Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The Proteidae family of permanently larval aquatic salamanders. It consists of two living genera - Necturus (mudpuppy) of the eastern United States and Proteus (the European olm).
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A family of the class Urodela which includes 4 living genera, about 33 species, and occurs only in North America. Adults are usually terrestrial, but the larval forms are aquatic.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Small bodies containing chromaffin cells occurring outside of the adrenal medulla, most commonly near the sympathetic ganglia and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.

A novel ubiquitously expressed alpha-latrotoxin receptor is a member of the CIRL family of G-protein-coupled receptors. (1/697)

Poisoning with alpha-latrotoxin, a neurotoxic protein from black widow spider venom, results in a robust increase of spontaneous synaptic transmission and subsequent degeneration of affected nerve terminals. The neurotoxic action of alpha-latrotoxin involves extracellular binding to its high affinity receptors as a first step. One of these proteins, CIRL, is a neuronal G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in the regulation of secretion. We now demonstrate that CIRL has two close homologs with a similar domain structure and high degree of overall identity. These novel receptors, which we propose to name CIRL-2 and CIRL-3, together with CIRL (CIRL-1) belong to a recently identified subfamily of large orphan receptors with structural features typical of both G-protein-coupled receptors and cell adhesion proteins. Northern blotting experiments indicate that CIRL-2 is expressed ubiquitously with highest concentrations found in placenta, kidney, spleen, ovary, heart, and lung, whereas CIRL-3 is expressed predominantly in brain similarly to CIRL-1. It appears that CIRL-2 can also bind alpha-latrotoxin, although its affinity to the toxin is about 14 times less than that of CIRL-1. When overexpressed in chromaffin cells, CIRL-2 increases their sensitivity to alpha-latrotoxin stimulation but also inhibits Ca2+-regulated secretion. Thus, CIRL-2 is a functionally competent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin. Our findings suggest that although the nervous system is the primary target of low doses of alpha-latrotoxin, cells of other tissues are also susceptible to the toxic effects of alpha-latrotoxin because of the presence of CIRL-2, a low affinity receptor of the toxin.  (+info)

Inhibition of angiogenesis induces chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (2/697)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (3/697)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

Tracking single secretory granules in live chromaffin cells by evanescent-field fluorescence microscopy. (4/697)

We have observed secretory granules beneath the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. Using evanescent-field excitation by epiillumination, we have illuminated a thin layer of cytosol where cells adhere to glass coverslips. Up to 600 frames could be recorded at diffraction-limited resolution without appreciable photodynamic damage. We localized single granules with an uncertainty of approximately 30 nm and tracked their motion in three dimensions. Granules in resting cells wander randomly as if imprisoned in a cage that leaves approximately 70 nm space around a granule. The "cage" itself moves only slowly (D = 2 x 10(-12) cm2/s). Rarely do granules arrive at or depart from the plasma membrane of resting cells. Stimulation increases lateral motion only slightly. After the plasma membrane has been depleted of granules by exocytosis, fresh granules can be seen to approach it at an angle. The method will be useful for exploring the molecular steps preceding exocytosis at the level of single granules.  (+info)

Temperature sensitivity of catecholamine secretion and ion fluxes in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (5/697)

The effects of temperature on ion fluxes and catecholamine secretion that are mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), and voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) were investigated using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. When the chromaffin cells were stimulated with DMPP, a nicotinic cholinergic agonist, or 50 mM K+, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation reached a peak and decreased more slowly at lower temperatures. The DMPP-induced responses were more sensitive to temperature changes compared to high K+-induced ones. In the measurement of intracellular sodium concentrations ([Na+]i), it was found that nicotinic stimulation required a longer time to attain the maximal level of [Na+]i at lower temperatures. In addition, the VSSCs-mediated [Na+]i increase evoked by veratridine was also reduced as the temperature decreased. The measurement of [3H]norepinephrine (NE) secretion showed that the secretion within the first 3 min evoked by DMPP or high K+ was greatest at 37 degrees C. However, at 25 degrees C, the secretion evoked by DMPP, but not that by the 50 mM K+, was greater after 10 min of stimulation. This data suggest that temperature differentially affects the activity of nAChRs, VSCCs, and VSSCs, resulting in differential [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i elevation, and in the [3H]NE secretion by adrenal chromaffin cells.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly downregulates nicotinic receptor function and slowly raises intracellular Ca2+ in rat chromaffin cells in vitro. (6/697)

Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via intracellular second messenger-mediated phosphorylation, the action of this peptide on neuronal-type nAChRs remains unknown. Using neuronal nAChRs of rat chromaffin cells in vitro we studied the effect of CGRP, which is physiologically present in adrenal medulla, on membrane currents and [Ca2+]i transients elicited by nicotine. Our main novel observation was that CGRP (either bath-applied or focally applied for a few seconds or even co-applied with nicotine for a few milliseconds) selectively and rapidly blocked nAChRs (a phenomenon unlikely caused by intracellular messengers in view of its speed) without affecting GABA receptors. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was independent of [Ca2+]i or membrane potential and not accompanied by baseline current changes. Like the competitive antagonist N,N,N-trimethyl-1-(4-trans-stilbenoxy)-2-propilammonium, CGRP induced a rightward, parallel shift of the nicotine dose-response curve; during co-application of these blockers the nicotine dose-ratio value was the sum of the values obtained with each antagonist alone. The block by CGRP was insensitive to the receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 but mimicked by CGRP1-7. Persistent application of CGRP slowly increased [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon independent from external Ca2+, thus implying Ca2+ release from internal stores, and suppressed by hCGRP8-37. CGRP1-7 had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i. We propose that the 1-7 amino acid sequence of CGRP was responsible for the direct, rapid block of nAChRs, whereas the full-length peptide molecule was necessary for the delayed rise in internal Ca2+ potentially able to trigger phosphorylation-dependent modulation of nicotinic receptor function.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/697)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Evanescent-wave microscopy: a new tool to gain insight into the control of transmitter release. (8/697)

Evanescent-wave excitation was used to visualize individual fluorescently labelled vesicles in an optical slice near the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used for directing a laser beam under a supracritical angle on to the glass-water interface on top of which the cells are grown. Whereas epi-illumination images appeared blurred and structureless, evanescent-wave excitation highlighted acridine orange-labelled vesicles as individual pinpoints. Three-dimensional (3D) trajectories of individual vesicles were obtained from time-resolved image stacks and used to characterize vesicles in terms of their average fluorescence F and mobility, expressed here as the 3D diffusion coefficient D(3). Based on the single-vesicle analysis, two groups of vesicles were identified. Transitions between these states were studied before and after stimulation of exocytosis by repetitive or maintained membrane depolarizations by elevated extracellular [K+]. Findings were interpreted as sequential transitions between the previously characterized pools of vesicles preceding the fusion step. The observed approach of vesicles to their docking sites was not explained in terms of free diffusion: most vesicles moved unidirectionally as if directed to their binding sites at the plasma membrane. Vesicle mobility at the membrane was low, such that the sites of docking and fusion were in close vicinity. Both the rim region and confined areas in the centre of the footprint region were the site of intense vesicle trafficking.  (+info)

Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro...
Since the work of Katz, Douglas, and their collaborators almost half a century ago (Katz, 1969), a central concept in the physiology of neurosecretion is that a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], resulting from Ca2+ influx, triggers exocytosis. More recently it has become clear that the rise in [Ca2+] occurs in a microdomain within the vicinity (i.e., at a distance of 200-300 nm in chromaffin cells) of plasmalemmal Ca2+ channels (García et al., 2006; Neher and Sakaba, 2008). This finding raises the possibility of other microdomains where a rise in focal [Ca2+] might mediate other processes, allowing Ca2+ to subserve several functions without cross talk. This possibility receives further support from the study of Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ sparks are focal Ca2+ transients found in striated and smooth muscle and mediated by RYRs (Cheng and Lederer, 2008). In striated muscle, they are the quanta or building blocks that make up a global increase in [Ca2+] to trigger contraction (Csernoch, ...
Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. Even though deletion of synaptotagmin-1 abolishes fast exocytosis in chromaffin cells, it reduces overall secretion by only 20% because of the persistence of slow exocytosis. Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. Synaptotagmin-7 has a higher Ca(2+) affinity and slower binding kinetics than synaptotagmin-1, matching the proposed properties for the second, slower Ca(2+) sensor. Here, we examined Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in chromaffin cells from KO mice lacking synaptotagmin-7, and from knockin mice containing normal levels of a mutant synaptotagmin-7 whose C(2)B domain does not bind Ca(2+). In both types of mutant chromaffin cells, Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis was decreased dramatically. Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, ...
In a previous report, we described the ability of two secretogogues, histamine and nicotine, to stimulate additive effects on catecholamine (CA) release and synapsin II phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACC) [Firestone and Browning (1992), J. Neurochem., 58:441-447]. We hypothesized that these results were due to the combined effects on cytosolic Ca++ of the two distinct signalling pathways. We therefore examined the intracellular Ca++ signals stimulated by histamine and nicotine, alone and together. In Ca(++)-deficient medium, nicotine-stimulated signals were abolished, whereas histamine-stimulated signals were maintained, demonstrating that nicotine depended entirely on Ca++ influx for its effects. Indeed, the nicotine-stimulated signal could also be prevented using a Ca++ channel blocker, nicardipine. Further, the observation that exposure of BACC to thapsigargin reduced histamine-stimulated Ca++ signals verified that histamine mobilizes Ca++ from intracellular stores. Thus, the
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...
