A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)
A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072)
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.
Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)

Inhibition by lead of production and secretion of transthyretin in the choroid plexus: its relation to thyroxine transport at blood-CSF barrier. (1/601)

Long-term, low-dose Pb exposure in rats is associated with a significant decrease in transthyretin (TTR) concentrations in the CSF. Since CSF TTR, a primary carrier of thyroxine in brain, is produced and secreted by the choroid plexus, in vitro studies were conducted to test whether Pb exposure interferes with TTR production and/or secretion by the choroid plexus, leading to an impaired thyroxine transport at the blood-CSF barrier. Newly synthesized TTR molecules in the cultured choroidal epithelial cells were pulse-labeled with [35S]methionine. [35S]TTR in the cell lysates and culture media was immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS-PAGE, and quantitated by autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. Pb treatment did not significantly alter the protein concentrations in the culture, but inhibited the synthesis of total [35S]TTR (cells + media), particularly during the later chase phase. Two-way ANOVA of the chase phase revealed that Pb exposure (30 microM) significantly suppressed the rate of secretion of [35S]TTR compared to the controls (p < 0.05). Accordingly, Pb treatment caused a retention of [35S]TTR by the cells. In a two-chamber transport system with a monolayer of epithelial barrier, Pb exposure (30 microM) reduced the initial release rate constant (kr) of [125I]T4 from the cell monolayer to the culture media and impeded the transepithelial transport of [125I]T4 from the basal to apical side of epithelial cells by 27%. Taken together, these in vitro data suggest that sequestration of Pb in the choroid plexus hinders the production and secretion of TTR by this tissue. Consequently, this may alter the transport of thyroxine across this blood-CSF barrier.  (+info)

Atm is dispensable for p53 apoptosis and tumor suppression triggered by cell cycle dysfunction. (2/601)

Both p53 and ATM are checkpoint regulators with roles in genetic stabilization and cancer susceptibility. ATM appears to function in the same DNA damage checkpoint pathway as p53. However, ATM's role in p53-dependent apoptosis and tumor suppression in response to cell cycle dysregulation is unknown. In this study, we tested the role of murine ataxia telangiectasia protein (Atm) in a transgenic mouse brain tumor model in which p53-mediated apoptosis results in tumor suppression. These p53-mediated activities are induced by tissue-specific inactivation of pRb family proteins by a truncated simian virus 40 large T antigen in brain epithelium. We show that p53-dependent apoptosis, transactivation, and tumor suppression are unaffected by Atm deficiency, suggesting that signaling in the DNA damage pathway is distinct from that in the oncogene-induced pathway. In addition, we show that Atm deficiency has no overall effect on tumor growth and progression in this model.  (+info)

Choroid plexus epithelial expression of MDR1 P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein contribute to the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid drug-permeability barrier. (3/601)

The blood-brain barrier and a blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier function together to isolate the brain from circulating drugs, toxins, and xenobiotics. The blood-CSF drug-permeability barrier is localized to the epithelium of the choroid plexus (CP). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating drug permeability across the CP epithelium are defined poorly. Herein, we describe a drug-permeability barrier in human and rodent CP mediated by epithelial-specific expression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) P glycoprotein (Pgp) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Noninvasive single-photon-emission computed tomography with 99mTc-sestamibi, a membrane-permeant radiopharmaceutical whose transport is mediated by both Pgp and MRP, shows a large blood-to-CSF concentration gradient across intact CP epithelium in humans in vivo. In rats, pharmacokinetic analysis with 99mTc-sestamibi determined the concentration gradient to be greater than 100-fold. In membrane fractions of isolated native CP from rat, mouse, and human, the 170-kDa Pgp and 190-kDa MRP are identified readily. Furthermore, the murine proteins are absent in CP isolated from their respective mdr1a/1b(-/-) and mrp(-/-) gene knockout littermates. As determined by immunohistochemical and drug-transport analysis of native CP and polarized epithelial cell cultures derived from neonatal rat CP, Pgp localizes subapically, conferring an apical-to-basal transepithelial permeation barrier to radiolabeled drugs. Conversely, MRP localizes basolaterally, conferring an opposing basal-to-apical drug-permeation barrier. Together, these transporters may coordinate secretion and reabsorption of natural product substrates and therapeutic drugs, including chemotherapeutic agents, antipsychotics, and HIV protease inhibitors, into and out of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Organic cation transport in rat choroid plexus cells studied by fluorescence microscopy. (4/601)

Quinacrine uptake and distribution were studied in a primary culture of rat choroid plexus epithelial cells using conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. Quinacrine rapidly accumulated in cells, with steady-state levels being achieved after 10-20 min. Uptake was reduced by other organic cations, e.g., tetraethylammonium (TEA), and by KCN. Quinacrine fluorescence was distributed in two cytoplasmic compartments, one diffuse and the other punctate. TEA efflux experiments indicated that more than one-half of intracellular organic cation was in a slowly emptying compartment. The protonophore monensin both emptied that TEA compartment and abolished punctate quinacrine fluorescence, suggesting that a large fraction of total intracellular organic cation was sequestered in acidic vesicles, e.g., endosomes. Finally, quinacrine-loaded vesicles were seen to move within the cytoplasm and to abruptly release their contents at the blood side of the cell; the rate of release was greatly reduced by the microtubule disrupter nocodazole.  (+info)

Choline uptake across the ventricular membrane of neonate rat choroid plexus. (5/601)

