Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Choroid Plexus Neoplasms: Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)Papilloma, Choroid Plexus: A usually benign neoplasm that arises from the cuboidal epithelium of the choroid plexus and takes the form of an enlarged CHOROID PLEXUS, which may be associated with oversecretion of CSF. The tumor usually presents in the first decade of life with signs of increased intracranial pressure including HEADACHES; ATAXIA; DIPLOPIA; and alterations of mental status. In children it is most common in the lateral ventricles and in adults it tends to arise in the fourth ventricle. Malignant transformation to choroid plexus carcinomas may rarely occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p667; DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Gyrate Atrophy: Progressive, autosomal recessive, diffuse atrophy of the choroid, pigment epithelium, and sensory retina that begins in childhood.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral: A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Artificial Cells: Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.Dermoid Cyst: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Ependymoma: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)

Ultrasonic characterisation of malignant melanoma of choroid. (1/324)

An in-vitro study of wave spectral analysis in 8 enucleated eyes was conducted in order to differentiate histological subtypes of malignant melanoma. To obtain the backscattering coefficient for the tissues, we used a broadband focussed transducer with a frequency range of 7-12 MHz and a centre frequency of 10 MHz. Experimental measurement of backscattering coefficient and attenuation coefficient at various frequencies was done by substitution techniques. The backscattering coefficient, scatterer size, and root mean square velocity fluctuation were derived by the numerical method, while the attenuation coefficient at 1 MHz was derived from attenuation coefficient at different frequencies. This study revealed that backscattering coefficient and attenuation coefficient, over a frequency range of 7-12 MHz, show an increase in the spindle cell type compared to the mixed cell type of malignant melanoma. Particularly, the scatterer size was significantly higher in the spindle cell group (p = 0.013) in contrast to the mixed cell type. Spindle cells have uniform and compact histological pattern which contributes to an increase in scatterer size and root mean square velocity fluctuation. The ultrasonically obtained parameters have been shown to have a good correlation with the histology of malignant melanoma.  (+info)

Radioactive phosphorus uptake testing of choroidal lesions. A report of two false-negative tests. (2/324)

Two false-negative results from 32P testing for histologically verified malignant melanomas of the choroid are reported. In the first case, a haemorrhagic choroidal detachment caused an increase in probe; additionally, the tumour was necrotic. Both factors are likely to have contributed to the false-negative result. A satisfactory explanation for the false-negative result in the second case was not determined, although it may have accurately reflected a period of minimal tumour activity, inasmuch as repeat 32P testing was strongly positive eight months later, when unequivocal evidence of tumour growth was present. An alternative explanation is that the orally administered 32P was incompletely absorbed. Since 32P testing is frequently accompanied by significant manipulation both in the manoeuvre associated with tumour localization and in that associated with the actual radioactive counting, it would seem desirable to perform indicated enucleation immediately after completion of the 32P testing. While the properly performed 32P test remains a valuable diagnostic test for helping to establish the presence or absence of malignancies of the posterior globe, it is important to guard against the tendency to underestimate careful clinical evaluation.  (+info)

Combination chemotherapy for choroidal melanoma: ex vivo sensitivity to treosulfan with gemcitabine or cytosine arabinoside. (3/324)

Treatment of choroidal melanoma by chemotherapy is usually unsuccessful, with response rates of less than 1% reported for dacarbazine (DTIC)-containing regimens which show 20% or more response rates in skin melanoma. Recently, we reported the activity of several cytotoxic agents against primary choroidal melanoma in an ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). In this study, we have used the same method to examine the sensitivity of choroidal melanoma to combinations suggested by our earlier study. Tumour material from 36 enucleated eyes was tested against a battery of single agents and combinations which showed some activity in the previous study. The combination of treosulfan with gemcitabine or cytosine arabinoside showed consistent activity in 70% and 86% of cases, respectively. Paclitaxel was also active, particularly in combination with treosulfan (47%) or mitoxantrone (33%). Addition of paclitaxel to the combination of treosulfan + cytosine analogue added little increased sensitivity. For treosulfan + cytosine arabinoside, further sequence and timing experiments showed that simultaneous administration gave the greatest suppression, with minor loss of inhibition if the cytosine analogue was given 24 h after the treosulfan. Administration of cytosine analogue 24 h before treosulfan produced considerably less inhibition at any concentration. While we have so far been unable to study metastatic tumour from choroidal melanoma patients, the combination of treosulfan with gemcitabine or cytosine arabinoside shows activity ex vivo against primary tumour tissue. Clinical trials are in progress.  (+info)

Differential expression of the retinoblastoma gene family members in choroidal melanoma: prognostic significance. (4/324)

