Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Receptors, Gonadotropin: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Trophoblastic Neoplasms: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Reproductive Control Agents: Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A group of diseases arising from pregnancy that are commonly associated with hyperplasia of trophoblasts (TROPHOBLAST) and markedly elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. They include HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, invasive mole (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, INVASIVE), placental-site trophoblastic tumor (TROPHOBLASTIC TUMOR, PLACENTAL SITE), and CHORIOCARCINOMA. These neoplasms have varying propensities for invasion and spread.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyDown Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Pregnancy, Tubal: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Puberty, Precocious: Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive: A uterine tumor derived from persistent gestational TROPHOBLASTS, most likely after a molar pregnancy (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE). Invasive hyadatiform mole develops in about 15% of patients after evacuation of a complete mole and less frequently after other types of gestation. It may perforate the MYOMETRIUM and erode uterine vessels causing hemorrhage.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fertility Agents, Male: Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Maternal Serum Screening Tests: Analysis of the level of specific BIOMARKERS in a pregnant woman's sera to identify those at risk for PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS or BIRTH DEFECTS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Walruses: The family Odobenidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA. It is represented by a single species of large, nearly hairless mammal found on Arctic shorelines, whose upper canines are modified into tusks.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site: An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.

Differential transcriptional activity associated with chromatin configuration in fully grown mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. (1/3303)

It was previously shown that fully grown ovarian germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes of adult mice exhibit several nuclear configurations that differ essentially by the presence or absence of a ring of condensed chromatin around the nucleolus. These configurations have been termed, respectively, SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (nonsurrounded nucleolus). Work from our and other laboratories has revealed ultrastructural and functional differences between these two configurations. The aims of the present study were 1) to analyze the equilibrium between the SN and the NSN population as a function of the age of the mice and the time after hCG-induced ovulation and 2) to study the polymerase I (pol I)- and polymerase II (pol II)-dependent transcription in both types of oocytes through the detection of bromouridine incorporated into nascent RNA. We show 1) that ovarian GV oocytes exhibiting the SN-type configuration can be found as soon as 17 days after birth in the C57/CBA mouse strain and 2) that the SN:NSN ratio of ovarian GV oocytes is very low just after hCG-induced ovulation and then increases progressively with the time after ovulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SN configuration correlates strictly with the arrest of both pol I- and pol II-dependent transcription in mice at any age. Finally, we show that ribosomal genes are located at the outer periphery of the nucleolus in the NSN configuration and that pol I-dependent perinucleolar transcription sites correspond to specific ultrastructural features of the nucleolus. Altogether, these results provide clear-cut criteria delineating transcriptionally active GV oocytes from those that are inactive, and confirm that the SN-type configuration is mostly present in preovulatory oocytes.  (+info)

Endocrine biomarkers of early fetal loss in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) following exposure to dioxin. (2/3303)

This study examines the endocrine alterations associated with early fetal loss (EFL) induced by an environmental toxin, TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), in the cynomolgus macaque, a well-documented reproductive/developmental model for humans. Females were administered single doses of 1, 2, and 4 microgram/kg TCDD (n = 4 per dose group) on gestational day (GD) 12. Urinary estrogen metabolites (estrone conjugates) were monitored to establish the day of ovulation, and serum hormones (estradiol, progesterone, chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin) were measured to assess ovarian and placental endocrine status before and after treatment. EFL occurred between GDs 22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated with TCDD. The primary endocrine alterations associated with TCDD treatment were significant decreases in serum estradiol and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (p < 0.02). Less pronounced decreases in serum progesterone (p = 0.10) and relaxin (p < 0.08) also followed TCDD treatment. In contrast, immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were not reduced by TCDD exposure at any level, indicating that TCDD targets specific components of the chorionic gonadotropin synthesis machinery within the trophoblast to alter the functional capacity of the hormone. These data demonstrate the value of endocrine biomarkers in identifying a toxic exposure to primate pregnancy many days before direct signs of reproductive toxicity were apparent. The increased EFL that occurred after exposure to TCDD might reflect a toxic response initially mediated via endocrine imbalance, leading to placental insufficiency, compromised embryonic circulation, and subsequent EFL.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis in mouse leydig tumor cells. Involvement of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. (3/3303)

Using a mouse Leydig tumor cell line, we explored the mechanisms involved in thyroid hormone-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene expression, and steroidogenesis. Triiodothyronine (T3) induced a approximately 3.6-fold increase in the steady-state level of StAR mRNA which paralleled with those of the acute steroid response ( approximately 4.0-fold), as monitored by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and progesterone production, respectively. The T3-stimulated progesterone production was effectively inhibited by actinomycin-D or cycloheximide, indicating the requirement of on-going mRNA and protein synthesis. T3 displayed the highest affinity of [125I]iodo-T3 binding and was most potent in stimulating StAR mRNA expression. In accordance, T3 significantly increased testosterone production in primary cultures of adult mouse Leydig cells. The T3 and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) effects on StAR expression were similar in magnitude and additive. Cells expressing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) showed marginal elevation of StAR expression, but coordinately increased T3-induced StAR mRNA expression and progesterone levels. In contrast, overexpression of DAX-1 markedly diminished the SF-1 mRNA expression, and concomitantly abolished T3-mediated responses. Noteworthy, T3 augmented the SF-1 mRNA expression while inhibition of the latter by DAX-1 strongly impaired T3 action. Northern hybridization analysis revealed four StAR transcripts which increased 3-6-fold following T3 stimulation. These observations clearly identified a regulatory cascade of thyroid hormone-stimulated StAR expression and steroidogenesis that provides novel insight into the importance of a thyroid-gonadal connection in the hormonal control of Leydig cell steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (4/3303)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (5/3303)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