Definition of chromaffin cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chromaffin cell? Meaning of chromaffin cell as a finance term. What does chromaffin cell mean in finance?
Definition of Chromaffin cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Chromaffin cells? Meaning of Chromaffin cells as a legal term. What does Chromaffin cells mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause for the reduced sustained component. Further experiments showed that, in the absence of Doc2b, the ...
Synaptophysin (syp) is a major integral membrane protein of secretory vesicles. Previous work has demonstrated functions for syp in synaptic vesicle cycling, endocytosis, and synaptic plasticity, but the role of syp in the process of membrane fusion during Ca2+-triggered exocytosis remains poorly understood. Furthermore, although syp resides on both large dense-core and small synaptic vesicles, its role in dense-core vesicle function has received less attention compared with synaptic vesicle function. To explore the role of syp in membrane fusion and dense-core vesicle function, we used amperometry to measure catecholamine release from single vesicles in male and female mouse chromaffin cells with altered levels of syp and the related tetraspanner protein synaptogyrin (syg). Knocking out syp slightly reduced the frequency of vesicle fusion events below wild-type (WT) levels, but knocking out both syp and syg reduced the frequency 2-fold. Knocking out both proteins stabilized initial fusion ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibition of nicotinic receptor-mediated chromaffin cell secretion. AU - Hexum, T. D.. AU - Zheng, Jialin C. AU - Zhu, J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widely distributed peptide with varied activities, inhibits nicotinic receptor-induced [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) secretion from bovine chromaffin cells. The secretion produced by membrane depolarization with high KCl concentrations or veratridine is not inhibited. Fragments of NPY, such as NPY18-36, are potent inhibitors of [3H]NE secretion, whereas [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY and peptide YY have no effect. The response to NPY18-36 is not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment of chromaffin cells. NPY fragments also inhibit nicotinic receptor-induced 45Ca++ influx but not that induced by KCl or veratridine. The rank orders of potency for inhibition of [3H]NE secretion and 45Ca++ influx are the same: NPY18-36 ≥ NPY26-36 , NPY13-36. NPY and NPY(free acid) are weak inhibitors of secretion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recapture after exocytosis causes differential retention of protein in granules of bovine chromaffin cells. AU - Perrais, David. AU - Kleppe, Ingo C.. AU - Taraska, Justin W.. AU - Almers, Wolfhard. PY - 2004/10/15. Y1 - 2004/10/15. N2 - After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. Here we compare the exocytic release of fluorescently labelled neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tissue plasminogen activator from single granules. Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. Neuropeptide Y left most granules in small fractions of a second, while tissue plasminogen activator remained in open granules for minutes. Taking advantage of the dependence on pH of the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein, we used rhythmic external acidification to determine whether ...
Other articles where Chromaffin cell is discussed: human nervous system: The endocrine system: Within the adrenal medulla are chromaffin cells, which are homologous to sympathetic neurons and, like sympathetic neurons, are developed from embryonic neural crest cells. Chromaffin cells produce epinephrine (adrenaline) and, to a much lesser extent, norepinephrine as well as other chemicals such as chromogranins, enkephalins, and neuropeptide Y-all of which…
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
The previous sections describe the different exocytotic responses obtained when the amount of Ca2+ entry is altered at a constant interpulse interval (200 msec). To examine whether the exocytotic response of a cell is also influenced by the time span between bouts of Ca2+ entry, we tested various interpulse intervals.. Trains of 40 msec pulses at 200 msec intervals evoked depressed responses in most cells (Figs. 3C, 4). Prolonging the interpulse interval increased the Ca2+ efficacy without significant changes to total Ca2+ entry (Fig. 8). Three examples comparing a 200 and a 1000 msec interval stimulus train within individual cells are shown in Figure 8A. Cells with strong depression during the 200 msec train showed a partial relief of depression at 1000 msec intervals (Fig. 8A,i) or followed the standard curve (Fig. 8A,ii), whereas cells with less depression often gave large responses with enhanced Ca2+ efficacy (Fig. 8A,iii). A summary of 17 experiments is presented in Figure 8B, in which the ...
The properties of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent K+ currents and their role in defining membrane potential were studied in cultured rat chromaffin cells. Two variants of large-conductance, Ca2+ and voltage-dependent BK channels, one noninactivating and one inactivating, were largely segregated among patches. Whole-cell noninactivating and inactivating currents resulting from each of these channels were segregated among different chromaffin cells. Cell-to-cell variation in the rate and extent of whole-cell current decay was not explained by differences in cytosolic [Ca2+] regulation among cells; rather, variation was due to differences in the intrinsic properties of the underlying BK channels. About 75% of rat chromaffin cells and patches express inactivating BK current (termed BKi) while the remainder express noninactivating BK current (termed BKs). The activation time course of both currents is similar, as is the dependence of activation on [Ca2+] and membrane potential. However, deactivation of ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells are excitable neuroendocrine cells that have been widely used as a simple model of neurosecretion. In vivo, acetylcholine released from preganglionic neurons binds to nicotinic receptors, which are Na+ ionophores, causing Na+ influx that depolarizes the plasma membrane. Depolarization in turn causes voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) to open, leading to an influx of Ca2+ that activates the fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane, resulting in catecholamine release that occurs within milliseconds. This Ca2+-dependent secretory process is referred to as exocytosis. Previous investigations exploring the potential for nanosecond electric pulses (NEPs) to serve as a novel bioelectric stimulus of neurosecretion in chromaffin cells have shown that in chromaffin cells exposed to 5 ns, 5 MV/m electric pulses, catecholamine release is stimulated in a manner that relies on Ca2+ influx via VGCCs. The goal of the present study was to further understand this novel ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of ACTH, renin, angiotensin II, and various precursors on biosynthesis of aldosterone by adrenal slices.. AU - Kaplan, Norman M. AU - BARTER, F. C.. PY - 1962/4. Y1 - 1962/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0001053852&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0001053852&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1172/JCI104530. DO - 10.1172/JCI104530. M3 - Article. C2 - 14453776. AN - SCOPUS:0001053852. VL - 41. SP - 715. EP - 724. JO - Journal of Clinical Investigation. JF - Journal of Clinical Investigation. SN - 0021-9738. ER - ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. We coined the term Molecular cytoarchitecture of exocytosis to define the interaction between SNARE proteins, calcium channel and lately nicotinic receptors (integrating Dr. Criado main line) and the cohesive F-actin cortical network in order to improve secretory efficiency ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
Video articles in JoVE about adrenal glands include A Novel Method: Super-selective Adrenal Venous Sampling, Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Mouse Adipose Tissue Collection and Processing for RNA Analysis, Imaging Plasma Membrane Deformations With pTIRFM, An Alternant Method to the Traditional NASA Hindlimb Unloading Model in Mice, Pre-Conditioning the Airways of Mice with Bleomycin Increases the Efficiency of Orthotopic Lung Cancer Cell Engraftment, 5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in the Lewis Rat, Isolation and Transplantation of Different Aged Murine Thymic Grafts., In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis, Receptor Autoradiography Protocol for the Localized Visualization of Angiotensin II Receptors, Murine Prostate Micro-dissection
The differentiation of neuronal cell progenitors depends on complex interactions between intrinsic cellular programs and environmental cues. Such interactions have recently been explored using an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, MAH. These studies have revealed that depolarizing conditions, in combination with exposure to FGF, can induce responsiveness to NGF. Here we report that CNTF, which utilizes an intracellular signaling pathway distinct from that of both FGF and NGF, can collaborate with FGF to promote efficiently the differentiation of MAH progenitor cells to a stage remarkably reminiscent of NGF-dependent, postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We also find that similar collaborative interactions can occur during transdifferentiation of normal cultured chromaffin cells into sympathetic neurons ...
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Nili, U.; de Wit, H.; Gulyas-Kovacs, A.; Toonen, R. F.; Soerensen, J. B.; Verhage, M.; Ashery, U.: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells. Neuroscience 143 (2), pp. 487 - 500 (2006 ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
During exocytosis, the fusion pore expands to allow release of neurotransmitters and hormones to the extracellular space. To understand the process of synaptic transmission, it is of outstanding importance to know the properties of the fusion pore and how these properties affect the release process. Many proteins have been implicated in vesicle fusion; however, there is little evidence for proteins involved in fusion pore expansion. Myosin II has been shown to participate in the transport of vesicles and, surprisingly, in the final phases of exocytosis, affecting the kinetics of catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells as measured by amperometry. Here, we have studied single vesicle exocytosis in chromaffin cells overexpressing an unphosphorylatable form (T18AS19A RLC-GFP) of myosin II that produces an inactive protein by patch amperometry. This method allows direct determination of fusion pore expansion by measuring its conductance, whereas the release of catecholamines is recorded ...
Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 245-248; (1989) J. Neurochern., in press]. The related botulinum A toxin also consists of a heavy and a light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The actions ofboth neurotoxins on exocytosis were presently compared using streptolysin O-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. Addition of dithiothreitollowered the effective doses to values below 5 nM. Under the same conditions, the effective doses of tetanus toxin were decreased by a factor of five. This indicates that the interchain S-S bond of botulinum A toxin must also be split before the neurotoxin can exert its effect on exocytosis. ...
