ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Chorismic Acid: A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Dicarboxylic AcidsPhenazinesProtriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the shifting of a carbon-carbon double bond from one position to another within the same molecule. EC 5.3.3.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondral bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497)Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Chorismate Mutase: An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC 5.4.99.5.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome: A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.Sulfamethazine: A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.Candicidin: Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.

The aroC gene of Aspergillus nidulans codes for a monofunctional, allosterically regulated chorismate mutase. (1/70)

The cDNA and the chromosomal locus of the aroC gene of Aspergillus nidulans were cloned and is the first representative of a filamentous fungal gene encoding chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5), the enzyme at the first branch point of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. The aroC gene complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae aro7Delta as well as the A. nidulans aroC mutation. The gene consists of three exons interrupted by two short intron sequences. The expressed mRNA is 0.96 kilobases in length and aroC expression is not regulated on the transcriptional level under amino acid starvation conditions. aroC encodes a monofunctional polypeptide of 268 amino acids. Purification of this 30-kDa enzyme allowed determination of its kinetic parameters (k(cat) = 82 s(-1), n(H) = 1. 56, [S](0.5) = 2.3 mM), varying pH dependence of catalytic activity in different regulatory states, and an acidic pI value of 4.7. Tryptophan acts as heterotropic activator and tyrosine as negative acting, heterotropic feedback-inhibitor with a K(i) of 2.8 microM. Immunological data, homology modeling, as well as electron microscopy studies, indicate that this chorismate mutase has a dimeric structure like the S. cerevisiae enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of a crucial residue in loop220s (Asp(233)) revealed differences concerning the intramolecular signal transduction for allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Characterization of hydroxylaminobenzene mutase from pNBZ139 cloned from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. A highly associated SDS-stable enzyme catalyzing an intramolecular transfer of hydroxy groups. (2/70)

Hydroxylaminobenzene mutase is the enzyme that converts intermediates formed during initial steps in the degradation of nitrobenzene to a novel ring-fission lower pathway in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. The mutase catalyzes a rearrangement of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol. The mechanism of the reactions and the properties of the enzymes are unknown. In crude extracts, the hydroxylaminobenzene mutase was stable at SDS concentrations as high as 2%. A procedure including Hitrap-SP, Hitrap-Q and Cu(II)-chelating chromatography was used to partially purify the enzyme from an Escherichia coli clone. The partially purified enzyme was eluted in the void volume of a Superose-12 gel-filtration column even in the presence of 0.05% SDS in 25 mM Tris/HCl buffer, which indicated that it was highly associated. When the enzymatic conversion of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol was carried out in 18O-labeled water, the product did not contain 18O, as determined by GC-MS. The results indicate that the reaction proceeded by intramolecular transfer of the hydroxy group from the nitrogen to the C-2 position of the ring. The mechanism is clearly different from the intermolecular transfer of the hydroxy group in the non-enzymatic Bamberger rearrangement of hydroxylaminobenzene to 4-aminophenol and in the enzymatic hydroxymutation of chorismate to isochorismate.  (+info)

Archaeal shikimate kinase, a new member of the GHMP-kinase family. (3/70)

Shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) is a committed enzyme in the seven-step biosynthesis of chorismate, a major precursor of aromatic amino acids and many other aromatic compounds. Genes for all enzymes of the chorismate pathway except shikimate kinase are found in archaeal genomes by sequence homology to their bacterial counterparts. In this study, a conserved archaeal gene (gi1500322 in Methanococcus jannaschii) was identified as the best candidate for the missing shikimate kinase gene by the analysis of chromosomal clustering of chorismate biosynthetic genes. The encoded hypothetical protein, with no sequence similarity to bacterial and eukaryotic shikimate kinases, is distantly related to homoserine kinases (EC 2.7.1.39) of the GHMP-kinase superfamily. The latter functionality in M. jannaschii is assigned to another gene (gi591748), in agreement with sequence similarity and chromosomal clustering analysis. Both archaeal proteins, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, displayed activity of the predicted type, with steady-state kinetic parameters similar to those of the corresponding bacterial kinases: K(m,shikimate) = 414 +/- 33 microM, K(m,ATP) = 48 +/- 4 microM, and k(cat) = 57 +/- 2 s(-1) for the predicted shikimate kinase and K(m,homoserine) = 188 +/- 37 microM, K(m,ATP) = 101 +/- 7 microM, and k(cat) = 28 +/- 1 s(-1) for the homoserine kinase. No overlapping activity could be detected between shikimate kinase and homoserine kinase, both revealing a >1,000-fold preference for their own specific substrates. The case of archaeal shikimate kinase illustrates the efficacy of techniques based on reconstruction of metabolism from genomic data and analysis of gene clustering on chromosomes in finding missing genes.  (+info)

Essential PchG-dependent reduction in pyochelin biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (4/70)