D-Aspartate stimulation of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. (6/3303)

D-Aspartate increases human chorionic gonadotropin-induced testosterone production in purified rat Leydig cells. L-Aspartate, D-,L-glutamate or D-,L-asparagine could not substitute for D-aspartate and this effect was independent of glutamate receptor activation. Testosterone production was enhanced only in cells cultured with D-aspartate for more than 3 h. The increased production of testosterone was well correlated with the amounts of D-aspartate incorporated into the Leydig cells, and L-cysteine sulfinic acid, an inhibitor of D-aspartate uptake, suppressed both testosterone production and intracellular D-aspartate levels. D-Aspartate therefore is presumably taken up into cells to increase steroidogenesis. Intracellular D-aspartate probably acts on cholesterol translocation into the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting process in steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Modulation of the baboon (Papio anubis) uterine endometrium by chorionic gonadotrophin during the period of uterine receptivity. (7/3303)

This study was undertaken to determine the modulation of uterine function by chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) in a nonhuman primate. Infusion of recombinant human CG (hCG) between days 6 and 10 post ovulation initiated the endoreplication of the uterine surface epithelium to form distinct epithelial plaques. These plaque cells stained intensely for cytokeratin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The stromal fibroblasts below the epithelial plaques stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA). Expression of alphaSMA is associated with the initiation of decidualization in the baboon endometrium. Synthesis of the glandular secretory protein glycodelin, as assessed by Western blot analysis, was markedly up-regulated by hCG, and this increase was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, Northern blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-PCR. To determine whether hCG directly modulated these uterine responses, we treated ovariectomized baboons sequentially with estradiol and progesterone to mimic the hormonal profile of the normal menstrual cycle. Infusion of hCG into the oviduct of steroid-hormone-treated ovariectomized baboons induced the expression of alphaSMA in the stromal cells and glycodelin in the glandular epithelium. The epithelial plaque reaction, however, was not readily evident. These studies demonstrate a physiological effect of CG on the uterine endometrium in vivo and suggest that the primate blastocyst signal, like the blastocyst signals of other species, modulates the uterine environment prior to implantation.  (+info)

CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (8/3303)

The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Ectopic human chorionic gonadotropin in breast carcinoma. AU - Castro, A.. AU - Buschbaum, P.. AU - Nadji, M.. AU - Voigt, W.. AU - Tabei, S.. AU - Morales, A.. PY - 1979/10/1. Y1 - 1979/10/1. N2 - Immunoreactive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was found in 9 of 65 surgically removed malignant breast tumors. Concentrations ranged from 5 to greater than 500 mIU hCG/g tumor. hCG was measured by a β-chain specific radioimmunoassay. In further study of these specimens, an immunoperoxidase staining technique was used to stain for hCG in formalin-fixed sections. The hCG was shown to be localized within the cytoplasm and on the surface of the malignant cells.. AB - Immunoreactive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was found in 9 of 65 surgically removed malignant breast tumors. Concentrations ranged from 5 to greater than 500 mIU hCG/g tumor. hCG was measured by a β-chain specific radioimmunoassay. In further study of these specimens, an immunoperoxidase staining technique was used ...
National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education P. L. Shupyk, Kiev The objective: to assess the prognostic significance of the level of serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (gHCG) reative to the development of pregnancy complications that lead to impaired fetal conditions. Materials and methods. 382 pregnant women were examined who were on the register, were hospitalized in case of complications of pregnancy and gave birth to KCMH №2 (Kiev). All pregnant women were evaluated serum gCGG in the period of 8-10 weeks gestation, evaluated the course and result of pregnancy. Results. Reduction in the level of gHCG is a marker of insufficient trophoblast invasion, which is likely to lead to the formation of placental dysfunction and the development of a variety of obstetric pathology complicating the course of pregnancy and a risk factor for antenatal loss and neonatal morbidity. The conclusion. Determination of the level of hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin in the ...
Chorionic gonadotropin controlled substance: examining the full set of ratings given by a panel. as in phases. chorionic gonadotropin test indication the heart is necessarily more or less affected by both conditions of
Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Once human chorionic gonadotropin hormone levels are between 1000 and 2000 U/ml a transvaginal ultrasound can be carried out to show the gestational sac. hCG levels can change and the date of conception may be incorrect. When the hCG levels have reached a minimum of 2000 only then would the information from the ultrasound be considered in making a diagnosis.. To make sure that you receive an accurate diagnosis, lots of hCG tests would be carried out over a period of days. By doing the tests a few days apart any questions about the pregnancy will be answered more accurately. Levels of the hCG hormone levels are not used to provide any dates for pregnancy because the numbers are so varied. The two types of human chorionic gonadotropin testings are:. ...
Plasma-membrane and soluble fractions containing human chorionic gonadotropin/lutropin receptor were prepared from bovine corpora lutea by ultracentrifugation. The plasma-membrane and soluble fractions were studied for physicochemical properties, salts and gangliosides. The receptor preparations obtained from the plasma-membrane purified individually by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, which resulted in a partial dissociation of the hormone-binding subunit from the intact functional receptor unit, which consists of both hormone-binding (regulatory) and adenylate cyclase-associated (catalytic) subunits. The fractions containing the functional receptor unit were further purified by gel filtration on Sepharose-6B and chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The receptor was finally purified by affinity chromatography on a column of controlled-pore glass covalently coupled to hu man chorionic gonadotropin. The purified receptor from the plasma-membrane and the soluble fractions ...
... Definition Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is a glycoprotein hormone, which similar in structure to luteinizing hormone tha
Purpose: Trophoblastic cancers (Choriocarcinoma, testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies) secrete hyperglycosylated hCG and non-trophoblastic ca..
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hCG exists in two analogous structures, as typified by the hormone hCG which binds an LH/hCG hormone receptor and the TGFß receptor binding auto..