Start Over You searched for: Authors International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) ✖Remove constraint Authors: International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) Languages English ✖Remove constraint Languages: English Subjects Cellular Structures ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cellular Structures ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurosecretory cell-based biosensor. T2 - Monitoring secretion of adrenal chromaffin cells by local extracellular acidification using light-addressable potentiometric sensor. AU - Liu, Qingjun. AU - Hu, Ning. AU - Zhang, Fenni. AU - Wang, Hua. AU - Ye, Weiwei. AU - Wang, Ping. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 81071226 , 60725102 ), the Research on Public Welfare Technology Application Projects of Zhejiang Province, China (no. 2011C23096 ), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (no. Y2100684 ), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities .. PY - 2012/5/15. Y1 - 2012/5/15. N2 - Vesicular exocytosis plays an important role in many physiological processes. The dense-core vesicles release of chromaffi{ligature}n cells is a suitable model for the presynaptic process in neurosecretory cells. In this study, light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was introduced ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
xml version=1.0 encoding=UTF-8?, ,Pathway xmlns=http://genmapp.org/GPML/2010a Name=Nicotine in Chromaffin Cells Version=20100831 Organism=Homo sapiens, ,Comment Source=WikiPathways-description,Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. It is a substance that acts as a stimulant in humans and is one of the main factors responsible for tobacco dependence. When nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream, and it can cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system (CNS). It binds to two main types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the ganglion type and the CNS type. In chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, nicotine binds to the ganglion-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is composed of alpha 3 (CHRNA3) and beta 4 (CHRNB4) subunits. By binding to the receptors, nicotine causes cell depolarization and an influx of calcium through voltage dependent calcium channels. Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from ...
MUNC18-1 (also known as STXBP1) is an essential protein for docking and fusion of secretory vesicles. Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) lacking MUNC18-1 show impaired secretory vesicle docking, but also mistargeting of SNARE protein syntaxin1 and an abnormally dense submembrane F-actin network. Here, we tested the contribution of both these phenomena to docking and secretion defects in MUNC18-1-deficient MCCs. We show that an abnormal F-actin network and syntaxin1 targeting defects are not observed in Snap25- or Syt1-knockout (KO) MCCs, which are also secretion deficient. We identified a MUNC18-1 mutant (V263T in β-sheet 10) that fully restores syntaxin1 targeting but not F-actin abnormalities in Munc18-1-KO cells. MUNC18-2 and -3 (also known as STXBP2 and STXBP3, respectively), which lack the hydrophobic residue at position 263, also did not restore a normal F-actin network in Munc18-1-KO cells. However, these proteins did restore the normal F-actin network when a hydrophobic residue was ...
Hypoglycemia activates the counterregulatory response (CRR), a neural-endocrine reflex that restores euglycemia. Although effective if occasionally activated, repeated induction of the CRR leads to a decline in responsiveness and prolonged exposure to hypoglycemia. The mechanism underlying this impairment is not known. We found that the reduction in epinephrine release that characterizes a suppressed CRR involves a long-lasting form of sympatho-adrenal synaptic plasticity. Using optogenetically evoked catecholamine release, we show that recurrent hypoglycemia reduced the secretory capacity of mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Single activation of the CRR increased the adrenal levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, but this was prevented by repeated activation. In contrast, the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY), an adrenal cotransmitter, remained elevated after recurrent hypoglycemia. Inhibition of NPY or Y1 signaling, either transgenically or ...
Hypoglycemia activates the counterregulatory response (CRR), a neural-endocrine reflex that restores euglycemia. Although effective if occasionally activated, repeated induction of the CRR leads to a decline in responsiveness and prolonged exposure to hypoglycemia. The mechanism underlying this impairment is not known. We found that the reduction in epinephrine release that characterizes a suppressed CRR involves a long-lasting form of sympatho-adrenal synaptic plasticity. Using optogenetically evoked catecholamine release, we show that recurrent hypoglycemia reduced the secretory capacity of mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Single activation of the CRR increased the adrenal levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, but this was prevented by repeated activation. In contrast, the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY), an adrenal cotransmitter, remained elevated after recurrent hypoglycemia. Inhibition of NPY or Y1 signaling, either transgenically or ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Adrenomedullin. AU - Abel, Peter. AU - Rorabaugh, Boyd. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Adrenomedullin is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides. It is produced by vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, adrenal chromaffin cells, macrophages, bronchial epithelium, and many other cell types. This peptide is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds and has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure, ..... AB - Adrenomedullin is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides. It is produced by vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, adrenal chromaffin cells, macrophages, bronchial epithelium, and many other cell types. This peptide is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds and has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure, ..... UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884021496&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Wegenhorst, U.; Stecher, B.; Spicher, K.; Rosenthal, W.; Gratzl, Manfred (1992): Exocytosis from permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is differently modulated by guanosine 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Evidence for the involvement of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 284: pp. 321-326 [PDF, 3MB] ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Carbon-Fiber Amperometry in the Study of Exocytosis. AU - Duffield, Michael. AU - Raghupathi, RaviNarayan. AU - Keating, Damien. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Understanding how signaling molecules are released from cells is essential for furthering our knowledge of the basic biological mechanisms controlling many significant biological pathways. These molecules, including neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors, and peptides, are released from cells via a process called exocytosis. Our laboratory has utilized a noninvasive method of measuring the release of oxidizable molecules from cells, known as carbon-fiber amperometry. In this chapter we will describe how we undertake such measurements, how the resulting data is analyzed, and what the outcomes mean in terms of physiology. We provide examples of our work measuring catecholamine release in single chromaffin cells as well as serotonin release from intact sections of colon.. AB - Understanding how signaling molecules are ...
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Can you guys see that cute girl in the front row? Wearing the red tank top? Thats me. I clapped and smiled when I saw this video ...
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"Chromaffin cells: the peripheral brain". Molecular Psychiatry. 17 (4): 354-358. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.176. PMID 22249377. " ... He discovered that despite being produced by a dispersed mass of fat cells, leptin is secreted in a highly organised manner ...
"Choline as a tool to evaluate nicotinic receptor function in chromaffin cells" (PDF). In Borges R, Gandía L (eds.). Cell ... Biology of the Chromaffin Cell. Spain: Instituto Teófilo Hernando.. ... "Rat alpha3/beta4 subtype of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stably expressed in a transfected cell line: pharmacology ... alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta4 stably expressed in HEK293 cells". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 284 ( ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... Lallier TE (1991). "Cell lineage and cell migration in the neural crest". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 615: 158-71. doi:10.1111/j.1749 ... Some cells remain in the sclerotome to form the dorsal root ganglia Other Migration Locations: Proximal to the spinal cord and ... The trunk neural crest lies between the vagal and sacral neural crest and gives rise to two groups of cells. One group migrates ...
The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ... Enterochromaffin and enterochromaffin-like cells, both being enteroendocrine cells, are also considered neuroendocrine cells ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ...
"Interleukin-1 in adrenal chromaffin cells". Neuroscience. 30 (3): 805-10. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90171-1. PMID 2788829. S2CID ... who had the disease and or were vaccinated with the old whole-cell vaccine, and attached these antigenic peptides onto the ... 27793131.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Bartfai T, Schultzberg M (May 1993). "Cytokines in neuronal cell types ...
"Hypoxia-regulated catecholamine secretion in chromaffin cells". Cell and Tissue Research. 372 (2): 433-441. doi:10.1007/s00441- ...
Catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells is particularly sensitive to L-type currents, associated with Cav1.3. ... Cav1.3 are densely expressed in chromaffin cells. The low-voltage activation and slow inactivation of these channels makes them ... "Cav1.3 and Cav1.2 channels of adrenal chromaffin cells: emerging views on cAMP/cGMP-mediated phosphorylation and role in ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. CACNA1D+protein,+human at the US National ...
Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit *^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ... cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... "Cell and Tissue Research. 357 (2): 463-76. doi:10.1007/s00441-014-1936-3. PMID 24996399.. ...
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ... Several activators of the signaling pathway increase cell yield. Cultured mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line): These cells ... Hes3+ cells can be isolated and placed in culture where they exhibit stem cell properties. In culture and in vivo, Hes3+ cells ... Human embryonic stem cells Mouse neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. An individual signal ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, ... Formation Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
... in adrenal chromaffin cells: stress-triggered induction of VMAT2 and expression in epinephrine synthesizing cells". Cell Mol ... mast cells, and cells containing histamine in the gut.[citation needed] It is also prevalent in β-cells of the pancreas. It is ... VMAT2 is also co-expressed in chromaffin cells. Expression of the two transporters in internal organs seems to differ between ... VMAT1 may be found in neuroendocrine cells, particularly chromaffin and enterochromaffin granules which are largely found in ...
The chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla act as "modified neurons", releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the ... The sympathetic nervous system also has some preganglionic nerves terminating at the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, ... Some[who?] believe that chromaffin cells are modified postganglionic CNS fibers. In the adrenal medulla, acetylcholine is used ... M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, inhibition of voltage-gated ...
"NPY regulates catecholamine secretion from human adrenal chromaffin cells". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... Cell. 101 (4): 365-76. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80847-8. PMID 10830164. S2CID 6496567. Connor JH, Weiser DC, Li S, Hallenbeck ... "HOX11 interacts with protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 and disrupts a G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint". Nature. 385 (6615): 454-8. ...
Nucifora PG, Fox AP (1999). "Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates rapid endocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells". J Neurosci. 19 ... 2004). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases in the human genome". Cell. 117 (6): 699-711. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.05.018. PMID ... initially in the principal piece of the cell and subsequently in the midpiece. Transitions in the phases of the cell cycle are ... As cells leave the S phase and enter the G2 phase, a massive tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2 occurs. Regulation with ...
