Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.
Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.
Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.

De novo lesions in presumed ocular histoplasmosis-like syndrome. (1/118)

Two patients with multifocal choroiditis similar or identical to POHS are presented. Colour photographs and fluorescein angiography document the occurrence of de novo lesions in the originally involved eye. The cases also demonstrate the development of new choroidal lesions within the originally involved eye, the early evolution of the "basic choroidal lesion", and the need for fluorescein angiography for visualizing the underlying choroidal lesion.  (+info)

New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation. (2/118)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB/c mice were investigated following infection with Toxocara canis. METHODS: Using an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes of fundi of 20 gerbils and 11 mice were monitored after oral infection with embryonated eggs of T canis. RESULTS: Vitreous, choroidal, and retinal haemorrhages were consistently observed in Mongolian gerbils, but rarely in mice. Severe exudative lesions and vasculitis were often present in gerbils but not in mice. Migrating larvae were also frequently observed in gerbils. CONCLUSION: Mongolian gerbils are more appropriate animal model for human ocular toxocariasis than previously used experimental animal such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys because of its high susceptibility of ocular infection.  (+info)

Detection of specific immunoglobulin E during maternal, fetal, and congenital toxoplasmosis. (3/118)

Toxoplasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in 664 serum samples were evaluated by using an immunocapture method with a suspension of tachyzoites prepared in the laboratory in order to evaluate its usefulness in the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy, congenital infection, and progressive toxoplasmosis. IgE antibodies were never detected in sera from seronegative women, from patients with chronic toxoplasma infection, or from infants without congenital toxoplasmosis. In contrast, they were detected in 86.6% of patients with toxoplasmic seroconversion, and compared with IgA and IgM, the short kinetics of IgE was useful to date the infection precisely. For the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, specific IgE detected was less frequently than IgM or IgA (25 versus 67.3%), but its detection during follow-up of children may be interesting, reflecting an immunological rebound. Finally, IgE was detected early and persisted longer in progressive toxoplasmosis with cervical adenopathies, so it was also a good marker of the evolution of toxoplasma infection.  (+info)

Toxoplasma gondii infection induces gene expression and secretion of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by human retinal pigment epithelial cells. (4/118)

We have used human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cultures to investigate the primary cellular responses of retinal resident cells to intracellular Toxoplasma gondii replication. At 4 days postinoculation, when all of the cells were infected, the secretion of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was augmented by 23-, 10-, 8-, and 5-fold, respectively, over the control. Northern and reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed significant upregulation of steady-state levels of mRNA for IL-1beta, IL-6, GM-CSF, and ICAM-1. The secretion of these molecules by HRPE cells may play a critical immunoregulatory role in the pathophysiological processes associated with T. gondii-induced retinochoroiditis.  (+info)

Childhood blindness and visual loss: an assessment at two institutions including a "new" cause. (5/118)

PURPOSE: This study was initiated to investigate the causes of childhood blindness and visual impairment in the United States. We also sought a particular etiology--congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)--which has been considered exceedingly rare, in a fixed target population of children, the severely mentally retarded. METHODS: We undertook a library-based study of the world literature to shed light on the causes of childhood blindness internationally and to put our data in context. We prospectively examined all consented children (159) at 2 institutions in the United States to determine their ocular status and the etiology of any visual loss present. One of the institutions is a school for the visually impaired (hereafter referred to as Location V), in which most of the students have normal mentation. The other is a home for severely mentally retarded, nonambulatory children (hereafter referred to as Location M). This institution was selected specifically to provide a sample of visual loss associated with severe retardation because the handful of cases of LCMV in the literature have been associated with severe central nervous system insults. Histories were obtained from records on site, and all children received a complete cyclopleged ophthalmic examination at their institution performed by the author. Patients at Location M with chorioretinal scars consistent with intrauterine infection (a possible sign of LCMV) had separate consents for blood drawing. Sera was obtained and sent for standard TORCHS titers, toxoplasmosis titers (Jack S. Remington, MD, Palo Alto, Calif), and ELISA testing for LCMV (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga). RESULTS: The diagnoses at Location V were varied and included retinopathy of prematurity (19.4%), optic atrophy (19.4%), retinitis pigmentosa (14.5%), optic nerve hypoplasia (12.9%), cataracts (8.1%), foveal hypoplasia (8.1%), persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (4.8%), and microphthalmos (3.2%). The most common diagnosis at Location M was bilateral optic atrophy, which was found in 65% of the patients examined who had visual loss. Of these, the insults were most often congenital (42.6%), with birth trauma, prematurity, and genetics each responsible for about 15% of the optic atrophy. The second most common diagnosis was cortical visual impairment (24%), followed by chorioretinal scars (5%), which are strongly suggestive of intrauterine infection. Of 95 patients examined at Location M, 4 had chorioretinal scars. Two of these had dramatically elevated titers for LCMV, as did one of their mothers. One of the other 2 children died before serum could be drawn, and the fourth had negative titers for both TORCHS and LCMV. CONCLUSIONS: At both locations studied, visual loss was most often due to congenital insults, whether genetic or simply prenatal. The visual loss at Location V was twice as likely as that at Location M to be caused by a genetic disorder. The genetic disorders at Location V were more often isolated eye diseases, while those among the severely retarded at Location M were more generalized genetic disorders. Our study identified optic atrophy as a common diagnosis among the severely mentally retarded with vision loss, a finding that is supported by previous studies in other countries. In our population of severely retarded children, the target etiology of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was responsible for half the visual loss secondary to chorioretinitis from intrauterine infection. This is more common than would be predicted by the few cases previously described in the literature, and strongly suggests that LCMV may be a more common cause of visual loss than previously appreciated. We believe that serology for LCMV should be part of the workup for congenital chorioretinitis, especially if the TORCHS titers are negative, and that perhaps the mnemonic should be revised to "TORCHS + L." Childhood blindness and visual impairment are tragic and co  (+info)