Gonadotropins are fertility drugs that may be prescribed when you are undergoing fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI). There are several different types: human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG). follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Fertility doctors typically use a combination of hMG/hCG or FSH/hCG to stimulate ovulation. Human menopausal gonadotropins (HMGs) contain approximately equal amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). hMG is administered by injection and directly stimulates the ovaries to induce the development and ovulation of one or more follicles. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an injectable drug containing genetically engineered FSH and is used to stimulate ovulation and help the ovaries produce multiple eggs.. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) helps with the final maturation of the eggs and triggers the ovaries to release the mature eggs. Your fertility
The choriogonadotropin beta-subunit radioimminoassay has been used extensively to measure human choriogonadotropin in the sera of pregnant women and individuals with trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic tumors. Unmodified, this method cannot be used to measure choriogonadotropin in urine because of interfering substances. We circumvented the non-parallelism between the standards and serial dilutions of urine containing choriogonadotropin by adding pooled urine from men to the standard tubes and limiting the volume of urine to 100 microliter. This modified assay has a sensitivity of 3 int. units/liter of urine and is specific for choriogonadotropin concentrations of 40 int. units/liter of urine. Analytical recovery of choriogonadotropin added to urine ranged from 96 to 105%. The within-assay CV was 7.6%; the between-assay CV was 11.8%. Concentrations of choriogonadotropin in concurrently collected serum and urine samples from pregnant women correlated well. The test can be performed within 24 h by ...
The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its α and β subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the α subunit. We have designed and synthesized a 17-amino-acid peptide (named PepH14) derived from the sequence of this antigenic loop with the purpose of mimicking its three-dimensional structure and its affinity for antibodies. We have determined the solution structure of PepH14 by homonuclear NMR spectroscopy and derived distance restraints. Comparison of this structure with that of the corresponding antigenic loop of α-hCG reveals strong conformational similarities. In particular, the two pairs of residues that establish crucial contacts with the Fv fragment share the same conformation in PepH14 and in the authentic hormone loop. We propose a three-dimensional model of interaction of PepH14 with a llama VHH (VHH-H14) fragment ...
The analysis of serum hCG has been used to confirm a pregnancy, to help diagnose an ectopic pregnancy, to help diagnose and monitor a pregnancy that may be failing, and/or to monitor a woman after a miscarriage. The following information helps to interpret serum hCG results in pregnancy evaluation. ...
Sources Used in Current Review. Farinde, A. (Updated 2014 July 2). Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089158-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.. (Updated 2014 June 5). Pregnancy. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Medical Devices [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/InVitroDiagnostics/HomeUseTests/ucm126067.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed September 2014.. Grenache, D. and Lehman, C. (Updated 2012 November). hCG Testing hCG. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/hCG.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed September 2014.. Rollins, G. (2012 March 8). Taking a New Look at the hCG Discriminatory Level. Clinical Laboratory Strategies [On-line information]. Available online at ...
Monoclonal antibody to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hCG. Two clones (4D9 and 7H2) recognize hCG and hCG subunit beta. Size: 0.5 mg or 2 x 0.5 mg.
Overexpression of human chorionic gonadotropin causes multiple reproductive defects in transgenic mice.: Human CG is a pregnancy marker secreted by the placenta
Human chorionic gonadotropin (medically abbreviated to hCG) is a hormone that is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It helps to keep the pregnancy going and also has an effect on the development of the baby.
The hCG hormone better known as Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is produced at the time of pregnancy. It is constructed by those cells which form the placenta, nourishes the fertilized egg and then attaches to the uterine wall.
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Low-dose human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) combined with a severe diet remains a popular treatment for obesity, despite equivocal evidence of its effectiveness. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of HCG on weight loss were compared with placebo injections. Forty obese women (body mass index , 30 kg/m2) were placed on the same diet supplying 5000 kJ per day and received daily intramuscular injections of saline or HCG, 6 days a week for 6 weeks. A psychological profile, hunger level, body circumferences, a fasting blood sample and food records were obtained at the start and end of the study, while body weight was measured weekly. Subjects receiving HCG injections showed no advantages over those on placebo in respect of any of the variables recorded. Furthermore, weight loss on our diet was similar to that on severely restricted intake. We conclude that there is no rationale for the use of HCG injections in the treatment of obesity.. ...
We aimed to investigate the relationship between inhibin-A and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations in the second trimester in the same cohort of women and compare their screening efficiency for the subsequent development of pre-eclamps
Genetic and irradiation models of ovarian tumorigenesis were investigated for evidence that elevated gonadotropins have a role in tumorigenesis. Wx/Wv mice lack oocytes at birth, develop complex mesothelial adenomas by 6 mo, and additional ovarian tumor types later. Uptake of iodinated human chorionic gonadotropin (125I-hCG) was measured in mice aged 1 to 30 mo, and uptake iodinated human follicle-stimulating hormone (125I-hFSH) was measured in mice aged 1 to 12 mo. Gonadotropin uptake by Wx/Wv ovaries in vivo declined quickly and was undetectable by 6 mo. Irradiated ovaries rapidly lost oocytes and follicular structures, formed mesothelial adenomas by 5 mo, and later formed additional types of ovarian tumors. In the irradiation model, 125I-hCG uptake also declined quickly and was undetectable by 3 mo of age. Neither the surface nor the tubular epithelium of the mesothelial adenoma were consistently labeled by 125I-hCG in autoradiography studies with either model. Although these data do not
Ashley is a 24 year old woman who started the Dr. Simeons HCG Protocol earlier this year. Her height is 59″ and her starting weight was 230 lbs. She chose to inject the HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) intramuscularly daily for six weeks at a time.. After completing six weeks at the beginning of April 2009 she had lost 31 lbs and weighed 199 lbs.. At the end of May 2009 she started another round of HCG treatment and when she followed up in the office today she had lost another 20.2 lbs in 21 days. Today her weight was 178.2 lbs. She plans to complete a full six week round and then take a break for a while.. As Ashley started to lose weight she first lost most of the abnormal fat deposits in her upper body, including her face, chest, arms, and abdomen. Her hips and thighs were not reducing much initially. However, during the last round of treatment she noticed significant reductions in her hips and thighs.. Considerations for future treatment, besides HCG, include MIC injections for general ...