The biosynthetic genes pchDCBA and pchEF, which are known to be required for the formation of the siderophore pyochelin and its precursors salicylate and dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), are clustered with the pchR regulatory gene on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The 4.6-kb region located downstream of the pchEF genes was found to contain three additional, contiguous genes, pchG, pchH, and pchI, probably forming a pchEFGHI operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of PchH and PchI are similar to those of ATP binding cassette transport proteins with an export function. PchG is a homolog of the Yersinia pestis and Y. enterocolitica proteins YbtU and Irp3, which are involved in the biosynthesis of yersiniabactin. A null mutation in pchG abolished pyochelin formation, whereas mutations in pchH and pchI did not affect the amounts of salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin produced. The pyochelin biosynthetic genes were expressed from a vector promoter, uncoupling them from Fur-mediated repression by iron and PchR-dependent induction by pyochelin. In a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the entire pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster, the expressed pchDCBA and pchEFG genes were sufficient for salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin production. Pyochelin formation was also obtained in the heterologous host Escherichia coli expressing pchDCBA and pchEFG together with the E. coli entD gene, which provides a phosphopantetheinyl transferase necessary for PchE and PchF activation. The PchG protein was purified and used in combination with PchD and phosphopantetheinylated PchE and PchF in vitro to produce pyochelin from salicylate, L-cysteine, ATP, NADPH, and S-adenosylmethionine. Based on this assay, a reductase function was attributed to PchG. In summary, this study completes the identification of the biosynthetic genes required for pyochelin formation from chorismate in P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

The structures of anthranilate synthase of Serratia marcescens crystallized in the presence of (i) its substrates, chorismate and glutamine, and a product, glutamate, and (ii) its end-product inhibitor, L-tryptophan. (5/70)

The crystal structure of anthranilate synthase (AS) from Serratia marcescens, a mesophilic bacterium, has been solved in the presence of its substrates, chorismate and glutamine, and one product, glutamate, at 1.95 A, and with its bound feedback inhibitor, tryptophan, at 2.4 A. In comparison with the AS structure from the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus, the S. marcescens structure shows similar subunit structures but a markedly different oligomeric organization. One crystal form of the S. marcescens enzyme displays a bound pyruvate as well as a putative anthranilate (the nitrogen group is ambiguous) in the TrpE subunit. It also confirms the presence of a covalently bound glutamyl thioester intermediate in the TrpG subunit. The tryptophan-bound form reveals that the inhibitor binds at a site distinct from that of the substrate, chorismate. Bound tryptophan appears to prevent chorismate binding by a demonstrable conformational effect, and the structure reveals how occupancy of only one of the two feedback inhibition sites can immobilize the catalytic activity of both TrpE subunits. The presence of effectors in the structure provides a view of the locations of some of the amino acid residues in the active sites. Our findings are discussed in terms of the previously described AS structure of S. solfataricus, mutational data obtained from enteric bacteria, and the enzyme's mechanism of action.  (+info)

Microbial origin of plant-type 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthases, exemplified by the chorismate- and tryptophan-regulated enzyme from Xanthomonas campestris. (6/70)

Enzymes performing the initial reaction of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthases, exist as two distinct homology classes. The three classic Escherichia coli paralogs are AroA(I) proteins, but many members of the Bacteria possess the AroA(II) class of enzyme, sometimes in combination with AroA(I) proteins. AroA(II) DAHP synthases until now have been shown to be specifically dedicated to secondary metabolism (e.g., formation of ansamycin antibiotics or phenazine pigment). In contrast, here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris AroA(II) protein functions as the sole DAHP synthase supporting aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. X. campestris AroA(II) was cloned in E. coli by functional complementation, and genes corresponding to two possible translation starts were expressed. We developed a 1-day partial purification method (>99%) for the unstable protein. The recombinant AroA(II) protein was found to be subject to an allosteric pattern of sequential feedback inhibition in which chorismate is the prime allosteric effector. L-Tryptophan was found to be a minor feedback inhibitor. An N-terminal region of 111 amino acids may be located in the periplasm since a probable inner membrane-spanning region is predicted. Unlike chloroplast-localized AroA(II) of higher plants, X. campestris AroA(II) was not hysteretically activated by dithiols. Compared to plant AroA(II) proteins, differences in divalent metal activation were also observed. Phylogenetic tree analysis shows that AroA(II) originated within the Bacteria domain, and it seems probable that higher-plant plastids acquired AroA(II) from a gram-negative bacterium via endosymbiosis. The X. campestris AroA(II) protein is suggested to exemplify a case of analog displacement whereby an ancestral aroA(I) species was discarded, with the aroA(II) replacement providing an alternative pattern of allosteric control. Three subgroups of AroA(II) proteins can be recognized: a large, central group containing the plant enzymes and that from X. campestris, one defined by a three-residue deletion near the conserved KPRS motif, and one possessing a larger deletion further downstream.  (+info)

The emerging periplasm-localized subclass of AroQ chorismate mutases, exemplified by those from Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (7/70)

BACKGROUND: Chorismate mutases of the AroQ homology class are widespread in the Bacteria and the Archaea. Many of these exist as domains that are fused with other aromatic-pathway catalytic domains. Among the monofunctional AroQ proteins, that from Erwinia herbicola was previously shown to have a cleavable signal peptide and located in the periplasmic compartment. Whether or not this might be unique to E. herbicola was unknown. RESULTS: The gene coding for the AroQ protein was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the AroQ protein purified from both S. typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to have a periplasmic location. The periplasmic chorismate mutases (denoted *AroQ) are shown to be a distinct subclass of AroQ, being about twice the size of cytoplasmic AroQ proteins. The increased size is due to a carboxy-terminal extension of unknown function. In addition, a so-far novel aromatic aminotransferase was shown to be present in the periplasm of P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis has detected a number of additional *aroQ genes. The joint presence of *AroQ, cyclohexadienyl dehydratase and aromatic aminotransferase in the periplasmic compartment of P. aeruginosa comprises a complete chorismate-to-phenylalanine pathway and accounts for the "hidden overflow pathway" to phenylalanine described previously.  (+info)

