Chordopoxvirinae: A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Molluscipoxvirus: A genus of POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, infecting humans. Transmission is by direct contact among children, by sexual contact among young adults, or by fomites. MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS is the type species.Yatapoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, causing tumors in primates. The type species is YABA MONKEY TUMOR VIRUS.Parapoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Orthopoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.Herbaspirillum: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Molluscum contagiosum virus: A species of MOLLUSCIPOXVIRUS causing skin lesions in humans. It is transmitted by direct contact or from non-living reservoirs (fomites), such as books or clothing.Molluscum Contagiosum: A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Leporipoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, consisting of ether-sensitive viruses of leporids and squirrels. They commonly cause tumors and are usually transmitted mechanically by arthropods. MYXOMA VIRUS is the type species.Ecthyma, Contagious: An infectious dermatitis of sheep and goats, affecting primarily the muzzle and lips. It is caused by a poxvirus and may be transmitted to man.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Fibroma Virus, Rabbit: A species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing subcutaneous localized swellings in rabbits, usually on the feet.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Myxomatosis, InfectiousCowpox: A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Material Safety Data Sheets: Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Monkeypox: A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

Genome of lumpy skin disease virus. (1/11)

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of an important disease of cattle in Africa. Here we report the genomic sequence of LSDV. The 151-kbp LSDV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 2.4 kbp-inverted terminal repeats and contains 156 putative genes. Comparison of LSDV with chordopoxviruses of other genera reveals 146 conserved genes which encode proteins involved in transcription and mRNA biogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication, protein processing, virion structure and assembly, and viral virulence and host range. In the central genomic region, LSDV genes share a high degree of colinearity and amino acid identity (average of 65%) with genes of other known mammalian poxviruses, particularly suipoxvirus, yatapoxvirus, and leporipoxviruses. In the terminal regions, colinearity is disrupted and poxvirus homologues are either absent or share a lower percentage of amino acid identity (average of 43%). Most of these differences involve genes and gene families with likely functions involving viral virulence and host range. Although LSDV resembles leporipoxviruses in gene content and organization, it also contains homologues of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-1 binding proteins, G protein-coupled CC chemokine receptor, and epidermal growth factor-like protein which are found in other poxvirus genera. These data show that although LSDV is closely related to other members of the Chordopoxvirinae, it contains a unique complement of genes responsible for viral host range and virulence.  (+info)

Complete genomic sequence and comparative analysis of the tumorigenic poxvirus Yaba monkey tumor virus. (2/11)

The Yatapoxvirus genus of poxviruses is comprised of Yaba monkey tumor virus (YMTV), Tanapox virus, and Yaba-like disease virus (YLDV), which all have the ability to infect primates, including humans. Unlike other poxviruses, YMTV induces formation of focalized histiocytomas upon infection. To gain a greater understanding of the Yatapoxvirus genus and the unique tumor formation properties of YMTV, we sequenced the 134,721-bp genome of YMTV. The genome of YMTV encodes at least 140 open reading frames, all of which are also found as orthologs in the closely related YLDV. However, 13 open reading frames found in YLDV are completely absent from YMTV. Common to both YLDV and YMTV are the unusually large noncoding regions between many open reading frames. To determine whether any of these noncoding regions might be functionally significant, we carried out a comparative analysis between the putative noncoding regions of YMTV and similar noncoding regions from other poxviruses. This approach identified three new gene poxvirus families, defined as orthologs of YMTV23.5L, YMTV28.5L, and YMTV120.5L, which are highly conserved in virtually all poxvirus species. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also revealed a 40-bp nucleotide sequence at approximately 14,700 bases from the left terminus that was 100% identical in the comparable intergene site within members of the Yatapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, and Capripoxvirus genera and 95% conserved in the Leporipoxvirus genus. This conserved sequence was shown to function as a poxvirus late promoter element in transfected and infected cells, but other functions, such as an involvement in viral replication or packaging, cannot be excluded. Finally, we summarize the predicted immunomodulatory protein repertoire in the Yatapoxvirus genus as a whole.  (+info)

A novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). (3/11)

A parapoxvirus has been implicated in the decline of the red squirrel in the United Kingdom. Virus was isolated from an outbreak of lethal disease in red squirrels in the north-east of England. Experimental infection of captive-bred red squirrels confirmed that this virus was the cause of the severe skin lesions observed. Electron microscopic examination of the virus showed that it had a morphology typical of parapoxviruses whilst preliminary sequence data suggested a genomic G+C composition of approximately 66 %, again similar to that found in other parapoxviruses. However Southern hybridization analysis failed to detect three known parapoxvirus genes, two of which have been found so far only in the genus parapoxvirus. Comparative sequence analysis of two other genes, conserved across the eight recognized chordopoxvirus genera, suggests that the squirrel virus represents a previously unrecognized genus of the chordopoxvirus.  (+info)

A complex of seven vaccinia virus proteins conserved in all chordopoxviruses is required for the association of membranes and viroplasm to form immature virions. (4/11)

Early events in vaccinia virus (VAC) morphogenesis, particularly the formation of viral membranes and their association with viroplasm, are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that repression of A30 or G7 expression results in the accumulation of normal viral membranes that form empty-looking immature virions (IV), which are separated from large masses of electron-dense viroplasm. In addition, A30 and G7 physically and functionally interact with each other and with the F10 protein kinase. To identify other proteins involved in early morphogenesis, proteins from cells that had been infected with vaccinia virus expressing an epitope-tagged copy of F10 were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. In addition to F10, A30, and G7, viral proteins A15, D2, D3, and J1 were identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Further evidence for the complex was obtained by immunopurification of proteins associated with epitope-tagged A15, D2, and D3. The previously unstudied A15, like other proteins in the complex, was expressed late in infection, associated with virus cores, and required for the stability and kinase activity of F10. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicated that mutants in which A15 or D2 expression was regulated by the Escherichia coli lac operator system exhibited phenotypes characterized by the presence of large numbers of empty immature virions, similar to the results obtained with inducible A30 and G7 mutants. Empty immature virions were also seen by electron microscopy of cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of D2 or D3, though the numbers of membrane forms were reduced perhaps due to additional effects of high temperature.  (+info)

Genome of deerpox virus. (5/11)

Deerpox virus (DPV), an uncharacterized and unclassified member of the Poxviridae, has been isolated from North American free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) exhibiting mucocutaneous disease. Here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of two pathogenic DPV isolates, W-848-83 (W83) and W-1170-84 (W84). The W83 and W84 genomes are 166 and 170 kbp, containing 169 and 170 putative genes, respectively. Nucleotide identity between DPVs is 95% over the central 157 kbp. W83 and W84 share similar gene orders and code for similar replicative, structural, virulence, and host range functions. DPV open reading frames (ORFs) with putative virulence and host range functions include those similar to cytokine receptors (R), including gamma interferon receptor (IFN-gammaR), interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R), and type 8 CC-chemokine receptors; cytokine binding proteins (BP), including IL-18BP, IFN-alpha/betaBP, and tumor necrosis factor binding protein (TNFBP); serpins; and homologues of vaccinia virus (VACV) E3L, K3L, and A52R proteins. DPVs also encode distinct forms of major histocompatibility complex class I, C-type lectin-like protein, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), a protein not previously described in a mammalian chordopoxvirus. Notably, DPV encodes homologues of cellular endothelin 2 and IL-1R antagonist, novel poxviral genes also likely involved in the manipulation of host responses. W83 and W84 differ from each other by the presence or absence of five ORFs. Specifically, homologues of a CD30 TNFR family protein, swinepox virus SPV019, and VACV E11L core protein are absent in W83, and homologues of TGF-beta1 and lumpy skin disease virus LSDV023 are absent in W84. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that DPVs are genetically distinct from viruses of other characterized poxviral genera and that they likely comprise a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.  (+info)