Further work was done in chromaffin cells to investigate catecholamine release from large dense core vesicles. Single-potential ... December 1991). "Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells ... "Nicotinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion from individual chromaffin cells. Chemical evidence for exocytosis". The ... In order to record vesicle fusion, a carbon fiber electrode is brought close to the cell. The electrode is held at a positive ...
... to measure release of adrenaline from adrenal chromaffin cells. They showed that the quantal event at dopamine synapses ... Regulation of cytosolic catecholamines in chromaffin cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (13): 5835-5845. doi:10.1523/ ... Sulzer works on basal ganglia and dopamine neurons, brain cells of central importance in translating will to action. His team ...
When imaged using DIC, chromaffin cells appear as round cells with small protrusions. When the same cell is imaged using IRM, ... bright spots in the top cell in the right panel). An example of vesicle fusion in chromaffin cells using IRM is shown in movie ... Light that is not reflected by the glass will travel into the cell and be reflected by the cell membrane. Three situations can ... More recently, the technique has been used to study exocytosis in chromaffin cells. ...
... cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, ... Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are ... A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the ...
Fujimoto T, Lee K, Miwa S, Ogawa K (1991). "Immunocytochemical localization of fodrin and ankyrin in bovine chromaffin cells in ... "Ankyrin-Tiam1 interaction promotes Rac1 signaling and metastatic breast tumor cell invasion and migration". J. Cell Biol. 150 ( ... Cell. 14 (3): 1138-48. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0411. ISSN 1059-1524. PMC 151585. PMID 12631729. Bennett V, Baines AJ (2001). " ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ...
Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. Adrenal pheochromocytomas are ... They are essentially of two types: (1) chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and (2) nonchromaffin or ... Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia ... The largest chromaffin paraganglion is the organ of Zuckerkandl, it is probably the largest source of circulating ...
The interrenal and chromaffin cells are located within the head kidney The spleen is found in nearly all vertebrates. It is a ... The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that from puberty into old age, develop into sperm cells (also known ... "Interrenal tissue, chromaffin cells and corpuscles of Stannius of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)". Cite journal requires ... Mauthner cells are not the only identified neurons in fish-there are about 20 more types, including pairs of "Mauthner cell ...
"Synergism between toxin-gamma from Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and veratridine in chromaffin cells". The American ... Tityustoxin causes cell depolarization, activating Na+ channels and increasing the Na+ uptake that can affect Ca2+ uptake and ... This causes cell depolarization that opens calcium channels allowing the influx of Ca2+, triggering ACh release. Both the ...
Burgoyne, RD; Norman, KM (1985). "Presence of tropomyosin in adrenal chromaffin cells and its association with chromaffin ... In the initial studies, transformation of rat embryo fibroblast cell line REF-52 and of normal rat kidney cells led to ... Nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms function in all cells, both muscle and nonmuscle cells, and are involved in a range of cellular ... These studies have been extended to a number of cell types with similar results. Extensive studies in neuronal cells, ...
In chromaffin cells taipoxin showed the ability to enter the cells via Ca2+ independent mechanisms. There it enhanced ... "Taipoxin induces F-actin fragmentation and enhances release of catecholamines in bovine chromaffin cells". Journal of ... catecholamine release in depolarizing cells by disassembling F-actin in the cytoskeletal barrier. This could lead to a vesicle ...
"Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). In response to increased potassium levels ... However, together with other data on neuroendocrine properties of zona glomerulosa cells, NCAM expression may reflect a ...
VMAT1 is found in chromaffin cells, enterochromaffin cells, and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFs). Chromaffin cells are ... VMATs are found in a variety of cell types throughout the body, however, VMAT1 is found exclusively in neuroendocrine cells, in ... VMAT1 also has effects on the modulation of gastrin processing in G cells. These intestinal endocrine cells process amine ... This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). LDCVs are 70-200 nm in size and exist throughout the ...
FSCV is used to study dynamics of exocytosis of noradrenaline and adrenaline from chromaffin cells; release of serotonin from ... Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells ( ... the resulting current must remain low in order to avoid cell lysis as well as cell depolarization. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry ... In fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), a small carbon fiber electrode (micrometer scale) is inserted into living cells, tissue ...
PIPKIγ knockout in chromaffin cell and in central nerve system , PIPKIγ knockdown in beta cell lines , and over-expression of ... Small GTPases Cell Attachment Cell-Cell Interaction Change in cell volume Cell differentiation state Cell stress Strachan T, ... found that the application of PI-specific phospholipase C into digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells decreased PI levels, ... 5-bisphosphate level regulates the releasable vesicle pool size in chromaffin cells". Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (10): 2557- ...
1990). Effects of Splanchnic Nerve Stimulation on the Adrenal Cortex May Be Mediated by Chromaffin Cells in a Paracrine Manner ... 1994). Intimate contact of chromaffin and cortical cells within the human adrenal gland forms the cellular basis for important ... 2000). Deletion of tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals functional interdependence of adrenocortical and chromaffin cell system in ... 2007). Age-dependent regulation of chromaffin cell proliferation by growth factors, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons.[1] They are ... Because the ANS, specifically the sympathetic division, exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells, the hormone release ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ... consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline ...
A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell ... Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% of all cells in the anterior pituitary ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary ...
An alternative source of beta cells, such insulin-producing cells derived from adult stem cells or progenitor cells would ... activates beta cells and inhibits alpha cells. *Glycogen/Glucagon: activates alpha cells which activates beta cells and delta ... PP cells (gamma cells or F cells) producing pancreatic polypeptide (,5%). It has been recognized that the cytoarchitecture of ... In rat islets, endocrine cell subsets are distributed as follows:[6] *Alpha cells producing glucagon (20% of total islet cells) ...
Beta cellscells) are a type of cell found in pancreatic islets that synthesize and secrete insulin and amylin. Beta cells ... Then the cytokines activate CD8+ cytotoxic-T cells, which lead to beta-cell destruction.[18] The destruction of these cells ... cell-signal pathways in early stem cell development will lead to those stem cells differentiating into viable beta cells.[31][ ... Research has shown that beta cells can be differentiated from human pancreas progenitor cells.[31] These differentiated beta ...
Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells. *Dopamine Chromaffin ... Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells. *Mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone) Zona ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Neuroendocine cells of the Preoptic area. *Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) ... Thyroxine (T4), also known as tetraiodothyronine: it is a less active form of thyroid hormone (mainly) Thyroid epithelial cells ...
E-ATPases are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyze a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP. P-ATPases (sometime known as E1 ... Njus, D.; Knoth, J.; Zallakian, M. (1981). "Proton-linked transport in chromaffin granules". Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 11: 107-147. ... An important example is the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na+/K+ATPase) that maintains the cell membrane potential. And ... Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that ...
The name is derived from their location in the enteric system and their chromaffin-like staining pattern in histologic sections ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Enterochromaffin-like+Cells at the US National ... ECL cells synthesize and secrete histamine. These cells are stimulated by the hormones gastrin (not depicted in the adjacent ...
There is also a non-endocrine cell population called folliculostellate cells. Intermediate[edit]. The intermediate lobe ... Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells ... The posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by cell bodies in the hypothalamus. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of ... The anterior pituitary contains several different types of cells[5] that synthesize and secrete hormones. Usually there is one ...
The pars distalis contains two types of cells including chromophobe cells and chromophil cells.[1] The chromophils can be ... further divided into acidophils (alpha cells) and basophils (beta cells).[1] These cells all together produce hormones of the ... Secretory cells Staining Target Effect Adrenocorticotropic hormone Corticotropin ACTH Polypeptide Corticotrophs Basophil ... It also contains non-endocrine folliculostellate cells which are thought to stimulate and support the endocrine cell ...
There are also neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal glands, which are just above the kidneys. They are called chromaffin cells, ... These cells are called neurosecretory cells, and they make neurohormones.[2][3][4] ... They are similar to normal endocrine cells and glands because they regulate both endocrine and nonendocrine cells. ... Neurosecretion is when nerve cells make, store and release hormones.[1]. The hormonal system of the body is almost entirely ...
Cells of the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells because they contain granules that stain with chromium salts, a ... The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the body's main source of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, released by ... Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ...
Thyroid gland (Parafollicular cell, Thyroid epithelial cell, Thyroid isthmus, Lobes of thyroid gland, Pyramid of thyroid). ... anat(s,m,p,4,e,b,d,c,a,f,l,g)/phys/devp/cell ... Chromaffin cells. Cortex. Zona glomerulosa · Zona fasciculata · ... Natesan A, Geetha L, Zatz M (2002). "Rhythm and soul in the avian pineal". Cell Tissue Res. 309 (1): 35-45. PMID 12111535. ...
... parafollicular cells.[4] These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells.[16] ... Follicular cells. The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... Parafollicular cells. Scattered among follicular cells and in spaces between the spherical follicles are another type of ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... തൈറോയ്ഡ് ഗ്രന്ഥി പുടകകോശങ്ങൾ (follicular cells), വ്യതിരിക്ത പുടകകോശങ്ങൾ (Prafollicular cells) അഥവാ 'ര' കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നീ ... Synthesis of the thyroid hormones, as seen on an individual thyroid follicular cell:[2] - Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the ...
"Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ... in the cells of the zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which would lose NCAM immunoreactivity ... In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce ... Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball"). ...
