A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Inflammation of the choroid.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)
A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Diseases of the uvea.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A member of the family of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Mutations of the gene for TIMP3 PROTEIN causes Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.

Suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth by the inhibitor K1-5 generated by plasmin-mediated proteolysis. (1/742)

Proteolytic enzymes are involved in generation of a number of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. Previously, we reported that angiostatin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, is a proteolytic fragment containing the first four kringle modules of plasminogen. In this report, we demonstrate that urokinase-activated plasmin can process plasminogen to release an angiogenesis inhibitor, K1-5 (protease-activated kringles 1-5). K1-5 inhibits endothelial-cell proliferation with a half-maximal concentration of approximately 50 pM. This inhibitory effect is endothelial-cell-specific and appears to be at least approximately 50-fold greater than that of angiostatin. A synergistic efficacy of endothelial inhibition was observed when angiostatin and kringle 5 (K5) were coincubated with capillary endothelial cells. The synergistic effect is comparable to that produced by K1-5 alone. Systemic treatment of mice with K1-5 at a low dose significantly blocked the fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization, whereas angiostatin had no effect at the same dose. K1-5 also suppressed angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Systemic administration of K1-5 at a low dose at which angiostatin was ineffective significantly suppressed the growth of a murine T241 fibrosarcoma in mice. The antitumor effect correlates with the reduced neovascularization. These findings suggest that the plasmin-mediated proteolysis may be involved in the negative switch of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Effect of focal X-ray irradiation on experimental choroidal neovascularization. (2/742)

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy has been used to treat choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with age-related macular degeneration. The in vivo effect of applying focal x-ray irradiation to the eye of rabbits with experimental CNV was investigated. METHODS: CNV was induced in the rabbit eyes by subretinal implantation of gelatin hydrogel microspheres impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor. Three weeks after implantation, 17 of 34 eyes with CNV lesions accompanied by fluorescein leakage were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy; the other 17 eyes were not irradiated and served as the controls. The eyes were examined before irradiation and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after irradiation, by indirect ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography. The degree of a decreasing amount of fluorescein leakage from the CNV lesions after irradiation was graded using a computerized image analysis system and was compared in the irradiated and nonirradiated eyes. These eyes were also examined histologically and immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Fluorescein leakage from the CNV lesions had significantly decreased in the eyes irradiated with 20 Gy compared with the control eyes, throughout the study period (P < 0.05). Histologic and immunohistochemical studies at 4 weeks after irradiation demonstrated that the degree of vascular formation and the number of vascular endothelial cells in the subretinal membrane of the irradiated eyes were less than those of the control eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Focal x-ray irradiation at the ocular region effectively reduced experimental CNV activity. These results support the possibility that radiation therapy may be beneficial in treating CNV.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of TNP-470 on experimental choroidal neovascularization in a rat model. (3/742)

PURPOSE: To determine whether an angiogenic inhibitor, TNP- 470 (TNP), an analogue of fumagillin, inhibits choroidal neovascularization (CNV) induced by diode laser photocoagulation in a rat experimental model. METHODS: Fundus laser photocoagulation was performed on Brown Norway rats to induce CNV. In the treatment group, TNP was administered intraperitoneally at the time of laser photocoagulation and on day 7 (50 mg/kg at each time). The incidence of CNV formation was evaluated by fluorescein angiography. The retina was collected from the rats on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after laser photocoagulation, and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for the expression of mRNA of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were carried out. Localization of bFGF mRNA was studied by in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The numbers of positively labeled cells for bFGF mRNA were compared between the TNP treatment and control groups. RESULTS: The incidence of CNV formation was 22.7% in the TNP-treated rats and that in the control rats was 61.4% (P < 0.001). The semiquantitative PCR analyses showed that bFGF mRNA was upregulated on days 3 and 7 in the control rats, but no significant changes were found in TNP-treated rats. There was no detectable difference in VEGF gene expression between the control and TNP-treated rats. bFGF mRNA was detected by in situ RT-PCR in the regenerated retinal pigment epithelial cells and cells of the outer and inner nuclear layers of the control rats. The number of positive cells for bFGF mRNA in the TNP treatment group was significantly smaller than that of the control group (P < 0.05) on days 3 and 14. CONCLUSIONS: TNP- 470 treatment reduced the incidence of laser-induced CNV formation in this experimental model. The expression of bFGF associated with CNV formation was also significantly reduced by the TNP treatment.  (+info)

Dramatic inhibition of retinal and choroidal neovascularization by oral administration of a kinase inhibitor. (4/742)

The most common cause of new blindness in young patients is retinal neovascularization, and in the elderly is choroidal neovascularization. Therefore, there has been a great deal of attention focused on the development of new treatments for these disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated partial inhibition of retinal neovascularization in animal models using antagonists of vascular endothelial growth factor or other signaling molecules implicated in the angiogenesis cascade. These studies have indicated potential for drug treatment, but have left many questions unanswered. Is it possible to completely inhibit retinal neovascularization using drug treatment with a mode of administration that is feasible to use in patients? Do agents that inhibit retinal neovascularization have any effect on choroidal neovascularization? In this study, we demonstrate complete inhibition of retinal neovascularization in mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy by oral administration of a partially selective kinase inhibitor that blocks several members of the protein kinase C family, along with vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The drug also blocks normal vascularization of the retina during development but has no identifiable adverse effects on mature retinal vessels. In addition, the kinase inhibitor causes dramatic inhibition of choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced murine model. These data provide proof of concept that pharmacological treatment is a viable approach for therapy of both retinal and choroidal neovascularization.  (+info)

