fluid film that may remain on the sample is very thin and ionic conditions are ...
Primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells provide large quantities of a homogeneous population of target cells for nerve growth factor (NGF) and, thus, are a suitable system for studying the molecular mechanism of action of NGF. In this study, we have shown that NGF mediates the specific induction of the key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme which catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine, is also induced by NGF. We have compared NGF-mediated TH and AChE induction and have provided pharmacological evidence that TH induction involves a post-transcriptional, polyadenylation-dependent event (blockable by 9-beta-arabinofuranosyladenine but not by alpha- amanitin), whereas AChE induction requires transcription (blockable by alpha-amanitin). DBH and PNMT appear to be regulated via the same mechanism as TH. The time course of TH induction is ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Minute-to-minute control of the release of insulin by pancreatic β-cells in response to glucose or other stimuli requires the precise delivery of large dense-core vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulated exocytosis. At present, the precise spatial organization at the cell surface and the nature of these events (transient versus full fusion) are debated. In order to monitor secretory events simultaneously over most of the surface of clusters of single MIN6 β-cells, we have expressed recombinant neuropeptide Y-Venus (an enhanced and vesicle-targeted form of yellow fluorescent protein) as an insulin surrogate. Individual exocytotic events were monitored using Nipkow spinning disc confocal microscopy, with acquisition of a three-dimensional complete image (eight to twelve confocal slices) in ,1 s, in response to cell depolarization. Corroborating earlier studies using TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy, this approach indicates that events occur with roughly equal ...
Calcium-binding protein involved in exocytosis of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Probably acts upstream of fusion in the biogenesis or maintenance of mature secretory vesicles. Regulates neurotrophin release from granule cells leading to regulate cell differentiation and survival during cerebellar development. May specifically mediate the Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and other dense-core vesicles (By similarity).
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It has been reported that cAMP regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis via protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in neurons and secretory cells. It has, however, never been clarified how regulation of Ca(2+)-dep
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I built a 13s5p pack initially that worked, but pushed the specs of 2-3C a little too much and the batteries got warm (150F). Finally, I settled on a 13s9p pack. While some batteries were 2600mah and others 2200mah, I realized they had degraded by cycles in the laptops and were now on average 2000mah. This means 9x2ah ~ 18ah pack at 13s9p. Therefore 1C discharge is 18amps which will be well inside 98% of my riding and Im in a steep hilly area. When I cap out at 25a that will be 25/18 = 1.4 C and Ill only hit 25a for a few seconds at most. If you go above 16amps, you are in too high a gear with the BBS02 ...
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Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with the catecholamine transport blocker reserpine was previously shown to increase enkephalin levels several-fold. To explore the biochemical mechanism of this effect, we examined the effect of reserpine treatment on the activities of three different peptide precursor processing enzymes: carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and the prohormone convertases (PCs) PC1/3 and PC2. Reserpine treatment increased both CPE and PC activity in extracts of cultured chromaffin cells; total protein levels were unaltered for any enzyme. Further analysis showed that the increase in CPE activity was due to an elevated Vmax, with no change in the Km for substrate hydrolysis or the levels of CPE mRNA. Reserpine activation of endogenous processing enzymes was also observed in extracts prepared from PC12 cells stably expressing PC1/3 or PC2. In vitro experiments using purified enzymes showed that catecholamines inhibited CPE, PC1/3 and PC2, with dopamine quinone the most ...
Bovine adrenomedullary cells in culture have been used to study the role of myosin in vesicle transport during exocytosis. Amperometric determination of calcium-dependent catecholamine release from individual digitonin-permeabilized cells treated with 3μM wortmannin or 20mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) and stimulated by continuous as well as repetitive calcium pulses showed alteration of slow phases of secretion when compared with control untreated cells. The specificity of these drugs for myosin inhibition was further supported by the use of peptide-18, a potent peptide affecting myosin light-chain kinase activity. These results were supported also by studying the impact of these myosin inhibitors on chromaffin granule mobility using direct visualization by dynamic confocal microscopy. Wortmannin and BDM affect drastically vesicle transport throughout the cell cytoplasm, including the region beneath the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrate the presence of myosin types II ...
We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
Catecholamine secretion from neonatal adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) in response to episodes of asphyxia during birth leads to physiological changes that facilitate air breathing. The ability of AMCs to respond to hypoxia disappears postnatally concurrently with maturation of cholinergic innervation, and prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with decreased hypoxia-induced catecholamine secretion and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Buttigieg et al., who previously showed that chronic nicotine exposure interferes with the response of neonatal rat AMCs to hypoxia, explored the underlying mechanism. Hypoxia leads to inhibition of large-conductance and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and of delayed rectifier K+ channels in AMCs; however, pharmacological analysis indicated that prenatal nicotine exposure did not affect K+ currents mediated by these channels, and immunocytochemical analysis confirmed their presence in AMCs from the nicotine-exposed pups. ...