Population based assessment of uveitis in an urban population in southern India. (6/118)

AIM: To assess the prevalence of active and inactive uveitis unrelated to previous surgery or trauma in an urban population in southern India. METHODS: As part of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, 2522 subjects (85.4% of those eligible), a sample representative of the population of Hyderabad city in southern India, underwent interview and detailed dilated eye examination. Presence of sequelae of uveitis without current active inflammation was defined as inactive uveitis. RESULTS: Unequivocal evidence of active or inactive uveitis unrelated to previous surgery or trauma was present in 21 subjects, an age-sex adjusted prevalence of 0.73% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-1.14%). Active uveitis was present in eight subjects, an age-sex adjusted prevalence of 0.37% (95% CI 0. 19-0.70), of which 0.06% was anterior, 0.25% intermediate, and 0.06% posterior. The 0.36% (95% CI 0.17-0.68%) prevalence of inactive uveitis included macular chorioretinitis scars (0.26%), anterior (0. 07%) and previous vasculitis involving the whole eye (0.03%). The prevalence of visual impairment due to uveitis of less than 6/18 in at least one eye was 0.27%, less than 6/60 in at least one eye was 0. 16%, and less than 6/60 in both eyes was 0.03%. CONCLUSION: These population based cross sectional data give an estimate of the prevalence of various types of uveitis in this urban population in India. Active or past uveitis that might need treatment at some stage was present in one of every 140 people in this population.  (+info)

Rapid progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 2-year-old child with congenital athyreosis. (7/118)

We present the unique case of a 2-year-old girl with congenital athyreosis who acquired primary measles virus infection at the age of 18 months, coincidentally with an Epstein-Barr virus infection. First neurologic symptoms of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis appeared 5 months later, and the girl died within 6 months after a rapid progressive illness. Factors possibly predisposing to this extraordinary disease course-primary measles virus infection at an early age and lack of evidence for immunodeficiency-are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of Fas and Fas ligand deficiency in resistance of C57BL/6 mice to HSV-1 keratitis and chorioretinitis. (8/118)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) deficiency on the development of herpes stromal keratitis and on the von Szily model of herpes retinitis in C57BL/6 mice, which are ordinarily resistant to development of both of these herpetic diseases. METHODS: Anterior chamber inoculation of the right eye of each mouse with various titers of HSV-1 (KOS strain) was performed. Both eyes of each mouse were enucleated on postinoculation day 15 and processed for histopathologic examination. HSV-1 was inoculated into one cornea of other mice, and the severity of stromal keratitis was scored. RESULTS: Contralateral destructive chorioretinitis developed in susceptible Balb/cByj mice (19/23); ipsilateral chorioretinitis did not occur (0/23). Stromal keratitis developed in susceptible C.AL-20 mice (15/16). None of the C57BL/6 (0/10 for keratitis or 0/20 for retinitis) developed inflammation. Neither did B6.SMN.C3H.gld (FasL deficient; 0/12 or 0/28) or B6.MRL.lpr (Fas deficient; 0/11 or 0/34) mice (keratitis or contralateral chorioretinitis). Minimal scattering of inflammatory cells in the contralateral retina but not destructive chorioretinitis was observed in two C57BL/6, three B6.SMN.C3H.gld, and five B6.MRL.lpr mice. Few inflammatory cells were also found in the ipsilateral vitreous and vitreoretinal interface (but not destructive chorioretinitis) of all C57BL/6, two gld, and three lpr mice. CONCLUSIONS: Immune dysregulation secondary to deficiency in Fas or FasL system does not influence the resistance of the C57BL/6 mice to develop herpes simplex keratitis or destructive herpes simplex chorioretinitis.  (+info)

Chorioretinitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the choroid and the retina, which are both important structures in the eye. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina, while the retina is a light-sensitive tissue that converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images.

