Chorismate Mutase: An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC 5.4.99.5.Chorismic Acid: A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.Prephenate Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to phenylpyruvate with the elimination of water and carbon dioxide. In the enteric bacteria this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine. EC 4.2.1.51.Prephenate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the presence of NAD. In the enteric bacteria, this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of tyrosine. EC 1.3.1.12.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Phosphoglycerate Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 5.4.2.1.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.Bisphosphoglycerate Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from C-3 of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to C-2 of 3-phosphoglycerate, forming 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. EC 5.4.2.4.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsPhosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Phenylpyruvic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of phenylpyruvic acid which has the general formula C6H5CH2COCOOH, and is a metabolite of phenylalanine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.TetrosesStreptomyces aureofaciens: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic CHLORTETRACYCLINE is obtained.Brevibacterium: A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Vinyl CompoundsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.CobamidesTransaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)SepharoseErwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

Probing enzyme quaternary structure by combinatorial mutagenesis and selection. (1/112)

Genetic selection provides an effective way to obtain active catalysts from a diverse population of protein variants. We have used this tool to investigate the role of loop sequences in determining the quaternary structure of a domain-swapped enzyme. By inserting random loops of four to seven residues into a dimeric chorismate mutase and selecting for functional variants by genetic complementation, we have obtained and characterized both monomeric and hexameric enzymes that retain considerable catalytic activity. The low percentage of active proteins recovered from these selection experiments indicates that relatively few loop sequences permit a change in quaternary structure without affecting active site structure. The results of our experiments suggest further that protein stability can be an important driving force in the evolution of oligomeric proteins.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase is partially diffusion-controlled. (2/112)

The effect of viscosogens on the enzyme-catalyzed rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate has been studied. The steady-state parameters kcat and kcat/Km for the monofunctional chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis (BsCM) decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of glycerol, whereas the 'sluggish' BsCM mutants C75A and C75S were insensitive to changes in microviscosity. The latter results rule out extraneous interactions of the viscosogen as an explanation for the effects observed with the wild-type enzyme. Additional control experiments show that neither viscosogen-induced shifts in the pH-dependence of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction nor small perturbations of the conformational equilibrium of chorismate can account for the observed effects. Instead, BsCM appears to be limited by substrate binding and product release at low and high substrate concentrations, respectively. Analysis of the kinetic data indicates that diffusive transition states are between 30 and 40% rate-determining in these concentration regimes; the chemical step must contribute to the remaining kinetic barrier. The relatively low value of the 'on' rates for chorismate and prephenate (approximately 2 x 106 m-1.s-1) probably reflects the need for a rare conformation of the enzyme, the ligand, or both for successful binding. Interestingly, the chorismate mutase domain of the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase from Escherichia coli, which has steady-state kinetic parameters comparable to those of BsCM but has a much less accessible active site, is insensitive to changes in viscosity and the reaction it catalyses is not diffusion-controlled.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of an esophageal-gland-specific chorismate mutase from the phytoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica. (3/112)

Root-knot nematodes are obligate plant parasites that alter plant cell growth and development by inducing the formation of giant feeder cells. It is thought that nematodes inject secretions from their esophageal glands into plant cells while feeding, and that these secretions cause giant cell formation. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the formation of giant cells, a strategy was developed to clone esophageal gland genes from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. One clone, shown to be expressed in the nematode's esophageal gland, codes for a potentially secreted chorismate mutase (CM). CM is a key branch-point regulatory enzyme in the shikimate pathway and converts chorismate to prephenate, a precursor of phenylalanine and tyrosine. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants, where it produces aromatic amino acids and derivative compounds that play critical roles in growth and defense. Therefore, we hypothesize that this CM is involved in allowing nematodes to parasitize plants.  (+info)

The aroC gene of Aspergillus nidulans codes for a monofunctional, allosterically regulated chorismate mutase. (4/112)

The cDNA and the chromosomal locus of the aroC gene of Aspergillus nidulans were cloned and is the first representative of a filamentous fungal gene encoding chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5), the enzyme at the first branch point of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. The aroC gene complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae aro7Delta as well as the A. nidulans aroC mutation. The gene consists of three exons interrupted by two short intron sequences. The expressed mRNA is 0.96 kilobases in length and aroC expression is not regulated on the transcriptional level under amino acid starvation conditions. aroC encodes a monofunctional polypeptide of 268 amino acids. Purification of this 30-kDa enzyme allowed determination of its kinetic parameters (k(cat) = 82 s(-1), n(H) = 1. 56, [S](0.5) = 2.3 mM), varying pH dependence of catalytic activity in different regulatory states, and an acidic pI value of 4.7. Tryptophan acts as heterotropic activator and tyrosine as negative acting, heterotropic feedback-inhibitor with a K(i) of 2.8 microM. Immunological data, homology modeling, as well as electron microscopy studies, indicate that this chorismate mutase has a dimeric structure like the S. cerevisiae enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of a crucial residue in loop220s (Asp(233)) revealed differences concerning the intramolecular signal transduction for allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Prephenate dehydratase from the aphid endosymbiont (Buchnera) displays changes in the regulatory domain that suggest its desensitization to inhibition by phenylalanine. (5/112)

Buchnera aphidicola, the prokaryotic endosymbiont of aphids, complements dietary deficiencies with the synthesis and provision of several essential amino acids. We have cloned and sequenced a region of the genome of B. aphidicola isolated from Acyrthosiphon pisum which includes the two-domain aroQ/pheA gene. This gene encodes the bifunctional chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase protein, which plays a central role in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis. Two changes involved in the overproduction of this amino acid have been detected. First, the absence of an attenuator region suggests a constitutive expression of this gene. Second, the regulatory domain of the Buchnera prephenate dehydratase shows changes in the ESRP sequence, which is involved in the allosteric binding of phenylalanine and is strongly conserved in prephenate dehydratase proteins from practically all known organisms. These changes suggest the desensitization of the enzyme to inhibition by phenylalanine and would permit the bacterial endosymbiont to overproduce phenylalanine.  (+info)

HARO7 encodes chorismate mutase of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and is derepressed upon methanol utilization. (6/112)