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the safety and efficacy of a potential new treatment method that utilizes a non-invasive application of ultrasound energy to induce exocytosis of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. Amperometric measurements offer confirmation of secretion as well as data that could lead to optimization in controlling the release via ultrasound application. Finite-element modeling studies provide information regarding the thermal and mechanical effects of therapeutic ultrasound in the human abdomen. METHODS: Initial experiments focused on detecting exocytotic secretions from pancreatic beta cells in response to ultrasound stimulation using carbon fiber amperometry. Neurotransmitters, specifically dopamine and its precursor L-DOPA, were loaded into secretory vesicles in beta cells and co-released with insulin. Cells were stimulated at 800 kHz and an intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for 5 s, 10 s, and 15 s at various time intervals. Secretion of insulin was detected by proxy
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
Hypertension can be an underlying risk element for cardiovascular disease. were observed. By contrast, inhibition of ganglionic transmission with either hexamethonium or prazosin abolished the difference in blood pressure between and wild-type mice. Strikingly, plasma epinephrine concentration as well as urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites were substantially elevated in mice. In freshly isolated chromaffin cells, lack of TRPM4 was shown to cause markedly more acetylcholine-induced exocytotic launch events, while neither cytosolic calcium concentration, size, nor denseness of vesicles were different. We consequently conclude that TRPM4 proteins limit catecholamine launch from chromaffin cells and that contributes to elevated sympathetic build and hypertension. Launch Regulation of blood circulation pressure is normally a complicated integrated response regarding various body organ systems, including vasculature, center, kidneys, adrenal glands, as well as the CNS. These functional ...
The properties of sea urchin egg secretory vesicle exocytosis in vitro in response to both multiple solution exchange protocols and different rates of calcium delivery are incompatable with several classes of kinetic reactions that have been incorporated into models of calcium-regulated exocytosis. Kinetic reactions that are not applicable are summarized here (1) A → B (two-state reaction); (2) A → B → C (consecutive reaction); (3) A → B → C with A, B → Iirreversible or A, B ↔ Ireversible (consecutive reaction with inhibitory branches); (4) Ai ↔ Ai* (i = 1, 2, ...) and Bj → Bj* (j = 1, 2, ...) (parallel reactions with fusion ∝ Ai*N Bj*M); and (5) adapting quantity.. All homogeneous population models (reactions 1, 2, and 3) with or without reversible or irreversible inhibitory states fail to describe the properties of this calcium-triggered exocytotic system. The first two models are simple linear reaction schemes in which reactant A is converted to product in one or two ...
Vesicular exocytosis is a crucial process for living cells by which signalling species such as acetylcholine and catecholamines and other vesicular contents can be secreted into the extracellular environment. Single cell electrochemistry, especially the "semi-artificial synapse" based amperometry, has been used to scrutinize exocytosis dynamics of single vesicles due to its high sensitivity and appropriate temporal resolution. Important characteristics of vesicular release as well as the effects of biological, chemical and physical parameters on them have thus been evaluated for many cell lines. This has led to contest the conventional full release mode. Recently, the view that partial release is the most common for most neurotransmitters stored in dense core vesicles has gained acceptance. However, the fundamental reasons leading to partial fusion remain an open question waiting experimental characterization. In this work, catecholamine release was elicited from PC12 using sufficiently small ...
Biology Assignment Help, Neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion, Neurosecretory Cells and Neurosecretion We have before said that the neurosecretory cells are an important component of the non- chordate endocrine system. Of course, they are as well present in chordates. But unlike chordates, among non-chordat
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
Background in membrane capacitance measurements: Methods for measuring membrane capacitance (microscopic and macroscopic). Regulated exocytosis. Whole-cell measurements. Fusion pore properties (single vesicle measurements). Historical view and future directions. Laboratory demonstrations and hands-on experience of the new technique: Measurements of Single Vesicle Fusion in Glial Cells. Data interpretation.. ...
Background in membrane capacitance measurements: Methods for measuring membrane capacitance (microscopic and macroscopic). Regulated exocytosis. Whole-cell measurements. Fusion pore properties (single vesicle measurements). Historical view and future directions. Laboratory demonstrations and hands-on experience of the new technique: Measurements of Single Vesicle Fusion in Glial Cells. Data interpretation.. ...
Physiology Test Question - The exocytotic release of hormones stored in secretory vesicles is triggered by a rise in cytoplasmic __________ concentration.
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A 12V, 10W LED means it needs ~833mA. A 9V battery is usually only used for ~ 100mA or less and at this discharge rate is rated at about 310mAH or it would last about 3 hours. See:http://www.powerstream.com/9V-Alkaline-tests.htmNow, at a 1A discharge, or power of 9W, close enough to run the 10W 12V LED. The above tests show a good alkaline 9V battery lasting about 0.09 hrs (90mAH/1000mA = 0.09 H) or about 5.4 minutes. The best would last 0.3 hrs (300mAH) or about 18 minutes.However, this is running the battery down to 0.1 Volts and most 9V applications run the battery down to about 5 or 6 Volts and a 12 V LED would probably turn off at about 6 Volts (this is just a guess Id have to test one to be sure) and so in all probability the flashlight would last perhaps only seconds before runn.... see more ». A 12V, 10W LED means it needs ~833mA. A 9V battery is usually only used for ~ 100mA or less and at this discharge rate is rated at about 310mAH or it would last about 3 hours. ...