Wikipedia - HCG - Human chorionic gonadotropin or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in pregnancy that is made by the developing embryo after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta).[1] Its role is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum of the ovary and thereby maintain progesterone production that is critical for a pregnancy in humans. hCG may have additional functions; for instance, it is thought that hCG affects the immune tolerance of the pregnancy.. Medline Plus - HCG blood test - How the Test is Performed - Blood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.. WebMD - HCG Diet - What is the weight loss "cure" that "they" dont want you to know about? According to Kevin ...
Urine of postmenopausal women reflects the hypergonadotropic state of menopause -levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are high - and contain a mixture of these gonadotropins.[2][3][4] Other protein substances may be present, including small amounts of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).[1] In 1949 Piero Donini found a relatively simple method to extract gonadotropins from urine of postmenopausal women.[4][5] Menotropins were successfully introduced into clinical use by Bruno Lunenfeld in 1961.[4] While earlier menotropin medications contained FSH and LH at a 1:1 ratio, the recognition that it is FSH that is critical for follicle stimulation has led to development of newer preparations that contain a much higher FSH/LH ratio, Fertinex being an example.[4]. Menotropin preparations are designed for use in selected women where they stimulate the ovaries to mature follicles, thus making them more fertile. They are administered by typically daily injection, ...
Ashley is a 24 year old woman who started the Dr. Simeons HCG Protocol earlier this year. Her height is 59″ and her starting weight was 230 lbs. She chose to inject the HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) intramuscularly daily for six weeks at a time.. After completing six weeks at the beginning of April 2009 she had lost 31 lbs and weighed 199 lbs.. At the end of May 2009 she started another round of HCG treatment and when she followed up in the office today she had lost another 20.2 lbs in 21 days. Today her weight was 178.2 lbs. She plans to complete a full six week round and then take a break for a while.. As Ashley started to lose weight she first lost most of the abnormal fat deposits in her upper body, including her face, chest, arms, and abdomen. Her hips and thighs were not reducing much initially. However, during the last round of treatment she noticed significant reductions in her hips and thighs.. Considerations for future treatment, besides HCG, include MIC injections for general ...
Premature labor signs and from the early weeks and throughout pregnancy. Two Hormones Referred To As Gonadotropins Are Heavy Bleeding Sudden After it appears this could be the case with you. First up is a question from a reader whose wife has gained weight following the Primal Blueprint Say it Aint So! - Am I pregnant or is it menopause? Learn more about the difference between being pregnant and menopause from HowStuffWorks. Menopause or Pregnant???? I am now about 4 days late with my period. Berikut adalah tips mengatasi insomnia secara alami tanpa melibatkan obat-obatan.. To be on the safe side Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Disorders single treatment option with a good rate of unifollicular ovulation Ovarian surgery carries minimal risks Estrogen the primary "female" hormone inhibits the bodys production of testosterone. Normal Progesterone levels in the luteal phase of your ovulation cycle. What is the Difference Between Blood and Saliva Hormone Tests? By Alane Palmer Our hormone ...
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone produced by trophoblastic cells of the placenta beginning 10 to 12 days after conception.
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Penny, R., Olambiwonnu, N. O., and Frasier, S. D.: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (LH-HCG) concentrations in paired maternal and cord sera. Pediatrics, 53:41, 1974.. An error was made by the authors under the Materials and Methods section of the above article which appeared in the January issue. The last two sentences should read:. To convert to nanograms of LER 907, multiply FSH concentrations by 24 and LH concentrations by 17. For conversion to International Units of commercial HCG, divide LH-HCG concentrations by 0.55.. ...
Humam chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is either made from urine of pregnant women or hormone produced by human placenta. It is used conjunction with FSH and HMG as we mentioned in previous article.
A total of 63 patients with low-risk GTN according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria were included. A total of 37 (58.7%) patients were treated with successive doses of 1 mg/kg intramuscular (IM) MTX on days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and 0.1 mg/kg IM folinic acid (FA) on days 2, 4, 6, and 8, until β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels were normalized. After the β-hCG value dropped to the normal level, an additional cycle of MTX/FA was administered. This protocol is defined as the standard protocol. In a watchful waiting protocol, the same 8-day IM MTX/FA regimen was given only once (n = 8) or twice (n = 18) to 26 (41.3%) patients and patients in whom β-hCG values declined were subjected to follow-up and no additional cycles were administered as long as there was a decrease in β-hCG value. Clinical response and factors affecting therapeutic outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.. ...
Snookie has revealed her secrets to instant weight loss in various TV interviews.. One of the greatest secret is the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin at she has been dieting. This is on top of cutting down her alcohol intake and excising a lot. The diet regime that she has adopted has had positive rewards on her life and the lives of many other people all over the world. Nicole Snookie has been using a HCG diet like many other women in the world. HCG is a hormone that is produced by the placenta when a woman is pregnant. It usually stands for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. This hormone is responsible for controlling the metabolic reactions or functions of a woman. It is synthetically produced and utilized in diet protocols to aid in weight loss.. Like in the case of Nicole Snookie, weight loss is rapid with HCG. It is important to note that Nicole has reported a weight loss of about 17 pounds in two months. This is compatible with data on HCG weigh loss in most programs. Most HCG dieter post that ...
Choragon injections contain the active ingredient chorionic gonadotrophin, which is a natural sex hormone also known as human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG.
... definition, Also called human chorionic gonadotropin. Biochemistry. a hormone, produced in the incipient placenta of pregnant women, that stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone: its presence in blood or urine is an indication of pregnancy. See more.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is also called Human Gonadotropin. Its a glycoprotein hormone produced during pregnancy, and also made by the embryo just after conception and then by the trophoblast.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HGC) can be used as part of a weight loss program but making the necessary lifestyle changes is more important.