Clustering of isochorismate synthase genes menF and entC and channeling of isochorismate in Escherichia coli. (8/70)

There are two isochorismate synthase genes entC and menF in Escherichia coli. They encode enzymes (isochorismate synthase, EC 5.4.99.6) which reversibly synthesize isochorismic acid from chorismic acid. The genes share a 24.2% identity but are differently regulated. Activity of the MenF isochorismate synthase is significantly increased under anaerobic conditions whereas the activity of the EntC isochorismate synthase is greatly stimulated during growth in an iron deficient medium. Isochorismic acid synthesized by EntC is mainly channeled into enterobactin synthesis whereas isochorismic acid synthesized by MenF is mainly channeled into menaquinone synthesis. When menF or entC were separately placed onto overexpression plasmids and the plasmids introduced into a menF(-)/entC(-) double mutant in two separate experiments, the isochorismate formed was fed into both, the menaquinone and the enterobactin pathway. Moreover, in spite of a high isochorismate synthase activity menaquinone and enterobactin formation were not fully restored, indicating that isochorismate was lost by diffusion. Thus, under these conditions channeling was not observed. We conclude that in E. coli the chromosomal position of both menF and entC in their respective clusters is a prerequisite for channeling of isochorismate in both pathways.  (+info)

Pyocyanin biosynthesis begins with the synthesis of the phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) core.[19] In this reaction the enzyme PhzE catalyzes the loss of the hydroxyl group from C4 of Chorismic Acid as well as the transfer of an amine group from glutamine to form glutamic acid and 2-amino-2-desoxyisochorismic acid (ADIC).[20] Following this, PhzD catalyzes the hydrolytic removal the pyruvate moiety from ADIC to form (5S,6S)-6-amino-5-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexadieve-1-carboxylic acid (DHHA).[20] In the next step, PhzF catalyzes two steps: the abstraction of a hydrogen from C3 of DHHA, delocalization of the double bond system and reprotonation at C1 as well as enol tautomerization to form the highly unstable 6-amino-5-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid (AOCHC).[20] From here two molecules of AOCHC are condensed by PhzB to form the tricyclic compound, hexahydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (HHPDC).[20] The product of this reaction, HHPDC, is unstable and spontaneously undergoes oxidative ...
1K0E: Structure of Escherichia coli aminodeoxychorismate synthase: architectural conservation and diversity in chorismate-utilizing enzymes.
Vibrational signatures of human breast tissue (invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma) were used to identify, characterize and discriminate structures in normal (noncancerous) and cancerous tissues by confocal Raman imaging, Raman spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The most important differe Optical Diagnosis (2014)
ID F2PQI4_TRIEC Unreviewed; 323 AA. AC F2PQI4; DT 31-MAY-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-MAY-2011, sequence version 1. DT 11-DEC-2019, entry version 29. DE SubName: Full=Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGE04152.1}; GN ORFNames=TEQG_03185 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGE04152.1}; OS Trichophyton equinum (strain ATCC MYA-4606 / CBS 127.97) (Horse ringworm OS fungus). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Onygenales; Arthrodermataceae; Trichophyton. OX NCBI_TaxID=559882 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC MYA-4606 / CBS 127.97 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169}; RX PubMed=22951933; DOI=10.1128/mBio.00259-12; RA Martinez D.A., Oliver B.G., Graeser Y., Goldberg J.M., Li W., RA Martinez-Rossi N.M., Monod M., Shelest E., Barton R.C., Birch E., RA Brakhage A.A., Chen Z., Gurr S.J., Heiman D., Heitman J., Kosti ...
Hi, I have a Yeast question that I hope someone in the group can answer. In bacteria the conversion of chorismate to para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) is the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The reaction is carried out by the enzyme chorismate pyruvate lyase (CPL) encoded by the ubiC gene. In a search of the literature I have not been able to find any references to a CPL activity in Yeast. Is it known that chorismate is converted directly to PHB in Yeast as part of ubiquinone synthesis, or is the PHB derived from a different pathway? If it is a direct conversion it would seem that petite mutants blocked at this step would have been isolated and described in the literature. Have I missed something or is there a gap in the information on this pathway? Many Thanks, Frank Mondello ...
An additional stabilizing factor in this enzyme-substrate complex is hydrogen bonding between the lone pair of the oxygen in the vinyl ether system and hydrogen bond donor residues. Not only does this stabilize the complex, but disruption of resonance within the vinyl ether destabilizes the ground state and reduces the energy barrier for this transformation. An alternative view is that electrostatic stabilization of the polarized transition state is of great importance in this reaction. In the chorismate mutase active site, the transition-state analog is stabilized by 12 electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions.[8] This is shown in mutants of the native enzyme in which Arg90 is replaced with citrulline to demonstrate the importance of hydrogen bonding to stabilize the transition state.[9] Other work using chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis showed evidence that when a cation was aptly placed in the active site, the electrostatic interactions between it and the negatively charged ...
Anthranilate synthase component I; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit (TrpG) of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS (TrpE) to produce anthranilate. In the absence of TrpG, TrpE can synthesize anthranilate directly from chorismate and high concentr [...] (508 aa ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Feng Xie, Shengwang Dai, Jinzhao Shen, Biao Ren, Pei Huang, Qiushui Wang, Xueting Liu, Buchang Zhang, Huanqin Dai, Lixin Zhang].
BioAssay record AID 52148 submitted by ChEMBL: The compound was tested for inhibition of Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase (BcCM).
Shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of shikimate to form shikimate 3-phosphate. This reaction is the fifth step o