Chorioretinitis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious conditions, such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. The symptoms of chorioretinitis may include decreased vision, floaters, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain. Treatment for chorioretinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive therapies. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of chorioretinitis, as timely diagnosis and treatment can help prevent permanent vision loss.

Ocular toxoplasmosis is an inflammatory eye disease caused by the parasitic infection of Toxoplasma gondii in the eye's retina. It can lead to lesions and scarring in the retina, resulting in vision loss or impairment. The severity of ocular toxoplasmosis depends on the location and extent of the infection in the eye. In some cases, it may cause only mild symptoms, while in others, it can result in severe damage to the eye. Ocular toxoplasmosis is usually treated with medications that target the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, often combined with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation.

Panuveitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation that affects the entire uveal tract, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The uveal tract is the middle layer of the eye between the inner retina and the outer fibrous tunic (sclera). Panuveitis can also affect other parts of the eye, such as the vitreous, retina, and optic nerve.

The symptoms of panuveitis may include redness, pain, light sensitivity, blurred vision, floaters, and decreased visual acuity. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or unknown causes (idiopathic). Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying cause if identified. If left untreated, panuveitis can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal damage, which can result in permanent vision loss.

Posterior uveitis is a type of uveitis that specifically affects the back portion of the uvea, which includes the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides nutrients to the outer layers of the retina), the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye), and the optic nerve (which carries visual information from the eye to the brain).

Posterior uveitis can cause symptoms such as blurred vision, floaters, sensitivity to light, and decreased vision. It may also lead to complications such as retinal scarring, cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal detachment if left untreated. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and trauma. Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

Onchocerca is a genus of filarial nematode worms that are the causative agents of onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness. The most common species to infect humans is Onchocerca volvulus. These parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected blackflies (Simulium spp.) that breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams.

The adult female worms live in nodules beneath the skin, while the microfilariae, which are released by the females, migrate throughout various tissues, including the eyes, where they can cause inflammation and scarring, potentially leading to blindness if left untreated. The infection is primarily found in Africa, with some foci in Central and South America. Onchocerciasis is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization (WHO).

A pupil disorder refers to any abnormality or condition affecting the size, shape, or reactivity of the pupils, the circular black openings in the center of the eyes through which light enters. The pupil's primary function is to regulate the amount of light that reaches the retina, adjusting its size accordingly.

There are several types of pupil disorders, including:

1. Anisocoria: A condition characterized by unequal pupil sizes in either one or both eyes. This may be caused by various factors, such as nerve damage, trauma, inflammation, or medication side effects.

2. Horner's syndrome: A neurological disorder affecting the autonomic nervous system, resulting in a smaller pupil (miosis), partial eyelid droop (ptosis), and decreased sweating (anhidrosis) on the same side of the face. It is caused by damage to the sympathetic nerve pathway.

3. Adie's tonic pupil: A condition characterized by a dilated, poorly reactive pupil due to damage to the ciliary ganglion or short ciliary nerves. This disorder usually affects one eye and may be associated with decreased deep tendon reflexes in the affected limbs.

4. Argyll Robertson pupil: A condition where the pupils are small, irregularly shaped, and do not react to light but constrict when focusing on nearby objects (accommodation). This disorder is often associated with neurosyphilis or other brainstem disorders.

5. Pupillary dilation: Abnormally dilated pupils can be a sign of various conditions, such as drug use (e.g., atropine, cocaine), brainstem injury, Adie's tonic pupil, or oculomotor nerve palsy.

6. Pupillary constriction: Abnormally constricted pupils can be a sign of various conditions, such as Horner's syndrome, Argyll Robertson pupil, drug use (e.g., opioids, pilocarpine), or oculomotor nerve palsy.

7. Light-near dissociation: A condition where the pupils do not react to light but constrict when focusing on nearby objects. This can be seen in Argyll Robertson pupil and Adie's tonic pupil.

Prompt evaluation by an ophthalmologist or neurologist is necessary for accurate diagnosis and management of these conditions.

"Fundus Oculi" is a medical term that refers to the back part of the interior of the eye, including the optic disc, macula, fovea, retinal vasculature, and peripheral retina. It is the area where light is focused and then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, forming visual images. Examinations of the fundus oculi are crucial for detecting various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other retinal diseases. The examination is typically performed using an ophthalmoscope or a specialized camera called a retinal camera.

Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye between the retina and the white of the eye (sclera). The uvea consists of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Uveitis can cause redness, pain, and vision loss. It can be caused by various systemic diseases, infections, or trauma. Depending on the part of the uvea that's affected, uveitis can be classified as anterior (iritis), intermediate (cyclitis), posterior (choroiditis), or pan-uveitis (affecting all layers). Treatment typically includes corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs to control inflammation.