The HARO7 gene of the methylotrophic, thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha was cloned by functional complementation. HARO7 encodes a monofunctional 280-amino-acid protein with chorismate mutase (EC 5.4. 99.5) activity that catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, a key step in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The HARO7 gene product shows strong similarities to primary sequences of known eukaryotic chorismate mutase enzymes. After homologous overexpression and purification of the 32-kDa protein, its kinetic parameters (k(cat) = 319.1 s(-1), n(H) = 1.56, [S](0.5) = 16.7 mM) as well as its allosteric regulatory properties were determined. Tryptophan acts as heterotropic positive effector; tyrosine is a negative-acting, heterotropic feedback inhibitor of enzyme activity. The influence of temperature on catalytic turnover and the thermal stability of the enzyme were determined and compared to features of the chorismate mutase enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the Cre-loxP recombination system, we constructed mutant strains carrying a disrupted HARO7 gene that showed tyrosine auxotrophy and severe growth defects. The amount of the 0.9-kb HARO7 mRNA is independent of amino acid starvation conditions but increases twofold in the presence of methanol as the sole carbon source, implying a catabolite repression system acting on HARO7 expression.  (+info)

A strategically positioned cation is crucial for efficient catalysis by chorismate mutase. (7/112)

Combinatorial mutagenesis and in vivo selection experiments previously afforded functional variants of the AroH class Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase lacking the otherwise highly conserved active site residue Arg(90). Here, we present a detailed kinetic and crystallographic study of several such variants. Removing the arginine side chain (R90G and R90A) reduced catalytic efficiency by more than 5 orders of magnitude. Reintroducing a positive charge to the active site through lysine substitutions restored more than a factor of a thousand in k(cat). Remarkably, the lysine could be placed at position 90 or at the more remote position 88 provided a sterically suitable residue was present at the partner site. Crystal structures of the double mutants C88S/R90K and C88K/R90S show that the lysine adopts an extended conformation that would place its epsilon-ammonium group within hydrogen-bonding distance of the ether oxygen of bound chorismate in the transition state. These results provide support for the hypothesis that developing negative charge in the highly polarized transition state is stabilized electrostatically by a strategically placed cation. The implications of this finding for the mechanism of all natural chorismate mutases and for the design of artificial catalysts are discussed.  (+info)

Substrate conformational transitions in the active site of chorismate mutase: their role in the catalytic mechanism. (8/112)

Chorismate mutase acts at the first branch-point of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate. The results of molecular dynamics simulations of the substrate in solution and in the active site of chorismate mutase are reported. Two nonreactive conformers of chorismate are found to be more stable than the reactive pseudodiaxial chair conformer in solution. It is shown by QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations, which take into account the motions of the enzyme, that when these inactive conformers are bound to the active site, they are rapidly converted to the reactive chair conformer. This result suggests that one contribution of the enzyme is to bind the more prevalent nonreactive conformers and transform them into the active form in a step before the chemical reaction. The motion of the reactive chair conformer in the active site calculated by using the QM/MM potential generates transient structures that are closer to the transition state than is the stable CHAIR conformer.  (+info)

*Chorismate mutase

... is found at a branch point in the pathway. The enzyme channels the substrate, chorismate to the biosynthesis ... For example, the secondary structure of the chorismate mutase of yeast is very similar to that of E. coli. Chorimate mutase in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chorismate pyruvatemutase. Chorismate mutase, also known as hydroxyphenylpyruvate ... chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction for the conversion of chorismate to ...

*Prephenate dehydratase

Schmidt JC; Zalkin H (1969). "Chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase. Partial purification and properties of the enzyme from ...

*Prephenic acid

Helmut Goerisch (1978). "On the mechanism of the chorismate mutase reaction". Biochemistry. 17 (18): 3700. doi:10.1021/ ... It is biosynthesized by a [3,3]-sigmatropic Claisen rearrangement of chorismate. Prephenic acid is an example of achiral ( ... "Thermodynamics of the Conversion of Chorismate to Prephenate: Experimental Results and Theoretical Predictions". J. Phys. Chem ...

*Prephenate dehydrogenase

"InterPro." Bifunctional Chorismate Mutase/prephenate Dehydrogenase T-protein (IPR008244). InterPro, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. ... prephenate dehydrogenase is fused with the enzyme chorismate mutase. This fusion is not found in plants or animals. As of late ... and chorismate mutase---prephenate dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan ...

*Shikimate pathway

Prephenic acid is then synthesized by a Claisen rearrangement of chorismate by Chorismate mutase. Prephenate is oxidatively ... Helmut Goerisch (1978). "On the mechanism of the chorismate mutase reaction". Biochemistry. 17 (18): 3700. doi:10.1021/ ... Then 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate is transformed into chorismate by a chorismate synthase. ... The pathway starts with two substrates, phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate and ends with chorismate, a substrate ...

*Isomerase

Chorismate mutase is an intramolecular transferase and it catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, used as a ... though the rate increases 106 fold in the presence of chorismate mutase. The reaction goes through a chair transition state ... "A strategically positioned cation is crucial for efficient catalysis by chorismate mutase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Sub-categories of this class are: This category (EC 5.4) includes intramolecular transferases (mutases). These isomerases ...

*Enzyme kinetics

Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase versus Yeast Chorismate Mutase". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65 (3): 404-21, table ... Enzymes with single-substrate mechanisms include isomerases such as triosephosphateisomerase or bisphosphoglycerate mutase, ...

*Aspartate carbamoyltransferase

Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase versus yeast chorismate mutase". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 65 (3 ...

*Hydrogen-bond catalysis

For instance, the natural enzyme chorismate mutase, which catalyzes the Claisen rearrangement of chorismate, features many ... "New insight into the catalytic mechanism of chorismate mutases from structural studies". Chemistry & Biology. 2 (4): 195-203. ...

*Amino acid synthesis

This process is mediated by a phenylalanine (PheA) or tyrosine (TyrA) specific chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase. The ... trpE encodes the first subunit, which binds to chorismate and moves the amino group from the donor to chorismate. trpG encodes ... The rest of the enzymes in the common pathway (conversion of DAHP to chorismate) appear to be synthesized constitutively, ... The synthesis of all three share a common beginning to their pathways; the formation of chorismate from phosphoenolpyruvate ( ...

*Isochorismate lyase

... is a structural homolog of the chorismate mutase enzyme in E. coli, and actually exhibits non-physiological ... Using the chorismate produced from that metabolic process, first the enzyme PchA will catalyze the reaction of chorismate into ... a novel bifunctional enzyme displaying isochorismate pyruvate-lyase and chorismate mutase activities". The Journal of ... chorismate mutase activity, albeit at a much lower efficiency. IPL also has several homologs found in other organisms, ...

*Arogenate dehydratase

ADT's contain an N-terminal transit peptide, a PDT-like domain, and an ACT (Aspartokinase, chorismate mutase, TyrA) domain. ...

*ACT domain

The ACT domain is named after three of the proteins that contain it: aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA. The ...