The uptake of [3H]choline from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) side of the rat neonatal choroid plexus was characterized in primary cultures of the choroidal epithelium grown on solid supports. Cell-to-medium concentration ratios were approximately 5 at 1 min and as high as 70 at 30 min. Apical choline uptake was facilitated; the Km was approximately 50 microM. Several organic cations (e.g., hemicholinium-3 and N1-methylnicotinamide) inhibited uptake. The reduction or removal of external Na+ or the addition of 5 mM LiCl had no effect on uptake. However, increasing external K+ concentration from 3 to 30 mM depolarized ventricular membrane potential (-70 to -15 mV) and reduced uptake to 45% of that for the control. Treatment with 1 mM ouabain or 2 mM BaCl2 reduced uptake 45%, and intracellular acidification reduced uptake to approximately 90% of that for controls. These data indicate that the uptake of choline from CSF across the ventricular membrane of the neonatal choroidal epithelium is not directly coupled to Na+ influx but is sensitive to plasma membrane electrical potential.  (+info)

Transepithelial transport of organic anions across the choroid plexus: possible involvement of organic anion transporter and multidrug resistance-associated protein. (6/601)

Transport characteristics of 17beta-estradiol 17beta-D-glucuronide (E217betaG), a dual substrate of the transporters for cellular uptake (organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 or oatp1) and cellular excretion (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1or MRP1), in the rat choroid plexus were studied in vivo and in vitro. The uptake of E217betaG into isolated choroid plexus was mediated by an energy-dependent system with a Km of 3.4 microM. Together with the previous finding that oatp1 is localized on the apical membrane of choroid plexus, these results suggest that oatp1 is responsible for the uptake of this ligand. After intracerebroventricular administration, elimination of E217betaG from cerebrospinal fluid was probenecid sensitive and much more rapid than that of inulin; less than 2% of the administered E217betaG and 40 to 50% of inulin remained in the cerebrospinal fluid 20 min after intracerebroventricular administration. In addition, the amount of E217betaG associated with choroid plexus at 20 min was negligible, suggesting the presence of an efficient excretion system on the basolateral membrane of choroid plexus. Expression of MRP1 was detected in choroid plexus. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses indicated that the expression level of MRP1 in choroid plexus is about four or five times higher than that in the lung, one of the tissues exhibiting high expression of MRP1. Together with the in vivo vectorial transport of E217betaG, these results can be accounted for by assuming that there is basolateral localization of MRP1 in choroid plexus. Combined, oatp1 and MRP1 may synergistically mediate the efficient transcellular transport of E217betaG across choroid plexus.  (+info)

Development of a polyclonal antibody with broad epitope specificity for advanced glycation endproducts and localization of these epitopes in Bruch's membrane of the aging eye. (7/601)

PURPOSE: To develop an antibody that recognizes a variety of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) epitopes. METHODS: Glycolaldehyde was used to modify bovine serum albumin and HPLC analysis was used to measure pentosidine formation as an indicator of AGE formation. A polyclonal anti-AGE antibody was synthesized by injecting glycolaldehyde-incubated keyhole limpet hemocyanin into rabbits, affinity purified using AGE modified bovine serum albumin coupled to an affinity resin column, and characterized by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: HPLC analysis of glycolaldehyde treated bovine serum albumin detected high levels of pentosidine formation, suggesting that glycolaldehyde is a potent precursor for pentosidine. By immunoblot analysis, our antibody recognized carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine, two well-characterized AGEs, as well as other AGE epitopes. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed evidence of AGEs in Bruch's membrane (including basal laminar deposits and drusen), choroidal extracellular matrix, and vessel walls in an 82 year old nondiabetic globe. A similar staining pattern was observed in an age-matched diabetic control. In contrast, no staining was seen with the antibody in a 20 month old nondiabetic globe. CONCLUSIONS: A unique anti-AGE antibody was synthesized that recognizes a variety of AGE epitopes including carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine. Its best use might be in broad surveys of the age-dependent accumulation of a large number of AGE epitopes that might not be revealed by antibodies to pentosidine or CML.  (+info)

Gli3 is required for Emx gene expression during dorsal telencephalon development. (8/601)

Dentate gyrus and hippocampus as centers for spatial learning, memory and emotional behaviour have been the focus of much interest in recent years. The molecular information on its development, however, has been relatively poor. To date, only Emx genes were known to be required for dorsal telencephalon development. Here, we report on forebrain development in the extra toes (Xt(J)) mouse mutant which carries a null mutation of the Gli3 gene. This defect leads to a failure to establish the dorsal di-telencephalic junction and finally results in a severe size reduction of the neocortex. In addition, Xt(J)/Xt(J) mice show absence of the hippocampus (Ammon's horn plus dentate gyrus) and the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle. The medial wall of the telencephalon, which gives rise to these structures, fails to invaginate during embryonic development. On a molecular level, disruption of dorsal telencephalon development in Xt(J)/Xt(J) embryos correlates with a loss of Emx1 and Emx2 expression. Furthermore, the expression of Fgf8 and Bmp4 in the dorsal midline of the telencephalon is altered. However, expression of Shh, which is negatively regulated by Gli3 in the spinal cord, is not affected in the Xt(J)/Xt(J) forebrain. This study therefore implicates Gli3 as a key regulator for the development of the dorsal telencephalon and implies Gli3 to be upstream of Emx genes in a genetic cascade controlling dorsal telencephalic development.  (+info)

The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels and tissue located within each ventricle (fluid-filled space) of the brain. It plays a crucial role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and nourishment to the brain and spinal cord.

The choroid plexus consists of modified ependymal cells, called plexus epithelial cells, that line the ventricular walls. These cells have finger-like projections called villi, which increase their surface area for efficient CSF production. The blood vessels within the choroid plexus transport nutrients, ions, and water to these epithelial cells, where they are actively secreted into the ventricles to form CSF.

In addition to its role in CSF production, the choroid plexus also acts as a barrier between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS), regulating the exchange of substances between them. This barrier function is primarily attributed to tight junctions present between the epithelial cells, which limit the paracellular movement of molecules.

Abnormalities in the choroid plexus can lead to various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or certain types of brain tumors.

Choroid plexus neoplasms are rare types of brain tumors that arise from the choroid plexus, which are clusters of blood vessels in the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) of the brain. These tumors can be benign (choroid plexus papilloma) or malignant (choroid plexus carcinoma). Choroid plexus neoplasms most commonly occur in children under the age of 2, but they can also affect adults. Symptoms may include increased head circumference, hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain), vomiting, and developmental delays. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy for malignant tumors.