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Gonadotropic hormones are required for the induction and maintenance of tumors arising in ovaries that have been transplanted to the spleens of gonadectomized mice. The characteristics of gonadotropin receptors for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-luteinizing hormone on cells from these tumors of varying size, age, and morphology have been determined. The specific binding of 125I-labeled HCG to cells obtained by collagenase digestion, 15 to 65 weeks postimplantation from granulosa cell or luteinized cell, or mixed granulosa-luteal tumors was analyzed by Scatchard plot. Neither the size, weight, duration of implantation, nor histological morphology affected the receptorbinding affinity [equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd), 6 × 10-10 m], and, presumably, the receptor is qualitatively similar. In contrast, the number of HCG receptors per cell increased 17-fold and was related to the degree of morphological luteinization of the tumor. HCG-sensitive adenyl cyclase was also demonstrated and ...
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Evidence is provided to show that chorionic gonadotrophins extracted from the human, rhesus monkey and marmoset placentae have antigenic determinants in common. Similar slopes were obtained for these gonadotrophins in a radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The biological activity of the monkey gonadotrophins was neutralized by anti-HCG serum. When the gonadotrophic activity of the monkey placental extracts was assayed biologically and immunologically, using HCG as a standard, similar results were obtained. Higher values were obtained by the immunoassay than by the bioassay when extracts of human placenta were assayed using the same HCG standard.. ...
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Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is also known as the "pregnancy hormone" as it is produced once a woman becomes pregnant. It can be detected both in the urine and in the blood, is produced by the early placenta and keeps the corpus luteum producing progesterone when conception occurs. The purpose of hCG is to keep estrogen and progesterone at their appropriate levels until the placenta has developed enough to take over this function. ...
What could be HCG? What is HCG? Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that supports the normal growth and development of an egg within a womans ovary, and stimulates the launch of the egg during ovulation. HCG is used to result in ovulation also to treat infertility in women, and to increase…
Yeah, I mean we still didnt know what was wrong with me but it seemed pause a fairly reasonable decision between us that we would anx okay to have a baby. You do not have chertaussin stop the drinking alcohol all together in order to get pregnant, although some fertility experts is diarrhea a pregnancy symptom it, but binge drinking is certainly likely to reduce your fertility. It was fun to rest in bed together as a couple with our new baby. the sacrum and tailbone are not being compressed into your pelvic outlet. For example, they should be able to detect not only hCG but also a variant of the pregnancy hormone, hyperglycosylated hCG or hCG-H. Overall health is needed when you want to have a baby that is why it is cheratussin ac and pregnancy to change some lifestyle as you have to prepare the environment for the baby you are planning to have. Moran suggests preparing cheratussin ac and pregnancy the birth by putting a plastic sheet over the mattress, making the bed up with clean linens ...
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Gonadotropins are protein-peptide hormones, stimulating the development and function of male and female gonads. Synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins occurs under the influence of hypothalamic neurohormones (releasing factors). From the anterior pituitary identified three hormone that affect the function of the gonads: follicle-stimulating (FSH), luteinizing (LH), prolactin. FSH promotes the development of ovaries and maturation of follicles in them, it is also necessary to demonstrate the action of LH, in addition, it enhances spermatogenesis in male gonads. LH in women promotes the developed hair in a yellow body and lengthens the lifetime of the latter. In men, this hormone stimulates the function of the interstitial cells of the testes (it is also called a hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells), it causes activation of spermatogenesis is mainly the result of increased synthesis of testosterone, it also promotes descent of testes in the cryptorchidism; under the influence of this ...
Calculate the doubling time of two beta hCG samples and check whether your hCG levels in pregnancy rise normally by using Our hCG Pregnancy Hormone Calculator.
The HCG diet has become very helpful with weight loss. Along with the use of HCG drops or injections, a strict diet helps burn stored fat while keeping the metabolism high to keep off unwanted fat. HCG can also help increase energy, help with sleep, suppress the appetite, and reduce stress. There are a lot of benefits to using HCG. There are also a lot of different products on the market and it is hard to decide which one to use to lose the most amount of weight. Some contain real HCG. Others are a homeopathic version that do not contain actual HCG. The different versions have some similarities and some differences that have people asking what they should use to help them lose weight.. Real HCG is extracted from the urine of pregnant women and animals. Real HCG can only be prescribed by a doctor and can be a little costly when it comes to weight loss (which both homeopathic and non-homeopathic will do). Real HCG is administered through injections and must be prescribed by a doctor. About one ...
HCG is a glycoprotein hormone that is produced during pregnancy by the embryo shortly after conception and later in large amounts, by the placenta.
HCG (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) is a glycoproteic hormone, normally secreted by trophoblastic cells of the placenta. It consists of two dissimilar, separately but coordinately translated chains called the Alfa and Beta subunits. When it was discovered by Ascheim and Zondek by 1927 they found out that hCG matured the infantile sex glands of experimental animals, and it was secreted by the human placenta. From there its denomination: Chorionic Gonadotrophin.. The first report on the use of hCG for the management of obesity was published in 1954 by the late Dr. ATW Simeons, a German-born Physician practicing at the Ospedale Salvatori Mundii in Rome.. Working in India, he noticed that the so-called "fat boys," who displayed Adiposogenital dystrophy (or Frölichs syndrome) when treated with hCG improved not only their condition (testicular descent), but he also observed that body fat distribution modified during the treatment course.. Therefore he hypothesized that if those children were ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin, or hCG, is a hormone produced by the placenta during a normal pregnancy. Simple home test kits, which detect the presence of hCG in urine, are effective soon after the pregnancys conception.
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The Alere™ hCG Cassette (25 mIU/mL) is a one-step test for the early detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.
The Alere™ hCG Combo Cassette (25 mIU/mL) is a one-step test for the early detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.
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Gonadotropins are hormones which are naturally produced by the pituitary gland. These hormones stimulate the activity of gonads and affect the secretion of sex hormones. The amount of these hormones remains the same in men. In women, the changing amount of hormones causes ovulation. These hormones are produced as medicine, thanks to which the ovary can be stimulated so that it grows more follicles than one.