Anthranilate synthase beta subunit 1; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS to produce anthranilate. Plays an important regulatory role in auxin production via the tryptophan-dependent biosynthetic pathway (289 aa ...
1COM: The monofunctional chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis. Structure determination of chorismate mutase and its complexes with a transition state analog and prephenate, and implications for the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.
3-(2-Aminoethyl)indol-5-ol p-aminobenzoate dihydrochloride | C17H19Cl2N3O2 | CID 29683 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The OSB Combiline is a high-strength coatable composite element with a core layer of OSB and a double-sided top layer made of thin MDF. It combines the excellent flexural rigidity of the EGGER OSB board with the suitability for coating and lacquering of an MDF board.. ...
/CNW/ - Norbord Inc. (TSX and NYSE: OSB) today reported Adjusted EBITDA of $211 million for the third quarter of 2018 versus $200 million in the third quarter...
... The Global and Chinese p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester Sodium - Market research report and industry analysis - 10790198
Background Chorismate mutases of the AroQ homology class are widespread in the Bacteria and the Archaea. Many of these exist as domains that are fused with other aromatic-pathway catalytic domains. Among the monofunctional AroQ proteins, that from Erwinia herbicola was previously shown to have a cleavable signal peptide and located in the periplasmic compartment. Whether or not this might be unique to E. herbicola was unknown. Results The gene coding for the AroQ protein was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the AroQ protein purified from both S. typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to have a periplasmic location. The periplasmic chorismate mutases (denoted *AroQ) are shown to be a distinct subclass of AroQ, being about twice the size of cytoplasmic AroQ proteins. The increased size is due to a carboxy-terminal extension of unknown function. In addition, a so-far novel aromatic aminotransferase was shown to be present in the periplasm of P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Our analysis has
View Notes - Organic Lab Reactions 31 from CHM 2210 at University of Florida. 26 THE CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT allyl 2-carbomethoxy-6-methylphenyl ether (LXXXV) undergoes the para rearrangement when the
Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Its formula is HO-C6H4-CO-O-CH2CH3. It is a member of the class of compounds known as parabens. ...
Zacks Investment Research upgraded shares of Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ENTA) from a sell rating to a hold rating in a report issued on Tuesday morning. According to Zacks,
Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferaseN-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of a trimeric complex involving chorismate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. AU - Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.. AU - Amrhein, Nikolaus. AU - Macheroux, Peter. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 749. EP - 752. BT - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium. PB - Rudolf Weber. CY - Berlin. ER - ...
Bornemann, S., Lowe, D.J. and Thorneley, R.N. (1996). „The transient kinetics of Escherichia coli chorismate synthase: substrate consumption, product formation, phosphate dissociation, and characterization of a flavin intermediate". Biochemistry. 35: 9907-9916. PMID 8703965 ...
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Several derivatives of phenylalanine and tyrosine were prepared and tested for inhibition of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.12) from Escherichia coli K12 (strain JP 232). The best inhibitors were N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-L-phenylalanine, N-benzenesulphonyl-L-phenylalanine and N-benzloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine. Consequently two compounds, N-toluene-sulphonyl-L-p-aminophenylalanine and N-p-aminobenzenesulphonyl-L-phenylalanine, were synthesized for coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B. The N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-L-p-aminophenylalanine-Sepharose-4B conjugate was shown to bind the enzyme very strongly at pH 7.5. The enzyme was not eluted by various eluents, including 1 M-NaCl, but could be quantitatively recovered by washing with buffer of pH9. Elution was more effective in the presence of 10 mM-1-adamantaneacetic acid, a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. This affinity-chromatography procedure results in a high degree of purification of the enzyme and can be used to prepare ...
Removes the pyruvyl group from chorismate, with concomitant aromatization of the ring, to provide 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) for the ubiquinone pathway.
Common approaches to antibiotic discovery include small-molecule screens for growth inhibition in target pathogens and screens for inhibitors of purified…
In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis.(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.) [2008] ...
I understand that it should, but Im saying in practice it doesnt on my VM. I can verify that the texlive-local package is installed, but apt-get still wants to install texlive-binaries as part of the texmaker installation. -- ✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛ Br. Samuel, OSB St. Anselms Abbey Washington, DC (R. Padraic Springuel) PAX ☧ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ ...
In Escherichia coli, chorismate lyase catalyzes the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis, the conversion of chorismate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. 4-Hydroxybenzoate is converted to 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate by 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase. These two enzymes are encoded by ubiC and ubiA, respectively, and have been reported to map near one another at 92 min on the E. coli chromosome. We have cloned the ubiCA gene cluster and determined the nucleotide sequence of ubiC and a portion of ubiA. The nucleotide sequence abuts with a previously determined sequence that encodes a large portion of ubiA. ubiC was localized by subcloning, and overproducing plasmids were constructed. Overexpression of ubiC allowed the purification of chorismate lyase to homogeneity, and N-terminal sequence analysis of chorismate lyase unambiguously defined the beginning of the ubiC coding region. Although chorismate lyase showed no significant amino acid sequence similarity to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase ...
