Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Fetomaternal Transfusion: Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Methemalbumin: A 1:1 molar complex of heme or hematin and albumin formed after the dissociation of methemoglobin into heme or hematin and globin in plasma. This complex, which imparts a coffee-brown color to plasma, occurs in hemolytic and hemorrhagic disorders. Its presence in plasma is used as a test to differentiate between hemorrhagic and edematous pancreatitis.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Cordocentesis: The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Abnormalities, MultipleBasement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (1/382)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (2/382)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5. (3/382)

The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which may be related to Schwann cell migration and adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade into the endometrium during implantation and placentation. CD9 was detected immunohistochemically on the extravillous trophoblasts in the cell columns of first trimester placentae, but not on villous trophoblasts. In the second and third trimester, CD9 was highly expressed on the extravillous trophoblasts in the basal plate of placentae, and in the chorion laeve in the fetal membrane of term placentae. The molecular mass of CD9 in the chorion laeve was shown to be 27 kDa by Western blotting. The mRNA of CD9 was also detected in the chorion laeve by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteins were purified from chorion laeve by affinity chromatography with anti-integrin alpha3 and alpha5 monoclonal antibodies and Western blotting, revealed that CD9 was associated with both integrins. These findings indicate that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule present in the extravillous trophoblasts. Since it is associated with integrin alpha5 which has been proposed to regulate trophoblast invasion, CD9 may be implicated in trophoblast invasion at the feto-maternal interface.  (+info)

Characterization of human placental explants: morphological, biochemical and physiological studies using first and third trimester placenta. (4/382)

The primary objective of this study was to characterize an in-vitro model of the human placenta using morphological, biochemical and physiological parameters. Placental villi were obtained from normal first trimester and term pregnancies. The villi were incubated with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: Ham's F12 nutrient mixture in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C for up to 310 min. The viability was determined by the production of beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine, [3H]L-leucine and L-[U14C]arginine, while ultrastructure was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. In the first and third trimester group, the release into the medium of the intracellular enzyme LDH remained unaltered throughout the experiment. By contrast, beta-HCG concentrations increased linearly and concentrations were higher in the first trimester than term villi (354.5 +/- 37.8 versus 107 +/- 8.1 IU/g villi protein; P < 0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed preservation of tissue viability for up to 4 h of incubation. The incorporation of thymidine (12.2 +/- 2.9 versus 5.2 +/- 0.5 nmol/g villi protein; P < 0.05), leucine (9.4 +/- 2.1 versus 1.9 +/- 0.4 nmol/g villi protein; P < 0.02) and arginine (17 +/- 4.4 versus 4.2 +/- 0.5 nmol/g villi protein; P < 0.05) were markedly higher in early than in term placenta. Furthermore, placental uptake of L-leucine by the first (9.4 +/- 2.1 versus 17 + 4.4 mol/g villi protein; P < 0.001) and third trimester placental villi (1.9 +/- 0.4 versus 4.2 + 0.5 mol/g villi protein; P < 0.001) was less than that of L-arginine. This study describes a simple technique using placental explants to determine relative rates of uptake of substrate amino acids throughout gestation.  (+info)

Immunity to placental malaria. I. Elevated production of interferon-gamma by placental blood mononuclear cells is associated with protection in an area with high transmission of malaria. (5/382)

In areas in which malaria is holoendemic, primigravidae and secundigravidae, compared with multigravidae, are highly susceptible to placental malaria (PM). The nature of gravidity-dependent immune protection against PM was investigated by measuring in vitro production of cytokines by placental intervillous blood mononuclear cells (IVBMC). The results demonstrated that interferon (IFN)-gamma may be a critical factor in protection against PM: production of this cytokine by PM-negative multigravid IVBMC was elevated compared with PM-negative primigravid and secundigravid and PM-positive multigravid cells. Low IFN-gamma responsiveness to malarial antigen stimulation, most evident in the latter group, was balanced by increased interleukin (IL)-4 production, suggesting that counter-regulation of these two cytokines may be a crucial determinant in susceptibility to PM. A counter-regulatory relationship between IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also observed in response to malarial antigen stimulation. These data suggest that elevated production of IFN-gamma, as part of a carefully regulated cytokine network, is important in the control of PM.  (+info)