A choroid plexus papilloma is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the choroid plexus, which are clusters of blood vessels and specialized cells in the ventricles of the brain. These tumors can occur at any age but are more common in children under the age of 10.

Choroid plexus papillomas arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The tumor grows slowly and tends to block the flow of CSF, leading to increased intracranial pressure and symptoms such as headaches, vomiting, irritability, and developmental delays in children.

The medical definition of choroid plexus papilloma is: "A benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the ependymal cells of the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain. The tumor can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and cause increased intracranial pressure."

It is important to note that while choroid plexus papillomas are generally benign, they can still cause significant symptoms due to their location in the brain and the obstruction of CSF flow. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy if necessary.

The choroid is a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. It lies between the sclera (the white, protective coat of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The choroid is essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, particularly the photoreceptor cells that detect light and transmit visual signals to the brain. Damage to the choroid can lead to vision loss or impairment.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Cerebral ventricle neoplasms refer to tumors that develop within the cerebral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces in the brain. These tumors can arise from various types of cells within the ventricular system, including the ependymal cells that line the ventricles, choroid plexus cells that produce cerebrospinal fluid, or other surrounding tissues.

Cerebral ventricle neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size and location, such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, vision changes, imbalance, weakness, or difficulty with mental tasks. The treatment options for these tumors may include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

The myenteric plexus, also known as Auerbach's plexus, is a component of the enteric nervous system located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells (neuroglia) that lies between the inner circular layer and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the digestive system's muscularis externa.

The myenteric plexus plays a crucial role in controlling gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow, primarily through its intrinsic nerve circuits called reflex arcs. These reflex arcs regulate peristalsis (the coordinated muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract) and segmentation (localized contractions that mix and churn the contents within a specific region of the gut).

Additionally, the myenteric plexus receives input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, allowing for central nervous system regulation of gastrointestinal functions. Dysfunction in the myenteric plexus has been implicated in various gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, achalasia, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

The ependyma is a type of epithelial tissue that lines the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells are specialized glial cells that help to form the blood-brain barrier, regulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and provide support and protection for the nervous tissue.

Ependymal cells have a cuboidal or columnar shape and possess numerous cilia on their apical surface, which helps to circulate CSF within the ventricles. They also have tight junctions that help to form the blood-brain barrier and prevent the passage of harmful substances from the blood into the CSF.

In addition to their role in maintaining the integrity of the CNS, ependymal cells can also differentiate into other types of cells, such as neurons and glial cells, under certain conditions. This property has made them a topic of interest in regenerative medicine and the study of neurodevelopmental disorders.

The submucosal plexus, also known as Meissner's plexus, is a component of the autonomic nervous system located in the submucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve fibers and ganglia that primarily regulates local reflexes and secretions, contributing to the control of gut motility, blood flow, and mucosal transport.

Meissner's plexus is part of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which can operate independently from the central nervous system (CNS). The ENS consists of two interconnected plexuses: Meissner's submucosal plexus and Auerbach's myenteric plexus.

Meissner's plexus is responsible for regulating functions such as absorption, secretion, vasodilation, and local immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract. Dysfunction of this plexus can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other motility-related conditions.

The meninges are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. They consist of three layers: the dura mater (the outermost, toughest layer), the arachnoid mater (middle layer), and the pia mater (the innermost, delicate layer). These membranes provide protection and support to the central nervous system, and contain blood vessels that supply nutrients and remove waste products. Inflammation or infection of the meninges is called meningitis, which can be a serious medical condition requiring prompt treatment.

Choroid neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the choroid, a layer of blood vessels that lies between the retina and the sclera (the white of the eye). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign choroid neoplasms include choroidal hemangiomas and choroidal osteomas. Malignant choroid neoplasms are typically choroidal melanomas, which are the most common primary eye tumors in adults. Other types of malignant choroid neoplasms include metastatic tumors that have spread to the eye from other parts of the body. Symptoms of choroid neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the growth, but may include blurred vision, floaters, or a dark spot in the visual field. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

The celiac plexus, also known as the solar plexus or autonomic plexus, is a complex network of nerves located in the abdomen, near the stomach and other digestive organs. It plays a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body, such as digestion, absorption, and secretion.

The celiac plexus is formed by the union of several splanchnic nerves that arise from the spinal cord and pass through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. These nerves carry sensory information from the organs in the abdomen to the brain, as well as motor impulses that control the function of these organs.

In some medical procedures, such as celiac plexus block or neurolysis, the celiac plexus may be targeted to relieve chronic pain associated with conditions like pancreatitis, cancer, or abdominal surgery. These procedures involve injecting anesthetic or neurolytic agents into the area around the celiac plexus to interrupt nerve signals and reduce pain.

The lumbosacral plexus is a complex network of nerves that arises from the lower part of the spinal cord, specifically the lumbar (L1-L5) and sacral (S1-S4) roots. This plexus is responsible for providing innervation to the lower extremities, including the legs, feet, and some parts of the abdomen and pelvis.

The lumbosacral plexus can be divided into several major branches:

1. The femoral nerve: It arises from the L2-L4 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as sensation to the anterior and medial aspects of the leg and thigh.
2. The obturator nerve: It originates from the L2-L4 roots and provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and sensation to the inner aspect of the thigh.
3. The sciatic nerve: This is the largest nerve in the body, formed by the union of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) nerves. It arises from the L4-S3 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles of the lower leg and foot, as well as sensation to the posterior aspect of the leg and foot.
4. The pudendal nerve: It originates from the S2-S4 roots and is responsible for providing motor innervation to the pelvic floor muscles and sensory innervation to the genital region.
5. Other smaller nerves, such as the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves, also arise from the lumbosacral plexus and supply sensation to various regions in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Damage or injury to the lumbosacral plexus can result in significant neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, numbness, and pain in the lower extremities.