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a medical condition that results from the transmission of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite from an infected pregnant woman to her developing fetus through the placenta. The severity of the infection can vary widely, depending on the stage of pregnancy at which the mother becomes infected.

Infection during early pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of severe symptoms in the newborn, including:

* Intracranial calcifications
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)
* Microcephaly (abnormally small head)
* Chorioretinitis (inflammation of the eye's retina and choroid layer)
* Seizures
* Developmental delays
* Hearing loss

Infection later in pregnancy may result in less severe symptoms or be asymptomatic at birth, but can still lead to developmental delays, learning disabilities, and vision problems as the child grows.

Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of tests, such as blood tests to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to assess any structural abnormalities in the brain and other organs, and ophthalmologic examinations to evaluate potential eye damage.

Treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic medications (such as spiramycin, pyrimethamine, and sulfadiazine) and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. Early treatment can help minimize the severity of symptoms and improve outcomes for affected children.

The anterior chamber is the front portion of the eye, located between the cornea (the clear front "window" of the eye) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). It is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor that provides nutrients to the structures inside the eye and helps maintain its shape. The anterior chamber plays an important role in maintaining the overall health and function of the eye.

"Toxoplasma" is a genus of protozoan parasites, and the most well-known species is "Toxoplasma gondii." This particular species is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. It's known for its complex life cycle that involves felines (cats) as the definitive host.

Infection in humans, called toxoplasmosis, often occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with cat feces that contain T. gondii oocysts. While many people infected with Toxoplasma show no symptoms, it can cause serious health problems in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Endophthalmitis is a serious inflammatory eye condition that occurs when an infection develops inside the eyeball, specifically within the vitreous humor (the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina). This condition can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms that enter the eye through various means, such as trauma, surgery, or spread from another infected part of the body.

Endophthalmitis is often characterized by symptoms like sudden onset of pain, redness, decreased vision, and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). If left untreated, it can lead to severe complications, including blindness. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics or antifungal medications, either systemically or directly into the eye, and sometimes even requiring surgical intervention to remove infected tissues and relieve intraocular pressure.

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It can infect humans, birds, and most warm-blooded animals, including marine mammals. In humans, it is usually contracted through eating undercooked, contaminated meat or ingesting oocysts (a form of the parasite) from cat feces, often through contact with litter boxes or gardening in soil that has been contaminated with cat feces.

The infection can also be passed to the fetus if a woman becomes infected during or just before pregnancy. Most healthy individuals who become infected with Toxoplasma gondii experience few symptoms and are not aware they have the disease. However, for those with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause severe complications, including damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in individuals with weakened immune systems may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and headache. In pregnant women, infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, or severe developmental problems in the baby. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

Fluorescein angiography is a medical diagnostic procedure used in ophthalmology to examine the blood flow in the retina and choroid, which are the inner layers of the eye. This test involves injecting a fluorescent dye, Fluorescein, into a patient's arm vein. As the dye reaches the blood vessels in the eye, a specialized camera takes rapid sequences of photographs to capture the dye's circulation through the retina and choroid.

The images produced by fluorescein angiography can help doctors identify any damage to the blood vessels, leakage, or abnormal growth of new blood vessels. This information is crucial in diagnosing and managing various eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and inflammatory eye diseases.

It's important to note that while fluorescein angiography is a valuable diagnostic tool, it does carry some risks, including temporary side effects like nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions to the dye. In rare cases, severe adverse reactions can occur, so patients should discuss these potential risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

The vitreous body, also known simply as the vitreous, is the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eye. It is composed mainly of water, but also contains collagen fibers, hyaluronic acid, and other proteins. The vitreous helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides a transparent medium for light to pass through to reach the retina. With age, the vitreous can become more liquefied and may eventually separate from the retina, leading to symptoms such as floaters or flashes of light.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

The Uvea, also known as the uveal tract or vascular tunic, is the middle layer of the eye between the sclera (the white, protective outer coat) and the retina (the light-sensitive inner layer). It consists of three main parts: the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (structures that control the lens shape and produce aqueous humor), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nutrients to the retina). Inflammation of the uvea is called uveitis.

Protozoan infections in animals refer to diseases caused by the invasion and colonization of one or more protozoan species in an animal host's body. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can exist as parasites and can be transmitted through various modes, such as direct contact with infected animals, contaminated food or water, vectors like insects, and fecal-oral route.