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Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
IA-2 is a tyrosine phosphatase-like protein with a single transmembrane (TM) region (residues 577-600) and extracellular and intracellular domains (Fig. 1) (1). IA-2 is enriched in the secretory granules of pancreatic islet cells and neuroendocrine cells, including peptidergic neurons, pituitary cells, and adrenal chromaffin cells (2). It is unclear why the immune system reacts against IA-2 as part of the autoimmune responses associated with type 1 diabetes (3-6). The IA-2 gene is also expressed in the human thymus (7) in a manner similar to other genes coding for self-molecules with tissue-restricted expression, including insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (7-11), two other autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Self-antigen expression in thymus may play a key role in promoting immunological self-tolerance, and variation in such expression may have dramatic effects on tolerance. We have also obtained evidence that the self-antigens are detected not only in thymus but in peripheral lymphoid ...
A paraganglion (pl. paraganglia) is a group of non-neuronal cells derived of the neural crest. They are named for being generally in close proximity to sympathetic ganglia. They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or parasympathetic ganglia made of glomus cells. They are neuroendocrine cells, the former with primary endocrine functions and the latter with primary chemoreceptor functions. Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia of the celiac, renal, adrenal, aortic and hypogastric plexuses. They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes found in connection with the ganglia of other sympathetic plexuses. None have been found with the sympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the trigeminal nerve. The largest chromaffin paraganglia is the organ of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deafferentation pain resulting from cervical posterior rhizotomy is alleviated by chromaffin cell transplants into the rat spinal subarachnoid space. AU - Guenot, Marc. AU - Lee, Jeung Woon. AU - Nasirinezhad, Farinaz. AU - Sagen, Jacqueline. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation pain is common after posttraumatic brachial plexus avulsion in humans. Alleviation of such pain is poorly achieved by most therapeutic interventions; the only efficient neurosurgical procedure currently available is lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone. Previous work has demonstrated that adrenal medullary transplants into the lumbar spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate neuropathic pain behavior resulting from peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of adrenal medullary transplants on brachial plexus deafferentation pain. METHODS: The cervical posterior rhizotomy model was selected as an upper segmental ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla synthesize, store and secrete catecholamines. These cells contain numerous electron-dense secretory granules which discharge their contents into the extracellular space by exocytosis. The subplasmalemmal area of the chromaffin cell is characterized by the presence of a highly organized cytoskeletal network. F-Actin seems to be exclusively localized in this area and together with specific actin-binding proteins forms a dense viscoelastic gel; fodrin, vinculin and caldesmon, three actin cross-linking proteins, and gelsolin, an actin-severing protein, are found in this subplasmalemmal region. Since fodrin-, caldesmon- and alpha-actinin-binding sites exist on secretory granule membranes, actin filaments can also link secretory granules. Chromaffin granules can be entrapped in this subplasmalemmal lattice and thus the cytoskeleton acts as a barrier preventing exocytosis. When cells are stimulated, molecular rearrangements of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton ...
... and the cell membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Peroxisomes are one form of vacuole found in the cell that ... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... including cell recognition and cell-cell adhesion. Glycoproteins are integral proteins.[2] They play an important role in the ... The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous membranes, basement ...
Vesicular quantal size measured by amperometry at chromaffin, mast, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic beta-cells.. Journal of ... On the mechanism of electrochemical vesicle cytometry: chromaffin cell vesicles and liposomes.. Faraday discussions. 2016-12-12 ... Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells.. Proceedings of ... 胞漿顆粒(英语:Granule (cell biology)). 黑色素體 · 微粒體 · 過氧化物酶體 · 乙醛酸循環體 · 韋伯潘力
In humans, there are chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands (medulla) that get stimulated through the sympathetic nervous ... The hormone then reacts with receptors inside of the cell.[20] The activated receptors reach the nucleus of the cells and ... Dendrites in this section of the brain can shrink and this leads to cell or neuron death.[22] The shortening of dendrites and ... When cortisol is within the brain cells, it will bind to GRs and MRs.[20] However, cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind more ...
SdhB mutations can lead to tumorogenesis in chromaffin cells, causing a class of tumors known as succinate dehydrogenase ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.05.025. PMID 15989954.. *^ Horsefield R, Yankovskaya V, Sexton G, Whittingham W, Shiomi K, Omura S, et ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.05.025. PMID 15989954.. *^ Tran QM, Rothery RA, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Weiner JH (October 2006). " ... July 2005). "Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II". Cell. 121 (7): 1043-57. ...
"J. Cell Biol. 142 (1): 39-49. PMC 2133036. PMID 9660861. doi:10.1083/jcb.142.1.39.. ... "H+ ATPase of chromaffin granules. Kinetics, regulation, and stoichiometry". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (18): 10701-7. PMID 6213624 ... Cell Dev. Biol. 13: 779-808. PMID 9442887. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.13.1.779.. ... Cell 15 (11): 5075-91. PMC 524777. PMID 15356264. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-06-0514.. ...
An alternative source of beta cells, such insulin-producing cells derived from adult stem cells or progenitor cells would ... activates beta cells and inhibits alpha cells. *Glycogen/Glucagon: activates alpha cells which activates beta cells and delta ... PP cells (gamma cells or F cells) producing pancreatic polypeptide (,5%). It has been recognized that the cytoarchitecture of ... In rat islets, endocrine cell subsets are distributed as follows:[6] *Alpha cells producing glucagon (20% of total islet cells) ...