The cervical plexus is a network of nerves that arises from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the first four cervical spinal nerves (C1-C4) and a portion of C5. These nerves form a series of loops and anastomoses (connections) that give rise to several major and minor branches.

The main functions of the cervical plexus include providing sensory innervation to the skin on the neck, shoulder, and back of the head, as well as supplying motor innervation to some of the muscles in the neck and shoulders, such as the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.

Some of the major branches of the cervical plexus include:

* The lesser occipital nerve (C2), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the back of the head and neck.
* The great auricular nerve (C2-C3), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the ear and lower part of the face.
* The transverse cervical nerve (C2-C3), which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the anterior and lateral neck.
* The supraclavicular nerves (C3-C4), which provide sensory innervation to the skin over the shoulder and upper chest.
* The phrenic nerve (C3-C5), which supplies motor innervation to the diaphragm, the major muscle of respiration.

Overall, the cervical plexus plays a crucial role in providing sensory and motor innervation to the neck, head, and shoulders, allowing for normal movement and sensation in these areas.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

Prealbumin, also known as transthyretin, is a protein produced primarily in the liver and circulates in the blood. It plays a role in transporting thyroid hormones and vitamin A throughout the body. Prealbumin levels are often used as an indicator of nutritional status and liver function. Low prealbumin levels may suggest malnutrition or inflammation, while increased levels can be seen in certain conditions like hyperthyroidism. It is important to note that prealbumin levels should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory tests for a more accurate assessment of a patient's health status.

Cefadroxil is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria eventually die. Cefadroxil is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including skin infections, ear infections, and urinary tract infections.

Cefadroxil is available as a prescription medication and is typically taken by mouth in the form of a tablet or liquid suspension. It is usually taken one to two times a day, depending on the severity of the infection and the individual patient's needs.

As with all antibiotics, it is important to take cefadroxil exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to finish the entire course of treatment, even if you start to feel better. This will help ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduce the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant to the antibiotic.

Some common side effects of cefadroxil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects may occur, such as an allergic reaction or severe skin reactions. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefadroxil, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Ependymoma is a type of brain or spinal cord tumor that develops from the ependymal cells that line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain, or the central canal of the spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and they can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size.

Ependymomas are relatively rare, accounting for about 2-3% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors. They most commonly occur in children and young adults, but they can also affect older individuals. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy, depending on the grade and location of the tumor. The prognosis for ependymomas varies widely, with some patients experiencing long-term survival and others having more aggressive tumors that are difficult to treat.

The cerebral ventricles are a system of interconnected fluid-filled cavities within the brain. They are located in the center of the brain and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection to the brain by cushioning it from impacts and helping to maintain its stability within the skull.

There are four ventricles in total: two lateral ventricles, one third ventricle, and one fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricles are located in each cerebral hemisphere, while the third ventricle is located between the thalami of the two hemispheres. The fourth ventricle is located at the base of the brain, above the spinal cord.

CSF flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through narrow passageways called the interventricular foramen. From there, it flows into the fourth ventricle through another narrow passageway called the cerebral aqueduct. CSF then leaves the fourth ventricle and enters the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord, where it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the size or shape of the cerebral ventricles can indicate underlying neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of CSF) or atrophy (shrinkage) of brain tissue. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often used to assess the size and shape of the cerebral ventricles in clinical settings.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

The fourth ventricle is a part of the cerebrospinal fluid-filled system in the brain, located in the posterior cranial fossa and continuous with the central canal of the medulla oblongata and the cerebral aqueduct. It is shaped like a cavity with a roof, floor, and lateral walls, and it communicates rostrally with the third ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct and caudally with the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka and Magendie). The fourth ventricle contains choroid plexus tissue, which produces cerebrospinal fluid. Its roof is formed by the cerebellar vermis and the superior medullary velum, while its floor is composed of the rhomboid fossa, which includes several important structures such as the vagal trigone, hypoglossal trigone, and striae medullares.

The lateral ventricles are a pair of fluid-filled cavities located within the brain. They are part of the ventricular system, which is a series of interconnected spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The lateral ventricles are situated in the left and right hemispheres of the brain and are among the largest of the ventricles.

Each lateral ventricle has a complex structure and can be divided into several parts:

1. Anterior horn: This is the front part of the lateral ventricle, located in the frontal lobe of the brain.
2. Body: The central part of the lateral ventricle, which is continuous with the anterior horn and posterior horn.
3. Posterior horn: The back part of the lateral ventricle, located in the occipital lobe of the brain.
4. Temporal horn: An extension that projects into the temporal lobe of the brain.

The lateral ventricles are lined with ependymal cells, which produce cerebrospinal fluid. CSF circulates through the ventricular system, providing buoyancy and protection to the brain, and is eventually absorbed into the bloodstream. Abnormalities in the size or shape of the lateral ventricles can be associated with various neurological conditions, such as hydrocephalus, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative diseases.

The arachnoid is one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is located between the dura mater (the outermost layer) and the pia mater (the innermost layer). The arachnoid is a thin, delicate membrane that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which provides protection and nutrition to the central nervous system.

The arachnoid has a spider-web like appearance, hence its name, and it is composed of several layers of collagen fibers and elastic tissue. It is highly vascularized, meaning that it contains many blood vessels, and it plays an important role in regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

In some cases, the arachnoid can become inflamed or irritated, leading to a condition called arachnoiditis. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, muscle weakness, and sensory changes, and it may require medical treatment to manage.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the combination of a facial port-wine birthmark and neurological abnormalities. The facial birthmark, which is typically located on one side of the face, occurs due to the malformation of small blood vessels (capillaries) in the skin and eye.

Neurological features often include seizures that begin in infancy, muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of the body (hemiparesis), developmental delay, and intellectual disability. These neurological symptoms are caused by abnormal blood vessel formation in the brain (leptomeningeal angiomatosis) leading to increased pressure, reduced blood flow, and potential damage to the brain tissue.