Indocyanine green guided laser photocoagulation in patients with occult choroidal neovascularisation. (5/742)

AIMS: To determine whether indocyanine green (ICG) guided laser photocoagulation of occult choroidal neovascularisations (OCNV) is beneficial for patients with occult choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A prospective pilot study was performed in 21 eyes with OCNV secondary to AMD that could be identified extrafoveolarly or juxtafoveolarly in an early ICG angiographic study. Laser photocoagulation was applied to the neovascular membrane identified in the early ICG angiographic study. RESULTS: Visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (logMAR 0.54 (SD 0.29) before and hand movements and 20/30 (logMAR 0.81 (0.69)) at the last follow up after laser photocoagulation. During the follow up (30 (13) months) vision improved in four eyes (two lines), in seven eyes the initial visual acuity could be stabilised (two lines), in five eyes vision dropped moderately (three to five lines), and in five eyes vision decreased severely (six or more lines). Recurrences (seven patients) or persistent CNV (six patients) was observed in 13 patients. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study of ICG guided laser photocoagulation of occult extrafoveal and juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularisations suggests that this technique may improve the visual prognosis of these patients. Further prospective controlled studies are necessary to confirm these data.  (+info)

OCT imaging of choroidal neovascularisation and its role in the determination of patients' eligibility for surgery. (6/742)

AIM: To evaluate the optical coherence tomographic characteristics of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in age related macular degeneration (AMD) and in idiopathic and inflammatory CNV. The use of this technique in the selection of patients for surgery is discussed. METHODS: Ocular coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were performed in 23 patients affected by AMD complicated by well defined CNV and in 10 patients affected by inflammatory or idiopathic CNV. The neovascular membrane was surgically removed in five age related CNVs, two inflammatory choroidopathies, and two idiopathic CNVs. RESULTS: In inflammatory and idiopathic CNV, the OCT displayed a neovascularisation on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In three cases the CNV was excised with an improvement of visual acuity equal to or greater than two Snellen lines; in a fourth case, the visual acuity after surgery was unchanged. In the cases of AMD the OCT fell into three different patterns: (A) CNV above the RPE (five cases); (B) focal, irregular thickening of the retinal pigment epithelial band (12 cases); (C) CNV above and below the RPE (six cases). The five pattern A CNV patients underwent the surgical excision of the neovascularisation. In four cases the visual acuity improved by two or more Snellen lines; in the fifth case the visual acuity remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest that the surgical removal of early age related CNV could be performed in those cases where the OCT shows a neovascular membrane on the RPE, as in idiopathic and inflammatory CNVs.  (+info)

The potential angiogenic role of macrophages in the formation of choroidal neovascular membranes. (7/742)

PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and to identify their cellular source in surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) of various origins. METHODS: Immunoperoxidase staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 11 surgically excised CNVMs to identify cellular distribution and localization of cytokines. Immunofluorescent double staining was performed to detect the cellular source of cytokines. RESULTS: Cytokeratin-positive cells were detected in the RPE layer, in stromal cells, and around neovascular vessels. Macrophages identified by their cellular marker CD68 showed almost the same distribution as cytokeratin-positive cells, although they were most prominent in the stroma. A substantial number of neovascular vessels were also immunoreactive to IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Immunofluorescent double staining revealed that the RPE layers immunopositive for cytokeratin were also immunopositive for all cytokines, whereas stromal cells immunostained for CD68 were positive for IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but not for VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha secreted by macrophages may promote, at least in part, angiogenesis in CNVMs by stimulating VEGF production in RPE cells.  (+info)

Expressions of angiopoietins and Tie2 in human choroidal neovascular membranes. (8/742)

PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential role of angiopoietins and the Tie2 system in choroidal neovascularization. METHODS: Surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) were obtained at vitrectomy from five eyes with age-related macular degeneration, three eyes with idiopathic neovascular maculopathy, and two eyes had degenerative myopia and two eyes had angioid streaks. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry was performed to detect cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ang1, and Ang2 and cellular components such as retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Immunofluorescent double staining using confocal microscopy was performed to identify the cell types that secrete specific cytokines. RESULTS: Ang1 and Ang2 were positive in all surgically excised CNVMs, regardless of the primary disease. Double staining revealed that many of the cytokeratin, CD68 and factor VIII positive cells also had Ang1 and Ang2 immunoreactivities. In contrast to Ang1, Ang2 immunoreactivity tends to be higher in the highly vascularized regions of many CNVMs, and the localization was very similar to that of VEGF staining. Almost all vascular structures had prominent immunoreactivity for Tie2, which was confirmed by double staining for Tie2 and factor VIII. Tie2 immunoreactivity was also observed in the RPE monolayer and in pigmented, polygonal, and fibroblast-like cells in the stroma. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings that Ang2 and VEGF are co-upregulated and that Tie2 is expressed in a variety of cell types in CNVMs further support a crucial role of the interaction between VEGF and Ang2 in pathologic angiogenesis of CNVM formation.  (+info)

Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was associated with thinning of the subfoveal choroid in patients treated for unilateral idiopathic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, a study found. The prospective study included 16 patients with unilateral idiopathic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization who underwent a single intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg ranibizumab and subsequent injections as needed. Investigators used enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography to measure subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Mean patient age was 31.9 years. Visual acuity was also evaluated. Full Story →. ...
Purpose : Historically, large animal models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been unpredictable, with only 70% of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in non-human primates (NHP) considered clinically relevant. Furthermore, only up to 40% of these CNV lesions are considered ideal, exhibiting Grade IV leakage on fluorescein angiography. This inefficiency leads to excess animal use and high study cost. Previous swine CNV models displayed extensive retinal damage and only minimal choroidal involvement when neovascularization was present. We aimed to create a reproducible, predictable swine model of laser-induced CNV improving efficiency and lowering cost compared to available NHP CNV models. Methods : Yucatan minipigs were used to optimize laser induction of CNV. Bilaterally, six lesions were created using a 532nm green argon laser under direct visualization with a slit lamp and condensing lens. Follow-up examinations included optical coherence tomography ...
Purpose: : This study aimed to examine relationship of histamine receptor H4 (HRH4) and the pathogenesis of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (laser-CNV) and to determine whether oral administration of HRH4 antagonists suppressed laser-CNV in mice. Methods: : Laser photocoagulation was performed in mice to induce the laser-CNV. Histamine was administered intravitreously, and CNV volume was measured. Laser photocoagulation and intravitreous injection of HRH4 antagonist JNJ7777120 were performed after intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposome, which depletes circulating monocyte-derived macrophages; CNV volume was compared with that in mice injected with control (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]/PBS). Three days after laser-CNV, the F4/80+CD11b+ macrophage population in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid complex was quantified with flow cytometry in wild-type and Hrh4−/− mice. The long-acting HRH4 antagonist JNJ28307474 was then administrated periorally, and the laser-CNV volume ...
purpose. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a protein produced by the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Recent studies have implicated PEDF in activities that are inhibitory to angiogenesis. In this study, the expression of PEDF was investigated in normal rat eyes and in eyes with experimentally induced choroidal neovascularization and compared with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).. methods. Choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation in rat eyes. At intervals of up to 2 weeks after photocoagulation, the eyes were removed and prepared for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study. In situ hybridization was performed with digoxigenin-labeled PEDF riboprobes. Protein expression of PEDF and VEGF was studied immunohistochemically.. results. In normal adult rat eyes, PEDF mRNA was observed mainly in the corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, lens epithelial cells, ciliary epithelial cells, retinal ganglion cells, and the ...
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a key pathological feature of several of the leading causes of vision loss including neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we show that a calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD)-like peptide 27, CAD27, inhibited in vitro angiogenic activities, including tube formation and migration of endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular sprouting from rat aortic ring explants. In rat model of laser-induced CNV, we demonstrate that intravitreal injection of CAD27 significantly attenuated the formation of CNV lesions as measured via fundus fluorescein angiography and choroid flat-mounts (19.5% and 22.4% reductions at 10μg and 20μg of CAD27 injected, respectively). Similarly, the reduction of CNV lesions was observed in the groups of rats that had received topical applications of CAD27 (choroid flat-mounts: 17.9% and 32.5% reductions at 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL of CAD27 installed, respectively). Retinal function was unaffected, as measured using
The market presents significant growth opportunities for vendors. Companies are increasingly forming strategic alliances and engaging in M&A to increase their market share. As the development cost of ophthalmic drugs is high, small biotechnology firms are forming alliances with big pharmaceutical companies for product development.. Ask Sample PDF of Choroidal Neovascularization Market Report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/10278447 According to the Choroidal Neovascularization report, Better infrastructure in terms of healthcare facilities and sophisticated treatment options has led to a rise in the life expectancy rates, leading to a rise in the number of people over 60 years. The normal aging process results in reduced choroidal blood flow, which leads to ischemia. This, in turn, leads to increased expression of VEGF and development of excess blood vessels resulting in choroidal neovascularization and finally the loss of vision. With the increase in older ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visualization of choroidal neovascular membranes. AU - Asrani, Sanjay. AU - Zou, Shazhou. AU - DAnna, Salvatore. AU - Phelan, Anne. AU - Goldberg, Morton. AU - Zeimer, Ran. PY - 1996/7. Y1 - 1996/7. N2 - Purpose. Laser-targeted angiography has unique advantages over conventional angiography of the fundus. Its efficacy in visualizing choroidal neovascular membranes was tested in a rat model and compared to that of fluorescein angiography. Method. Laser-targeted angiography was performed in rats with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by injecting heat-sensitive carboxyfluorescein liposomes intravenously, locally releasing a bolus of dye in the choroid with a weak laser pulse, and recording advancement of the bolus on a video camera. Conventional fluorescein angiography also was performed. Results. Laser- targeted angiography revealed CNV as an abnormal pattern of brightly fluorescent vessels. The flow pattern of the bolus and histology, performed in some cases, ...
Choroidal Neovascularization - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Choroidal Neovascularization - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Choroidal Neovascularization - Market research report and industry analysis - 11207704