Similarly named, Chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla) share this characteristic and are histologically similar to EC cells ... "Enterochromaffin-like Cells"[edit]. "Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells" are a population of cells that are found in the gastric ... EC cells are small polygonal cells located in the crypts between intestinal villi. They are discriminated from other cells of ... In response to gastrin released by neighbouring G-cells, secreted histamine from ECL cells acts on parietal cells to stimulate ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... തൈറോയ്ഡ് ഗ്രന്ഥി പുടകകോശങ്ങൾ (follicular cells), വ്യതിരിക്ത പുടകകോശങ്ങൾ (Prafollicular cells) അഥവാ 'ര' കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നീ ... Synthesis of the thyroid hormones, as seen on an individual thyroid follicular cell:[2] - Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the ...
"Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity ... In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are analogous to post-ganglionic neurons; the adrenal medulla develops in tandem with ... The cell that sends its fiber is called a preganglionic cell, while the cell whose fiber leaves the ganglion is called a ... The first cell (the presynaptic cell) sends a neurotransmitter across the synaptic cleft where it activates the second cell ( ... Within this endocrine gland, pre-ganglionic neurons synapse with chromaffin cells, triggering the release of two transmitters: ...
Some believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used as a ... The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, inhibition of voltage-gated Ca ...
chromaffin granule membrane. • حويصلة تشابكية. • غشاء. • حويصلة سيتوبلازمية. • تشابك عصبي. • مكون تكاملي للغشاء. • synaptic ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 150 (4): 719-30. PMC 2175286. . PMID 10952998. doi:10.1083/jcb.150.4.719. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 153 (5): 1111-20. PMC 2174325. . PMID 11381094. doi:10.1083/jcb.153.5.1111. ... Molecular Cell. 15 (5): 741-51. PMID 15350218. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.018. ...
"Basal steroidogenic activity of adrenocortical cells is increased 10-fold by coculture with chromaffin cells". Endocrinology. ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ... in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity ...
A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% of all cells in the anterior pituitary ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary ...
Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells. *Dopamine Chromaffin ... Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells. *Mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone) Zona ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Neuroendocine cells of the Preoptic area. *Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) ... Thyroxine (T4), also known as tetraiodothyronine: it is a less active form of thyroid hormone (mainly) Thyroid epithelial cells ...
... parafollicular cells.[4] These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells.[16] ... Follicular cells. The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... Parafollicular cells. Scattered among follicular cells and in spaces between the spherical follicles are another type of ...
There is also a non-endocrine cell population called folliculostellate cells. Intermediate[edit]. The intermediate lobe ... Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells ... The posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by cell bodies in the hypothalamus. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of ... The anterior pituitary contains several different types of cells[5] that synthesize and secrete hormones. Usually there is one ...
Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit *^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ... cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... "Cell and Tissue Research. 357 (2): 463-76. doi:10.1007/s00441-014-1936-3. PMID 24996399.. ...
Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. ... Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ...
Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle- ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Ganong, William F.: "Review of Medical Physiology ... "Cell Metabolism. 12 (3): 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.06.010. PMC 2935812 . PMID 20816095.. ...
Chromaffin cells. Opioid receptor. Regulate pain Endothelin. Vascular endothelium. Endothelial cells. ET receptor. Smooth ... G cell. CCK2. Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells Ghrelin. stomach. P/D1 cell. ghrelin receptor. Stimulate appetite, ... Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney theca cells of ovary Leydig cells of testes. AR. Virilization, anabolic ... Cells Receptor Target Tissue Effect androgen. Testosterone. testes, ovary. Leydig cells. AR. libido, Anabolic: growth of muscle ...
In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm.[2] ... The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both of these gametes, are haploid germ cells. ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland[1] is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an ...
... that occurs in the predisposed endocrine cell as loss of the remaining wild-type allele and gives cells the survival advantage ... A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N. Engl. J. Med. 279 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1056/ ... and present in all cells at birth. The second hit is a MEN1 somatic mutation, usually a large deletion, ...
The pars distalis contains two types of cells including chromophobe cells and chromophil cells.[1] The chromophils can be ... further divided into acidophils (alpha cells) and basophils (beta cells).[1] These cells all together produce hormones of the ... Secretory cells Staining Target Effect Adrenocorticotropic hormone Corticotropin ACTH Polypeptide Corticotrophs Basophil ... It also contains non-endocrine folliculostellate cells which are thought to stimulate and support the endocrine cell ...
Peritubular myoid cells surround the seminiferous tubules.[4]. Between tubules (interstitial cells). *Leydig cells - cells ... The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that develop from puberty through old age into sperm cells (also known ... Primary cell types. Within the seminiferous tubules. *Here, germ cells develop into spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids ... Sertoli cells - the true epithelium of the seminiferous epithelium, critical for the support of germ cell development into ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... Ang produktong gameto ay mga selulang lithayop o binhi (germ cell) na haploid. Halimbawa, ang ispermatosoon at obum (itlog) ay ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
Queried against chromaffin cell nuclear protein extracts, only the G-367 and -161A alleles shifted. Specific antibodies applied ...
Immunoreactivity for CGA was colocalized with NAT within the cytoplasm of normal human chromaffin cells (n=4). This co- ... all chromaffin cells demonstrated strong TH, PNMT and NAT immunoreactivity. NAT was co-localized with PNMT and was located ... localization was not consistent in phaeochromocytoma tumour cells (n=7). The altered pattern of expression for both NAT and ...