In fact, parabens themselves are natural substances found in food and so we are exposed to them through food. Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters. Parabens are biodegradable and natural. A growing number of manufacturers are now using Japanese honeysuckle extract in their products. This is a source of parabens and by using it the manufacturers are getting around the negative public perception of using parabens. We may have done parabens a big disservice and could find that they are actually the best and most natural preservative we can use. Lets keep an open mind on this. Here is more reading on the subject. ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
I would have never thought to check that. Thanks. By adding the explicit verbose option, I got the information into the log file: mktexlsr --verbose ,, $LOGFILE 2,&1 ✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛✛ Br. Samuel, OSB (R. Padraic Springuel) PAX ☧ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ ...
A 76 year old man was admitted with a four month history of progressive swelling of both legs and abdominal distension. He was icteric with bilateral pitting oedema to both groins. His abdomen was distended with prominent superficial vasculature and evidence of ascites. The jugular venous pressure was not raised. The chest x ray showed a normal cardiac silhouette with clear lung fields. An ultrasound scan revealed a well demarcated mass of 10 cm diameter within the right lobe of the liver. Initial blood tests revealed an elevated bilirubin of 41 mmol/l but normal a fetoprotein at 2 kU/l (normal range 0-8 kU/l). A liver biopsy confirmed the mass to be a well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography showed a mass (5 cm 6 4 cm) within the right atrium protruding from the inferior vena cava (AV, aortic valve; LA, left atrium; RA, right atrium; T, tumour). A contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan of the upper abdomen showed that the tumour
The expression of plant shikimate kinase (SK; EC 2.7.1.71), an intermediate step in the shikimate pathway to aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, is induced under specific conditions of environmental stress and developmental requirements in an isoform-specific manner. Despite their important physiological role, experimental structures of plant SKs have not been determined and the biochemical nature of plant SK regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two SKs, AtSK1 and AtSK2. We demonstrate that AtSK2 is highly unstable and becomes inactivated at 37 degrees C whereas the heat-induced isoform, AtSK1, is thermostable and fully active under identical conditions at this temperature. We determined the crystal structure of AtSK2, the first SK structure from the plant kingdom, and conducted biophysical characterizations of both AtSK1 and AtSK2 towards understanding this mechanism of thermal regulation. The crystal structure of AtSK2 is generally conserved with bacterial SKs with the ...
E coli 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase: a thiamine diphosphate and metal-ion-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the Stetter-like conjugate addition of alpha-ketoglutarate with isochorismate to release 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate and carbon dioxide; has been sequenced
Biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine proceeds via a common pathway to chorismate, at which point the pathway branches (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). One branch proceeds to tryptophan, and the other to tyrosine and phenylalanine (CITS:[Jones]). The series of reactions to chorismate, called the shikimate pathway, and the series of reactions from chorismate to tryptophan have been found to be common to all eukaryotes and prokaryotes studied thus far (as reported in (CITS:[1943992])). In contrast, there appears to be two separate routes from chorismate to tyrosine and phenylalanine, only one of which has been found in S. cerevisiae (CITS:[1943992]). Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae is controlled by a combination of feedback inhibition, activation of enzyme activity, and regulation of enzyme synthesis (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). The first step in the tryptophan branch is feedback inhibited by tryptophan, and the first step in the ...
Propylparaben - is the propyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and occurs as a natural substance found in many plants and some insects, although it is also manufactured synthetically for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. It is used as a preservative for its anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties to extend the shelf life of beauty and cosmetic products, considered non-toxic, non-sensitizing and non-irritating at .05 to 1% concentrations. This is a paraban and many studies have found a link between parabens and breast cancer ...
Human samples. Skin fibroblasts were obtained with informed consent from the patients (P1.1 and P1.2) and healthy controls and cultured at 37.0°C under 5.0% CO2 in E199 culture medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. All cultures were negative for mycoplasma infection.. WES. The family was enrolled into the TIDEX gene discovery project (University of British Columbia IRB approval H12-00067), and provided written consent for the publication of this case report. WES of the subject and his unaffected parents was performed using the Agilent SureSelect Kit and Illumina HiSeq 2000 (PerkinElmer), covering 37.8× for the subject, 30.4× for the mother, and 27.5× for the father. The sequencing reads were mapped to the hg19 human reference genome. Rare variants, identified as those with minor allele frequency (,0.01), were assessed for predicted impact on protein function and screened under multiple inheritance models, as described previously (31). Sanger ...
A new method to synthesize γ,δ-unsaturated α-nitrogenated aldehydes in very good yields is described herein. This method involves a copper-coupling reaction between β-iodoenamide derivatives and allylic alcohols to generate β-allyloxyenamide derivatives. The latter, when heated, undergo a Claisen re …