This prospective, open-label, non-comparative, interventional case series evaluates the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in juxtafoveal and extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia in 27 eyes of 27 patients.. The average visual acuity dropped from 58.5 letters to 49.19. The visual acuity remained stable in 13 patients (48.1%), whereas 14 patients (51.9%) lost more than 8 letters due to the extension of the lesion to subfoveal space. A strong association was found between advanced age and a worse visual prognosis (p = 0.001 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arg-leu-tyr-glu suppresses retinal endothelial permeability and choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the VEGF receptor 2 signaling pathway. AU - Park, Wonjin. AU - Baek, Yi Yong. AU - Kim, Joohwan. AU - Jo, Dong Hyun. AU - Choi, Seunghwan. AU - Kim, Jin Hyoung. AU - Kim, Taesam. AU - Kim, Suji. AU - Park, Minsik. AU - Kim, Ji Yoon. AU - Won, Moo Ho. AU - Ha, Kwon Soo. AU - Kim, Jeong Hun. AU - Kwon, Young Guen. AU - Kim, Young Myeong. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-Ainduced phosphorylation ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, biological activity and pharmacodynamic effect of repeated intravitreal doses of hI-con1 0.3 mg administered as monotherapy and in combination with ranibizumab 0.5 mg compared to ranibizumab 0.5 mg monotherapy in treating patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD ...
Patients received up to 12 intravitreal injections (Month 0 through Month 11). The dose of 0.3 mg ranibizumab was administered monthly for three consecutive months. From Month 3 through Month 11, either 0.3 mg ranibizumab or, after implementation of an amendment to the protocol, 0.5 mg ranibizumab were injected as individually needed based on retreatment criteria described in the protocol. Ranibizumab was administered no sooner than 14 days after the previous treatment ...
Choroidal neovascularization describes the growth of new blood vessels that originate from the choroid through a break in the Bruch membrane into the sub-retinal pigment epithelium (sub-RPE) or subretinal space. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of visual loss.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Contrast Sensitivity (CS) in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) with Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). AU - Yuan, R.. AU - Sheils, C.. AU - Burch, S.. AU - Bates, D.. AU - Johnson, M.. AU - Marcus, D.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose. Contrast sensitivity was tested in patients enrolled in a prospective study in order to follow CS changes over time. Measures with the Vistech grating chart and the Pelli-Robson (PR) letter chart were compared. Methods. Twenty nine patients with active CNV secondary to ARMD underwent CS testing with the Vistech grating chart and PR letter chart. Data have been obtained at baseline, 3 weeks , 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after enrollment. Paired t tests were used to assess differences between the Vistech and PR charts with respect to CS threshold and its change over time. Pearson correlations were used to test the relationship between the CS measures and visual acuity (VA) at both distance and near, as well as for changes over time. ...
Inhibition of choroidal fibrovascular membrane formation by new class of RNA interference therapeutic agent targeting periostin. Nakama, T; Yoshida, S; Ishikawa, K; Kobayashi, Y; Zhou, Y; Nakao, S; Sassa, Y; Oshima, Y; Takao, K; Shimahara, A; Yoshikawa, K; Hamasaki, T; Ohgi, T; Hayashi, H; Matsuda, A; Kudo, A; Nozaki, M; Ogura, Y; Kuroda, M; Ishibashi, T // Gene Therapy;Feb2015, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p127 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision-threatening disease characterized by choroidal fibrovascular membrane (FVM) formation, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and choroidal fibrosis. No safe and effective therapeutic method has been developed for the choroidal fibrosis, although... ...
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the outer blood-retinal barrier in the eye, secretes many growth factors to support the normal functions of both the retina and the choroid. Dysfunction of RPE is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Advanced AMD can manifest in either geographic atrophy (dry AMD) or a neovascular form of the disease (wet AMD). Recently our studies indicated that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), one growth factor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, may be involved in the molecular switch that determines which advanced form of AMD an individual develops. We demonstrated that BMP4 was highly expressed in the macular RPE and adjacent extracellular matrix of dry AMD patients, and BMP4 mediated oxidative stress induced RPE cell senescence in vitro. However, BMP4 was immunohistochemically absent in RPE in subretinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) membranes of wet AMD patients. This work ...
A discussion was made with girls parents and they agreed to monthly injection of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept for 3 consecutive injections under sedation, and informed consent was obtained from the parents. Ziv-aflibercept intravitreal Injection was administered under sterile condition every 4 weeks for 3 three consecutive injections, injection site was prepared by disinfecting the skin using povidone iodine 10% and the conjunctiva using povidone iodine 4% under sedation, the injection is carried out after placing sterile drape and lid speculum isolating eye lashes in the inferior temporal quadrant, injection site was measured with calipers 4 mm from the limbus, 30 gauge half inch needle is used to inject 0,05 ml/1.25 mg of Ziv-aflibercept (ZALTRAP) then cotton tip applicator is placed over the injection site to prevent reflux of fluid, topical and systemic antibiotics were used post injection.. Best corrected visual acuity was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks using snellen ...
I am a 40 years old man suffered from choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) 2 years back in the right eye. I took Avastin at that time. The blood dried but it left a scar on that place and I lost the vision of my right eye. Now |b|I have developed black spots and lines in my other eye too|/b|, which is causing pain in both the eyes and I am facing problem in reading too. How can I save my left eye? Is there any treatment for the CNVM scar?