Developmental Regulation of Glucosensing in Rat Adrenomedullary Chromaffin Cells: Potential Role of the KATP Channel ... Moreover, this book also explores tantalizing evidence regarding the contribution of the aortic bodies, chromaffin cells, lung ... CO2 Signaling in Chemosensory Neuroepithelial Cells of the Zebrafish Gill Filaments: Role of Intracellular Ca2+ and pH ... Precision-Cut Vibratome Slices Allow Functional Live Cell Imaging of the Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Body Microenvironment in ...
Dysregulated replication of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla lead to development of a pheochromocytoma. These tumors ... Basal Cell Tumors. A basal cell tumor is an abnormal growth/mass resulting from the uncontrolled division of basal cells. There ... An anal sac tumor is a tumor of made up of cells originating from the glands of the anal sac. These tumors can spread and ... To diagnose these tumors, a fine needle aspirate can be placed from the outside and into the anal sac to retrieve cells. After ...
Dysregulated replication of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla lead to development of a pheochromocytoma. These tumors ...
... as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells ... Such activated Kupffer cells very efficiently killed extracellular P815 cells and intracellular Leishmania spp. Skeletal muscle ... The cell surface markers (CD29 and CD44) of ADSCs were identified by flow cytometry. This model can be used as a framework for ... The cytotoxic cell population in the liver turned out to be blood-borne in origin and not resident. A number of MoAbs targeting ...
aAdapted from Cell TypeLocationSecretory ProductG cell Gastric antrum and duodenumGastrinECL cell Gastric fundus and ... Blaschko H, Comline RS, Schneider FH, et al.: Secretion of a chromaffin granule protein, chromogranin, from the adrenal gland ... polypeptideM cell Duodenum and jejunumMotilinS cell Duodenum and jejunumSecretinPP cell DuodenumPancreatic polypeptideL cell ... The most common duodenal carcinoids are gastrin-producing G-cell tumors (~two-thirds) followed by somatostatin-producing D-cell ...
von Rueden, L.; Neher, E.: A Ca-dependent early step in the release of catecholamines from adrenal chromaffin cells. Science ... von Rueden, L.; Garcia, A. G.; Lopez, M.: The mechanism of Ba(2+)-induced exocytosis from single chromaffin cells. FEBS Letters ... Neher, E.; von Rueden, L.: Depression and augmentation of quantal release in adrenal chromaffin cells. In: MOLECULAR AND ... Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells. Nature ...
Rapid Exocytosis in Single Chromaffin Cells Recorded from Mouse Adrenal Slices Tobias Moser and Erwin Neher ...
Germ Cells Germ cells Fertilization Fertilization Week 1 Week 2 Gastrulation Ectoderm Somitogenesis Cardiovascular Vascular ... Manual of Human Embryology II: Nervous System , Chromaffin Organs and Suprarenal Bodies , Sense-Organs , Digestive Tract and ... Germ Cells Germ Cells Fertilization Week 1 Week 2 Gastrulation Germ Layers Ectoderm Somitogenesis Cardiovascular Vascular ... Germ Cells The Germ Cells Fertilization Fertilization Week 1 Week 2 Gastrulation Gastrulation Ectoderm Somitogenesis ...
The occurrence of individual sympathetic cells in the free chromaffin bodies and of individual chromaffin cells in sympathetic ... The elements of the migrating cell masses, which are entirely or for the most part composed of chromaffin formative cells, are ... NL) embryo resemble neither the small, deeply staining ganglion-cells of the intercarotid plexus nor the chromaffin cells.) In ... since chromaffin cells can only be produced from sympatho-chromaffin tissue. What significance the indistinct thickening of the ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells do not swell when exposed to nanosecond electric pulses. [med./bio.] ... Intracellular calcium activity in isolated bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence and absence of 60 Hz magnetic fields ... Role of Na-K pumps in restoring contractility following loss of cell membrane integrity in rat skeletal muscle. [med./bio.] ... A Thermal Model for Pulsed EM Field Exposure Effects in Cells at Nonthermal Levels. [tech./dosim.] ...
... as they reveal numerous mechanisms that ensure the formation of equal-sized daughter cells as cells progress through cell ... Biochemical composition of the chromaffin granules of the medulla.. dutasteride availability management 2010-01-16 ... These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present ... A stable hepatoma cell line expressing the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and the cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) distal and ...
The BAR domain protein PICK1 controls vesicle number and size in adrenal chromaffin cells.. The Journal of neuroscience : the ... Role of miRNAs in neuronal differentiation from human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells.. Stem cell reviews 8 1129- ... Sustained ocular hypertension induces dendritic degeneration of mouse retinal ganglion cells that depends on cell type and ... Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015.. *Chand AN, Galliano E, Chesters RA, Grubb MS. A distinct subtype of dopaminergic ...
... phospholipase C isozymes in catecholamine release from digitonin permeabilized bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. ... demonstrated the existence of BM derived stem cells in damaged kidney and revealed the effects of G-CSF on cell ... Available packaging cell lines for T-antigen replacement vectors, COS and CMT4, contain considerable sequence identity with the ... In this paper, fast analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single cells was achieved by a multimicroelectrode ...
chromaffin cells. *variants*horseshoe adrenal gland. * pancreas * pancreatic ducts *pancreatic duct diameter ...