Biosynthetic Production of 4-Amino 4-Deoxychorismate (Adc) and [3R,4R]-4-Amino-3-Hydroxycyclohexa-1,5-Diene-1-Carboxylic Acid (3,4-Cha) - The invention relates to a process for the biosynthetic production of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) performed fermentatively in vivo with a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase, preferably a PabAB bipartite protein (which may be a fusion protein), at an increased level of activity, thereby obtaining a broth comprising ADC and 4-amino-4-deoxyprephenate (ADP), that are recovered. The invention also relates to a further process of converting the ADP into p-aminophenylalanine. The invention, moreover relates to biosynthetic production of [3R,4R]-4-amino-3-hydroxycyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid (3,4-CHA), by concerted action of such 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase and of an enzyme capable of converting isochorismate into [5S,6S]-5,6 dihydroxycyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (2,3-CHD), preferably a phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzD, including ...
Regulation and Cell signalingRegulation and Cell signaling - no subcategoryCell envelope-associated LytR-CpsA-Psr transcriptional attenuators Prephenate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.51) ...
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Bacteria PabC protein: closely related to D-alanine aminotransferase; involved in p-aminobenzoate synthesis; amino acid sequence given in first source
Genome-wide analysis of the role of GlnR in Streptomyces venezuelae provides new insights into global nitrogen regulation in actinomycetes.(BMC Genomics) [2011] ...
Chorismic acid is the precursor of pyocyanin. shikimic acidchorismic acid → phenazine-1-carboxylic acid → 5-methylphenazine- ... Biosynthesis can be impaired by disrupting the aro pathway which is responsible for the synthesis of chorismic acid from ... Denning G, Iyer S, Reszka K, O'Malley Y, Rasmussen G, Britigan B (2003). "Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, a secondary metabolite ... Mitochondrial electron carrier's ubiquinone and nicotinic acid are also susceptible to pyocyanin. The cell cycle can be ...
These operons convert a chorismic acid to the phenazines mentioned above. Three key genes, phzH, phzM, and phzS convert ... This matrix is composed of nucleic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and various ions. This matrix is one of the main ... However, salicylic acid can inhibit pyocyanin production. One in ten hospital-acquired infections is from Pseudomonas. Cystic ... Martínez C, Pons E, Prats G, León J (January 2004). "Salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defence responses and ...
"The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1): 82 ... It is a protein of about 360 to 400 amino-acid residues. The shikimate pathway synthesises aromatic amino acids as well as ... fungi and plants for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. It catalyzes the 1,4-trans elimination of the phosphate group ...
"The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". The Journal of Biological ... Eventually this results in organism death from lack of aromatic amino acids the organism requires to survive. A version of the ... Maeda H, Dudareva N (2012). "The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Jaworski EK (1972). "Mode of action of N-phosphonomethyl-glycine: inhibition of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis". J Agric Food ...
DHB is synthesized from chorismic acid by a series of enzymes: VibA, VibB, and VibC. DHB is linked to NSPD by VibE, VibB and ... The components of vibriobactin are three 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), two threonine (Thr), and one norspermidine (NSPD). ...
... biosynthesis branches off the shikimic acid pathway at a point subsequent to chorismic acid. Two molecules of this ... Sulfuric acid dissolves it, forming a deep-red solution. Classically phenazine are prepared by the reaction of nitrobenzene and ... When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the amino group is replaced by the hydroxyl group and the phenolic eurhodols ... It dissolves in concentrated sulfuric acid with a yellowish-green fluorescence. The rhodamines, which are closely related to ...
ENZYMES CONVERTING CHORISMIC ACID INTO PREPHENIC ACID AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO PREPHENATE DEHYDRATASE AND PREPHENATE ... CERUTTI P, GUROFF G (1965). "ENZYMATIC FORMATION OF PHENYLPYRUVIC ACID IN PSEUDOMONAS SP. (ATCC 11299A) AND ITS REGULATION". J ...
... chorismic acid. Tryptophan is converted to indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) by cytochrome p450 enzymes (the redundant CYP92B3 and ... The biosynthesis of glucobrassicin begins with tryptophan produced through several steps from the Shikimic acid pathway ...
Shikamate is converted into chorismic acid, which is further converted into 2-succinylbenzoic acid through a TPP dependent ... After 2-succinylbenzoic acid has been produced, a cyclization, a prenylation, a methylation, and an oxidation occur which ... Mechanistically, it is proposed that the phenylboronic acid promotes a cyclization that is followed by a Diels-Alder reaction ...
The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 82-90 ...
Chorismic acid, an aromatic amino acid precursor, is converted to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) by a series of enzymes, EntA ... These initial studies established the structure and its relationship to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Dertz, Emily A., Jide Xu, ... 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and serine formed by Escherichia coli". Biochim Biophys Acta. 201 (3): 453-60. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(70 ...
From these six genes, EntA, EntB, and EntC are responsible for the synthesis of DHB from chorismic acid and the gene EntA ... Young, IG (1969). "Regulation of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in Aerobacter aerogenes ... 28 April 2006). "Determination of the crystal structure of EntA, a 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid dehydrogenase from ... 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHB or simply DHB). In times of iron deficiency, iron uptake is controlled by three genes: ent, ...
... is biosynthesized from chorismic acid. It is the precursor to the amino acid tryptophan via the attachment of ... tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid are derived from fenamic acid or anthranilic acid and are called " ... Anthranilic acid (o-amino-benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA, 2AA, AA) is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H ... Fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid, which in turn is a nitrogen isostere of salicylic acid, which is the active ...