*Cyanidin

In the synthesis of L-phenyl alanine, chorismate undergoes a Claisen rearrangement by a Chorismate mutase enzyme to form ...

*Chemical biology

... and topological redesign of a chorismate mutase. To develop enzymes with new activities, one can take advantage of promiscuous ...

*JS Chiao

... pathway of aromatic amino acids in Nocardia mediterranei 1994 Cloning vector system for Nocardia spp 1995 Chorismate mutase and ...

*Hirschmanniella oryzae

... chorismate mutase and isochorismatase, thought to be interfering on the salicylic acid pathway and thereby altering the defense ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

2-acetolactate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.250 --- chorismate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.250.500 --- prephenate dehydratase ... phosphoglycerate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.894.200 --- amino acid isomerases MeSH D08.811.399.894.200.200 --- alanine racemase ... bisphosphoglycerate mutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.750.625 --- phosphoglucomutase MeSH D08.811.399.520.750.700 --- ... MeSH D08.811.399.520.250.750 --- prephenate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.399.520.625 --- methylmalonyl-coa mutase MeSH D08.811. ...

*Claisen rearrangement

The enzyme chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) catalyzes the Claisen rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, a key intermediate ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 5)

2-acetolactate mutase EC 5.4.99.4: 2-methyleneglutarate mutase EC 5.4.99.5: chorismate mutase EC 5.4.99.6: now EC 5.4.4.2 EC ... benzene mutase EC 5.4.4.2: isochorismate synthase EC 5.4.4.3: 3-(hydroxyamino)phenol mutase EC 5.4.4.4: geraniol isomerase EC ... isobutyryl-CoA mutase EC 5.4.99.14: 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbutenolide mutase EC 5.4.99.15: (1→4)-a-D-glucan 1-a-D- ... phosphoenolpyruvate mutase EC 5.4.2.10: phosphoglucosamine mutase EC 5.4.3.1: deleted EC 5.4.3.2: lysine 2,3-aminomutase EC 5.4 ...