We evaluated 55 samples of choroidal melanoma managed by enucleation. Knowing that the immunohistochemical expression of the retinoblastoma gene family members Rb/p105, p107, and pRb2/p130 was inversely correlated with the degree of malignancy in at least some histological types, we investigated the expression of these three proteins in choroidal melanoma. We focused on the relationship between patient survival and the immunohistochemical detection of the retinoblastoma proteins. No correlation with clinical outcome was found for Rb/p105 and p107. However, we found pRb2/p130 to be an independent prognostic factor correlating positively or directly with patient survival times and indirectly or inversely with the degree of malignancy. Demonstration of the prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expression of pRb2/p130 is of significance, even if additional studies are required to confirm these data and to compare the prognostic value of pRb2/p130 immunodetection to that of other recently proposed markers, such as p53.  (+info)

Alpha/beta- and gamma/delta TCR(+) lymphocyte infiltration in necrotising choroidal melanomas. (5/324)

AIM: To detect specific tumour infiltrating T cells (TIL) carrying antigen specific MHC-I restricted receptor genes on necrotising and non-necrotising malignant melanomas and to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHODS: alpha/beta- and gamma/delta- TIL were determined by immunohistochemical staining in melanomas of patients with known follow up of more than 10 years. An antigen retrieval method was used to determine variable genes delta1 and gamma1 on TCR(+) cells by an anti-TCR Vdelta1 and anti-CrgammaM1, and of Valpha and Vbeta TCR(+) by an anti-pan-TCR(+) alpha/beta antibody. RESULTS: Intratumoral TIL were present in 86 of 113 (76.1%) necrotising melanomas (NMM) v 21 of 100 (21%) in non-necrotising melanomas (MM); of these, Valpha/beta- TCR(+) cells were present in 52 of 74 (70.3%) TIL harbouring NMM v four of 21 (19%) MM; Vgamma1 in 29 of 74 (39.2%) NMM v two of 21 (10%) MM; and Vdelta1 in 39 of 74 (52.7%) NMM v three of 21 (14%) MM. Extratumoral lymphocytic infiltration was seen in 86 (76.1%) NMM including Valpha/beta TCR(+) cells in 10 (11.6%) cases, v five (5%) MM cases with no Valpha/beta TCR(+) cells detected. Vgamma1 and Vdelta1 TCR(+) cells were not found in extratumoral infiltrates. CONCLUSIONS: In NMM, the median survival was 69.3 (range 6-237) months, 19 of 74 patients (25.7%) survived 5 years, and mortality was associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), patient age (p<0.023), and extent of necrosis (p<0.048). Survival was increased with evidence of Vgamma1 and Vdelta1 TCR(+) cells (p<0.026).  (+info)

Microvascular density in predicting survival of patients with choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. (6/324)

PURPOSE: Although malignant uveal melanoma disseminates predominantly hematogenously because of the absence of intraocular lymphatics, consensus about prognostic impact of microvascular density (MVD) has not been reached. This study was undertaken to investigate whether MVD, microvascular patterns, or both determine prognosis of uveal melanoma. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study of melanoma-specific and all-cause mortality of 167 consecutive patients who had an eye enucleated because of choroidal or ciliary body melanoma from 1972 through 1981 was conducted. MVD was determined by counting tumor vessels in a masked fashion from areas of highest vessel density after immunostaining for CD34 epitope, factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses of survival were performed. The association between MVD and tumor size and location, cell type, and microvascular patterns was assessed. RESULTS: MVD could be determined from 134 of 167 melanomas (80%). Based on globally highest count obtained with antibodies to CD34, MVD ranged from 5 to 121 vessels/0.313 mm2 (median, 40) and its association with presence of microvascular loops and networks (P = 0.0006), epithelioid cells (P = 0.028), and largest basal tumor diameter (P = 0.0029) was statistically significant. The 10-year melanoma-specific mortality increased with MVD (0.09, 0.29, 0.59, and 0.64, according to quartiles; P < 0.0001), as did all-cause mortality (P = 0.0022). Equivalent results were obtained with immunostaining for FVIII-RAg, whereas MVD obtained with antibodies to SMA was not associated with prognosis. Cox regression showed a hazard ratio of 2.45 (95% CI, 1.43-4.18) for presence of epithelioid cells, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.20) for largest basal diameter, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.06-1.43) for square root-transformed MVD, and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.09-2.10) for presence of loops and networks, all of which independently contributed to prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the theory that both MVD and microvascular patterns contribute independently to prognosis in uveal melanoma in addition to cell type and size of the tumor.  (+info)

Ocular arterial blood flow of choroidal melanoma eyes before and after stereotactic radiotherapy using Leksell gamma knife: 2 year follow up. (7/324)