... calcium signal and catecholamine secretion coupled with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. ... Immunoreactive tumor cells were also observed with anti SRIF in 4 cases, with anti-ACTH and anti-beta MSH in 3 cases, and with ... The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM is expressed at key sites during embryonic development and mediates homophilic adhesion ... The effect of monomers and of micellar and vesicular forms of non-ionic surfactants (Solulan C24 and Solulan 16) on Caco-2 cell ...
... the epithelial cells become tall columnar cells. Parafollicular cells. (or "C cells") Scattered among follicular cells and in ... Thyroid epithelial cells. (or "follicular cells") The follicles are surrounded by a single layer of thyroid epithelial cells, ... When the gland is not secreting T3 and T4 (inactive), the epithelial cells range from low columnar to cuboidal cells. When ... Regulation of actin polymerization by T4 is critical to cell migration in neurons and glial cells and is important to brain ...
Nicotinic receptor-mediated intracellular calcium release in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The inhibitory effects ... Cartilage tissue engineering on macroporous scaffolds using human tooth germ stem cells. Instead, IgG plasma cells are involved ... HaCaT cells were transfected with luciferase or beta-galactosidase transgene using either pure plasmid DNA (pDNA) or complexed ... Four promoters of CYP19 gene were cloned upstream of the luciferase gene and transfected into MG-63 cells. He had a history of ...
Altogen CRO offers in vivo RNAi services, tumor xenograft models, toxicology testing, stable cell line generation, and cell ... over 100 pre-optimized in vitro transfection kits for cell lines and primary cells, and electroporation delivery products. ... Primary Cells Transfection Kits*AltoFect Transfection Reagent. *Astrocyte Transfection Kit. *Chromaffin Transfection Kit ... SK-Mel-28 cells exhibit polygonal cell morphology, and this is just one of many melanoma cell lines (also named SK-MEL). The ...
Ultrastructural Preservation and Improved Visualization of Membranes in Primary Bovine Chromaffin Cells. Intracellular dynamic ... HPM100 - Hep-2 cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae were cultured on carbon-coated 6 mm Sapphire discs. Cells were high- ... High-Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution of Hep-2 Cells Infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae. Application Note for Leica EM ... Capturing the intricate changes in fine structure or in cell dynamics with conventional cryo solutions can be challenging ...
Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Exposed to 5-ns Pulses Require Higher Electric Fields to Porate Intracellular Membranes than the ...
They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in ... Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold. ... Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. ... Chromaffin Cells * Connective Tissue Cells * Epithelial Cells * ... Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing ...
Chromaffin Cells * Connective Tissue Cells * Epithelial Cells * Erythroid Cells * Eukaryotic Cells * Germ Cells ...
keywords = "Chromaffin cell, Noradrenaline release, Phosphatidic acid",. author = "Owen, {P. Jane} and Jones, {J. Alison} and ... Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with 32Pi, we show that stimulation with bradykinin, ... This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of nor‐ adrenaline release from Chromaffin cells. Using 45Ca ... Owen, PJ, Jones, JA & Boarder, MR 1991, Phosphatidic Acid Accumulation and Catecholamine Release in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells: ...
  • Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells. (mpg.de)
  • While F. Leydig, F. M. Balfour, E. Griacomini, and E. Grynfeltt declared in favor of an epithelial nature and a secretory function for the chromaffin cells, others inclined toward the belief that they were either nervous elements or closely related to these. (edu.au)
  • Here, we demonstrate a critical role for CgB in regulating secretory granule trafficking in the β-cell. (biologists.org)
  • Potentially, defects within the secretory pathway may directly impact granule formation and thereby contribute to β-cell secretory dysfunction in T2D. (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular dynamic events, such as protein trafficking, recycling, and degradation as well as signal transduction, to name a few, can be studied using live-cell imaging techniques. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Intracellular tumor suppressor proteins within cells could in principle inhibit aberrant growth of neighboring cells by conditioning an antitumor microenvironment through secreted factors. (statescale.cf)
  • Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with 32 P i , we show that stimulation with bradykinin, nicotine, or a depolarising concentration of potassium stimulates the accumulation of [ 32 P]phosphatidic acid. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, we show, for the first time, that the cardiac isoform of L-type calcium channel is present in both bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells and that its levels of expression do not vary during culture. (lu.se)
  • Dysregulated replication of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla lead to development of a pheochromocytoma. (victoriaroadvet.com)
  • The preganglionic fibres hav-ing their cell bodies in the mid-brain and medulla go to four ganglia in the head, those of the III cranial nerve to a ciliary ganglion, those of the VII nerve to sphenopalatine and submaxillary ganglia, those of the IX nerve to an otic ganglion, and those of the X nerve to very small ganglia situated in the organs concerned. (houghtonlakeboard.org)
  • Each suprarenal gland is composed of 2 parts: (a) a comparatively thick outer cortex which grows from the mesoderm (mesodermal lining of the peritoneal cavity) and (b) a central medulla which grows from the neural crest and is equivalent to a group of sympathetic ganglion cells. (earthslab.com)
  • They're readily oxidized to a dark brown colour by specific salts of chromic acid (example, potassium dichromate), a characteristic which makes the renal medulla a part of the chromaffin system of the body. (earthslab.com)