The name chorismic acid derives from a classical Greek word, χωρίζω meaning "to separate", because the compound plays a role as ... Chorismic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form chorismate, is an important biochemical intermediate in plants and ... 3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) used for enterobactin biosynthesis The plant hormone salicylic acid Many alkaloids and other ... Wildermuth MC, Dewdney J, Wu G, Ausubel FM (2001). "Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant ...
... abscisic acid chlorogenic acid chorismic acid dicyclomine quinic acid shikimic acid tranexamic acid Quinic acid Shikimic acid ... Chorismic acid Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid is a cyclohexane with a carboxyl group affixed. Derivatives of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid include: ...
... aurintricarboxylic acid MeSH D02.241.223.268.220 --- chlorogenic acid MeSH D02.241.223.268.250 --- chorismic acid MeSH D02.241. ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition ... Hill, R.K.; Newkome, G.R. Stereochemistry of chorismic acid biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc 1969, 91, 5893-5894. [Google Scholar ... acting as either an acid or a base, or functioning as both an acid and a base [44]. A role for the reduced FMN in charge ... such as both an acid and a base, in electron transfer and acid/base reactions, and as a molecular scaffold forming a covalent ...
Shikimic acid (SA) is utilized in the synthesis of oseltamivir-phosphate, an anti-influenza drug. In this work, metabolic ... chorismic acid; QA, quinic acid; PCA, protocatehuic acid; GA, gallic acid. Genes and coded enzymes: tktA, transketolase I;pykF ... 3-dehydroquinic acid; DHS, 3-dehydroshikimic acid; SA, shikimic acid; S3P, shikimate-3-P; EPSP, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- ... Draths KM, Knop DR, Frost JW: Shikimic acid and quinic acid: replacing isolation from plant sources with recombinant microbial ...
... overexpression for the production of shikimic acid. In a 7 L bioreactor, 4.2 g/L shikimic acid was obtained using the ... Maximum yield of shikimic acid (12.54 g/L) was obtained with fructose as carbon source. It was isolated from the fermentation ... Shikimic acid, the sole chemical building block for the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), is one of the potent ... for the fermentation based production which is better over plant based extraction and chemical synthesis of shikimic acid. ...
... additional steps to chorismic acid. Chorismic acid is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids ... chorismic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, folate, ubiquinone, menaquinone, ... 0011]Shikimic acid is a cyclitolcarboxylic acid, a class of compounds that also includes quinic acid. Quinic acid (1,3,4,5- ... group of carboxylic acids consisting of shikimic acid and quinic acid and refers not only to the free acid, but also to salts ...
The name chorismic acid derives from a classical Greek word, χωρίζω meaning "to separate", because the compound plays a role as ... Chorismic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form chorismate, is an important biochemical intermediate in plants and ... 3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) used for enterobactin biosynthesis The plant hormone salicylic acid Many alkaloids and other ... Wildermuth MC, Dewdney J, Wu G, Ausubel FM (2001). "Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant ...
Chorismic acid from Enterobacter aerogenes ,=80%; CAS No.: 617-12-9; Synonyms: trans-3-([1-Carboxyethenyl]oxy)-4-hydroxy-1,5- ... Chorismic acid from Enterobacter aerogenes ≥80% Synonym: trans-. 3-. ([1-. Carboxyethenyl]. oxy). -. 4-. hydroxy-. 1,5- ... Chorismic acid is a metabolite generally used in the study of chorismate-prephenate rearrangement and to synthesize chorismate ... Building Blocks, C10, Carbonyl Compounds, Carboxylic Acids, Chemical Synthesis, Organic Building Blocks ...
Chorismic Acid. Chorismic Acid bmse000075 - Data bmse000998 - Data bmst000056 - Theory Chorismic Acid synonyms. 1,5- ... Cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid, 3-((1-carboxyethenyl)oxy)-4-hydroxy-, (3R-trans)-; CHORISMIC ACID; Chorismate; Chorismic acid ... A Repository for Data from NMR Spectroscopy on Proteins, Peptides, Nucleic Acids, and other Biomolecules Member of ... 3R,4R)-3-(1-carboxyethenoxy)-4-hydroxy-cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid. ...
Chorismic acid is the precursor of pyocyanin. shikimic acidchorismic acid → phenazine-1-carboxylic acid → 5-methylphenazine- ... of the hydroxyl group from C4 of Chorismic Acid as well as the transfer of an amine group from glutamine to form glutamic acid ... Biosynthesis can be impaired by disrupting the aro pathway which is responsible for the synthesis of chorismic acid from ... 6-carboxylic acid (THPCA).[20] In the final step of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid synthesis the enzyme PhzG catalyzes the ...
... model UPEC strain UTI89 produces three siderophores derived from chorismic acid precursors. Isogenic mutants disrupting ...
Anthranilic acid is biosynthesized from chorismic acid. It is the precursor to the amino acid tryptophan via the attachment of ... tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid are derived from fenamic acid or anthranilic acid and are called " ... Anthranilic acid (o-amino-benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA, 2AA, AA) is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H ... Fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid, which in turn is a nitrogen isostere of salicylic acid, which is the active ...
Interestingly, the yersiniabactin and salmochelin biosynthetic pathways converge at chorismic acid, where each pathway uses ... Figure 6. Biosynthesis of siderophores associated with recurrent UTI depends on chorismic acid utilization. ... formic acid) was held constant at 95% and solvent B (80% acetonitrile in 0.1% formic acid) was held constant at 5% for 5 ... formic acid in 10% acetonitrile. Siderophores were eluted following application of 2 mL of 0.1% formic acid in 80% acetonitrile ...
These operons convert a chorismic acid to the phenazines mentioned above. Three key genes, phzH, phzM, and phzS convert ... This matrix is composed of nucleic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and various ions. This matrix is one of the main ... However, salicylic acid can inhibit pyocyanin production. One in ten hospital-acquired infections is from Pseudomonas. Cystic ... Martínez C, Pons E, Prats G, León J (January 2004). "Salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defence responses and ...