Peritubular myoid cells surround the seminiferous tubules.[4]. Between tubules (interstitial cells). *Leydig cells - cells ... The tubules are lined with a layer of cells (germ cells) that develop from puberty through old age into sperm cells (also known ... Primary cell types. Within the seminiferous tubules. *Here, germ cells develop into spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids ... Sertoli cells - the true epithelium of the seminiferous epithelium, critical for the support of germ cell development into ...
In 1912 he coined the term pheochromocytoma to describe the chromaffin color change in tumor cells associated with adrenal ... It is similar in appearance to "Gaucher's cell", however the cytoplasm of the cell appears foamy. Über das elastische Gewebe in ... Albert Niemann (1880-1921). Pick's cell: Histiocyte found in the spleen and bone marrow in Niemann-Pick disease. ...
... and the cell membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Peroxisomes are one form of vacuole found in the cell that ... and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological membranes have diverse lipid and protein compositions. The content of ... including cell recognition and cell-cell adhesion. Glycoproteins are integral proteins.[2] They play an important role in the ... The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous membranes, basement ...
... that occurs in the predisposed endocrine cell as loss of the remaining wild-type allele and gives cells the survival advantage ... A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N. Engl. J. Med. 279 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1056/ ... and present in all cells at birth. The second hit is a MEN1 somatic mutation, usually a large deletion, ...
Vesicular quantal size measured by amperometry at chromaffin, mast, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic beta-cells.. Journal of ... On the mechanism of electrochemical vesicle cytometry: chromaffin cell vesicles and liposomes.. Faraday discussions. 2016-12-12 ... Temporally resolved catecholamine spikes correspond to single vesicle release from individual chromaffin cells.. Proceedings of ... 胞漿顆粒(英语:Granule (cell biology)). 黑色素體 · 微粒體 · 過氧化物酶體 · 乙醛酸循環體 · 韋伯潘力
Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle- ... This cell biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ Ganong, William F.: "Review of Medical Physiology ... "Cell Metabolism. 12 (3): 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.06.010. PMC 2935812 . PMID 20816095.. ...
In humans, there are chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands (medulla) that get stimulated through the sympathetic nervous ... The hormone then reacts with receptors inside of the cell.[20] The activated receptors reach the nucleus of the cells and ... Dendrites in this section of the brain can shrink and this leads to cell or neuron death.[22] The shortening of dendrites and ... When cortisol is within the brain cells, it will bind to GRs and MRs.[20] However, cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind more ...
Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal sinus tumor and ... Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa ... "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. ... Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, ...
އެޑްރީނަލް މިޑުލާ ގައި އެންކެފަލިން އުފެދެނީ އޭގައި ހިމެނޭ ކްރޯމަފިން ސެލް (Chromaffin cell) ތަކޭ ކިޔާ ސެލްތަކަކުންނެވެ. ...
"J. Cell Biol. 142 (1): 39-49. PMC 2133036. PMID 9660861. doi:10.1083/jcb.142.1.39.. ... "H+ ATPase of chromaffin granules. Kinetics, regulation, and stoichiometry". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (18): 10701-7. PMID 6213624 ... Cell Dev. Biol. 13: 779-808. PMID 9442887. doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.13.1.779.. ... Cell 15 (11): 5075-91. PMC 524777. PMID 15356264. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-06-0514.. ...
Similarly named, Chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla) share this characteristic and are histologically similar to EC cells ... "Enterochromaffin-like Cells"[edit]. "Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells" are a population of cells that are found in the gastric ... EC cells are small polygonal cells located in the crypts between intestinal villi. They are discriminated from other cells of ... In response to gastrin released by neighbouring G-cells, secreted histamine from ECL cells acts on parietal cells to stimulate ...
In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm.[2] ... The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both of these gametes, are haploid germ cells. ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland[1] is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an ...
Acidophil cell (Somatotropic cell, Prolactin cell) · Basophil cell (Corticotropic cell, Gonadotropic cell, Thyrotropic cell) · ... Thyroid isthmus · Lobes of thyroid gland · Pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland Follicular cell · Parafollicular cell ... Ang produktong gameto ay mga selulang lithayop o binhi (germ cell) na haploid. Halimbawa, ang ispermatosoon at obum (itlog) ay ...
Chromaffin cells. Opioid receptor. Regulate pain Endothelin. Vascular endothelium. Endothelial cells. ET receptor. Smooth ... G cell. CCK2. Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells Ghrelin. stomach. P/D1 cell. ghrelin receptor. Stimulate appetite, ... Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells of kidney theca cells of ovary Leydig cells of testes. AR. Virilization, anabolic ... Cells Receptor Target Tissue Effect androgen. Testosterone. testes, ovary. Leydig cells. AR. libido, Anabolic: growth of muscle ...

No data available that match "chromaffin cells"


  • The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~20% of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into systemic circulation for systemic effects on multiple organs (similarly to secretory neurones of the hypothalamus), and can also send paracrine signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increased sympathetic activity leads to chronically increased synthesis and secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal chromaffin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chronic increase of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion causes desensitization of the chromaffin cells to catecholamines resulting in a decrease in production and presence of α2 adrenergic receptors on their cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This desensitization and downregulation of α2 adrenergic receptors is caused by the upregulation of the enzyme Adrenal G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) which effectively eliminates the normal autocrine-type negative feedback that normally prevents the cells from over producing the catecholamines and replaces it with a positive feedback loop in which increased secretion further elicits more secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we have investigated the effects of NaHS (fast donor of H 2 S) and GYY4137 (GYY, slow donor of H 2 S) on the exocytotic release of catecholamines from fast-perifused bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCCs) challenged with sequential intermittent pulses of a K + -depolarizing solution. (springer.com)
  • Pheochromocytoma, the "great masquerader," is a neoplasm of neuroectodermal chromaffin cells which produces excess catecholamines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromaffin cells exhibited higher levels of enkephalins and catecholamines on PLGA scaffold compared with their monolayer cultures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During the stress response adrenal medullary chromaffin cells release catecholamines to the bloodstream. (lu.se)
  • The control of intractable pain through transplanted of chromaffin cells has been recently reported where the analgesic effects are principally due to the production of opioid peptides and catecholamines (CAs) by the chromaffin cells. (scientific.net)
  • The SNS provides negative feedback control over inflammation through the secretion of catecholamines from postganglionic sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs). (queensu.ca)
  • This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adrenal chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons, and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells are each derived from the neural crest, produce catecholamines, and share certain morphological features. (caltech.edu)
  • Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the analgesia is due to the stimulated release of opioid peptides and catecholamines from the implanted bovine chromaffin cells and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the relief of pain. (elsevier.com)
  • After exocytosis, chromaffin granules release essentially all their catecholamines in small fractions of a second, but it is unknown how fast they release stored peptides and proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • These cells are traditionally recognized for their role in the neuronally mediated 'fight-flight' response and also respond to a range of other stressful stimuli by secreting both catecholamines and neuropeptides. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Basal and potassium-evoked release of catecholamines from encapsulated bovine chromaffin cells was analyzed over a 4-week period in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Since adrenal medullary chromaffin cells produce catecholamines as well as several kinds of neurotrophic factors which affect dopamine neurons, the authors have investigated the methods to increase the survival of grafted chromaffin cells in parkinsonian model animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro setting. (jove.com)
  • The adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCC) transition to the neuronal phenotype is known to occur in asthma, as evidenced by degranulation of chromaffin granules, decline of epinephrine (EPI) and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase (PNMT), and obvious alterations in cellular architecture. (hindawi.com)
  • Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCC) are the primary cells that secrete EPI [ 6 , 7 ], and are thus important elements of the neuroendocrine system. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to gain some insight into the roles that calcium channels might play in the adrenal medullary cells we have analyzed the alpha1 subunit mRNA expression profile. (lu.se)
  • Catecholamine release from cultured bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells in the presence of 60-Hz magnetic fields. (emf-portal.org)
  • The chromaffin cell line was derived from human chromaffin cell cultures and is also known as medullary chromaffin cells situated in the sympathetic nervous system. (altogen.com)
  • Following polymer encapsulation, BHK-hNGF cells were grafted into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats together with unencapsulated adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Bgt 3.1 inhibits nicotine-induced catecholamine release from the cells to the same extent and with the same concentration dependence that it modulates the number of mAb 35 sites on the cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, mAb 35 treatment of the cells causes a specific and almost complete blockade of nicotine-induced catecholamine release, apparently through a modulation of the receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Amperometric determination of calcium-dependent catecholamine release from individual digitonin-permeabilized cells treated with 3 μ M wortmannin or 20mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) and stimulated by continuous as well as repetitive calcium pulses showed alteration of slow phases of secretion when compared with control untreated cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In this sense, it has been described that catecholamine release in the intact adrenal gland recruits different calcium channels than those recruited during secretion from cultured chromaffin cells. (lu.se)
  • Botulinum A toxin inhibited Ca2 +-stimulated catecholamine release from these cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Using Fura-2 on intact chromaffin cells, the extracellular application of Ba 2+ increases cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations also inducing long-lasting catecholamine release. (atlasofscience.org)
  • The present study examined the VDCC subtypes in isolated rat adrenal chromaffin cells and evaluated individual subtypes for preferential effects on catecholamine release. (openrepository.com)
  • The chromaffin cells also retained the capacity for depolarization-elicited catecholamine release 4 weeks following the encapsulation procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • Main Chromaffin Cell F-actin Disassembly and Potentiation of Catecholamine Release in Response to Protein. (booksc.org)
  • [3] Further work was done in chromaffin cells to investigate catecholamine release from large dense core vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenal medulla is composed of chromaffin cells that are named for the granules within the cells that darken after exposure to chromium salts. (britannica.com)