Sturge-Weber syndrome can also affect the eyes, with glaucoma being a common occurrence due to increased pressure within the eye. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of this condition are crucial for improving the quality of life and reducing potential complications.

Visna-maedi virus (VMV) is an retrovirus that belongs to the genus Lentivirus, which is part of the family Retroviridae. This virus is the causative agent of a slowly progressive, fatal disease in sheep known as maedi-visna. The term "visna" refers to a inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and "maedi" refers to a progressive interstitial pneumonia.

The Visna-Maedi virus is closely related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, as well as to other lentiviruses that affect animals such as caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).

Visna-maedi virus primarily targets the immune system cells, specifically monocytes/macrophages, leading to a weakened immune response in infected animals. This makes them more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus is transmitted through the respiratory route and infection can occur through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by ingestion of contaminated milk or colostrum from infected ewes.

There is no effective treatment or vaccine available for Visna-maedi virus infection, and control measures are focused on identifying and isolating infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease within sheep flocks.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

The choroid is a part of the eye located between the retina and the sclera, which contains a large number of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. Choroid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the health and function of the choroid. Here are some examples:

1. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV): This is a condition where new blood vessels grow from the choroid into the retina, leading to fluid accumulation, bleeding, and scarring. CNV can cause vision loss and is often associated with age-related macular degeneration, myopia, and inflammatory eye diseases.
2. Chorioretinitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the choroid and retina, which can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Symptoms may include blurred vision, floaters, light sensitivity, and eye pain.
3. Choroidal hemorrhage: This is a rare but serious condition where there is bleeding into the choroid, often caused by trauma, high blood pressure, or blood clotting disorders. It can lead to sudden vision loss and requires urgent medical attention.
4. Choroideremia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the choroid, retina, and optic nerve, leading to progressive vision loss. It is caused by mutations in the CHM gene and primarily affects males.
5. Central serous retinopathy (CSR): This is a condition where fluid accumulates under the retina, often in the macula, causing distortion or blurring of vision. While the exact cause is unknown, CSR is thought to be related to stress, steroid use, and other factors that affect the choroid's ability to regulate fluid.
6. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV): This is a condition where abnormal blood vessels form in the choroid, leading to serous or hemorrhagic detachment of the retina. PCV is often associated with age-related macular degeneration and can cause vision loss if left untreated.

These are just a few examples of choroidal disorders that can affect vision. If you experience any sudden changes in your vision, it's important to seek medical attention promptly.

The hypogastric plexus is a complex network of nerves located in the lower abdomen, near the aortic bifurcation. It plays a crucial role in the autonomic nervous system, primarily controlling the parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation to the pelvic viscera, including the descending colon, rectum, bladder, and reproductive organs. The hypogastric plexus is formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior hypogastric nerves, which originate from the lumbar and sacral spinal cord levels, respectively. Damage to this plexus can lead to various pelvic autonomic dysfunctions, such as urinary and fecal incontinence or sexual impairment.

Sodium-bicarbonate symporters, also known as sodium bicarbonate co-transporters, are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of both sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane in the same direction. These transporters play a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance in the body by regulating the concentration of bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer in the blood and other bodily fluids.

The term "symporter" refers to the fact that these proteins transport two or more different molecules or ions in the same direction across a membrane. In this case, sodium-bicarbonate symporters co-transport one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion together, usually using a concentration gradient of sodium to drive the uptake of bicarbonate.

These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidneys, where they help reabsorb bicarbonate ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, and the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to the absorption of sodium and bicarbonate from food and drink. Dysfunction of sodium-bicarbonate symporters has been implicated in several diseases, including renal tubular acidosis and hypertension.

Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across biological membranes. Aquaporin 1 is primarily responsible for facilitating water movement in various tissues, including the kidneys, red blood cells, and the brain.

In the kidneys, AQP1 is located in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb of the loop of Henle, where it helps to reabsorb water from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. In the red blood cells, AQP1 aids in the regulation of cell volume by allowing water to move in and out of the cells in response to osmotic changes. In the brain, AQP1 is found in the choroid plexus and cerebral endothelial cells, where it plays a role in the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Defects or mutations in the AQP1 gene can lead to various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, neurological disorders, and blood disorders.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Manganese poisoning, also known as manganism, is a condition that results from excessive exposure to manganese. Manganese is an essential nutrient, but at high levels, it can become toxic to the body. The symptoms of manganese poisoning can be similar to those of Parkinson's disease and may include tremors, difficulty walking, and mood changes. In severe cases, manganese poisoning can lead to irreversible neurological damage. Exposure to manganese can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and is often associated with occupational exposure in industries such as welding, mining, and manufacturing of batteries and fertilizers.