To evaluate the efficacy of selective episcleral delivery of celecoxib formulated in a sustained-release episcleral exoplant on a model of retinal and choroidal neovascularization induced in rabbits by subretinal injection of matrigel combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nine New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups (episcleral celecoxib exoplant, intravitreal bevacizumab injection and control group). The bFGF was mixed with matrigel at a concentration of 10 ug/0.1 mL, and VEGF was mixed with matrigel at a concentration of 2 ug/0.1 mL. Animals assigned to celecoxib or intravitreal bevacizumab groups were treated within 03 days from matrigel injection. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and electroretinography (ERG) were performed 5 days, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after matrigel injection. Persistence or regression of three clinical features (subretinal hyperfluorescence, retinal vascular tortuosity and retinal fibrotic spots) was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative enumeration of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells derived from bone marrow precursors in experimental choroidal neovascularization. AU - Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.. AU - Reinoso, Maria A.. AU - Pina, Yolanda. AU - Csaky, Karl G.. AU - Caicedo, Alejandro. AU - Cousins, Scott W.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is characterized by the subretinal invasion of a pathologic new vessel complex from the choriocapillaris. Although CNV is traditionally considered to consist of endothelial cells, the cellular population of CNV is likely more complex in nature, comprising several different cell types. In addition, recent studies suggest that the CNV cell population has a dual origin (circulating versus resident populations). In this study we sought to determine the contribution and origin of different cell types in experimental CNV. Laser-induced CNV was performed on chimeric mice generated by reconstituting C57BL/6 mice with ...
Choroidal neovascular are the new blood vessels that grow just below the retina and interrupt the vision. Choroid, which is responsible for oxygen and nutrients supply to the eye, is the area between the retina and the sclera, where the blood vessels grow and cause choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
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This trial compared the efficacy of intravitreal therapy with bevacizumab and ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization in patients with pathologic myopia
Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Choroidal Neovascularization - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Choroidal
Oral pazopanib was well tolerated and may have improved visual acuity and central retinal lesion thickness in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, according to a small study.The analysis comprised data from two studies: a 14-day phase 1 placebo-controlled study with 72 healthy subjects and a 28-day phase 2a open-label study with 15 patients who had subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD.The AMD patients received oral pazopanib 15-mg tablets once daily for 28 days. Healthy subjects received single or repeated oral pazopanib 5-, 10-, 20- or 30-mg tablets or placebo once (Read more...) Full Story →. ...
New blood vessel growth beneath the macula (choroidal neovascularization, CNV) can develop in some patients with with otherwise normal eyes.
Choroidal neovascularization information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
It is relatively rare to obtain histology of CNV treated after PDT. Ghazi et al5 and Schnurrbusch et al6 reported the histological findings in surgically excised classic CNV treated with PDT. Ghazi et al studied one specimen by electron microscopy. The authors concluded that PDT causes endothelial cell damage, thrombus formation, and vascular occlusion. Schnurrbusch et al studied two recurrent CNV. The authors concluded that the evidence of fluorescein leakage from the CNV and enlargement of the neovascular complex following PDT could be related to new vessel growth and recanalisation of occluded vessels. RPE disturbances were thought to be related to the original pathology or as a result of PDT. Our specimen appeared to lack vessels where the RPE cell layer was fragmented but was vascular where the RPE cell layer was intact. These two regions may correspond to the original (PDT treated) CNV and its recurrence respectively. Bynoe et al have described the non-even distribution of blood vessels ...
To compare the long-term efficacy of ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This was a retrospective, multicenter, comparative, non-randomized study of 64 consecutive patients with myopic CNV treated with ranibizumab (22 patients) or bevacizumab (42 patients). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment. All the patients were followed for at least 12 months. BCVA (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) improved from 0.63 ± 0.30 to 0.43 ± 0.27, 0.41 ± 0.37, 0.40 ± 0.39, 0.39 ± 0.43, and 0.39 ± 0.42 at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment in the ranibizumab group, and from 0.67 ± 0.28 to 0.52 ± 0.31, 0.49 ± 0.31, 0.47 ± 0.31, 0.42 ± 0.32, and 0.46 ± 0.43 in the bevacizumab group (all P < 0.05 compared with baseline BCVA in each group). CFT decreased by 20.21%, 19.58%, and 22.43% from the baseline 304 ± 76 μm at 3, 6, and 12 months after
Genentech announced that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Lucentis (ranibizumab injection) for the treatment of patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). This approval marks Lucentis as the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) approved to treat mCNV in the United States.
Lucentis® receives positive opinion for patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization showing vision gains with only two injections Lucentis recommended for approval in EU to treat patients...
February is age related macular degeneration (AMD) and low vision awareness month.. Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of loss of vision in adults over age 65. AMD is a condition that causes a breakdown of the macula in the eye which is responsible for sharp vision in the center of your field of view.. Age Related Macular Degeneration Symptoms. The first warning signs of age related macular degeneration are usually blurriness or blind spots in the central vision. Since the symptoms typically come on slowly and painlessly, the effects are sometimes not noticed until the disease has reached a later stage. This is why it is crucial to schedule a routine eye exam, particularly once you turn 65.. Risk Factors for Age Related Macular Degeneration. There are a number of factors that put you at greater risk of developing AMD including race (Caucasian), being over the age of 65, smoking and family history. If you are categorized as being at greater risk, annual eye ...
ReportsnReports.com adds report Age Related Macular Degeneration - Pipeline Review, H1 2014 to its store. Age Related Macular Degeneration - Pipeline Review, H1 2014, provides an overview of the Age Related Macular Degenerations therapeutic pipeline.. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Age Related Macular Degeneration, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Age Related Macular Degeneration and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.. The report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC ...
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This page provides relevant content and local businesses that can help with your search for information on Age Related Macular Degeneration Treatment. You will find informative articles about Age Related Macular Degeneration Treatment, including Age Related Macular Degeneration. Below you will also find local businesses that may provide the products or services you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Maumee, OH that can help answer your questions about Age Related Macular Degeneration Treatment.