  • Thus, mitochondria would play a critical role in the control of secretory activity in chromaffin cells that undergo tonic or repetitive depolarizing activity, likely by limiting the Ca 2+ -dependent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the current study, the hypothesis that mitochondria regulate secretory activity by limiting rises in [Ca 2+ ] c and the subsequent activation of specific proteins that recruit or prime secretory granules for exocytosis was tested by monitoring stimulus-evoked changes in [Ca 2+ ] c and the secretory activity of single bovine chromaffin cells after selective pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. (jneurosci.org)
  • Degranulation of chromaffin granules and appearance of neurite-like process were found in AMCC from asthmatic rats, and these changes were corrected by KTR treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • RE may represent the initial step in the rapid recycling of secretory granules in the chromaffin cell. (pnas.org)
  • Protein kinase C enhances exocytosis from chromaffin cells by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. (nih.gov)
  • Constituents of chromaffin granules such as amino acids like leucine will be lost during exocytosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We determined the size and intracellular distribution of dense core vesicles (DVs or chromaffin granules) and of clear vesicles (CVs). (rupress.org)
  • The distinct phases of the chromaffin cell secretory response have been attributed to the progressive fusion of distinct populations of dense core granules with different activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Upon depolarization of cells expressing fluorescent Syt isoforms using elevated K + , we find that Syt-7 granules fuse with faster kinetics than Syt-1 granules, irrespective of stimulation strength. (rupress.org)
  • Upon introduction of Ca 2+ into permeabilized cells, Syt-7 granules fuse with fast kinetics and high efficacy, even at low Ca 2+ levels (e.g., when cells are weakly stimulated). (rupress.org)
  • Our study provides evidence for functional specialization of chromaffin cell granules via selective expression of Syt isoforms with different Ca 2+ sensitivities. (rupress.org)
  • Exocytosis was tracked by measuring the membrane capacitance, and single granules in live cells were imaged by evanescent field microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • It is concluded that a significant fraction of chromaffin granules re-seal after exocytosis, and retain those proteins that leave granules slowly. (elsevier.com)
  • Morphological analysis revealed the presence of intact chromaffin cells with well-preserved secretory granules. (elsevier.com)
  • The amount of cytoplasmic granules of the interrenal cells increased than chromaffin cells and was well coincidence with the increase of spermatids and spermatozoa. (sciendo.com)
  • Large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells shares many important features with neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles in classical CNS synapses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bovine adrenomedullary cells in culture have been used to study the role of myosin in vesicle transport during exocytosis. (biochemj.org)
  • Wortmannin and BDM affect drastically vesicle transport throughout the cell cytoplasm, including the region beneath the plasma membrane. (biochemj.org)
  • O nce attached at the cell membrane (CM), 1 a secretory vesicle may acquire the capability to immediately release upon stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Aim: After exocytosis, neuroendocrine cells and neurones keep constant the plasma membrane and the releasable vesicle pools by performing endocytosis and vesicular cycling. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • These data establish synaptotagmin-7 as a major Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis in chromaffin cells, which, together with synaptotagmin-1, mediates almost all of the Ca(2+) triggering of exocytosis in these cells, a surprising result, considering the lack of a role of synaptotagmin-7 in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. (scripps.edu)
  • First, we showed that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from electrophysiological experiments. (uni-kassel.de)
  • In particular, we performed Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane assuming pure Brownian motion and obtained the statistics of vesicle arrival times. (uni-kassel.de)
  • We realized that, in the steady state, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site of the cell membrane and that the amperometric signal can be mapped into a time-sequence of release events. (uni-kassel.de)
  • Compensatory endocytosis is the mechanism by which components of secretory vesicles are retrieved after vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in response to cell stimulation and a rise in intracellular calcium. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • Ceridono M., Chasserot-Golaz S., Vitale N., Gasman S., Ory S. (2021) Measurements of Compensatory Endocytosis by Antibody Internalization and Quantification of Endocytic Vesicle Distribution in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • Subcellular localization and protein interaction data indicate that HAP1 may be important in vesicle trafficking and cell signalling. (edu.au)
  • Using carbon-fibre amperometry, we measured single vesicle exocytosis in chromaffin cells obtained from HAP1 -/- and HAP1 +/+ littermate mice. (edu.au)
  • In order to record vesicle fusion, a carbon fiber electrode is brought close to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Ca2+ is the most ubiquitous second messenger found in all cells. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "The characteristics and function of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors expressed on bovine chromaffin cells in culture have been investigated using patch-clamp techniques. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Using pharmacological probes to inhibit mitochondrial Ca 2+ import, the ability of mitochondria to modulate secretory activity in single, patch-clamped bovine chromaffin cells was examined by simultaneously monitoring rapid changes in membrane surface area (Δ C m ) and cytosolic Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] c ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We have used membrane capacitance measurements to assay Ca2+-triggered exocytosis in single bovine adrenal chromatin cells. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Mean resting membrane potential of the isolated cells was -62 +/- 3 (SE) mV. (nih.gov)
  • Many studies in animal models have shown that discordant xenogeneic cell isolates, including chromaffin cells, can survive and have biologic effects when transplanted within a semipermeable membrane capsule. (epfl.ch)
  • Apamin, however, eliminated the hypoxia-induced depolarization (400 nM) (7/8), suggesting that hypoxic depolarization is related to the suppression of I SK(Ca) . From the above results, we conclude that adult AMCs are sensitive to hypoxia, and that I SK(Ca) contributes to the hypoxia-induced suppression of whole-cell outward current and depolarization of the resting membrane potential in adult AMCs. (springer.com)
  • Voltage-activated calcium channels present in the cell membrane play a crucial role in this process. (lu.se)
  • When the distance of the center of DVs to the cell membrane (CM) is analyzed, DV density is found to decrease as the CM is approached. (rupress.org)
  • Regulated exocytosis in chromaffin cells is triggered by membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. (rupress.org)
  • TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and membrane fractions nor the ability of guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate to decrease the binding in membrane fractions. (biochemj.org)
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A cell is a group of self-sustaining biochemical reactions that are isolated from the environment by a selectively permeable lipid membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patch-clamp capacitance measurements on chromaffin cells showed that strong Ca+2 entry activates excess retrieval: a rapid endocytosis process that retrieves more membrane than the one fused by preceding exocytosis. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In this work, we used this assay in combination with fluorescent dextrans and specific organelle-targeted antibodies to study the membrane recycling after excess retrieval in mouse chromaffin cells. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Our results are compatible with the following sequence of events: Ba 2+ blocks K Ca channels from both the outside and inside of the cell, causing membrane depolarization that, in turn, opens voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels and favours the entry of Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ . (atlasofscience.org)
  • Release dynamics were evaluated in single chromaffin cells voltage-clamped at the resting potential (-60 mV) and monitored with a carbon-fiber electrode placed next to the cell membrane. (openrepository.com)
  • Here, we investigated the mechanisms governing endocytosis of collapsed granule membranes by following internalization of antibodies labeling the granule membrane protein, dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) in cultured chromaffin cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • The neurotransmitter molecules are transported inside vesicles, which move towards the cell membrane. (uni-kassel.de)
  • As a result of fusion, a pore in the membrane is produced, through which neurotransmitter molecules leave the cell. (uni-kassel.de)
  • Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) into the cell upon membrane polarization (see membrane potential and calcium in biology ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [16] Cav1.2 channels are arranged in cluster of eight, on average, in the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surrounding bovine chromaffin cells by a semipermeable membrane may protect the transplanted cells from a host immune response and shield them from the inflammatory process resulting from the surgical trauma. (elsevier.com)
  • These receptors are present on the adrenal chromaffin cell membrane. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • In support of a physiological role for GABA in the adrenal medulla, the co-existence of GABA A and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors was demonstrated on whole cells and outside-out membrane patches. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Annexin II is a Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein present in a wide variety of cells and tissues. (naver.com)
  • We use electron microscopy to demonstrate a reduction in the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane of HAP1 -/- cells, where membrane capacitance measurements reveal the readily releasable pool of vesicles to be reduced in size. (edu.au)
  • These results were supported also by studying the impact of these myosin inhibitors on chromaffin granule mobility using direct visualization by dynamic confocal microscopy. (biochemj.org)
  • Here we assess the consequences of selective sorting of Syt isoforms in chromaffin cells, particularly with respect to granule dynamics and activation kinetics. (rupress.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinetics of single granule fusions from cells expressing truncated forms showed slow onset and decay times when compared with control cells expressing full SNAP-25. (pnas.org)
  • Ceridono M, Ory S, Momboisse F et al (2011) Selective recapture of secretory granule components after full collapse exocytosis in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • In vitro" phosphorylation of annexin 2 heterotetramer by protein kinase C. Comparative properties of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated annexin 2 on the aggregation and fusion of chromaffin granule membranes. (naver.com)
  • Regulation of the chromaffin granule aggregating activity of annexin I by phosphorylation. (naver.com)
  • The effect of hypoxia on small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + current was investigated in a study of adult rat adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs), which were maintained in short-term culture. (springer.com)
  • Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells respond to sympathetic nervous system activation by secreting a cocktail of potent neuropeptides and hormones into the circulation. (rupress.org)
  • Our results indicate that expression of truncated forms of SNAP-25 cause inhibition of secretion, consistent with the effect reported for BoNT A in adrenomedullary cells, thus stressing the specificity of toxin action. (pnas.org)
  • Neuronal differentiation of chromaffin cells in vitro, induced by extremely low frequency magnetic fields or nerve growth factor: a histological and ultrastructural comparative study. (emf-portal.org)
  • The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]noradrenaline ([ 3 H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10 -5 M). 2. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. (elsevier.com)