... Histology 40x Choroid plexus Choroid plexus Choroid plexus Choroid plexus papilloma Tela choroidea This article ... The choroid plexus, or plica choroidea, is a plexus of cells that arises from the tela choroidea in each of the ventricles of ... A choroid plexus is in part of the roof of the fourth ventricle. The choroid plexus consists of a layer of cuboidal epithelial ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Choroid plexus. 3-Dimensional images of choroid plexus (marked red) "Anatomy diagram: ...
Choroid plexus carcinoma (WHO grade III) Choroid atypical plexus papilloma (WHO grade II) Choroid plexus papilloma (WHO grade I ... Together, atypical choroid plexus papilloma, and choroid plexus carcinoma make up around 25% of all choroid plexus tumors. ... Choroid plexus papilloma, atypical choroid plexus papilloma, and choroid plexus carcinoma are the three World Health ... Choroid plexus tumors are a rare type of cancer that occur from the brain tissue called choroid plexus of the brain. Choroid ...
A choroid plexus carcinoma (WHO grade III) is a type of choroid plexus tumor that affects the choroid plexus of the brain. It ... Choroid plexus Brain tumor Cancer of the brain Gopal P, Parker JR, Debski R, Parker JC (August 2008). "Choroid plexus carcinoma ... Although choroid plexus carcinomas are significantly more aggressive and have half the survival rate as choroid plexus ... having a much poorer prognosis than choroid atypical plexus papilloma (WHO grade II) and choroid plexus papilloma (WHO grade I ...
... , also known as papilloma of the choroid plexus, is a rare benign neuroepithelial intraventricular WHO ... Media related to Choroid plexus papilloma at Wikimedia Commons Choroid Plexus Papilloma MRI, CT, and pathology images from ... Recent researches have shown that choroid plexus papilloma and choroid plexus cancer may be distinguished from one another ... Bevacizumab is playing a bigger part in disseminated choroid plexus papilloma, according to recent research. Choroid plexus ...
... s (CPCs) are cysts that occur within choroid plexus of the brain. They are the most common type of ... The choroid plexus has the important function of producing cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid produced by the cells of the choroid ... The brain contains pockets or spaces called ventricles with a spongy layer of cells and blood vessels called the choroid plexus ... The study concluded that "there is no evidence that detection of isolated choroid plexus cyst in women who are ...
1. Posterior medullary velum 2. Choroid plexus 3. Cisterna cerebellomedullaris of subarachnoid cavity 4. Central canal 5. ...
PRPH2 Choroid plexus papilloma; 260500; TP53 Choroideremia; 303100; CHM Chromosome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome; 606232; SHANK3 ... HOXA13 Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina with or without ornithinemia; 258870; OAT Haddad syndrome; 209880; ASCL1 Hailey- ...
The majority of the CSF is formed in the choroid plexus and flows through the brain along a distinct pathway: moving through ... Cserr HF (April 1971). "Physiology of the choroid plexus". Physiological Reviews. 51 (2): 273-311. doi:10.1152/physrev.1971.51. ... which is expressed by specialized epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed by ...
Spector, Reynold; Johanson, Conrad E. (2010). "Choroid plexus failure in the Kearns-Sayre syndrome". Cerebrospinal Fluid ... cause of cerebral folate deficiency in the Kearns-Sayre syndrome is the failure of the mechanisms in the choroid plexus that ...
"Merck Veterinary Manual". Westworth DR, Dickinson PJ, Vernau W, Johnson EG, Bollen AW, Kass PH et al (2008). Choroid plexus ... Examples of these include: meningiomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendromas, choroid plexus papillomas, and pituitary ...
The superior choroid vein runs along the length of the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle. It drains the choroid plexus, ... The inferior choroid vein drains the inferior choroid plexus into the basal vein. Alberts, Daniel; et al. (2012). Dorland's ... The choroid veins are the superior choroid vein, and the inferior choroid vein of the lateral ventricle. Both veins drain ...
2007). "[Choroid plexus cysts and risk of trisomy 18. Modifications regarding maternal age and markers]". Ceska Gynekol (in ... The most common intracranial anomaly is the presence of choroid plexus cysts, which are pockets of fluid on the brain. These ... choroid plexus cysts, underdeveloped thumbs and/or nails, absent radius, webbing of the second and third toes, clubfoot or ...
The CSF is primarily secreted by the choroid plexus; however, about one-third of the CSF is secreted by pia mater and the other ... A subarachnoid space exists between the arachnoid layer and the pia, into which the choroid plexus releases and maintains the ... The cranial pia mater joins with the ependyma, which lines the cerebral ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce ... folding inward to create the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle and the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ...
The choroid plexus is an established extrahepatic expression site. The mature circulating AHSG molecule consists of two ...
... form regions of minute projections known as a choroid plexus that projects into each ventricle. The choroid plexus produces ... Two vascular fringes from the lower fold invaginate the roof and form the choroid plexus. The tela choroidea of the fourth ... In the choroid fissure of the lateral ventricles, the tela choroidea is a lateral extension of the tela choroidea from the ... The anterior layer of the fold, contains vascular fringes which make up the choroid plexus. The anterior layer is continuous ...
Most (about two-thirds to 80%) of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus. The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels ... Unlike blood passing from the capillaries into the choroid plexus, the epithelial cells lining the choroid plexus contain tight ... Choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle produces CSF from the arterial blood provided by the anterior choroidal artery. In the ... In 1914, Harvey Cushing demonstrated that CSF is secreted by the choroid plexus. There is about 125-150 mL of CSF at any one ...
The choroid plexus of the third ventricles continues through the foramina into the lateral ventricles. End branches of the ... The walls of the interventricular foramina also contain choroid plexus, a specialized CSF-producing structure, that is ... The walls of the interventricular foramina contain choroid plexus, a specialized structure that produces cerebrospinal fluid. ... including of the basilar artery and choroid plexus; and abnormal surrounding tissue growths, such as colloid cysts, ...
... choroid plexus papillomas, craniopharyngiomas, teratomas); even when they present, they are different from the inflammatory ...
Choroid Plexus Papilloma - Palmer, Cheryl Ann and Daniel Keith Harrison; EMedicine; Jun 5, 2008 (CS1 errors: periodical ignored ...
The PICA supplies blood to the medulla oblongata; the choroid plexus and tela choroidea of the fourth ventricle; the tonsils; ... Branches from this artery supply the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle. A disrupted blood supply to posterior inferior ...