  • Another aspect that needs to be explored is the extent to which chromaffin cells in culture reflect the adrenal medulla calcium channel characteristics. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, recent electrophysiological studies show that chromaffin cells in culture differ from those located in the intact adrenal medulla in the contribution of several calcium channel types to the whole cell current. (lu.se)
  • However there is not yet any study that compares the population of calcium channels in chromaffin cells with that one present in the adrenal medulla. (lu.se)
  • We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. (lu.se)
  • Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system. (lookformedical.com)
  • Amyloid beta precursor protein and prion protein have a conserved interaction affecting cell adhesion and CNS development. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Western Blot of HEK293 cells transfected to express human Tyrosine Hydroxylase isoform 2 and Green Fluorescent Protein demonstrates the specificity of mouse monoclonal antibody LNC1 to tyrosine hydroxylase protein. (aveslabs.com)
  • Protein expression of Lamin A/C in SK-MEL-28 cells. (altogen.com)
  • At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (altogen.com)
  • Expression level of valosin-containing protein (VCP) as a prognostic marker for gingival squamous cell carcinoma. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • However, it remains unclear whether C-mannosylation plays a functional role in the biosynthesis of mindin in cells.Protein C-mannosylation was analyzed by massspectrometry . (massspec.net)
  • Optimized transfection reagent specifically developed for mammalian protein production in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. (sial.com)
  • Thirdly, results of the Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence cytochemistry showed that expression of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 was increased in cells treated with FIZZ1 recombination protein, while the levels of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 were significantly decreased in cells transfected with PTEN plasmid. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • That the increased bloodpressure produced by suprarenal extract is due to the chromaffin medullary substance of the glands has been definitely proved by A. Biedl and J. Wiesel, who worked with the purely chromaffin aortic bodies of man. (edu.au)
  • Teratomas are neoplasms that contain tissue from more than 1 embryonic cell layer that is foreign to the location where they arise and are most commonly found in the sacrococcygeal and gonadal regions in children. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Pheochromocytomas (pheos) and paragangliomas (paras) are rare neuroendocrine tumours which arise from chromaffin cells found mainly in the adrenal glands, and the paraganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathic nervous system. (neuroendocrine.org.au)
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A highly efficient method of gene transfer into mammalian cells leveraging infection with retroviral vectors. (sial.com)
  • Gene silencing by RNA Interference (RNAi) is a powerful research tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells. (altogen.com)
  • For mammalian cells, typical internal concentrations include 140 mM K+, 5 to 15 mM Na+, 5 to 15 mM Cl-, and a pH of 7.2, which can be significantly different from their concentrations outside the cell. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • COMMON COMPONENTS AND ORGANELLES OF HUMAN CELLS Individual mammalian cells are usually microscopic, typically ranging from 5 to 50 µm in diameter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A T-helper (Th) cell subset Th17 preferentially produces interleukin (IL)-17 and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. (pianolarge.gq)
  • This anomalous behaviour was not associated with general effects on the metabolism of the beta cells as indicated by an unaltered oxidation of glucose. (who.int)
  • Exposure of these cells to 5 mM pyruvate for 2 days induced a significant suppression of SR $Ca^{2+}$ -uptake, which was comparable to the effects of high glucose. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However, pyruvate could not further suppress SR $Ca^{2+}$ -uptake in cells cultured in high glucose condition. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • However, these effects were attenuated in high glucose-cultured cells, with no significant changes by oleic acid concentrations lower than 0.4 mM. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Depression and augmentation of quantal release in adrenal chromaffin cells. (mpg.de)
  • Together these observations indicate that when released from neutrophils, CAP11 likely functions as an antimicrobial molecule in the extracellular milieu, whereas defensins may participate in the modulation of neutrophil function and mast cell histamine release. (pianolarge.gq)
  • This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of noradrenaline release from chromaffin cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • A B lymphocyte that differentiates after stimulation by an antigen and a presenting cell to produce and release large amounts of immunoglobulin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We will get how to be Infection granuloma Keloids on JSF cells and how to operate muffins and bone sort organs. (augenta.net)
  • The anlagen of the sympathetic and chromaffin tissue consist of an apparently uniform matrix composed of deeply staining cells, which measure 4-6^ and which form what may be termed sympatho-cJiromafftn tissue. (edu.au)
  • further, he pointed out their difference from the nerve-cells, and, finally, regarded them as elements of a peculiar type of tissue. (edu.au)
  • It is true that all the peculiarities of the chromaffin tissue do not without modification harmonize with the definition which the textbooks give for epithelial tissue, but, on the other hand, many of our definitions are made before there has been a collation of all the facts necessary for the framing of a definition correct in all details. (edu.au)
  • None of the characters which distinguish chromaffin tissue, such as the abundance of nerves in it, the occurrence of scattered chromaffin cells, and its relations to the sympathetic system, actually exclude it from classification as an epithelial tissue, and yet, as regards especially the last-named character, the relation is merely a topical one and no indication of a common genetic derivation from the ectoderm. (edu.au)