PURPOSE: To describe the multimodal imaging findings of subretinal hyperreflective exudation (SHE) observed in association with choroidal neovascularization and to distinguish SHE from other forms of subretinal hyperreflective material (SHM) seen in patients with age-related macular degeneration and other macular disorders. METHODS: A retrospective study on 46 eyes of 42 patients with SHE associated with Types 1, 2, and 3 choroidal neovascularization secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Patients were examined using multimodal imaging, including color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and indocyanine green angiography. Clinical and imaging characteristics were evaluated at baseline, after the initiation of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy, and during the resolution of SHE. RESULTS: Forty-five of the 46 eyes were treatment naive. The mean +/
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), accounts for the majority of AMD-relate...
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), accounts for the majority of AMD-relate...
Intravitreal administration of ranibizumab for 2 years prevented vision loss and improved mean visual acuity, with low rates of serious adverse events, in patients with minimally classic or occult (with no classic lesions) choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration. ( …
Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration, Wet AMD, Non-Neovascular Macular Degeneration, Age Related Macular Degeneration is an Ophthalmology Disease that is Treated at the Retina Center of New Jersey which has Locations in Bloomfield, NJ, Teaneck, NJ, North Bergen, NJ and Ramsey, NJ Treated by Dr. Patrick Higgins, Dr. Kurt Jackson, Dr. Lauren Kallina, Dr. Lee Angioletti, Dr. Justin Gutman, Dr. Louis V. Angioletti Jr.
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We studied the results of surgical excision of ten consecutive subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes in ten patients with age-related macular degeneration. The criteria for surgical eligibility included the following: (1) a clearly identifiable subfoveal membrane occupying the entire foveal avas …
ObjectiveTo determine whether resolution of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a recognized sight-threatening complication of endogenous posterior uveitis, and
Wet age related macular degeneration, AMD, is being misdiagnosed by ophthalmologists. Review recommended age related macular degeneration treatment & diagnosis.
Effect of total anti-VEGF treatment exposure on patterns of choroidal neovascularisation assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration: a retrospective case series
Evidence-based recommendations on ranibizumab (Lucentis) for treating choroidal neovascularisation associated with pathological myopia
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository DUGiDocs: Background: Age-releated macular degeneration (AMD) is a very prevalent disease worldwide and it is the most common cause of severe vision loss in developed countries. Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), previously known as
Conventional retinal laser photocoagulation can achieve direct destruction of a choroidal neovascular membrane. It requires confluent high-energy burns over and around the whole membrane. The overlying retina is also destroyed, the laser scar may expand, leading to visual loss, and the rate of recurrence of the neovascular membrane is high. Laser photocoagulation is only used for choroidal neovascular membranes that are more than 200 microns from the center of the foveal avascular zone (extrafoveal).. In photodynamic therapy, a photosensitive dye, verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis), which is believed to preferentially accumulate in active new vessels, is infused intravenously and then activated by a low-energy visible laser (689 nm). The resultant reaction produces localized thrombosis of the new vessels. Treatment is repeated every 3 months as required. Significant improvement in the proportion of patients with stable or improved vision at 2 years has been shown to occur in those with ...
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is the commonest cause of severe visual impairment in older adults in Caucasian white populations. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) has been described as a separate clinical entity differing from nAMD and other macular diseases associated with subretinal neovascularization. It remains controversial as to whether or not PCV represents a sub-type of nAMD. This article summarizes the current literature on the clinical, pathophysiological and epidemiological features and treatment responses of PCV and compares this condition to nAMD. Patients with PCV are younger and more likely Asians, and eyes with PCV lack drusen, often present with serosanguinous maculopathy or hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment, and have differing responses to photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. There are also significant differences in angiographic and optical coherence tomography features between PCV and nAMD. ...
Imaging choroidal neovascular membrane using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography Magdy Moussa,1,2 Mahmoud Leila,3 Hagar Khalid1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 2MEDIC Eye Center, Tanta, Egypt; 3Retina Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in delineating the morphology of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV). Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational case series reviewing clinical data and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and SS-OCTA images of patients with CNV and comparing the findings. The swept-source technology enables deeper penetration and superior axial resolution. The incorporated blood flow detection algorithm, optical coherence tomography angiography ratio analysis (OCTARA), enables visualization
PURPOSE: To report 1-year clinical outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to identify predictive factors that may influence visual acuity (VA) outcomes in Korean patients.. METHODS: Sixty patients (64 eyes) with subfoveal CNV were followed up over 12 months after intravitreal injection (0.5 mg) of ranibizumab at baseline and subsequent injections on an as-needed basis. The VA outcomes over 12 months were compared with baseline VA and evaluated across subgroups based on sex, age, baseline VA, CNV size, CNV type, and presence or absence of systemic disease and prior photodynamic therapy.. RESULTS: VA improved or remained stable in 46 of 64 eyes (71.9%) at 12 months. Subgroup analysis showed that both baseline VA and CNV size influenced VA outcomes after ranibizumab treatment (P = 0.039, P = 0.042, respectively). However, the patients sex (P = 0.643), baseline age (P = 0.361), CNV type (P = 0.940), and ...