Examples of protozoan infections in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of the genus Eimeria that affects various animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and pets like cats and dogs. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death in severe cases.
2. Toxoplasmosis: It is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can infect various warm-blooded animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like cats. The parasite forms cysts in various tissues, such as muscles, brain, and eyes, causing mild to severe symptoms depending on the host's immune status.
3. Babesiosis: It is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of Babesia protozoa that affect various animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, and humans. The parasites infect red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, weakness, and sometimes death in severe cases.
4. Leishmaniasis: It is a vector-borne disease caused by several species of Leishmania protozoa that affect various animals, including dogs, cats, and humans. The parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected sandflies and can cause skin lesions, anemia, fever, weight loss, and sometimes death in severe cases.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: It is a waterborne disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum that affects various animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like dogs and cats. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Prevention and control of these diseases rely on various measures, such as vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, and environmental management. Public awareness and education are also essential to prevent the transmission and spread of these diseases.

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Chorioretinitis, papillitis, retinal vasculitis - retinal changes can resemble retinitis pigmentosa. Exudative retinal ...
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"Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Choriocapillaris Flow Reduction in Placoid Chorioretinitis". Ophthalmol Retina ...
Posterior uveitis or chorioretinitis is the inflammation of the retina and choroid. Panuveitis is the inflammation of all ... leptospirosis presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome syphilis toxocariasis toxoplasmic chorioretinitis Lyme disease Zika fever ...
PORN is a chorioretinitis presenting with multiple lesions in the peripheral retina. Unlike ARN, this disease process has no ... Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a form of chorioretinitis, an infection in the retina, the back of the ... the presentation of these chorioretinitis diseases became less severe and less frequent. Treatment for Necrotizing Herpetic ...
Chorioretinitis, which is followed by chorioretinal scarring, is the most common ocular lesion. Mortality among infants is ... There have also been rare cases with evidence of chorioretinitis but without neurological signs. Systemic signs seem to be rare ...
Her mother had chorioretinitis and could not even recognize Grant until she was 13. Her parents are Tony and Regina Grant, and ...
Other birth abnormalities have been reported as well, such as chorioretinitis, microphthalmus, and ocular defects. Syphilis ... Maternal exposure to cytomegalovirus can cause microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, blindness, chorioretinitis (which can ...
"Disseminated bilateral chorioretinitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ...
Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome causes chorioretinitis, where the choroid and retina of the eyes are scarred, resulting ... "Disseminated bilateral chorioretinitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ...
... and chorioretinitis. The specific infection may cause additional symptoms. TORCH syndrome may develop before birth, causing ...
Less common conditions that can be revealed using retinal images are arterial and vein occlusions, chorioretinitis, congenital ...
... and chorioretinitis. Rheumatology: rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic carditis, acute gouty arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ...
Amongst the aquarelles there is one picture of a typical chorioretinitis of the African ocular onchocerciasis, which creates ...
Ocular complications, though rare, are listed as optic atrophy, microphthalmia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, hemeralopia ( ...
Rarely, it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris ...
He was the first to publish on retinal toxicity secondary to gentamicin (a common antibiotic), acute placoid chorioretinitis ...
... and chorioretinitis Most of the time, the infection leads to death. Urbanization and global warming are extremely influential ...
... chorioretinitis, and anterior segment inflammation; sarcoidosis in the lungs; and to treat edema in certain nephrotic syndromes ...
... benign Chorea minor Choreoacanthocytosis amyotrophic Choreoathetosis familial paroxysmal Choriocarcinoma Chorioretinitis ...
Chorio, ChoriĆ² or Chorio- may refer to: Choroid, as in chorioretinitis Chorion, as in chorioamnionitis ChoriĆ², Calabria, a ...
... unspecified Chorioretinitis Choroiditis Retinitis Retinochoroiditis (H31) Other disorders of choroid (H31.0) Chorioretinal ... chorioretinitis choroiditis retinitis retinochoroiditis Excludes: exudative retinopathy (H35.0) (H30.2) Posterior cyclitis Pars ... chorioretinitis choroiditis retinitis retinochoroiditis (H30.1) Disseminated chorioretinal inflammation Disseminated: ... Chorioretinal inflammation in infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere Chorioretinitis: syphilitic, late ( A52.7 ...
Dacryoadenitis Dacryocystitis Conjunctivitis Scleritis Episcleritis Uveitis Blepharitis Keratitis Retinitis/Chorioretinitis ...
... chorioretinitis, optic atrophy Other neurological disorder: damage to cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord, motor/sensory ...
Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. It is a form ... Chorioretinitis may also occur in presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS); despite its name, the relationship of POHS to ... Chorioretinitis is usually treated with a combination of corticosteroids and antibiotics. However, if there is an underlying ... Chorioretinitis is often caused by toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infections (mostly seen in immunodeficient subjects such ...
Chorioretinitis (CR) is an inflammatory process that involves the uveal tract of the eye. Inflammation is usually caused by ... CTP is the most common cause of infectious chorioretinitis in immunocompetent children. [4] Chorioretinitis can also result ... encoded search term (Chorioretinitis) and Chorioretinitis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Chorioretinitis (CR) is an inflammatory process that involves the uveal tract of the eye. (See the image below.) In neonates, ...
Chorioretinitis is the inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which includes the choroid and the retina. It is ... Chorioretinitis. Chorioretinitis is the inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and ... Non-infectious chorioretinitis. Non-infectious chorioretinitis is treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants ... Non-resolving chorioretinitis. For non-resolving chorioretinitis, rule out malignancies (masquerade syndromes). ...
... a potentially severe and under-diagnosed etiology of congenital chorioretinitis. Observations A 5-month old boy presented with ... Severe congenital chorioretinitis caused by congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Abstract. Purpose. To ... Congenital LCMV infection is an under-recognized cause of congenital chorioretinitis.. 1. Introduction. Lymphocytic ... Jul 10, 2021 , Posted by drzezo in OPHTHALMOLOGY , Comments Off on Severe congenital chorioretinitis caused by congenital ...
Atypical Unilateral Birdshot Chorioretinitis in a Hispanic Female ... Atypical Unilateral Birdshot Chorioretinitis in a Hispanic ... not minimizing the significance of birdshot lesions in the differential of patients with unilateral multifocal chorioretinitis. ...
Tuberculosis (TB) (see the image below), a multisystemic disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, is the most common cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide. Although TB rates are decreasing in the United States, the disease is becoming more common in many parts of the world.
If the retina is also involved, it is called chorioretinitis.. Another form of uveitis is pars planitis. Inflammation occurs in ...
The detection of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies is the primary diagnostic method to determine infection with Toxoplasma. Toxoplasma antibody detection tests are performed by a large number of laboratories with commercially available kits.. An algorithm for the immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis for individuals greater than one year of age is shown table below. The IFA and EIA tests for IgG and IgM antibodies are the tests most commonly used today. Persons should be initially tested for the presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies to determine their immune status. A positive IgG titer indicates infection with the organism at some time. If more precise knowledge of the time of infection is necessary, then an IgG positive person should have an IgM test performed by a procedure with minimal nonspecific reactions, such as IgM-capture EIA. A negative IgM test essentially excludes recent infection, but a positive IgM test is difficult to interpret because Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies may be ...
Chorioretinitis Sclopetaria: A Systems Based Approach to Eye Injury Prevention. Chorioretinitis Sclopetaria: A Systems Based ... Review of chorioretinitis sclopetaria. The term sclopetaria may originate from the old English word "sclow" which means to claw ... Chorioretinitis Sclopetaria: A Systems Based Approach to Eye Injury Prevention. EyeRounds.org. August 21, 2013; available from ... Ahmadabadi MN, Karkhaneh R, Roohipoor R, Tabatabai A, Alimardani A. Clinical presentation and outcome of chorioretinitis ...
Tuberculous chorioretinitis A18.54 Tuberculous iridocyclitis A18.59 Other tuberculosis of eye A18.6 Tuberculosis of (inner) ( ...
Chorioretinitis. Ataxia. aMolecular studies were done for SSPE patients highlighted in bold type. N/A, not available; GBA, ...
Inflammation of the Retina and Choroid (Chorioretinitis) Inflammation of the retina and choroid is frequently a result of a ... chorioretinitis), injury and other trauma, eye surgery, and certain tumors. ...
Chorioretinitis Optic neuritis Iritis and iridocyclitis * Respiratory Diseases Symptomatic sarcoidosis Loefflers syndrome not ...
Chorioretinitis. Optic neuritis. Iritis and iridocyclitis. Respiratory Diseases Symptomatic sarcoidosis. Loefflers syndrome ...
Spillover into the adjacent choroid, creating a retinochoroiditis or a chorioretinitis, may occur. Retinitis typically ... chorioretinitis, retinitis, and neuroretinitis). An additional term, panuveitis (anterior chamber, vitreous, retina, and ... such as birdshot or serpiginous chorioretinitis. Papillitis may occur with toxoplasmosis, viral retinitis, lymphoma, or ...
Chorioretinitis An inflammation of the retina and outer membrane of the eye. ...
ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source Ophthalmology Examination Recording Form INFLAMMATION 468 Chorioretinitis 1 ... Chorioretinitis, other than congenital (central) (macular)--See Inflammation, uveal, posterior 70 6. .. Choroiditis NOS--See ... Chorioretinitis, congenital--See Inflammation, unveal, congenital 70 1. .. Cyclitis, congenital--See Inflammation, uveal, ...
SEE ALSO: Chorioretinitis (a type of uveitis). Importance of routine eye exams. Many uvea problems can be detected by your eye ...
82 Infective Uveitis, Retinitis, and Chorioretinitis. 83 Endophthalmitis. 84 Preseptal and Orbital Infections. 85 Infection ...
Chorioretinitis 363.20. *. due to*. histoplasmosis (see also Histoplasmosis) 115.92. *. toxoplasmosis (acquired) 130.2. *. ...