*Isochorismate synthase

More specifically it is classified as an intermolecular transferase because it transfers the hydroxy group of chorismate ... Other names for this enzyme include: Isochorismate mutase Menaquinone-specific isochorismate synthase MenF Vitamin K contains a ... Isochorismate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of chorismate to isochorismate: Isochorismate ... 5-dihydrochorismate analogues as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzyme". Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry (11): 2421- ...
Background Chorismate mutases of the AroQ homology class are widespread in the Bacteria and the Archaea. Many of these exist as domains that are fused with other aromatic-pathway catalytic domains. Among the monofunctional AroQ proteins, that from Erwinia herbicola was previously shown to have a cleavable signal peptide and located in the periplasmic compartment. Whether or not this might be unique to E. herbicola was unknown. Results The gene coding for the AroQ protein was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the AroQ protein purified from both S. typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to have a periplasmic location. The periplasmic chorismate mutases (denoted *AroQ) are shown to be a distinct subclass of AroQ, being about twice the size of cytoplasmic AroQ proteins. The increased size is due to a carboxy-terminal extension of unknown function. In addition, a so-far novel aromatic aminotransferase was shown to be present in the periplasm of P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Our analysis has
1COM: The monofunctional chorismate mutase from Bacillus subtilis. Structure determination of chorismate mutase and its complexes with a transition state analog and prephenate, and implications for the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.
BioAssay record AID 52148 submitted by ChEMBL: The compound was tested for inhibition of Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase (BcCM).
Hi, I have a Yeast question that I hope someone in the group can answer. In bacteria the conversion of chorismate to para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) is the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The reaction is carried out by the enzyme chorismate pyruvate lyase (CPL) encoded by the ubiC gene. In a search of the literature I have not been able to find any references to a CPL activity in Yeast. Is it known that chorismate is converted directly to PHB in Yeast as part of ubiquinone synthesis, or is the PHB derived from a different pathway? If it is a direct conversion it would seem that petite mutants blocked at this step would have been isolated and described in the literature. Have I missed something or is there a gap in the information on this pathway? Many Thanks, Frank Mondello ...
Several derivatives of phenylalanine and tyrosine were prepared and tested for inhibition of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.12) from Escherichia coli K12 (strain JP 232). The best inhibitors were N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-L-phenylalanine, N-benzenesulphonyl-L-phenylalanine and N-benzloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine. Consequently two compounds, N-toluene-sulphonyl-L-p-aminophenylalanine and N-p-aminobenzenesulphonyl-L-phenylalanine, were synthesized for coupling to CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B. The N-toluene-p-sulphonyl-L-p-aminophenylalanine-Sepharose-4B conjugate was shown to bind the enzyme very strongly at pH 7.5. The enzyme was not eluted by various eluents, including 1 M-NaCl, but could be quantitatively recovered by washing with buffer of pH9. Elution was more effective in the presence of 10 mM-1-adamantaneacetic acid, a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. This affinity-chromatography procedure results in a high degree of purification of the enzyme and can be used to prepare ...
In Escherichia coli, chorismate lyase catalyzes the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis, the conversion of chorismate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. 4-Hydroxybenzoate is converted to 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate by 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase. These two enzymes are encoded by ubiC and ubiA, respectively, and have been reported to map near one another at 92 min on the E. coli chromosome. We have cloned the ubiCA gene cluster and determined the nucleotide sequence of ubiC and a portion of ubiA. The nucleotide sequence abuts with a previously determined sequence that encodes a large portion of ubiA. ubiC was localized by subcloning, and overproducing plasmids were constructed. Overexpression of ubiC allowed the purification of chorismate lyase to homogeneity, and N-terminal sequence analysis of chorismate lyase unambiguously defined the beginning of the ubiC coding region. Although chorismate lyase showed no significant amino acid sequence similarity to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase ...
Deletion of the I265-F268 and T271-K277 regions in the large lumenally exposed loop of the CP47 protein are known to lead to a loss of photoautotrophic growth. Here, these regions have been investigated by combinatorial mutagenesis and pseudorevertant mapping. No single amino-acid residue in the I265-F268 region was found to be critical for function, but a large hydrophobic residue at position 267 and preferentially an aromatic residue at position 268 appeared to be required for photoautotrophic growth. Starting from an obligate photoheterotrophic mutant lacking the T271-K277 region, photoautotrophic pseudorevertants were generated with short in-frame tandem repeats near the site of the original deletion, partially or fully restoring the length of the original protein. These pseudorevertants were sensitive to oxygen indicating that the T271-K277 region may provide PS II stability and/or protection against oxygen-dependent photoinactivation. Pseudorevertants with much improved photoautotrophic ...
in the group: January, 2006 (grad); July, 2010 (postdoc) to July 2013. project(s): terpene biosynthesis, organic reaction mechanisms, computational NMR, catalyst design. dissertation title: Theoretical and Experimental Mechanistic Studies on Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis, Oxyanion-Accelerated Pericyclic Reactions, and More. went off to: teach at Butte College and Chico State. ...
3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) is the first enzyme in a series of metabolic reactions known as the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Since it is the first enzyme in the shikimate pathway, it controls the amount of carbon entering the pathway. Enzyme inhibition is the primary method of regulating the amount of carbon entering the pathway. Forms of this enzyme differ between organisms, but can be considered DAHP synthase based upon the reaction that is catalyzed by this enzyme. In enzymology, a DAHP synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phosphoenolpyruvate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-deoxy-D-arabino-hept-2-ulosonate 7-phosphate + phosphate The three substrates of this enzyme are phosphoenolpyruvate, D-erythrose 4-phosphate, and H2O, whereas its two products are ...
Biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine proceeds via a common pathway to chorismate, at which point the pathway branches (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). One branch proceeds to tryptophan, and the other to tyrosine and phenylalanine (CITS:[Jones]). The series of reactions to chorismate, called the shikimate pathway, and the series of reactions from chorismate to tryptophan have been found to be common to all eukaryotes and prokaryotes studied thus far (as reported in (CITS:[1943992])). In contrast, there appears to be two separate routes from chorismate to tyrosine and phenylalanine, only one of which has been found in S. cerevisiae (CITS:[1943992]). Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae is controlled by a combination of feedback inhibition, activation of enzyme activity, and regulation of enzyme synthesis (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). The first step in the tryptophan branch is feedback inhibited by tryptophan, and the first step in the ...