Characterization and expression of the laminin gamma3 chain: a novel, non-basement membrane-associated, laminin chain. (6/382)

Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma chain; they have broad functional roles in development and in stabilizing epithelial structures. Here, we identified a novel laminin, composed of known alpha and beta chains but containing a novel gamma chain, gamma3. We have cloned gene encoding this chain, LAMC3, which maps to chromosome 9 at q31-34. Protein and cDNA analyses demonstrate that gamma3 contains all the expected domains of a gamma chain, including two consensus glycosylation sites and a putative nidogen-binding site. This suggests that gamma3-containing laminins are likely to exist in a stable matrix. Studies of the tissue distribution of gamma3 chain show that it is broadly expressed in: skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, gamma3 protein is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. The gamma3 chain is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of: lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma3-containing laminins on the apical surfaces of a variety of epithelial tissues is novel and suggests that they are not found within ultrastructurally defined basement membranes. It seems likely that these apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells.  (+info)

Rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies by quantitative fluorescence PCR: first application on 247 chorionic villus samples. (7/382)

We report the results of the first major study of applying quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays for the detection of major chromosome numerical disorders. The QF-PCR tests were performed on a total of 247 chorionic villus samples, which were analysed blind, without any knowledge of the results obtained using conventional cytogenetic analysis. The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the detection power and accuracy of this approach by testing a large number of fetal samples and to assess the diagnostic value of each of the chromosome specific small tandem repeat (STR) markers used. In addition, we introduced three more markers specific for chromosomes 13, 18, and X to allow an accurate analysis of samples homozygous for a particular STR. Fluorescent labelled primers were used to amplify 12 STRs specific for chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and the amylogenin-like DNA sequence AMXY, expressed on the X and Y chromosomes. In this blind study of 247 fetal samples, 222 were correctly diagnosed by QF-PCR as normal for each of the five chromosomes investigated; 20 were diagnosed by QF-PCR as trisomic for chromosomes 21, 18, or 13, in agreement with the cytogenetic tests. Only one false negative result was observed, probably owing to the mishandling of the sample, which had been transferred through three laboratories before being analysed by QF-PCR. The 247 samples also included four cases of mosaicism or translocation; one case of mosaic trisomy 21 was detected by QF-PCR and the other cases were not identified by QF-PCR. The results of this investigation provide clear evidence that the QF-PCR assays are powerful adjuncts to conventional cytogenetic techniques and can be applied for the rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis of the most frequent aneuploidies.  (+info)

Trisomy/tetrasomy 21 mosaicism in CVS: interpretation of cytogenetic discrepancies between placental and fetal chromosome complements. (8/382)

Trisomy/tetrasomy 21 mosaicism was found in chorionic villi (semidirect preparation) obtained from a 40 year old pregnant woman. Since both cell lines were abnormal, the couple elected for pregnancy termination. Placenta and fetal tissue samples were obtained for cytogenetic study. Long term cultured villi showed a non-mosaic trisomy 21 karyotype, while other tissues showed either a normal karyotype or normal/trisomy21 mosaicism. These discrepancies could be explained by a modified "bottle neck" embryogenic model with a trisomic zygote and a non-disjunction event taking place in one of the first divisions. Our case emphasises the need for confirmatory studies in other tissues when mosaicism is encountered in chorionic villi, even if all cell lines are abnormal.  (+info)

  • A sample of the pregnant woman's blood is analyzed for three substances produced by the fetus and passed into the mother's blood: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and unconjugated estriol (UE3). (
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test that can find certain problems with your fetus . (
  • By checking a sample of chorionic villi, the laboratory can see whether or not the chromosomes are normal in number and structure, determine the fetal sex, and test for some specific diseases (if the fetus may be at risk for these diseases). (
  • Once the catheter or needle reaches the chorionic villi, your surgeon withdraws a small sample and carefully removes it from the uterus. (
  • In 1983, an Italian biologist named Giuseppe Simoni discovered a new method of prenatal diagnosis using chorionic villi. (