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of high dose stereotactic radiotherapy on the ocular blood flow of patients with uveal melanoma. METHODS: Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) was used to measure blood flow velocity and vascular resistance in the ophthalmic, short posterior, and central retinal arteries of nine patients suffering from uveal melanoma. The measurements were taken before, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after stereotactic radiotherapy. Irradiation was performed with the Leksell gamma knife with the 59 (41-66.5) Gy total marginal dose divided in two equal fractions. CDI results were compared with age and sex matched healthy control eyes. RESULTS: At each time of measurement, blood flow velocity in the central retinal artery of the affected eyes was significantly reduced whereas vascular resistance was only increased at the 2 year follow up. Blood flow velocity and vascular resistance in the short posterior arteries of melanoma eyes were also only significantly altered at the 2 year follow up. Blood flow velocity and vascular resistance in the ophthalmic artery of melanoma eyes were not changed at all follow ups. CONCLUSIONS: In the melanoma eyes, blood flow velocity in the central retinal artery is reduced. High dose stereotactic radiotherapy with the Leksell gamma knife and a 59 (41-66.5) Gy total marginal dose in two fractions leads to a significant reduction of blood flow and a significant increase in resistance variables in the small ocular arteries within 2 years.  (+info)

Transpupillary thermotherapy as primary treatment for small choroidal melanomas. (8/324)

PURPOSE: To report short-term follow-up of eyes containing small choroidal melanomas that were treated with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). METHODS: Twenty eyes with suspected small choroidal melanomas were treated with TTT using infrared light delivered from the diode laser. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 26 to 82 years. In 14, there was documented growth of the melanoma prior to TTT. Tumor thicknesses ranged from less than 1 to 3.2 mm. Seven tumors were treated more than once. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to more than 3 years. Following treatment, tumor thicknesses decreased in all cases, usually within 2 months. Progressive atrophy of tumor mass and loss of pigmentation within the tumor continued beyond 1 year of follow-up in some eyes. Complications included field defects, vascular changes, and macular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Transpupillary thermotherapy of small choroidal melanomas is usually followed by early tumor shrinkage but is complicated by dense scotomas, nerve fiber bundle defects, and occasionally macular abnormalities. Short-term follow-up suggests that TTT may arrest growth of selected small melanomas.  (+info)

  • ICD-9 code 239.81 for Neoplasms of unspecified nature, retina and choroid is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -NEOPLASMS OF UNSPECIFIED NATURE (239). (
  • Iridectomy - Removal of the affected piece of the iris Choroidectomy - Removal of the choroid layer (the vascular tissue sandwiched between the sclera and the retina) Iridocyclectomy - Removal of the iris plus the ciliary body muscle. (
  • Benign tumors of the lid, conjunctiva, iris, and choroid are common, whereas those of the retina and cornea are rare. (
  • Although the fluid usually resorbs and leakage stops within days to weeks, it has been suggested that photocoagulation itself somehow weakens the layer between the retina and choroid (Bruch membrane) and in some way may stimulate transformation to malignancy. (
  • Other flat lesions in the choroid that have been confused with nevi and melanoma include hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, hamartomas of the retinal pigment epithelium, and hemorrhages within the retina, especially hemorrhages beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (as part of macular degeneration). (
  • As a group, gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in both adult and pediatric populations, whereas infiltrative gliomas, in particular glioblastoma, make up the bulk of adult glial tumors, pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma predominate in children. (
  • Although BFH of the choroid is very rare, its benign nature and the availability of choroidal biopsy for tissue diagnosis make it important to include this as one of the differential diagnoses for amelanotic choroidal mass. (
  • The radiologic finding of erosion of the skull base by this mass lesion may have contributed to its interpretation as a destructive neoplasm, with the differential diagnosis including chondrosarcoma, metastatic lesion, osteosarcoma, and meningioma. (
  • However, the histology in this case ruled out a diagnosis of neoplasm. (
  • The authors present the case of a child with partial trisomy 9p and delayed diagnosis of hydrocephalus with radiographic evidence of DVHCP who was successfully managed with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement, adjuvant bilateral endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation (CPC), and the novel application of anterior choroidal artery embolization. (
  • The histological diagnosis was that of choroid. (
  • The TySV40 transgenic murine tumors represent potentially useful tools for investigations into the biology and metastasis of intraocular neoplasms. (
  • Although detailed systemic examinations were performed, no metastasis to lymph nodes or distant organs except the choroid plexus was detected, which is very rare in a case of stage IV primary lung cancer. (
  • abstract = "Intracranial xanthogranulomas are rare benign tumors and occur most commonly as choroid plexus xanthogranulomas, which rarely become symptomatic. (
  • abstract = "A 20-month-old infant found to have a blind eye with neovascular glaucoma was thought to have a neoplasm of the optic nerve for which enucleation was performed with resection of a long segment of optic nerve. (
  • We expanded a pre-existing database and included all cases of choroid plexus tumors, identified in PubMed through the end of 2007, for a total of 906 patients. (