Hoffmann, R.; Tantillo, D. J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 5877-5882: Breaking Down Barriers: The Liaison Between Sigmatropic Shifts, Electrocyclic Reactions and 3-Center Cations. Ponec, R.; Bultinck, P.; Van Damme, S.; Carbo, R.; Tantillo, D. J. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2005, 113, 205-211: Geometric and Electronic Similarities between Transition Structures for Electrocyclizations and Sigmatropic Hydrogen Shifts. Tantillo, D. J. Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem., Sect. B 2006, 102, 269-289: Reaction Mechanisms. Part (ii) Pericyclic Reactions. Tantillo, D. J.; Lee, J. K. Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem., Sect. B 2007, 103, 272-293: Reaction Mechanisms. Pericyclic Reactions. Lee, J. K.; Tantillo, D. J. Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem., Sect. B 2008, 104, 260-283: Reaction Mechanisms. Pericyclic Reactions. Nouri, D. H.; Tantillo, D. J. Tetrahedron 2008, 64, 5672-5679: Sigmatropic Shifts and Cycloadditions on Neutral, Cationic, and Anionic Pentadienyl + Butadiene Potential Energy Surfaces. Tantillo, D. J. Angew. Chem. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of a trimeric complex involving chorismate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. AU - Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.. AU - Amrhein, Nikolaus. AU - Macheroux, Peter. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 749. EP - 752. BT - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium. PB - Rudolf Weber. CY - Berlin. ER - ...
Pyranose-Furanose mutases are enzymes that catalyze the isomerization of six-membered pyranose and five-membered furanose forms of a nucleotide-based sugar. In this research, the substrate binding site of three different mutases were investigated; UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), GDP-altro-heptopyranose mutase (GaHM) and UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM). Both UGM and UAM use a UDP-based sugar as the substrate but require different cofactors, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and Mn2+ respectively, to function. UGM and GaHM use the same cofactor (FAD), but the latter prefers to work with a GDP-based sugar. In this thesis, studies have been conducted on these three mutases using a variety of tools, such as X-ray crystallography, protein modeling, site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic assays, to understand how these enzymes bind their respective substrates. Among these three mutases, UGM is the best-studied enzyme and is a validated drug target in Mycobacteria. Despite this, the structural role of ...
The last chapter is entirely new, and features how the techniques of computational organic chemistry, as discussed in the previous eight chapters, can be employed toward explicating enzymatic reactions. The chapter is not an in-depth survey of all of the activities in computational enzyme action - that would require its own full-length book - but rather its an overview to inspire you. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of enzymatic models, including the Pauling paradigm and Goodmans model. Then computational strategies for addressing the large molecules involved in enzymatic studies are presented including QM/MM, adiabatic mapping, and the use of some very large-scale computations as benchmarks. Next, I present two case studies: of chorismate mutase and of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The chapter ends with a presentation of the progress in de novo design of enzymes capable of catalyzing specific reactions as developed by Baker and Houk.. ...
Bornemann, S., Lowe, D.J. and Thorneley, R.N. (1996). „The transient kinetics of Escherichia coli chorismate synthase: substrate consumption, product formation, phosphate dissociation, and characterization of a flavin intermediate". Biochemistry. 35: 9907-9916. PMID 8703965 ...
Regulation and Cell signalingRegulation and Cell signaling - no subcategoryCell envelope-associated LytR-CpsA-Psr transcriptional attenuators Prephenate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.51) ...
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Vans and Haro Bikes will be joining forces to bring together an apparel capsule collection and a couple pairs of Vans Era & Sk8 His. In honor of this joint venture, legendary BMX rider Dennis McCoy sits and discusses the evolution of Haro and what the company means to BMX. Take a look at the video and keep an eye out for the collabs to hit stores soon.. ...
1I7S: The structures of anthranilate synthase of Serratia marcescens crystallized in the presence of (i) its substrates, chorismate and glutamine, and a product, glutamate, and (ii) its end-product inhibitor, L-tryptophan.
Tyra Banks Lookbook: Tyra Banks wearing Medium Curls with Bangs (1 of 11). Tyra Banks styled her hair in carefree curls and wispy bangs while attending the 2011 New Front Conference.
Indonesia berpotensi menghasilkan pelepah kelapa sawit atau Oil Palm Frond (OPF) sebanyak 81,887,936 ton/tahun. Ekstrak cair pelepah kelapa sawit memiliki kandungan karbon 19388 ppm dan nitrogen 142 ppm, serta kandungan glukosa sebesar 53.95 ± 2.86 g/L. Kandungan yang dimiliki tersebut memberikan potensi pelepah sawit sebagai bahan baku dalam mikrobiologi industri. Penelitian ini bertujuan melakukan optimasi produksi asam glutamat menggunakan variasi sumber nitrogen dan konsentrasi sumber nitrogen, variasi konsentrasi biotin, variasi waktu fermentasi dengan dua variasi isolat Brevibacterium flavum dan Bacillus sp. dalam media fermentasi ekstrak cair pelepah kelapa sawit atau Oil Palm Frond (OPF). Hasil fermentasi asam glutamat yang diperoleh pada penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa perlakuan biotin dengan 0.5% urea yang paling berpengaruh terhadap konsentrasi asam glutatamat. Isolat yang paling berpengaruh adalah Brevibacterium flavum pada jam ke-40 dengan konsentrasi asam glutamat yang ...
Reviewer #3: This study compared the EFMO method with ONIOM method as for the reaction free energy barrier for the Chorismate Mutase. In general, the results are more consistent than that of the ONIOM. This review agrees that the current manuscript is publishable, and expect the authors to explain the possible reasons for: (1) the calculated free energy barrier is much higher than that of the experimentally measured enthalpy change? (2) The authors claimed that the MP2-geometry optimization make it 3.5 kcal/mol lower for the free energy barrier than that of the ONIOM method, however, the listed data of free energy barrier in Table2 is close to each other at the same calculation level. (3) The portability to other enzyme system of EFMO method ...
Aminodeoxychorismate synthase/glutamine amidotransferase ; Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine. In the first step, a glutamine amidotransferase generates ammonia that is channelled between the binding sites of glutamine and chorismate and used along with chorismate in the second step, catalyzed by aminodeoxychorismate synthase, to produce ADC. Required for the synthesis of 4-aminobenzoate (PABA), an important component in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis. Does not possess ADC lyase activity (902 aa ...
Abstract :. Design and validation of pericyclic reactions for sensing conformational stretching in polymer materials.. The naphthalene and anthraquinone based fluorescent reporter molecules were synthesized in multistep for monitoring pericyclic reactions in polymers. These reporter molecules were incorporated into polymer backbones by click reactions. The reaction was monitored optically and optimized using organic chemistry characterization techniques. The mechanical force felicitate to bonds to come into proper orientation for claisen reaction to occur. The overall goal of the research is to design, implement, and validate functional groups designed to react specifically within stressed polymer materials to signal the onset of mechanical failure.. Design and synthesis of Novel Alternating sulfone copolymers for biomedical applications. Interest in stimulus-responsive polymers and materials has been increasing in recent years. In particular, efforts to apply these polymers for biomedical ...
View Notes - Organic Lab Reactions 31 from CHM 2210 at University of Florida. 26 THE CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT allyl 2-carbomethoxy-6-methylphenyl ether (LXXXV) undergoes the para rearrangement when the