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Human chorionic gonadotropin, or hCG, is a natural hormone made in the body in significant levels only during pregnancy. During pregnancy, levels of hCG...
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Nemiro on testing hcg levels: Serum is the part of blood. It is the liquid part left when blood clots and is centrifuged . Many blood tests, including beta HCG are done on serum.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)is produced during the early stages of pregnancy by the placenta in women and it is extracted from their urine. This hormone mimics LH (luteinizing hormone)...
Ok my hcg as of today is 304, i had some bleeding a few days ago but i am now having ovulation pains. I have read that ovulation cant occur until hcg reaches 0. But hcg trigger are used with infertility meds to induce ovulation. So thats where Im confused, if hcg shots are used to ovulate, wouldnt a person be able to ovulate before hcg levels reach 0 after a miscarriage or ectopic??????
... , However, the hCG levels will reduce even further after 2 to 3 months. Note that there is no single
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Detect and quantitate human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
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Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. The presence of hCG is detected in some …
For subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, the usual dosage is 50 IU of follitropin beta (recombinant) once daily for 7 days. The dosage should be adjusted subsequently while monitoring the development of follicles (dose increase by 25 IU every 7 days if the response of the ovaries is poor) and, after confirming presence of follicles of 18 mm or larger in mean diameter by the ultrasonic tomography, ovulation is induced by the administration of a human chorionic gonadotropin preparation ...
Buy Ovidac 10000 IU Injection Online Human chorionic gonadotropin, which is the primary constituent of Ovidac 10000 IU Injection, is obtained from the placental cells of pregnant women and is used to treat infertility in women and men. It is also used to treat delayed puberty issues in children. Ovidac 10000 i.u. is used for medical conditions such as infertility.
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a natural hormone produced during pregnancy. The diet is a fraction of the amount produced during pregnancy.
Capralogics Inc. offers both primary and secondary polyclonal antibodies for research and discovery applications. We offer products in fields such as: Apoptosis Cell Membrane Receptors Chemokine Receptors Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Capralogics Inc. offers both primary and secondary polyclonal antibodies for research and discovery applications. We offer products in fields such as: Apoptosis Cell Membrane Receptors Chemokine Receptors Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Another strange obesity cure that was popular among physicians for a time was human chorionic gonadotropin (HGC), a type of growth hormone that was injected into patients. This treatment became popular...
Lukacs H, Hiatt ES, Lei ZM, Rao CV. Peripheral and intracerebroventricular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin alters several hippocampus-associated behaviors in cycling female rats ...
Sifasi HP 10000 iu Injection online at best price from ReliableRxPharmacy.Novarel HCG Injection has a wide role in treating infertility in women and increases sperm count in men.
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HCG Complex is one of the top products for weight loss that contains HCG. We will look into different aspects of the product in this review including its pros and cons, side effects, and others.
I know this has been on here before, but does anyone remember what your HCG levels should be at what week??? I know if they are low what that means, and if they are high then that could mean multiples ...
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My son simply should of been to comfortable he got here 2 weeks late. Heres your likelihood to get the newborn and family of your dreams, through the use of the secrets and techniques that over 8529 glad clients have been using for over 10 years. All of them will work by measuring the quantity of hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin), however the tests you are taking at dwelling will measure it in your urine while these the doctor makes use of the early signs of pregnancy first week it in your blood. Being pregnant testing should ideally be performed from the day your period would have been due. You will need to keep a way of togetherness by being pregnant, but if you happen to do not feel like having sex, then you do not have to. Males can have a hormonal imbalance as well, which can contribute to difficulties in becoming pregnant resulting from poor sperm well being, or different well being related issues. Potential information collection by way of multiple interviews is another important ...
My HCG levels are rising but theyre not doubling the doctor has me going in every 48 hours for labs and Im freaking out this will be my rainbow baby I am 6 weeks 5 days Im scheduled for an ultrasound tomorrow but Im still worried that Im losing my baby cuz my levels are not doubling anyone have any other advice
Hi I am 6 weeks and 5 days pregnant and 2 days ago I had blood taken to check my hcg levels they were 127,000 at 6 weeks and 3 days. I have an ultrasound in 2 days and very scared. Has anyone got any advise?
I have already come across a post on the board where someone said she was on Repronex for 20 days, so thats given me some peace of mind. Ive been so worried that they would just tell me to screw this cycle and give up. And whether that would mean that were done with this avenue (injectibles / IUI). Sometimes I think that being a scientist is a really bad thing in this arena because I know too much about things that could potentially happen. The meds arent working? I must be making neutralizing antibodies. So the FSH will never work, and Ive totally screwed myself because I cant ovulate, and now cant take gonadotropins so no IUI OR IVF. Despite the fact that there is no published paper even remotely suggesting that. Well, except in baboons taking human gonadotropins. Im such a dork ...
Im confused on HCG!! If I want to run test for 13 weeks as part of a larger stack. What is the best way to run HCG to get back quickly (I had test
|p||strong|HCG PREGNYL|/strong||/p| |p||strong|HCG Pregnyl Information |/strong||/p| |p|HCG is a hormone that is naturally produced by the female placenta during a normal pregnancy. This medicines action is highly similar to luteinizing hor
|p||strong|HCG PREGNYL|/strong||/p| |p||strong|HCG Pregnyl Information  |/strong||/p| |p|HCG is a hormone that is naturally produced by the female placenta during a normal pregnancy. This medicine’s action is highly similar to luteinizing hor
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... (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.[1][2] The presence of hCG is ... Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker,[26] as its β subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ...
"Entrez Gene: CGB7 chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 7". Human CGB7 genome location and CGB7 gene details page in the ... 1984). "The beta chorionic gonadotropin-beta luteinizing gene cluster maps to human chromosome 19". Hum. Genet. 67 (2): 174-7. ... This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 7 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin ( ... Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (1980). "The cDNA for the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin suggests evolution of a gene by ...