  • However, few details are known of the function of its peptide on stimulus-secretion coupling in neuronal cells. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • However, because removal of the endothelium did not affect NO production during electrical field stimulation, it would appear that the neuronal form of NOS (nNOS) is the key isoform modulating catecholamine secretion from trout chromaffin cells. (biologists.org)
  • With loss-of-function experiments in the rat neuronal cell line Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) and gain-of-function experiments in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, we demonstrated that Rapgef2 connected GPCR-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase and increased cAMP concentration with the activation of ERK in neurons and endocrine cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX) in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission , the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell . (bvsalud.org)
  • Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we show that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a partner of the αII-spectrin SH3 domain and demonstrate that secretagogue-evoked N-WASP recruitment at cell periphery is blocked in the absence of αII-spectrin. (pasteur.fr)
  • α1, β1, γ, δ and ε subunits are only expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas the other subunits are found mainly in neurons (hence "neuronal nicotinic receptors") but also in other cell types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to activate chromaffin cells, the splanchnic nerve of the sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine, which then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two probes previously shown to distinguish the nicotinic ACh receptor of chick ciliary ganglion neurons also recognize a component on the surface of bovine chromaffin cells in culture that displays the properties expected for the chromaffin nicotinic ACh receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results indicate that the bovine chromaffin component recognized by mAb 35 and Bgt 3.1 is likely to be the nicotinic ACh receptor on the cells and that it has many similarities to ACh receptors on chick autonomic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, nicotine binds to the ganglion-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is composed of alpha 3 (CHRNA3) and beta 4 (CHRNB4) subunits. (wikipathways.org)
  • We investigated the effects of neomycin on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-induced responses in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nicotinic Cholinergic Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression and Catecholamine Synthesis in Isolated Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cells. (go.jp)
  • In the present study, we investigated the mechanism through which NPY and NPY fragments inhibit nicotinic receptor induced influx of 22 Na + and 45 Ca ++ into bovine chromaffin cells. (nebraska.edu)
  • By quantitative confocal immunofluorescence, immunoreplica analysis and immunoprecipitation, we show here the translocation of p36 from the cytosol to a subplasmalemmal Triton X-100 insoluble fraction in chromaffin cells following nicotinic stimulation. (naver.com)
  • Nicotinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion from individual chromaffin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by the splanchnic nerve and secrete adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), some dopamine, enkephalin and enkephalin-containing peptides, and a few other hormones into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • the former produce norepinephrine, the latter arise out of N cells through interaction with glucocorticoids, and convert norepinephrine into epinephrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium triggers the release of epinephrine from the chromaffin vesicles into the bloodstream, which leads to increased heart rate and blood pressure and elevation of blood glucose level. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, the presence of protein III and the regulation of its phosphorylation were examined in chromaffin cells isolated from bovine adrenal medullae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • in the adrenal gland called chromaffin cells. (britannica.com)
  • These terms can be used interchangeably but usually paraganglioma refer to a tumor originating from chromaffin cells outside the adrenal gland, which can also be called extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, whereas pheochromocytoma typically refer to a tumor originating from the chromaffin cells within the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland . (radiopaedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Chromaffin cells from the adrenal gland secrete a mixture of compounds that have a strong analgesic effect, especially when administered intrathecally. (epfl.ch)
  • Secretory responses induced by divalent cations in permeabilized chromaffin cells studied with single-cell amperometry. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Experiments are conducted using single cell amperometry. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Amperometry in chromaffin cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) have been used to test the involvement of single amino acids in exocytotic function, overcoming some of the limitations of studies based on Botulinum neurotoxin cleavage, as this occurs at defined sites of the protein. (pnas.org)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to the NH2-terminal domain of p36 which contains the phosphorylation sites was microinjected into individual chromaffin cells and catecholamine secretion was monitored by amperometry. (naver.com)
  • Unlike patch clamp techniques, the electrode used for amperometry is not inserted into or attached to the cell , but brought in close proximity of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry are two electrochemical techniques that enable the detection of electroactive neurotransmitters that are released from single cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Protein III was present in chromaffin cells isolated and purified from bovine adrenal medullae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The phenomena of two maturation steps preceding fusion, docking, and priming, are readily demonstrated in both neurons and chromaffin cells, and release occurs from a readily releasable pool (RRP) as described below. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synaptotagmin-1, the canonical isoform of the synaptotagmin family, is a Ca(2+) sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release in forebrain neurons and chromaffin cells. (scripps.edu)
  • Sympathetic activation of chromaffin cells releases their hormones into the bloodstream in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, there are also important differences between synaptic transmission and catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a widely distributed peptide with varied activities including inhibition of [ 3 H]NE secretion from chromaffin cells. (nebraska.edu)
  • The digestion of the medulla into single chromaffin cells is then demonstrated. (jove.com)
  • Intact chromaffin cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase were observed in all capsules implanted in the striatum for 4 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of noradrenaline release from chromaffin cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Boarder, M. R. / Role of phosphoinositide turnover and cyclic AMP accumulation in prostaglandin-stimulated noradrenaline release from cultured adrenal chromaffin cells . (hud.ac.uk)
  • Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients with Parkinson's disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The resulting data showed that the encapsulated chromaffin cells retained the ability of their parent chromaffin cells when responding to opioids by suppressing the release of CAs. (scientific.net)
  • In contrast, bupivacaine did not have any statistically significant affect on the basal and nicotine-induced CA release from the encapsulated chromaffin cells. (scientific.net)
  • Actions of A-75200, a novel catecholamine uptake inhibitor, on norepinephrine uptake and release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effect of GTP analogues on catecholamine secretion and [3H]arachidonic acid release from digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells was examined. (portlandpress.com)
  • The inhibition of [3H]arachidonic acid release by XTP was not prevented by GDP[S]. These results demonstrate that activation of a GTP-binding protein by certain GTP analogues can induce Ca2(+)-independent secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells and that the effect of GTP analogues on Ca2(+)-independent secretion can be dissociated from generation of arachidonic acid. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cleavage of the disulfide bond linking the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin is necessary for its inhibitory action on exocytotic release ofcatecholamines from permeabi1ized chromaffin cells [(1989) FEBS Lett. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • one due to influx from the cell exterior through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels, and that due to release from intracellular stores. (rupress.org)
  • In a previous report, we described the ability of two secretogogues, histamine and nicotine, to stimulate additive effects on catecholamine (CA) release and synapsin II phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACC) [Firestone and Browning (1992), J. Neurochem. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data are consistent with a model in which two distinct sources of Ca++ can summate within the cell, producing a greater Ca++ signal and, hence, a greater effect on neurotransmitter release. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A combined application of NaN 3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of 86 Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells and failed to increase further the release of [ 3 H] in comparison to that found in response to ouabain alone. (elsevier.com)
  • It is concluded that in peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells, NaN 3 inhibits the Na + -pump producing NA and CA release respectively and in nerves even if NA release had already been increased by K + -removal. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of the chromaffin cells with ACh produced calcium-dependent increases in both the phosphorylation of protein III and the release of 3H-norepinephrine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, another Ca(2+) sensor dominates release in these cells. (scripps.edu)
  • Moreover, in chromaffin cells lacking both synaptotagmin-1 and -7, only a very slow release component, accounting for approximately 30% of WT exocytosis, persisted. (scripps.edu)
  • Similarly, these channels play a role in neurotransmitter release in chromaffin cells (Garcia et al. (elsevier.com)
  • The first electrochemical signal arising from the carbon-fiber electrode (a measure of catecholamine released from single vesicles) following a 50 ms pulse to 0 mV, showed a mean release latency of 43±2 ms and 46±3 ms in cells studied 4 to 8 hr and 24 to 36 hr following cell isolation, respectively. (openrepository.com)
  • Release was further augmented by depolarizing the cell to 0 mV only in the range of 20 to 100 pM intracellular Ca^+ indicating a maximum rate of release above these values. (openrepository.com)
  • Communication among secretory cells, neurons and other related cells is accompanied by a process called exocytosis, which consists in the release of neurotransmitters into the intercellular space. (uni-kassel.de)
  • We normalized the release-sequences resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. (uni-kassel.de)
  • Neuroendocrine cells release different hormones into the bloodstream in response to nerve signals. (altogen.com)
  • Smith C, Moser T, Xu T et al (1998) Cytosolic Ca 2+ acts by two separate pathways to modulate the supply of release-competent vesicles in chromaffin cells. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • The dense-core vesicles release of chromaffi{ligature}n cells is a suitable model for the presynaptic process in neurosecretory cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of nor‐ adrenaline release from Chromaffin cells. (hud.ac.uk)
  • It is generally accepted that chromaffin cells release their contents by both exocytosis and piecemeal degranulaltion [PMD]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neuroendocrine cells release hormones and neuropeptides through calcium-regulated exocytosis, a process that is coordinated by a fine remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. (pasteur.fr)
  • Whereas release per full fusion event is unchanged in HAP1 -/- cells, early fusion pore duration is prolonged, as indicated by the increased duration of pre-spike foot signals. (edu.au)