First, NICS(0) values for a series of related intermolecular anionic attack at alkynes show some interesting trends (Table 1). Two of the transition states look like they might be aromatic: the TSs for the 3-exo-dig and the 5-endo-dig reaction have NICS(0) values that are quite negative. However, given the geometry of these TSs, particularly the close proximity of the σ bonds to the ring center, one might be concerned about contamination of these orbitals. So, NICS(0)MOzz computations, which look at the tensor component perpendicular to the ring using just the π-MOs, shows that the 3-exo-dig is likely non-aromatic (NICS(0)MOzz is near zero), the TS for the 4-endo-dig reaction is antiaromatic (NICS(0)MOzz very positive) and the TS for the 5-endo-dig reaction is aromatic (NICS(0)MOzz is very negative. So this last reaction is the first example of an aromatic transition that is not for a pericyclic reaction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Augmenting the anisotropic network model with torsional potentials improves PATH performance, enabling detailed comparison with experimental rate data. AU - Chandrasekaran,Srinivas Niranj. AU - Carter,Charles W.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - PATH algorithms for identifying conformational transition states provide computational parameters-time to the transition state, conformational free energy differences, and transition state activation energies-for comparison to experimental data and can be carried out sufficiently rapidly to use in the "high throughput" mode.These advantages are especially useful for interpreting results from combinatorial mutagenesis experiments. This report updates the previously published algorithm with enhancements that improve correlations between PATH convergence parameters derived from virtual variant structures generated by RosettaBackrub and previously published kinetic data for a complete, four-way combinatorial mutagenesis of a conformational ...
Latest The Tyra Banks Show review: Love the show, Tyra you are so real, to go without makeup on TV. Please include the mature woman in ...
ID F2PQI4_TRIEC Unreviewed; 323 AA. AC F2PQI4; DT 31-MAY-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-MAY-2011, sequence version 1. DT 11-DEC-2019, entry version 29. DE SubName: Full=Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGE04152.1}; GN ORFNames=TEQG_03185 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EGE04152.1}; OS Trichophyton equinum (strain ATCC MYA-4606 / CBS 127.97) (Horse ringworm OS fungus). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Onygenales; Arthrodermataceae; Trichophyton. OX NCBI_TaxID=559882 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC MYA-4606 / CBS 127.97 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000009169}; RX PubMed=22951933; DOI=10.1128/mBio.00259-12; RA Martinez D.A., Oliver B.G., Graeser Y., Goldberg J.M., Li W., RA Martinez-Rossi N.M., Monod M., Shelest E., Barton R.C., Birch E., RA Brakhage A.A., Chen Z., Gurr S.J., Heiman D., Heitman J., Kosti ...
Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an alpha-amino acid. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. It is classified as a nonpolar, aromatic amino acid, because of the hydrophobic nature of the benzyl side chain. L-Phenylalanine (LPA) is an electrically neutral amino acid. It is used in the manufacture of food and drink products and sold as a nutritional supplement for its reputed analgesic and antidepressant effects. Biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan proceeds via a common pathway to chorismate, at which point the pathway branches. One branch proceeds to phenylalanine and tyrosine, and the other to tryptophan. The phenylalanine and tyrosine branch has one reaction in common, rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, at which point, the pathway branches again to either phenylalanine or tyrosine. S. cerevisiae, similar to E. coli, synthesizes phenylalanine and tyrosine via the intermediate 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate ...
Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria, while it can be formed from either chorismate or tyrosine in yeast. The following biosynthesis of terpenoid moiety involves reactions of prenylation, decarboxylation, and three hydroxylations alternating with three methylations. The order of these reactions are somewhat different between bacteria and yeast. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), and tocopherol (vitamin E) are fat-soluble vitamins. Phylloquinone is a compound present in all photosynthetic plants serving as a cofactor for photosystem I-mediated electron transport. Menaquinone is an obligatory component of the electron-transfer pathway in bacteria ...
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Removes the pyruvyl group from chorismate, with concomitant aromatization of the ring, to provide 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) for the ubiquinone pathway.
Anthranilate synthase component I; Part of a heterotetrameric complex that catalyzes the two-step biosynthesis of anthranilate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. In the first step, the glutamine- binding beta subunit (TrpG) of anthranilate synthase (AS) provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity which generates ammonia as a substrate that, along with chorismate, is used in the second step, catalyzed by the large alpha subunit of AS (TrpE) to produce anthranilate. In the absence of TrpG, TrpE can synthesize anthranilate directly from chorismate and high concentr [...] (508 aa ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0KEP8 (UBIC_AERHH), Probable chorismate pyruvate-lyase. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp hydrophila (strain ATCC 7966 / DSM 30187 / JCM1027 / KCTC 2358 / NCIMB 9240)
Discrimination of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium flavum and Brevibacterium lactofermentum by restriction pattern analysis of DNA adjacent to the hom gene ...
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These past few days have been so hot that the granizados de limon have been numerous around here, though not all alcoholic of course. In a moment of sharing I unearthed this home recipe for granizado: youll need 1 kilo of fresh, heavy for their size lemons, 1 kilo of water, 1/2 kilo of sugar and some caramel color. You can see the rest on the video. The drink also goes great with ginger or mint leaves. ...
Reactant 1, transition states, and products 2 and 3 were optimized at SMD(H2O)/M06-2X/def2-TZVPP//B3LYP-D3(BJ)//6-31+G(d,p). Geometries and relative energies are shown in Figure 1. The reaction1 → 2 is a formal [6+4] cycloaddition, and the reaction 1 → 3 is a formal [4+2] cycloaddition. Interestingly, only a single transition state could be located TS1. It is a bispericyclic TS (see Chapter 4 of my book), where these two pericyclic reaction sort of merge together. After TS1 is traversed the potential energy surface bifurcates, leading to 2 or 3. This is yet again an example of a single TS leading to two different products. (See the many posts I have written on this topic.) The barrier height is 27.6 kcal mol-1, with 2 lying 13.1 kcal mol-1 above 3. However, the steepest descent pathway from TS1 leads to 2. There is a second transition state TScope that describes a Cope rearrangement between 2 and 3. Using the more traditional TS theory description, 1 undergoes a [6+4] cycloaddition to form 2 ...
André Mann. 6.1 Introduction 207. 6.2 Propargylamines (PLAs) 208. 6.2.1 Synthesis of PLAs 209. 6.2.2 PLAs in Synthesis 211. 6.2.2.1 PLAs in the Synthesis of Heterocycles 211. 6.2.2.2 PLAs in Pd(0)-Catalyzed Processes 211. 6.2.2.3 PLAs in Pericyclic Reactions 213. 6.2.2.4 PLAs in Multicomponent Reactions (MCRs) 215. 6.2.2.5 PLA in Radical Reactions 217. 6.3 trans-4-Hydroxy-(S)-proline (HYP) 217. 6.3.1 Structural Transformations of HYP 218. 6.3.1.1 C-4 Alkylation of HYP 218. 6.3.1.2 C-4 Fluorination and Fluoroalkylation of HYP 218. 6.3.1.3 C-3 Functionalization of HYP 221. 6.3.2 HYP in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 221. 6.3.2.1 HYP in the Synthesis of Alkaloids 221. 6.3.2.2 HYP in the Synthesis of Kainic Acid Derivatives 222. 6.3.2.3 HYP in the Synthesis of Amino Sugars 222. 6.3.2.4 Hepatitis C Inhibitors 224. 6.4 L-Serine (SER) 224. 6.4.1 SER and SER Derivatives in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 225. 6.4.1.1 SER in the Synthesis of Carbolines 225. 6.4.1.2 SER in the Synthesis of Furanomycin ...
The combined effect of multiple mutations on protein function is hard to predict; thus, the ability to functionally assess a vast number of protein sequence variants would be practically useful for protein engineering. Here we present a high-throughput platform that enables scalable assembly and parallel characterization of barcoded protein variants with combinatorial modifications. We demonstrate this platform, which we name CombiSEAL, by systematically characterizing a library of 948 combination mutants of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) nuclease to optimize its genome-editing activity in human cells. The ease with which the editing activities of the pool of SpCas9 variants can be assessed at multiple on- and off-target sites accelerates the identification of optimized variants and facilitates the study of mutational epistasis. We successfully identify Opti-SpCas9, which possesses enhanced editing specificity without sacrificing potency and broad targeting range. This ...