While PCFT is expressed primarily at the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus, FRα is expressed primarily at the apical ... As indicated above, PCFT is also expressed at the basolateral membrane of ependymal cells of the choroid plexus where it ... FRα-mediated endocytosis which plays an important role in the transport of folates across the choroid plexus into the CSF (see ... consistent with impaired transport across the choroid plexus. The normal CSF folate level in children over the first three ...
This area is referred to as the atrium of the lateral ventricle, and is where the choroid plexus is enlarged as the choroid ... Calcification of the choroid plexus can occur, usually in the atrium. Position of lateral ventricles (shown in red). Drawing of ... Were it not for the choroid plexus, a cleft-like opening would be all that lay between the lateral ventricle and the thalamus; ... The stria terminalis forms the remainder of the roof, which is much narrower than at the body - the choroid plexus moves to the ...
The highest density of receptor expression is within the choroid plexus. Other brain locations include the nucleus of the ...
2000), and found to be specifically expressed in the choroid plexus. Its human orthologue, HBI-36 was discovered by a homology ... which is predominantly expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells. The human 5HT-2c mRNA was predicted to be 2'O-methylated ...
The choroid plexus is formed from ependymal cells and vascular mesenchyme. Broad generalizations are often made in popular ...
Schizophrenie und Plexus chorioidei (with Kitabayashi), (1919) - Schizophrenia and the choroid plexus. Vologda Oblast ...
"Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?", Pediatric Radiology, Volume 35, ...
Angiotensin I converting enzyme activity in the choroid plexus and in the retinal. In: Buckley JP, Ferrario CM, eds. Central ... Angiotensin I converting enzyme in the choroid plexus and in the retina. Sixth International Congress of Pharmacology. Helsinki ...
"Dysregulation of brain and choroid plexus cell types in severe COVID-19". Nature. 595 (7868): 565-571. Bibcode:2021Natur.595.. ...
PCFT is also expressed at the basolateral membrane of the choroid plexus. In view of the low levels of folate in the ... 2013). "Choroid plexus transcytosis and exosome shuttling deliver folate into brain parenchyma". Nature Communications. 4: 2123 ... a defect in the transport of folates from blood across the choroid plexus into the CSF with very low CSF folate levels even ... PCFT must play a role in transport of folates across the choroid plexus into the CSF; however, the underlying mechanism for ...
Choroid Plexus Histology 40x Choroid plexus Choroid plexus Choroid plexus Choroid plexus papilloma Tela choroidea This article ... The choroid plexus, or plica choroidea, is a plexus of cells that arises from the tela choroidea in each of the ventricles of ... A choroid plexus is in part of the roof of the fourth ventricle. The choroid plexus consists of a layer of cuboidal epithelial ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Choroid plexus. 3-Dimensional images of choroid plexus (marked red) "Anatomy diagram: ...
... are benign neoplasms of the choroid plexus, a structure made from tufts of villi within the ventricular system that produces ... Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a benign but rare central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm of the choroid plexus-a structure ... Choroid plexus papillomas arise from the single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells lining the papillae of the choroid plexus. ... The polyoma viruses SV40, JC, and BK have been implicated in the development of choroid plexus tumors. [23] Choroid plexus ...
Here we profile 65,309 single-nucleus transcriptomes from 30 frontal cortex and choroid plexus samples across 14  ... Single-nucleus transcriptomes of frontal cortex and choroid plexus samples from patients with COVID-19 reveal pathological cell ... we observe broad cellular perturbations indicating that barrier cells of the choroid plexus sense and relay peripheral ... Isolation of nuclei from frozen post-mortem choroid plexus. Frozen choroid plexus tissue was extracted from the lateral ...
OverviewChoroid plexus carcinoma is a rare type of brain cancer that happens mainly in children. ... Choroid plexus carcinoma begins as a growth of cells in the part of the brain called the choroid plexus. Cells in the choroid ... Choroid plexus carcinoma happens the most in children under 2 years old. Tests and procedures used to diagnose choroid plexus ... If your child receives a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma, ask your health care provider to refer you to a specialist who ...
... of mouse choroid plexus have been devised to facilitate ongoing efforts to improve dCPEC engraftment of host choroid plexus ... choroid plexus culture system was newly developed to facilitate efforts to improve dCPEC engraftment of host choroid plexus, ... To further enhance choroid plexus engraftment, a mouse CPEC ablation approach is currently being tested. A collaboration was ... Buried deep inside the brain are cells known as choroid plexus epithelial (CPe) cells. Although not as famous as other cells in ...
Choroid plexus-derived extracellular vesicles exhibit brain targeting characteristics Category. Academic article ...
Choroid Plexus Organoid Maturation Kit further develops hPSC-derived neuroepithelial tissues for CNS permeability and CSF ... A) Phase-contrast image of a whole choroid plexus organoid at day 40 using the STEMdiff™ Choroid Plexus Organoid ... Choroid Plexus Differentiation Kits simple five-stage protocol, you can efficiently and reproducibly generate choroid plexus ... STEMdiff™ Choroid Plexus Organoid Maturation Kit Culture medium kit for establishment of organoid models containing human ...
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Choroid plexus papillomas of the foramen of Luschka: MR appearance.. J G Ken, D F Sobel, B Copeland, J Davis and K E Kortman ... Choroid plexus papillomas of the foramen of Luschka: MR appearance. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Choroid Plexus Tumors , Pineal Region Tumors , Atypical/Malignant Meningioma , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Nivolumab in People ... Choroid Plexus Tumors (Carcinoma, Papilloma, Atypical Papilloma), Histone Mutated Gliomas, Gliomatosis Cerebri, ATRT, Malignant ... Choroid Plexus Tumors (Carcinoma, Papilloma, Atypical Papilloma), Histone Mutated Gliomas, Gliomatosis Cerebri, ATRT, Malignant ... Choroid Plexus Tumors (Carcinoma, Papilloma, Atypical Papilloma), Histone Mutated Gliomas, Gliomatosis Cerebri, ATRT, Malignant ...
... meningeal vessels and choroid plexus in Alzheimers disease" Molecular Brain Research Vol. 35 Iss. 1-2 (1996) p. 58 - 68 ... meningeal vessels and choroid plexus in Alzheimers disease ...
Information about the SNOMED CT code 462165005 representing Fetal choroid plexus cyst. ... Choroid plexus cyst 230790004. Fetal choroid plexus cyst 462165005. SNOMED CT Concept 138875005. Clinical finding 404684003. ... fetal-choroid-plexus-cyst.html. Copyright © 2000-2023 InnoviHealth Systems Inc - CPT® copyright American Medical Association ... Fetal choroid plexus cyst 462165005. SNOMED CT code. SNOMED code. 462165005. name. Fetal choroid plexus cyst. ...