The gonadotropin hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ... Moyle WR, Bahl OP, März L (Dec 1975). "Role of carbohydrate of human chorionic gonadotropin in the mechanism of hormone action ... Morgan FJ, Birken S, Canfield RE (Jul 1975). "The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and ... Matzuk MM, Keene JL, Boime I (Feb 1989). "Site specificity of the chorionic gonadotropin N-linked oligosaccharides in signal ...
Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by the blastocyst during implantation is the factor measured in a pregnancy ... "Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)". WebMD. 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-07. Fong, C. Y.; Bongso, A.; Ng, S. C.; Anandakumar, C.; ... The enzymes released degrade the endometrial lining, while autocrine growth factors such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ... Srisuparp, Santha; Strakova, Zuzana; Fazleabas, Asgerally T (2001). "The Role of Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG) in Blastocyst ...
2015-01-01). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-800821-8.. ... Qasim SM, Callan C, Choe JK (1996). "The predictive value of an initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level for ... the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood and urine ...
An increase in human chorionic gonadotropin. It is probably not the HCG itself that causes the nausea. More likely, it is the ... The cause of morning sickness is unknown but may be related to changing levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin. ...
These signs include: the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood and urine missed menstrual period ... 2015-01-01). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-800821-8. Qasim SM, Callan C, ... "The predictive value of an initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level for pregnancy outcome following in vitro ...
Chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGB5 gene. This gene is a member of ... Kuorelahti, A; Rulli, S; Huhtaniemi, I; Poutanen, M (2007). "Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) up-regulates wnt5b and wnt7b in ... provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. "Entrez Gene: Chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5". Retrieved 2014-08-28. Lustbader, J. W ... "Crystal structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two Fv fragments specific for the alpha ...
Most of the research into immunity that inhibits gamete outcome has focused on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG is not ... Braunstein, GD; J Rasor; H Danzer; D Adler; ME Wade (1976). "Serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels throughout normal ... Fishel, SB; RG Edwards; CJ Evans (1984). "Human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro". ... Talwar, GP; JC Gupta; NV Shankar (2011). "Immunological approaches against human chorionic gonadotropin for control of ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Enzyme Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, patatin ... gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone a follicle-stimulating hormone). *glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, an integrin found on platelets that ...
His doctoral thesis showed that the gonadotropin hormone present in the urine of pregnant women is produced by chorionic tissue ... he thus named the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin. His later research covered topics including androgen hormones, 17- ... Hamburger's early research was focused on gonadotropins. He was the first to show that the urine of castrated males contains ...
"Entrez Gene: CGB1 chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 1". Human CGB1 genome location and CGB1 gene details page in the ... 1984). "The beta chorionic gonadotropin-beta luteinizing gene cluster maps to human chromosome 19". Hum. Genet. 67 (2): 174-7. ... The beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CGB) is encoded by six highly homologous and structurally similar genes that are ... 1997). "Expression of the human chorionic gonadotropin-beta gene cluster in human pituitaries and alternate use of exon 1". J. ...
While in pigs, equine chorionic gonadotropin is preferred. However, this is not commonly done in the swine industry because ... The hormones used are typically gonadotropin-like, meaning they stimulate the gonads. Follicle stimulating hormone is the ...
They produce high concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), also called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, in the ... Endometrial cups form during pregnancy in mares and are the source of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and a placenta- ... "Endometrial Cups and Secretion of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin". Colorado State University. Retrieved 17 April 2016. Jacobs, ... They begin to develop at approximately 25 days of pregnancy, deriving from the chorionic girdle. At approximately 36-38 days of ...
Another treatment for hypogonadism is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This stimulates the LH receptor, thereby promoting ... Physicians measure gonadotropins (LH and FSH) to distinguish primary from secondary hypogonadism. In primary hypogonadism the ... Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency Overview at National Center for Biotechnology Information. ... Chudnovsky, A.; Niederberger, C. S. (2007). "Gonadotropin Therapy for Infertile Men with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism". ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is normally produced during pregnancy. However, it can also replace LH as an ovulation ... Estrogen antagonists or Gonadotropins. Either Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or any Gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... Gonadotropins are the hormones in the body that normally stimulate the gonads (testes and ovaries). For medication, they can be ... Estrogen antagonists and gonadotropins may stimulate multiple follicles and other ovarian hormones leading to multiple birth ...
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, ALPHA CHAIN; CGA -118850 Dalkin, Alan C.; Haisenleder, ... C. (1998-04-28). "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulation of Gonadotropin Subunit Gene Expression in Female Rats: Actions on ... Vihko KK (May 1996). "Gonadotropins and ovarian gonadotropin receptors during the perimenopausal transition period". Maturitas ... and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The alpha subunits of the glycoproteins LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical and consist ...
Kuo, H. C.; Sheen, J. M.; Wu, K. S.; Wei, H. H.; Hsiao, C. C. (2006). "Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin- ... The tumor is called a chorionic gonadotropin secreting pineal tumor. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduced tumor and beta-hCG ... "Slipped capital femoral epiphysis during the treatment of precocious puberty with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist: ... "Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol a Alters Reproductive Parameters and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Signaling in Female Rats". ...
In humans, modern pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). hCG is not present until after implantation, which ...
... including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P4). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, 17β- ... Fertil Steril, 38, 303-311 Licht, P. et al (2007). Is human chorionic gonadotropin directly involved in the regulation of human ... Gallego, M. et al (2010). The pregnancy hormones human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone induce human embryonic stem cell ... Uterine angiogenesis is upregulated by human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone and downregulated by estrogen. The balance ...
Bernstein L, Hanisch R, Sullivan-Halley J, Ross RK (1995). "Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin and risk of breast ... found that placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces the synthesis of inhibin by the mammary epithelium. Bernstein ... Russo IH, Koszalka M, Russo J (1990). "Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on mammary gland differentiation and ... Alvarado MV, Alvarado NE, Russo J, Russo IH (1994). "Human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits proliferation and induces expression ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive functions. The team led by him has carried out ...