Exudative serous detachments are caused by chorioretinitis. The inflammation is most commonly caused by an infectious agent, ...
Reactions: Encephalitis Cytomegalovirus, Cytomegalovirus Chorioretinitis, Nephropathy Toxic Adverse event resulted in: death, ...
Relentless Placoid Chorioretinitis. 24 July 2023 22:44:14. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease. 17 June 2023 12:16:37. ...
Chorioretinitis sclopetaria and orbital emphysema caused by a high-velocity liquid missile. Opens in a new tab ...
Optic atrophy and chorioretinitis were reported as posterior segment disease. Cases of optic atrophy without clinical ...
The most common later sequelae are ocular (chorioretinitis). Late neurologic sequelae are also common in infants; these may ... More serious or specific symptoms such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and chorioretinitis occur rarely in adults with normal ... The classic triad of signs associated with congenital toxoplasma infection is chorioretinitis, cerebral calcifications, and ... Severe disease was considered if chorioretinitis, intracranial calcifications, mental retardation, or neurologic disorders were ...
... chorioretinitis, and neuroretinitis. Major textbooks of ophthalmology, infectious disease, and rheumatology were reviewed for ...
microphthalmia, cataracts, Horners Syndrome, chorioretinitis, nystagmus, retinal scars, optic atrophy *gastrointestinal ...
  • If the inflammation involves only one or two structures of the eye, a more specific name is given (iritis, cyclitis, choroiditis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis). (uclahealth.org)
  • Few reports have described the ocular complications seen in adults during the acute infection, including conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis and chorioretinitis. (medscape.com)
  • The fundus displayed a pathologic phenomenon that was diagnosed as chorioretinitis, a form of posterior uveitis, which is an inflammatory response involving both the choroid layer, and the retina. (cdc.gov)
  • Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the diagnosis of chorioretinitis is based on direct examination of active chorioretinal inflammation and/or by detection of leukocytes in the vitreous humor on ophthalmic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation associated with chorioretinitis is usually caused by congenital viral, bacterial, or protozoal infections in neonates. (medscape.com)
  • Chorioretinitis is the inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. (lecturio.com)
  • Herpes the baby gets in the uterus can cause: Eye disease, such as inflammation of the retina (chorioretinitis) Severe brain damage. (curezone.org)
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis via transplacental transmission can also lead to sequelae such as chorioretinitis along with hydrocephalus and cerebral calcifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic triad of findings consists of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chorioretinitis is often caused by toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infections (mostly seen in immunodeficient subjects such as people with HIV/AIDS or on immunosuppressant drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chorioretinitis associated with congenital viral infections like CMV tends to be stable or improve in infancy, whereas chorioretinitis associated with asymptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis (CTP) progresses for years after birth and is more likely to be clinically significant at an older age. (medscape.com)
  • T. gondii type II strains, identified predominantly in the populations of some European countries and the United States, were reported to generate congenital toxoplasmosis, including lethal infection, severe neuro-ocular involvement, isolated chorioretinitis, and/or latent toxoplasmosis [ 7 ]. (springer.com)
  • If the retina is also involved, it is called chorioretinitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This parasite, ingested in contaminated meat or vegetables, embeds itself in the retina and causes chorioretinitis which, once cured, leads to the appearance of a scar. (barraquer.com)
  • Pregnant women infected with T. gondii generally do not have clinical manifestations, but some may have a mild mononucleosis-like syndrome, regional lymphadenopathy, or occasionally chorioretinitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These lesions included cataracts (36/45), keratitis (4/45), corneal dystrophy (2/45), corectopia (1/45), chorioretinitis scars (1/45) and phthisis bulbi (1/45). (vin.com)
  • Even though unilateral cases are exceedingly rare and do not meet the established research criteria, this case highlights the importance of not minimizing the significance of birdshot lesions in the differential of patients with unilateral multifocal chorioretinitis. (upr.edu)
  • Although CMV is the most common congenital infection in the developed world, affecting approximately 1% of all infants born in the United States, only 10% of all infants born in the United States with congenital CMV infection have symptomatic disease at birth, including chorioretinitis. (medscape.com)
  • To describe a case of congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a potentially severe and under-diagnosed etiology of congenital chorioretinitis. (entokey.com)
  • Congenital LCMV infection is an under-recognized cause of congenital chorioretinitis. (entokey.com)
  • In addition, with increasing air travel and globalization, several emerging infectious diseases have been recognized as causing ocular disease, including retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement. (medscape.com)
  • Medical care focuses on the establishment of specific therapies for treatable causes and on the stabilization of the patient with chorioretinitis to prevent further loss of vision, especially in immunocompromised infants and children. (medscape.com)