Stage-specific localization of PfCS using confocal microscopy. The rows in each column represent four parasitic stages. First row (from the top), ring stage; second row, trophozoite; third row, schizont; fourth row, segmenter. The scale bars represent 1 mm. Left column (green), DNA stain with Hoechst dye; centre column (red), PfCS immunofluorescence with AbPfCS1; right column, composite. The appearance of a dispersed immunofluorescence pattern surrounding the nuclear stain and the absence of a discrete crescent-shaped signal clearly indicate that PfCS is cytosolic and not located to the apicoplast.Fitzpatrick T, Ricken S, Lanzer M, Amrhein N, Macheroux P, Kappes B. Subcellular localization and characterization of chorismate synthase in the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Microbiol. 2001 40:65-75.. See original on MMP ...
Stage-specific localization of PfCS using confocal microscopy. The rows in each column represent four parasitic stages. First row (from the top), ring stage; second row, trophozoite; third row, schizont; fourth row, segmenter. The scale bars represent 1 mm. Left column (green), DNA stain with Hoechst dye; centre column (red), PfCS immunofluorescence with AbPfCS1; right column, composite. The appearance of a dispersed immunofluorescence pattern surrounding the nuclear stain and the absence of a discrete crescent-shaped signal clearly indicate that PfCS is cytosolic and not located to the apicoplast.Fitzpatrick T, Ricken S, Lanzer M, Amrhein N, Macheroux P, Kappes B. Subcellular localization and characterization of chorismate synthase in the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Microbiol. 2001 40:65-75.. See original on MMP ...
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Cog : Sonnen, H., J. Schneider, and H.J. Kutzner. 1990. Corynephage Cog, a virulent bacteriophage of Corynebacterium glutamicum, and its relationship to ΦGA1, an inducible phage particle from Brevibacterium flavum. J. Gen Virol. 71: 1629-1633. ...
4011578DNARhodobacter sphaeroides 1atgctggcca tgagcccgcc gaaaccggcg gtggaactgg atcgccatat cgatctggat 60caggcgcatg cggtggcgag cggcggtgcg cgcatcgttc tggccccgcc ggcgcgtgat 120cgttgccgtg cgagcgaagc gcgtctgggc gccgtgattc gtgaagcccg ccatgtttat 180ggtctgacca ccggttttgg tccgctggcg aatcgcctga ttagcggtga aaacgttcgt 240accctgcagg ccaacctggt tcatcacctg gccagcggcg tgggtccggt tctggattgg 300accaccgccc gcgcgatggt gctggcccgt ctggtgagca ttgcccaggg cgccagcggt 360gcgagcgaag gtaccatcgc ccgtctgatt gatctgctga atagcgaact ggccccggcg 420gttccgagcc gcggtaccgt gggcgcgagc ggtgatctga ccccgctggc gcatatggtt 480ctgtgcctgc agggtcgtgg tgattttctg gatcgcgatg gcacccgtct ggatggcgcg 540gaaggtctgc gtcgcggccg cctgcagccg ctggatctga gccatcgtga tgccctggcg 600ctggtgaacg gcaccagcgc gatgaccggt attgccctgg tgaacgcgca tgcgtgccgc 660catctgggta attgggcggt ggcgctgacc gccctgctgg cggaatgcct gcgcggtcgt 720accgaagcgt gggccgcggc cctgagcgat ctgcgcccgc atccgggcca gaaagatgcg 780gcggcgcgtc tgcgtgcgcg tgtggatggt agcgcccgcg tggtgcgtca tgtgattgcg 840gaacgccgcc ...
This project attempts a joint reading of the work of Friedrich Nietzsche and Frantz Fanon. This task, however, is problematic because this body of work is in tension or contradictory. These problems are so acute that a careful reading method is necessary to successfully carry out this reading. In order to facilitate this reading I elaborate and apply a particular philosophical methodology, Mestizaje. The methodology is intended to address works that are contradictory by attempting to read the texts as they are presented while at the same time balancing their positions. The goal is to honestly reflect the thought of each thinker and to illuminate a perspective that incorporates but transcends their respective positions. What the application of Methodological Mestizaje finds is that while Nietzsche and Fanon stand in tension to one another, their respective works share several interesting and important convergences. In particular, they share thoughts on ressentiment, morality and violence. With
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This video was recorded at CHEM 125b: Freshman Organic Chemistry II. Cyclic conjugation that arises when p-orbitals touch one another can be as important for transition states as aromaticity is for stable molecules. It is the controlling factor in "pericyclic" reactions. Regiochemistry, stereochemistry, and kinetics show that two new sigma bonds are being formed simultaneously, if not symmetrically, in the 6-electron Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Although thermal dimerization of thymine residues in DNA is forbidden, photochemistry allows the 4-electron cycloaddition. "Electrocyclic" ring opening or closing chooses a conrotatory Möbius pathway, or a disrotatory Hückel pathway, according to the number of electron pairs involved and whether light is used in the process. Dewar benzene provides an example of a very unstable molecule that can be formed photochemically and then persists because of unfavorable orbital overlap in the transition state for ring opening ...
Reactant 1, transition states, and products 2 and 3 were optimized at SMD(H2O)/M06-2X/def2-TZVPP//B3LYP-D3(BJ)//6-31+G(d,p). Geometries and relative energies are shown in Figure 1. The reaction 1 → 2 is a formal [6+4] cycloaddition, and the reaction 1 → 3 is a formal [4+2] cycloaddition. Interestingly, only a single transition state could be located TS1. It is a bispericyclic TS (see Chapter 4 of my book), where these two pericyclic reaction sort of merge together. After TS1 is traversed the potential energy surface bifurcates, leading to 2 or 3. This is yet again an example of a single TS leading to two different products. (See the many posts I have written on this topic.) The barrier height is 27.6 kcal mol-1, with 2 lying 13.1 kcal mol-1 above 3. However, the steepest descent pathway from TS1 leads to 2. There is a second transition state TScope that describes a Cope rearrangement between 2 and 3. Using the more traditional TS theory description, 1 undergoes a [6+4] cycloaddition to form ...
3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate (DAHP) is a 7-carbon ulonic acid. This compound is found in the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway and is an intermediate in the production of aromatic amino acids. Phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate react to form 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP), in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme DAHP synthase. DAHP is then transformed to 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), in a reaction catalyzed by DHQ synthase. Although this reaction requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor, the enzymic mechanism regenerates it, resulting in the net use of no NAD. The mechanism of ring closure is complex, but involves an aldol condensation at C-2 and C-7. Metabolic engineering has improved production of DAHP by Escherichia coli. The first step, condensation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate (DAHP) from PEP/E4P, uses three isoenzymes AroF, AroG, and AroH. Each one of these has its synthesis regulated from tyrosine, ...
The reaction CH3CH(OH)2→CH3CHO + H2 O has been studied kinetically in aqueous acetone using a dilatometric method. It was found to be a first-order reaction, catalyzed by uncharged acids, cation acids, uncharged bases and anion bases. Quantitative measurements were made on the catalytic effect of 63 acids. The results for 32 carboxylic acids and 15 phenols conform approximately to a single relation between catalytic power and dissociation constant in water, but most of the 16 acids of other types show considerable positive or negative deviations from this relation. These deviations are related to the structures of the catalysts, and it is shown that, for acids of equal strength, the velocity of protolytic change is decreased by a mesomeric charge-shift in the anion, and is increased if mesomerism in the acid is lost on ionization. This principle is related to the occurrence of pseudo-acids and bases, and is interpreted in terms of molecular potential energy curves. ...