  • Analysis of retrieved capsules revealed that the BHK cells survived and continued to release hNGF at a level of 2-3 ng/day even 12 months after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromaffin cells were prepared from bovine adrenal glands and were maintained as described ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cells were also incubated with IL-6 for 48 h and quantitative-PCR used to identify the gene changes in selected neuropeptides in these cells. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Neuroendocrine cells secrete hormones and neuropeptides through various modes of exo-endocytosis, including kiss-and-run, cavicapture and full-collapse fusion. (pasteur.fr)
  • 18.) Lozorthes Y, Bes JC, Sagen J, Tafani M et al, "Transplantation of Human Chromaffin Cells for Control of Intractable Cancer Pain", Acta Neurochir. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Highly purified ACCs cultured on PLGA scaffold may have promise in transplantation studies, because these cells are less immunogenic and may be applied to in vivo settings by using short-term immunosuppression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to being useful in the fields of cellular and molecular biology, chromaffin cells are valuable for stem cell research and clinical transplantation. (altogen.com)
  • The transplantation of genetically modified cells represents one potential means of delivering trophic factors to the brain to support the survival of host neurons and to increase the survival of co-grafted cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Secretion of hNGF from the encapsulated cells, morphology of these cells, apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the host animals, and survival of the co-grafted chromaffin cells were examined 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry further revealed that while survival of chromaffin cells without hNGF support was poor, co-grafting of adrenal medulla and BHK-hNGF cells dramatically (26- to 32-fold) increased chromaffin cell survival 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Date, I & Ohmoto, T 1996, ' Neural transplantation and trophic factors in Parkinson's disease: Special reference to chromaffin cell grafting, NGF support from pretransected peripheral nerve, and encapsulated dopamine-secreting cell grafting ', Experimental Neurology , vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 333-344. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since they also are excitable cells that generate action potentials, chromaffin cells are viewed as the endocrine counterparts of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and are often termed adrenal paraneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evoked action potentials were both Na+ and Ca2+ based, and whole cell voltage-clamp studies in normal saline revealed an inward-rectifier-type current. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, Ba 2+ blocks Ca 2+ -activated K + channels, promoting cell depolarization and action potentials. (atlasofscience.org)
  • By binding to the receptors, nicotine causes cell depolarization and an influx of calcium through voltage dependent calcium channels. (wikipathways.org)
  • Although the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of chromaffin cell calcium channels have been studied in detail, the molecular composition of these channels has not been defined yet. (lu.se)
  • Another aspect that needs to be explored is the extent to which chromaffin cells in culture reflect the adrenal medulla calcium channel characteristics. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, recent electrophysiological studies show that chromaffin cells in culture differ from those located in the intact adrenal medulla in the contribution of several calcium channel types to the whole cell current. (lu.se)
  • However there is not yet any study that compares the population of calcium channels in chromaffin cells with that one present in the adrenal medulla. (lu.se)
  • We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, we show, for the first time, that the cardiac isoform of L-type calcium channel is present in both bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells and that its levels of expression do not vary during culture. (lu.se)
  • Intracellular calcium activity in isolated bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence and absence of 60 Hz magnetic fields. (emf-portal.org)
  • Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields. (emf-portal.org)
  • Real-time measurement of cytosolic free calcium concentration in Jurkat cells during ELF magnetic field exposure and evaluation of the role of cell cycle. (emf-portal.org)
  • Calcium signalling in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: additive effects of histamine and nicotine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In secretory cells, calcium-regulated exocytosis is rapidly followed by compensatory endocytosis. (pasteur.fr)
  • [17] This results in channels working cooperatively when they open at the same time to allow more calcium ions to enter and then close together to allow the cell to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting that bradykinin, which stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of catecholamine in adrenal chromaffin cells, plays a role in the termination of calcium-signal transduction through the stimu-lation of Ca2+ efflux from the cells. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole- cell inward calcium current. (bvsalud.org)
  • We describe here that calcium-regulated exocytosis is impaired in chromaffin and PC12 cells with reduced αII-spectrin expression levels. (pasteur.fr)
  • The study Activation of facilitation calcium channels in chromaffin cells by D1 dopamine receptors through a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism , published by Nature in 1990 (348:239-242) was awarded the third Esteve Foundation Research Price. (esteve.org)
  • such effects of H 2 S donors are aborted by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), that causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ depletion through sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibition and by protonophore carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), that impedes the ability of mitochondria to sequester cytosolic Ca 2+ during cell depolarization. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. 2 Mild cell depolarization of BCCs produced by NaHS, but not by GYY. (springer.com)
  • Voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels, found in all excitable cells (Hille 1992), mediate the entry of Ca 2+ into cells following depolarization. (elsevier.com)
  • Active zones, electron dense, protein rich areas with the attendant clusters of vesicles ( Zhai and Bellen, 2004 ) are not obvious in chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intracellular dynamic events, such as protein trafficking, recycling, and degradation as well as signal transduction, to name a few, can be studied using live-cell imaging techniques. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effect of cyclic GMP-increasing agents nitric oxide and C-type natriuretic peptide on bovine chromaffin cell function: inhibitory role mediated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • After prelabeling with 32PO4, exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a Mr approximately equal to 100,000 protein and a Mr approximately equal to 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in naDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The levels of protein III were moderately enriched in purified chromaffin cells compared with whole adrenal medullae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Preincubation of chromaffin cells with 32PO4 led to the endogenous phosphorylation of protein III, and phosphopeptide maps of chromaffin cell protein III were similar to those of protein III from bovine cerebral cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, our strategy was based in overexpressing native as well as altered forms of SNAP-25 coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in bovine chromaffin cells and studying the effect produced by these constructs in the secretory properties of the cells. (pnas.org)
  • Protein expression of Cyclophilin B in Chromaffin cells. (altogen.com)
  • At 72 hours post-transfection the cells were analyzed by Western Blot for protein expression levels (normalized by total protein, 10 µg of total protein loaded per each well). (altogen.com)
  • G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated increases in the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and in neuroendocrine cells, this pathway leads to cAMP-dependent neuritogenesis mediated through Rap1 and B-Raf. (sciencemag.org)
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, with protean functional roles in cell physiology ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the best candidates for stimulating an increase in cAMP concentration in cells of the nervous system that could, in turn, control ERK activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Within cells, annexin II is found either as a 36-kD monomer (p36) or as a heterotetrameric complex (p90) coupled with the S-100-related protein, p11. (naver.com)
  • The light chain of annexin II, p11, was selectively expressed by adrenergic chromaffin cells, and was only present in the subplasmalemmal Triton X-100 insoluble protein fraction of both resting and stimulated cells. (naver.com)
  • APUD cells [ a mine p recursor u ptake and d ecarboxylation] a group of cells that manufacture polypeptides and biogenic amines serving as hormones or neurotransmitters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Closely related to the nervous system, chromaffin cells are one of the most commonly studied neural crest derivatives due to the variety of bioactive substances they secrete into the bloodstream, including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and other hormones. (altogen.com)
  • Adrenal medulla, the central region of these glands, contains the cells that synthesize and secrete these hormones. (altogen.com)
  • The cells which make up all of these regions are full of lipid droplets containing cholesterol , which can be converted into the steroid hormones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cell morphology was examined by transmission electron microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell counts and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the majority of seeded cells were located within the scaffold. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have analyzed ultrathin sections from isolated bovine chromaffin cells grown on plastic support, after fast freezing, by quantitative electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel m. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel mechanism of Ca2+ syntilla suppression. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of Ca2+-independent catecholamine secretion from digitonin-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by guanine nucleotide analogues. (portlandpress.com)
  • They found that strong stimulation of the cells leads to depletion of the pool of RRGs, and that slight elevation of [Ca 2+ ] leads to an acceleration in refilling the pool of RRGs. (rupress.org)
  • Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with P-32i, we show that stimulation with bradykinin, nicotine, or a depolarising concentration of potassium stimulates the accumulation of [P-32]phosphatidic acid. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Pain sensitivity and response to nicotine stimulation was determined at various intervals following cell implantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Artalejo CR, Elhamdani A, Palfrey HC (2002) Sustained stimulation shifts the mechanism of endocytosis from Dynamin-1-dependent rapid endocytosis to Clathrin- and Dynamin-2-mediated slow endocytosis in chromaffin cells. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • Perrin D, Aunis D (1985) Reorganization of alpha-fodrin induced by stimulation in secretory cells. (fjmu.edu.cn)
  • Otherwise, bradykinin increases Ca2+ efflux from the cells through the stimulation of the bradykinin-B2 receptor. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of annexin II in T cells: potential regulation by annexin V. (naver.com)
  • Measurement of nerve growth factor (NGF) showed that NGF level at the distal stump of the pretransected peripheral nerve increased significantly, thus, we have applied cografting of chromaffin cells with this stump of the peripheral nerve to animal models of Parkinson's disease since chromaffin cell survival have been reported to be increased by supplementation of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • We have demonstrated that rat cerebral endothelial cells produce and secrete large amount of AM in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) preparation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are two types of cells that originate from the neural crest and are related to the sympathetic nervous system (originate from a cell called sympathogonia): 1) Neuroblasts: These cells migrate, during the fourth to the fifth week of fetal development in humans, on both sides of the spinal cord toward the region just behind the dorsal aorta forming the two chains of sympathetic ganglia (Sympathetic chain). (wikipedia.org)

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