  • Chorioretinitis (CR) is an inflammatory process that involves the uveal tract of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • Chorioretinitis in a patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Chorioretinitis can also result from a dissemination of parasitic infections like Toxocara or Baylisascaris (the raccoon roundworm) in immunocompetent patients. (medscape.com)
  • The benefit of multiple doses of ivermectin on visual acuity and chorioretinitis has yet to be shown. (cehjournal.org)
  • Beyond the neonatal period, chorioretinitis can be diagnosed in diverse clinical conditions and can reflect newly acquired diseases or reactivation. (medscape.com)
  • Associated precocious signs and symptoms in the posterior segment of both eyes, bilateral chorioretinitis and uveitis, are described. (medscape.com)
  • 17. HLA-B27-associated uveitis with a chorioretinitis manifestation. (nih.gov)
  • In the eyes, the most significant lesions causing visual impairment and blindness are sclerosing keratitis, anterior uveitis, chorioretinitis and optic atrophy. (cehjournal.org)
  • The fundus displayed a pathologic phenomenon that was diagnosed as chorioretinitis, a form of posterior uveitis, which is an inflammatory response involving both the choroid layer, and the retina. (cdc.gov)
  • PCR has been used to diagnose many conditions, such as viral anterior uveitis/retinitis, toxoplasma chorioretinitis, ocular tuberculosis, Whipple disease, cytomegalovirus (CMV) endothelitis and anterior uveitis, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, and endophthalmitis. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • Other autoimmune conditions only affect the eye and not at all elsewhere, such as, birdshot chorioretinitis and multifocal choroiditis. (guidedogs.org.uk)
  • In the canine species there are many causes of chorioretinitis and detachment of the retina. (iastate.edu)
  • Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinkernagel MS, Bolinger B, Krebs P, Onder L, Miller S, Ludewig B. Immunopathological basis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced chorioretinitis and keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • In severely immunodeficient patients , including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), chorioretinitis may be associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), CMV , varicella-zoster virus (VZV) , fungal infection , syphilis and toxoplasma . (patient.info)
  • We report a case of congenital hydrocephalus caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus with severe neurologic sequelae, including hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis, blindness and developmental delay. (utmb.edu)
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis via transplacental transmission can also lead to sequelae such as chorioretinitis along with hydrocephalus and cerebral calcifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic triad of findings consists of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis: report of a case series and comprehensive review of the literature. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis]. (nih.gov)
  • To reassess the underlying pathophysiology of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) and relentless placoid chorioretinitis (RPC) through comparison with the non-inoculated eye of the von Szily animal model of neurotropic viral retinal infection. (figshare.com)
  • Congenital toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are the most common causes of congenital chorioretinitis and they are often asymptomatic at birth. (patient.info)
  • Toxoplasma chorioretinitis. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • The most common ophthalmic manifestation for WNE is chorioretinitis and about 10% of patients have an enlarged liver and spelnomegaly. (rarediseases.org)
  • In general, the diagnosis of chorioretinitis is based on direct examination of active chorioretinal inflammation and/or by detection of leukocytes in the vitreous humor on ophthalmic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chorioretinitis is usually a response to viral, bacterial, fungal or protozoal infection. (patient.info)
  • 1. Shiny multifocal chorioretinitis with papillitis. (nih.gov)
  • 5. [Multifocal chorioretinitis, papillitis, and recurrent optic neuritis in cat-scratch disease]. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Progressive subretinal fibrosis and multifocal granulomatous chorioretinitis. (nih.gov)
  • CMV and other viral chorioretinitis which is asymptomatic at birth tends to remain stable or improve in infancy. (patient.info)
  • Occasionally chorioretinitis or optic nerve function results in decorticate posturing. (elastizell.com)
  • Even when cured, there is still a big possibility for chorioretinitis to come back, as this is triggered by tuberculosis and AIDS. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus-associated chorioretinitis after liver transplantation: case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Chorioretinitis is usually treated with a combination of corticosteroids and antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once diagnosed, chorioretinitis should be treated immediately with anti-infective drugs as well as systemic corticosteroids. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • IV drug use is known to be associated with a variety of ophthalmological consequences, including fungal chorioretinitis. (patient.info)
  • Herpes the baby gets in the uterus can cause: Eye disease, such as inflammation of the retina (chorioretinitis) Severe brain damage. (curezone.com)
  • Active chorioretinitis or leakage on Fluorescein angiography (FA)(that is in more than one quadrant) that requires treatment. (nih.gov)
  • FC was used for CMV chorioretinitis in 3 AIDS patients and in one non-immunocompromised patient. (nih.gov)
  • Chorioretinitis is a common effect of other more complicated diseases, and this occurs to people with a weak immune system. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • However chorioretinitis can also result from a dissemination of parasitic infections like Toxocara . (patient.info)
  • Beyond the neonatal period, chorioretinitis can be newly acquired disease or reactivation. (patient.info)