  • One might, of course, advance in favor of this idea the suggestion that the chromaffin cells are derived from other than sympathetic formative cells, but, on the other hand, it may be pointed out that the identity of the elements contained in sympatho-chromaffin tissue need be no reason for deriving the chromaffin cells from the sympathetic ones. (edu.au)
  • Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015. (aveslabs.com)
  • The data presented support the hypothesis that modulation of constitutive tissue factor expression in tumour cells by TGF alpha and IL-1 could also occur in vivo possibly resulting from interactions of stromal and cancer cells. (statescale.cf)
  • Cellules Cancéreuses En Culture 0 questions Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • Inhibits the cell adhesion, migration, and collagen contraction. (snakevenomdb.org)
  • Dexamethasone inhibits the binding of nuclear factors to the IL-5 promoter in human CD4 T cells. (faintpower.tk)
  • Evidence that chromosome rearrangements occur after fertilization following postmeiotic treatment of male-mice germ cells with EMS. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • When generating germ cells, karyokinesis includes a process called meiosis, which produces daughter cells with half the normal number of chromosomes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Immunoreactive tumor cells were also observed with anti SRIF in 4 cases, with anti-ACTH and anti-beta MSH in 3 cases, and with anti-beta endorphin in 2 cases. (pianolarge.ml)
  • Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities on tumor cells and endothelial cells. (snakevenomdb.org)
  • The average ratio of NK-92 to tumor cells was 1:100 when NK cells were present in the vasculature at the time of sonication, versus 2:1,000 and 1:1,000 when delivered after sonication and without BBB disruption, respectively. (pianolarge.gq)
  • We have previously identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine tumor cells by using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. (enets.org)
  • Scientific publications continue to add to the growing list of cells that are transfected well with our transfection reagents. (sial.com)
  • Transfection Reagents have been developed and optimized specifically for use with siRNA transfection and allow transfection in the presence of serum without lowering transfection efficiency or reducing cell viability. (altogen.com)
  • Altogen Biosystems is a life sciences company dedicated to the development, marketing and manufacture of cell type specific transfection reagents. (altogen.com)
  • We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. (pianolarge.ga)
  • The SA antibodies also label most of the cells of embryonic sympathetic ganglia and adrenal primordia. (caltech.edu)
  • Monoaminocytes of the second type (chromaffin cells) synthesize mainly serotonin and, perhaps, tryptamine. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • ABBR: APUD cell Any of the constituent cells of a diffuse neuroendocrine system, having metabolic pathways that make and utilize serotonin (5-HT). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Young patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have a similar prognosis to older patients. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • Peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis involves activation of multiple caspases in HL-60 cells. (faintpower.ml)
  • It was recently shown in IMR-32 cells that death induced by this antibody exhibited several characteristics typical of apoptosis. (statescale.cf)
  • Additionally, acinar cell and CD45+ cell apoptosis was determined with neutralizing TRAIL treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Th1 and M/M cytokines showed similar patterns for regulation of numerous pathways including cytokine-receptor interactions, MAP kinase, toll like receptors, apoptosis, PPAR signaling, cell adhesion molecules (CAMS), antigen processing, adipocytokine, and JAK-STAT signaling. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • The work on chromaffin cells led to identification of inactivating variants of BK channels, setting the stage for many years of molecular, biophysical, and physiological studies of the role of BK channels and their regulatory subunits. (rupress.org)
  • Cellules De La Moelle Osseuse 0 questions Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES), STROMAL CELLS, MEGAKARYOCYTES, and the immediate precursors of most blood cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • The neurosecretory cells comprising the urohypophysis are concentrated at the hind end of the spinal cord , where they are associated with a vascular plexus to form a neurohemal organ. (britannica.com)
  • Labeling of sympathetic ganglia appears as the cells initially coalesce and express high levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). (caltech.edu)
  • Within these rays chromaffin cells, as well as collagen and nerve fibers, were present. (statescale.cf)
  • This product contains mouse monoclonal IgG1 ascites fluid produced from mice injected with Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) purified from PC12 cells. (aveslabs.com)
  • Analysis of somatic cell hybrids indicates that the mutation in this temperature sensitive mutant is dominant. (statescale.cf)
  • The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. (bvsalud.org)
  • Shows inhibition of melanoma cells and proapoptotic effect, interfering with the adhesion mechanisms. (snakevenomdb.org)
  • After joining the Dept. of Biological Sciences at Florida State University, he began patch-clamp studies of nAChR's in Xenopus myocytes, collaborated with Tony Auerbach then in Puerto Rico attempting noise analysis on glutamate and AChR channels in crustacean muscle (work that somehow made its way to JGP), and with Alan Neely began initial work with adrenal chromaffin cells. (rupress.org)
  • Olanzapine: This is a form only in the biological cells and is claimed to confuse reds and gabapentin does the use it is effective dosage, therapeutic drugs, cytokines interleukines 1, rather than 1 90 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (lth), necessary to 3 in dilute (e.whereas a blind study yielded a period n. (rainierfruit.com)
  • Description: IL-4 has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, and the differentiation of CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. (massspec.net)
  • Biological agents: Recently, two out by chromaffin cells attack it some cases, the intestinal contents section vi - dimercaptosuccinic acid and greek trypsis a mist therapy of lactation or proximal and vaginal surgery. (rainierfruit.com)