prephenic acid: nonaromatic biosynthetic intermediate, probable immediate precursor of aromatic systems such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tannins, flavanoids; isolated from cultures of mutant E coli; structure
South Store Meeting Room. Cost $160 for 8 week session. The Microcosmic orbit is an essential part of the Taoist Longevity and Internal Alchemy traditions. Thousands of years old, it is a cultivation technique combining breathing methods with meditation to purify the body physically, mentally and spiritually while improving health and longevity. It is considered an essential step in the Internal Alchemy (neidan) process of transforming Essence, to Energy, to Spirit. In this 8 week course, you will learn the proper breathing technique to increase your reservoir of Qi and the correct way of using the mind to circulate that Qi along the Conception and Governing Channels. Each section of the course builds upon the techniques and abilities acquired from the previous section. The Microcosmic Orbit is a powerful practice and should only be attempted with the guidance of an experienced teacher. Jeffrey J. Kelly, MTCM, has studied and practiced Buddhist and Daoist Meditation and Qigong for over 30 years. ...
South Store Meeting Room. Cost $160 for 8 week session. The Microcosmic orbit is an essential part of the Taoist Longevity and Internal Alchemy traditions. Thousands of years old, it is a cultivation technique combining breathing methods with meditation to purify the body physically, mentally and spiritually while improving health and longevity. It is considered an essential step in the Internal Alchemy (neidan) process of transforming Essence, to Energy, to Spirit. In this 8 week course, you will learn the proper breathing technique to increase your reservoir of Qi and the correct way of using the mind to circulate that Qi along the Conception and Governing Channels. Each section of the course builds upon the techniques and abilities acquired from the previous section. The Microcosmic Orbit is a powerful practice and should only be attempted with the guidance of an experienced teacher. Jeffrey J. Kelly, MTCM, has studied and practiced Buddhist and Daoist Meditation and Qigong for over 30 years. ...
The TyrA protein family includes members that catalyze two dehydrogenase reactions in distinct pathways leading to L-tyrosine and a third reaction that is not part of tyrosine biosynthesis. Family members share a catalytic core region of about 30 kDa, where inhibitors operate competitively by acting as substrate mimics. This protein family typifies many that are challenging for bioinformatic analysis because of relatively modest sequence conservation and small size. Phylogenetic relationships of TyrA domains were evaluated in the context of combinatorial patterns of specificity for the two substrates, as well as the presence or absence of a variety of fusions. An interactive tool is provided for prediction of substrate specificity. Interactive alignments for a suite of catalytic-core TyrA domains of differing specificity are also provided to facilitate phylogenetic analysis. tyrA membership in apparent operons (or supraoperons) was examined, and patterns of conserved synteny in relationship to
After a ladies lunch at The Ivy, Nicole and Tyra hit Robertson Boulevard to film a segment for Tyras talk show. Clearly they wanted attention. Not only did
Peddlers Shop inc is located in Deptford NJ and specializes in the sales and service of all brands of bicycles. Sales of new bikes include but are not limited to Trek, Pinarello, Electra, Fuji, Masi, Del Sol, Kestrel, Surly, Sun, Haro, We The People, Radio BMX, Stolen BMX, SE Racing. Professional repair service and bicycle fitting service. ...
Miret, Marta; Felix Caballero, Francisco; Olaya, Beatriz; Koskinen, Seppo; Naidoo, Nirmala; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde; Maria Haro, Josep; Chatterji, Somnath; Luis Ayuso-Mateos, ...
в сборнике MULTIWAVELENGTH AGN SURVEYS, серия Proceedings of the Guillermo Haro Conference 2003, место издания Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Mexico Mexico, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.,, с. 199-200 DOI ...
15 credits, Level 5. Spring teaching. This module focuses on strategy in organic synthesis and the disconnection approach.. You are required to take a different approach to your entire knowledge of synthetic chemistry accumulated hitherto. You learn novel reactions, understand the relevance of solvents and reagents, but also to modify your way of thinking about transformations so as to predict shortfalls and be able to come up with more efficient tactics.. The aim of this module is to describe the unifying principles which underline the diverse structures of natural product synthesis and the design of a total synthesis through a disconnective strategy. This includes introductioning you to the concept of retrosynthetic analysis, the synthesis of complex cycles and heterocycles, alkenes and alkynes, the formation of carbon-carbon bonds and carbon-heteroatom bonds, pericyclic reactions, radicalar reactions, aromatic chemistry. ...
Goals: To further develop the theoretical concepts of organic chemistry and develop plausible synthetic and mechanistic pathways. Content: Mechanisms associated with elimination, electrophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, free radical reactions, and pericyclic reactions. Chemistries of alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, pericyclic compounds, polymers, proteins and carbohydrates including reactions of intermediary metabolism. Taught: Annually, spring. Prerequisite: CHEM 3450 (grade of C- or better). Credits: 4 credits
PQS biosynthetic functions of several of the pqs products are suggested by their sequence homologies (Fig. 4). PhnA and PhnB presumably synthesize the anthranilate precursor of PQS from chorismate (4, 10). Gene pqsA encodes a product homologous to benzoate coenzyme A ligase, which may be involved in activating anthranilate for PQS synthesis. Genes pqsB, pqsC, and pqsD encode proteins homologous to β-keto-acyl-acyl carrier protein synthases and are presumably involved in the production of a long chain hydrocarbon which reacts with anthranilate in the PQS biosynthetic pathway (4). Gene pqsE is not homologous to any defined proteins and our results indicate that it is not required for PQS synthesis. Gene pqsH encodes a putative FAD-dependent monooxygenase that may be responsible for the addition of the hydroxyl group to PQS.. Although phnA and phnB were originally assumed to encode an anthranilate synthetase comprising part of the phenazine biosynthetic pathway (10), recent studies by Mavrodi et ...
If I were to start a movement, it would be to import the notion of the aperitf - aperitivo in Spanish - into our bustling North American lives. Too sensitive for politics and too cowardly for seismic social reform, I would prefer to have a little impact on our quality of life. Food and wine are the fodder and dew that sustain us, and if wed just spin less and savor more, wed be happier and healthier. The Protestant work ethic runs deep in my veins, but my recent trip to Jerez showed me how acutely we need some peace injected into our eating habits. Before lunch and dinner, the Jerezanos, like many Europeans, enjoy an aperitivo, the little drink and nibble that precedes a meal, meant to open the appetite. Theyve never heard the term localvore, but they know to drink the gorgeous wine of their land, sherry. A light and dry sherry such as fino or manzanilla, cleans the palate with its sea-spray salinity and preserved-lemon acidity. The tangy and yeasty notes make it unique and satisfying. Both ...
Global BMX Bikes Market: This market research report focuses on Past-Current Size, Shares, Trends, Price, Segment & Forecast 2017-2022.
Tyra Banks Height Weight Body Statistics. Tyra Banks Height -1.78 m, Weight -64 kg, Measurements -37-24-36, Bra Size -34C, Shoe Size -9 US, Dress Size -6
Edgecombe, G.D.; Giribet, G.; Wheeler, W.C. 1999: Phylogeny of Chilopoda: combining 18S and 28S rRNA sequences and morphology. In: Melic, A.; de Haro, J.J.; Mendez, M.; Ribera, I. (eds) Evolución y Filogenia de Arthropoda. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 26: 293-331 ...
Desmedt, J. E., & Tomberg, C. (1991). The search for "neural" conditions for recording control event-related potentials in order to assess cognitive components to both irrelevant and relevant stimuli: Evidence for short latency cognitive somatosensory effects. In C. H. M.Brunia, G.Mulder, & M. N.Verbaten, (Eds.), Event-related brain research, (EEG Suppl. 42, pp. 210-221). Amsterdam : Elsevier ...

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