Chorismic acid, a key metabolite in modification of tRNA. J. Bacteriol. 172:252-259. ... Biological function of 2-thiouridine in Escherichia coli glutamic acid transfer ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 12:4331-4337. ... acetic acid in water and then destained overnight at room temperature in 5% (vol/vol) methanol and 10% (vol/vol) acetic acid in ... Amino acid residues identical to those in the S. cerevisiae sequence are shaded. GenBank accession numbers are as follows: S. ...
The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 82-90 ...
DHB is synthesized from chorismic acid by a series of enzymes: VibA, VibB, and VibC. DHB is linked to NSPD by VibE, VibB and ... The components of vibriobactin are three 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), two threonine (Thr), and one norspermidine (NSPD). ...
Phenazine biosynthesis branches off the shikimic acid pathway at a point subsequent to chorismic acid. Two molecules of this ... Sulfuric acid dissolves it, forming a deep-red solution. Classically phenazine are prepared by the reaction of nitrobenzene and ... When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the amino group is replaced by the hydroxyl group and the phenolic eurhodols ... It dissolves in concentrated sulfuric acid with a yellowish-green fluorescence. The rhodamines, which are closely related to ...
SA is synthesised from chorismic acid, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, and that SA biosynthesis occurs in the plastid [ ... Salicylic acid (SA; 2-hydroxybenzoic acid) is an important plant hormone [1]. Although it has been most thoroughly studied with ... Efficient in vivo synthesis and rapid purification of chorismic acid using an engineered Escherichia coli strain ... The important plant hormone salicylic acid (SA; 2-hydroxybenzoic acid) regulates several key plant responses including, most ...
ENZYMES CONVERTING CHORISMIC ACID INTO PREPHENIC ACID AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO PREPHENATE DEHYDRATASE AND PREPHENATE ... CERUTTI P, GUROFF G (1965). "ENZYMATIC FORMATION OF PHENYLPYRUVIC ACID IN PSEUDOMONAS SP. (ATCC 11299A) AND ITS REGULATION". J ...
"The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1): 82 ... It is a protein of about 360 to 400 amino-acid residues. The shikimate pathway synthesises aromatic amino acids as well as ... fungi and plants for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. It catalyzes the 1,4-trans elimination of the phosphate group ...
"The enzymic synthesis of chorismic and prephenic acids from 3-enolpyruvylshikimic acid 5-phosphate". The Journal of Biological ... Eventually this results in organism death from lack of aromatic amino acids the organism requires to survive. A version of the ... Maeda H, Dudareva N (2012). "The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Jaworski EK (1972). "Mode of action of N-phosphonomethyl-glycine: inhibition of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis". J Agric Food ...
... which is produced from chorismic acid. PCA is further modified in pyocyanin (PYO), 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP), or phenazine-1- ... The acetic acid was removed to clean 96 well plates and the absorbance at 560 nm was measured (Thermo Labsystems Multiskan EX). ... The biofilms were destained by the addition of 130 μl of 30% acetic acid in water to each well for 20 min under agitation at ... Wang Y. et al. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid promotes bacterial biofilm development via ferrous iron acquisition. J. Bacteriol. ...
Anthranilic acid is produced from chorismic acid and is further converted to the aromatic amino acid Trp. After herbivore ... AA, Anthranilic acid; BA, benzoic acid; SA, salicylic acid; IAA, indole-3-acetic acid; IPA, indole-3-propionic acid; IBA, ... indole-3-butyric acid; CinA, cinnamic acid; CouA, o-coumaric acid; JA, jasmonic acid; 3ABA, 3-aminobenzoic acid; 4ABA, 4- ... S1). To find amino acids responsible for substrate specificity of AAMT1, we looked for active site amino acids that are highly ...
... chorismic acid. Tryptophan is converted to indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) by cytochrome p450 enzymes (the redundant CYP92B3 and ... The biosynthesis of glucobrassicin begins with tryptophan produced through several steps from the Shikimic acid pathway ...
Shikamate is converted into chorismic acid, which is further converted into 2-succinylbenzoic acid through a TPP dependent ... After 2-succinylbenzoic acid has been produced, a cyclization, a prenylation, a methylation, and an oxidation occur which ... Mechanistically, it is proposed that the phenylboronic acid promotes a cyclization that is followed by a Diels-Alder reaction ...
Among these, salicylic acid signaling is an important pathway because of its ability to trigger plant cell death. As biotrophic ... Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target salicylic acid biosynthesis and signaling, and ... Here we review the strategies prokaryotic pathogens have developed to target salicylic acid biosynthesis and signaling, and ... they have evolved efficient strategies to downregulate salicylic acid signaling by virulence effectors, which can be proteins ...
  • Antisense RNA interference and gene deletion were employed to inactivate the aroK gene in a shikimic acid producing E. coli strain with shikimic acid yield of 1.85 g/L using glycerol as carbon source in a 10-L fermenter [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, a modified E. coli strain has been reported where aroK knock out mutant was combined with enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate level and a shikimic acid yield of 14.6 g/L was achieved [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In one of the recent reports, genetically modified B. subtilis strain with combined overexpression of genes for 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (aroA) and SA dehydrogenase (aroD) was mentioned with shikimic acid yield of 3.2 g/L [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inactivation of the PTS operon (PTS−), expression of non-PTS glucose transporters like glucose facilitators (glf), glucokinase (glk) in combination with over expression of tktA gene was reported to increase the shikimic acid titer to 71 g/L [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
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