He was known for his studies on Human chorionic gonadotropin, popularly known as the pregnancy hormone. He was associated with ... Swaminathan N, Bahl OP (July 1970). "Dissociation and recombination of the subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin". Biochem ... "The Role of Carbohydrate in the Biological Function of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin". Current Topics in Molecular Endocrinology ... "Structures of IV-Glycosidic Carbohydrate Units of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (16 ...
A comparative study with the distribution of human chorionic gonadotropin". Cancer. 62 (3): 569-76. doi:10.1002/1097-0142( ... "Immunohistochemical localization of thrombomodulin in chorionic diseases of the uterus and choriocarcinoma of the stomach. ...
One such test is the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test. If the gonads are testes, there will be an increase ... A genital skin fibroblast study and a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test may also provide information helpful ... or after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation can be used to exclude such defects in androgen biosynthesis. ... resulting in the reduction of gonadotropins (i.e., luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) and spermatogenic ...
Androstenediol (A5) is the steroid metabolite thought to act as the main regulator of gonadotropin secretion.[citation needed] ... human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. ...
NOTE: * Patients will be treated for three courses after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) , 5 mIU/mL or until evidence of ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.[1][2] The presence of hCG is ... Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker,[26] as its β subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson. Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg). Chorionic Gonadotrophin is reported as an ... Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
This is a glycoprotein hormone, normally produced by a developing placenta implanted in a mothers uterus. It affects the corpus luteum in the ovary, st...
Serum levels of chorionic gonadotropin in treated female rats during the progression of DMBA-induced tumorigenesis. Proc Am ... Breast Cancer Mammary Gland Chorionic Gonadotropin Mammary Carcinogenesis Programme Cell Death Gene These keywords were added ... Human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits proliferation and induces expression of inhibin in human breast epithelial cells in vitro ... Russo IH, Russo J. Role of pregnancy and chorionic gonadotropin in breast cancer prevention. In: Birkhauser MH, Rozenbaum H, ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) ELISA Kit. 5. Human PSA ELISA Kit. 6. Human Myoglobin Enzyme Immunoassay. 7. Human Cardiac- ... Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Urine Qualitative. Company. ARUP Laboratories. Item. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Urine ...
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chorionic gonadotropin beta 3 subunit. chorionic gonadotropin beta chain. chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3. chorionic ... CGB3 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3 [Homo sapiens] CGB3 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID: ... chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1886 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000104827 MIM: ... Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin (Human) - Last updated on August 15, 2019. ©2019 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or b-HCG) is a hormone normally produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is also ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG) is a hormone that the placenta makes ... Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Tests and procedures / Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or b-HCG) ...
The β-chain is unique to gonadotropin. Signaling through its receptor, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) maintains the corpus ... Gonadotropin from pregnant mare serum can be used to induce super-ovulation in mammals. ... We also offer recombinant HCG, HCG purified from menopausal urine, and gonadotropin purified from pregnant mare′s serum. ... The placenta secretes chorionic gonadotropin beginning just after implantation. This glycoprotein consists of two chains. The α ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin at PatientsLikeMe. 6 patients ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) by Laurence A. Cole, 9780123849076, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced during pregnancy by the embryo. It promotes progesterone production by corpus ... Chapter 2: HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (hCG): ONE NAME FOR AT LEAST THREE INDEPENDENT MOLECULES ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that supports the normal development of an egg in a womans ovary, and ... human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (injectable). Skip to the navigation Pronunciation: HUE man KORE ee ON ik goe NAD oh TRO pin ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is given as an injection under the skin or into a muscle. If you use this medicine at home, ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that supports the normal development of an egg in a womans ovary, and ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, ... Novarel is (chorionic gonadotropin) as a treatment for prepubertal cryptorchidism, a condition seen in young males where one or ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a polypeptide hormone produced by the human placenta, is composed of an alpha and a beta ... Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection, USP, is available as individually packaged vials containing 5,000 or 10,000 USP Units per ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced during pregnancy.[1] Some tumors might produce this hormone. From ... "New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin". Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E. 7 ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Human_chorionic_gonadotropin&oldid=6442654" ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (acronym given as eCG but not to be confused with ECG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the ... Previously referred to as pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG), the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen ...
... chorionic gonadotropin". Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (August 1980). "The cDNA for the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ... This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 3 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin ( ... "The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin is encoded by multiple genes". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (19): 11492-9. PMID 6194155 ... Choriogonadotropin subunit beta (CG-beta) also known as chorionic gonadotrophin chain beta is a protein that in humans is ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin Gonadotropin preparations Human placental lactogen Triple test - a screening test in pregnancy ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. The presence of hCG is detected in ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ... Chorionic Gonadotropin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) History of pregnancy test (NIH). ...
References for Abcams Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ELISA Kit (ab108636). Please let us know if you have used this product in ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin at PatientsLikeMe. 6 patients ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. ... Stopped taking HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: Less than 1 month 1 * 1 ... Currently taking HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: 1 - 6 months 1 * 1 ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG). Test Overview. The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to check for the hormone ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in blood footnote 2 Men and nonpregnant women:. Less than 5 international units per ... The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to measure the amount of the hormone hCG in blood or urine to see if a ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may be measured in a sample of blood or urine. ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is produced from a sterile preparation of placental glucoprotein urine of post-menopausal women ... Chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, CG.. Introduction. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, ... Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is produced from a sterile preparation of placental glucoprotein urine of pregnant women having a ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100 µg/ml, ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production. Michael J. Russell,1,2 Frederick L. Flynt,3 Allyson L. Harroff,4 and Oluwole Fadare1,5 ... subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in osteosarcoma," Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. ... human chorionic gonadotropin in colorectal carcinoma," Surgery Today, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 966-970, 1996. View at Publisher · ... M. Szturmowicz, E. Wiatr, A. Sakowicz et al., "The role of human chorionic gonadotropin β. subunit elevation in small-cell lung ...
1. human chorionic gonadotropin (n.). hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is ...