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab administered monthly for three months and then quarterly in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).. DESIGN: Phase IIIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, sham injection-controlled trial in patients with predominantly or minimally classic or occult with no classic CNV lesions.. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 0.3 mg ranibizumab (n = 60), 0.5 mg ranibizumab (n = 61), or sham (n = 63) treatment groups. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change from baseline visual acuity (VA) at month 12.. RESULTS: Mean changes from baseline VA at 12 months were -16.3, -1.6, and -0.2 letters for the sham, 0.3 mg, and 0.5 mg groups, respectively (P , or = .0001, each ranibizumab dose vs sham). Ranibizumab arrested CNV growth and reduced leakage from CNV. However, the treatment effect declined in the ranibizumab groups during quarterly dosing (e.g., at three months ...
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PURPOSE To compare the 12-month real-world visual and disease activity outcomes of eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (combination group) versus those eyes treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy alone with rescue PDT being used as required (monotherapy group). DESIGN Database comparative observational study. PARTICIPANTS Eyes with PCV as graded in the Fight Retinal Blindness! database from Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and Switzerland. METHODS Clinical information from a multisite, international registry of neovascular age-related macular degeneration was analyzed with an intention-to-treat approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Primary outcome measure was the change in visual acuity in logMAR letters over 12 months between the two groups analyzed with intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS Forty-one and 152 eyes received combination therapy and anti-VEGF monotherapy, ...
1. Klein R, Peto T, Bird A, Vannewkirk MR. The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration. American journal of ophthalmology. 2004;137:486-95 2. Ambati J, Ambati BK, Yoo SH, Ianchulev S, Adamis AP. Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies. Survey of ophthalmology. 2003;48:257-93 3. van Wijngaarden P, Qureshi SH. Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a review of current practice. Clin Exp Optom. 2008;91:427-37 4. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor and age-related macular degeneration: from basic science to therapy. Nat Med. 2010;16:1107-11 5. Kovach JL, Schwartz SG, Flynn HW Jr, Scott IU. Anti-VEGF Treatment Strategies for Wet AMD. J Ophthalmol. 2012;2012:786870 6. Ferrara N, Adamis AP. Ten years of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15:385-403 7. Park YG, Rhu HW, Kang S, Roh YJ. New Approach of Anti-VEGF Agents ...
Kim, J.Min.; Kang, S.Woong.; Son, D.Yong.; Bae, K., 2017: Risk Factors and Clinical Significance of Prechoroidal Cleft in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
The latest research from Fore Pharma, Europe Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration Market Landscape Analysis - 2016, provides comprehensive insights into Wet Age-related ...
WEST DES MOINES, Iowa, Oct. 22, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced approval on October 8, 2019 of Novartiss Beovu® (brolucizumab), a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor that may reduce the frequency of intravitreal injections for patients suffering from wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Wolfe Eye Clinic was an active site in the Novartis phase three clinical trial program leading up to the FDA approval of Beovu. This highly anticipated approval is the first major breakthrough in wet AMD treatment since the approval of Eylea (Aflibercept) in 2011.. We are excited to have Beovu as a new option for patients who suffer from Wet AMD to help preserve vision reducing the burden of treatment, said Jared Nielsen, MD, MBA, HAWK Trial Principal Investigator, Retina Specialist and Director of Retina Clinical Trials at Wolfe Eye Clinic, this extends to friends and family who assist them in their care. According to the Centers for Disease ...
Circulating monocytes and B-lymphocytes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration Sven Magnus Hector,1 Torben Lykke Sørensen1,2 1Clinical Eye Research Unit, Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde, 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have altered number and distribution of retinal macrophages and show changes in circulating antibodies. We wanted to investigate the corresponding precursors, with subpopulations. We therefore measured monocyte and B-lymphocyte populations in individuals with neovascular AMD.Design: This was an observational case–control study.Participants or samples: A total of 31 individuals with neovascular AMD and 30 healthy age-matched controls were included.Methods: Patients and controls were interviewed, and ophthalmological examination included visual acuity assessment using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart,
This study aimed to analyze the choroidal characteristics in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, affected eyes) and unaffected fellow eyes, a
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a disease of the choroidal vasculature.  It is present in both men and woman of many ethnicities, characterized by serosanguineous detachments of the pigmented epithelium and exudative changes that can commonly lead to subretinal fibrosis. Evidence supports that symptomatic patients with PCV can have complete regression without severe vision loss with photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-VEGF treatment.  
The global wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) market is expected to generate revenue worth $10.4 billion in 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.1% during 2019-2024.
Learn the symptoms of wet age-related macular degeneration, an eye condition that can give you a blind spot in the center of your field of vision.
Bayer receives approval for EYLEA® in Europe for the Treatment of Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration New treatment allows dosing every other month following three initial monthly injections in...
Background: Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis is a rare disease. The educational merit of this case presentation results from the good documentation and the impressive ocular fundus pictures. Case presentation: We illustrate the 3-year course of disease in a 22-year-old myopic white woman with multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis and secondary choroidal neovascularization. The activity of the disease was evaluated clinically by optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal neovascularization was treated by intravitreal bevacizumab (2.5 mg/0.1 ml). Our patient lacked systemic therapy for the first 11 months because of noncompliance. Conclusions: The case is remarkable as the delayed onset of peripheral lesions and the additional existence of high myopia made diagnosis difficult. In addition, it demonstrates that full outbreak of disease with multiple central and peripheral fundus lesions and secondary choroidal neovascularization can develop without systemic treatment ...