... "choroid-plexus-papilloma-13","modality":"MRI","series":[{"id":53976850,"content_type":"image/png","frames":[{"id":53976838," ... Kabra U, Choroid plexus papilloma. Case study, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 02 Dec 2023) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-84612 ...
atypical choroid plexus papilloma: indistinguishable, but far less common. * choroid plexus carcinoma: can be very difficult on ... but far more frequently seen in higher-grade tumors such as atypical choroid plexus papillomas and choroid plexus carcinomas 10 ... histological features distinguish them from atypical choroid plexus papillomas (WHO grade 2) and choroid plexus carcinomas (WHO ... choroid plexus metastases. When located in the posterior fossa in children (less common) other tumors to be considered include: ...
... Lien Van Hoecke (UGent) , Caroline Van ... "Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in the Pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C." FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE, vol ... "Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in the Pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C." FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE 15. ... "Involvement of the Choroid Plexus in the Pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C." FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE 15. ...
In addition, choroid plexus gene expression was observed to increase with postnatal age. Moreover, using choroid plexus in ... In addition, choroid plexus gene expression was observed to increase with postnatal age. Moreover, using choroid plexus in ... Characterization of choroid plexus in the preterm rabbit pup following subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IGF-1/ ... Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, Cerebrospinal fluid, Choroid plexus, Immature brain, Insulin-like growth factor-1, Insulin- ...
What is a choroid plexus carcinoma?. Choroid plexus tumors are developed by brain tissue called "choroid plexus" by invading ... What causes a choroid plexus carcinoma? Who is affected?. The cause of choroid plexus carcinoma is unknown but may be ... How is a choroid plexus carcinoma treated?. Children diagnosed with a choroid plexus tumor undergo surgery to safely remove as ... What are the symptoms of a choroid plexus carcinoma?. The symptoms of a choroid plexus tumor depend on the location and of the ...
The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms ... The choroid plexus epithelium (CPe) is primarily responsible for secreting CSF and regulating its composition by mechanisms ...
It grows out of brain tissue called the choroid plexus, which lines the ventricles of the brain and produces cerebrospinal ... Choroid Plexus Carcinoma This is a malignant tumor most often found in children younger than five. It grows out of brain tissue ... The AdventHealth Neuroscience Institute is a state-of-the art facility for children and adults affected by choroid plexus ... called the choroid plexus, which lines the ventricles of the brain and produces cerebrospinal fluid. The cancer can invade ...
Association of Choroid Plexus Volume With Serum Biomarkers, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With ... Association of Choroid Plexus Volume With Serum Biomarkers, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With ... Classification of Evidence This study provides Class III evidence that choroid plexus volume, as measured on MRI scan, can ... Background and Objectives Choroid plexus (ChP) is emerging as a key brain structure in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative ...
Choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) secrete most of the CSF through poorly understood mechanisms that involve aquaporins ( ... In previous work from our group, transcripts for several AQPs were detected in whole choroid plexus tissue using RT-PCR. ... The choroid plexuses (CPs) are highly vascularized epithelial structures lying in the brain ventricles, forming the blood- ... The choroid plexuses (CPs) are highly vascularized epithelial structures lying in the brain ventricles, forming the blood- ...
Choroid plexus epithelial cells as a model to study nongenomic steroid signaling and its effect on ion channel function. ...
Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are benign neoplasms of the choroid plexus, a structure made from tufts of villi within the ... including choroid plexus papillomas (CPP), atypical CPPs (aCPP), and choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC). A total of 349 patients ... The Surveillance and End Results (SEER) database was reviewed for population-based outcomes of choroid plexus tumors (CPTs), ... An image depicting a choroid plexus papilloma can be seen below.. Imaging appearance of a fourth ventricular choroid plexus ...
Layers of choroid plexus from inner to outward, How CSF is formed from choroid plexus?, Circulation of CSF what does the ... choroid plexus do. what is the function of chor ... What is choroid plexus ?. As we know, the blood vessels ... CSF from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles is derived from the plasma filtration of blood capillaries which are from ... Similarly, the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle is traversed by anterior inferior cerebellar artery & superior cerebellar ...
... Cristina ... LESSONS The known association between choroid plexus tumors and intracranial bleeding raised differential diagnosis issues. ... Factor XI deficiency and delayed hemorrhages after resection of choroid plexus papilloma: illustrative case / Mancarella, ... LESSONS The known association between choroid plexus tumors and intracranial bleeding raised differential diagnosis issues. ...
Choroid Plexus Tumors. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms ...
Increased volume of an important structure in the brain called the choroid plexus is linked to greater cognitive impairment and ... Choroid plexus volume was greater in those with Alzheimers dementia than in those without. Higher choroid plexus volume was ... "We found no relationship between choroid plexus volume and amyloid pathology but a clear relationship between the choroid ... Radiologyalzheimerchoroid plexusbraincognitive impairmentblood vesselsbrain healthimmune cellsnervesneuroinflammationdementia ...
Cerebrospinal fluid and a novel cortisol generating system in the choroid plexus ... Cerebrospinal fluid and a novel cortisol generating system in the choroid plexus ...
Unveiling the gut-brain axis: structural and functional analogies between the gut and the choroid plexus vascular and immune ... The neuronal organization of the plexus myentericus (Auerbach) in the small intestine of the pig. II. Typ II-neurone (author& ... Pain after avulsion injuries and complete palsy of the brachial plexus: the possible role of nonavulsed roots in pain ... Larthrodèse de lépaule améliore constamment la fonction du membre dans les paralysies supérieures ou totales du plexus ...
Human Choroid Plexus Fibroblast genomic DNA (HCPFgDNA) ...

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