The Retina Center of New Jersey has Extensive Experience with Retina Clinical Research in many Clinical Areas Including Neovascular Age Related Macular Degeneration Research Clinical Trials, Wet AMD Research Clinical Trials
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) primarily affects pigmented individuals, especially Asians and African-Americans. Typically presents in 7th to 8th decad
The recent development of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) has provoked considerable interest amongst UK ophthalmologists, patients, hospital managers, public health physicians and the media. The recent publication of the Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration (TAP) report1 and the further data expected soon from this and other randomised clinical trials is likely to have a major impact on service provision in the UK. The vast majority of cases of subfoveal CNV are caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but other causes include pathological myopia, angioid streaks and punctate inner choroidopathy, especially in younger patients. Until very recently confluent argon laser photocoagulation has been the only treatment modality of proven clinical efficacy but after initial enthusiasm its role has become restricted to the treatment of eyes with extrafoveal CNV. In addition to PDT other therapeutic options for subfoveal CNV ...
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is considered to be one of the subtypes of the neovascular age-related macular degeneration, especially frequent in Asians. The disease is clinically manifested by the recurrent serosanguineous pigment epithelial detachment and polypoid reddish-orange nodules visible in the posterior segment of the globe. The association of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with the spectrum of age-related macular degeneration raises some controversies due to the relatively rare occurrence in its case of several characteristic findings such as drusen, pigment changes or RPE atrophy. Choosing the optimal therapeutic option for each patient the individual characteristics of the patient's disease and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic tools should be considered ...
Morphologic Changes in Patient with Drusen and Drusenoid Pigment Epithelial Detachment after Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Choroidal Neovascular Membrane : A Case Report
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of AAV8-antiVEGFfab Ocular Gene Transfer for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dr Danny Ng obtained his bachelors degree in Biomedical Engineering from Johns Hopkins University where he graduated with departmental honors. He received his medical degree and Master of Public Health from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong. Dr Ng is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in Ophthalmology and the College of Ophthalmologists of Hong Kong.. Dr Ng has been awarded the Johns Hopkins Provosts Research Award for his neurogenetics research in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy at the Kennedy Krieger Institute. He has also researched microglia activation in retinal vascular disease with Prof. Mark Tso at the Wilmer Eye Institute. Clinically, Dr Ng has developed minimally invasive and scarless techniques in oculoplastic surgery. He has studied the treatment effects on choroidal neovascularization in pathological myopia and age-related macular degeneration, and is actively involved in clinical drug trials. He has more than 20 publications, co-authored 2 book ...
Importance: Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. There are two phenotypes of AMD as defined by the Uni..
Lactoferrin, a type of glycoprotein, is contained in exocrine fluids such as tears, breast milk, sweat, and saliva, and is known to have anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects. In the ophthalmological field, topical administration of lactoferrin has been reported to have a therapeutic effect in a murine dry eye model. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulates various gene expressions under hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and is considered as an alternative target for neovascular ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We previously screened natural products and identified lactoferrin as a novel HIF inhibitor. In this study, we confirmed that lactoferrin has an HIF inhibitory effect and a therapeutic effect in a murine model of neovascular AMD ...
By FDA, The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Lucentis (ranibizumab injection) for the treatment of patients with neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lucentis is the first treatment which, when dosed monthly, can maintain the vision of more than 90 percent of patients with this type of AMD. Lucentis is a new molecular entity (NME), meaning it contains an active substance that has never before been approved for marketing in any form in the United States. Lucentis will be the first FDA--approved product to provide prescription information in the new format for prescription drug package inserts, to provide professionals and consumers clear and concise prescription information ...
0050] Experiments in DIO mice have also provided insights in to the effects of cholesterol loading on macrophage function in the eye. Macrophages fed a high fat diet for a period of up to 6 months are unable to regulate CNV in vivo and vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. These findings shed light on conflicting data from genetic and epidemiologic studies that demonstrate a complex association between polymorphisms in genes that regulate HDL and cholesterol metabolism and AMD as outlined above (Chen, W. et al. Genetic variants near TIMP3 and high-density lipoprotein-associated loci influence susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 7401-7406, 2010; Neale, B. M. et al. Genome-wide association study of advanced age-related macular degeneration identifies a role of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 7395-7400, 2010). The data from knockout mice and the reduced expression of ABC transporters from old humans, diagnosed ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration is the most common cause of sight impairment in the UK. In neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), vision worsens rapidly (over weeks) due to abnormal blood vessels developing that leak fluid and blood at the macula. OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diagnosing people newly presenting with suspected nAMD and monitoring those previously diagnosed with the disease. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched: MEDLINE (1946 to March 2013), MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (March 2013), EMBASE (1988 to March 2013), Biosciences Information Service (1995 to March 2013), Science Citation Index (1995 to March 2013), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 2013), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (inception to March 2013), Medion (inception to March 2013), Health Technology Assessment database (inception to March 2013). REVIEW METHODS: Types of studies: direct/indirect studies ...

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