Genome of crocodilepox virus. (6/11)

Here, we present the genome sequence, with analysis, of a poxvirus infecting Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) (crocodilepox virus; CRV). The genome is 190,054 bp (62% G+C) and predicted to contain 173 genes encoding proteins of 53 to 1,941 amino acids. The central genomic region contains genes conserved and generally colinear with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs). CRV is distinct, as the terminal 33-kbp (left) and 13-kbp (right) genomic regions are largely CRV specific, containing 48 unique genes which lack similarity to other poxvirus genes. Notably, CRV also contains 14 unique genes which disrupt ChPV gene colinearity within the central genomic region, including 7 genes encoding GyrB-like ATPase domains similar to those in cellular type IIA DNA topoisomerases, suggestive of novel ATP-dependent functions. The presence of 10 CRV proteins with similarity to components of cellular multisubunit E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, including 9 proteins containing F-box motifs and F-box-associated regions and a homologue of cellular anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11 (Apc11), suggests that modification of host ubiquitination pathways may be significant for CRV-host cell interaction. CRV encodes a novel complement of proteins potentially involved in DNA replication, including a NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and a protein with similarity to both vaccinia virus F16L and prokaryotic serine site-specific resolvase-invertases. CRV lacks genes encoding proteins for nucleotide metabolism. CRV shares notable genomic similarities with molluscum contagiosum virus, including genes found only in these two viruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation. These data reveal the unique nature of CRV and suggest mechanisms of virus-reptile host interaction.  (+info)

Genomic characterization of a novel poxvirus contributing to the decline of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in the UK. (7/11)

The genome of a virulent squirrelpox virus (SQPV) isolate was characterized in order to determine its relationship with other poxviruses. Restriction enzyme analysis suggested a genome length of approximately 158 kb, whilst sequence analysis of the two ends of the genome indicated a G + C composition of approximately 66 %. Two contiguous stretches of 23 and 37 kb at the left-hand and right-hand ends of the genome, respectively, were sequenced allowing the identification of at least 59 genes contained therein. The partial sequence of a further 15 genes was determined by spot sequencing of restriction fragments located across the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 15 genes conserved in all the recognized genera of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae confirmed that the SQPV does not group within the family Parapoxvirinae, but instead partitions on its own in a separate clade of the poxviruses. Analysis of serum from British woodland rodents failed to find any evidence of SQPV infection in wood mice or bank voles, but for the first time serum samples from grey squirrels in the USA were found to contain antibody against SQPV.  (+info)

Characterization of DNA-binding activity of Z alpha domains from poxviruses and the importance of the beta-wing regions in converting B-DNA to Z-DNA. (8/11)

The E3L gene is essential for pathogenesis in vaccinia virus. The E3L gene product consists of an N-terminal Z alpha domain and a C-terminal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain; the left-handed Z-DNA-binding activity of the Z alpha domain of E3L is required for viral pathogenicity in mice. E3L is highly conserved among poxviruses, including the smallpox virus, and it is likely that the orthologous Z alpha domains play similar roles. To better understand the biological function of E3L proteins, we have investigated the Z-DNA-binding behavior of five representative Z alpha domains from poxviruses. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we have demonstrated that these viral Z alpha domains bind Z-DNA tightly. Ability of Z alpha(E3L) converting B-DNA to Z-DNA was measured by circular dichroism (CD). The extents to which these Z alphas can stabilize Z-DNA vary considerably. Mutational studies demonstrate that residues in the loop of the beta-wing play an important role in this stabilization. Notably the Z alpha domain of vaccinia E3L acquires ability to convert B-DNA to Z-DNA by mutating amino acid residues in this region. Differences in the host cells of the various poxviruses may require different abilities to stabilize Z-DNA; this may be reflected in the observed differences in behavior in these Zalpha proteins.  (+info)

Chordopoxvirinae is a subfamily of viruses, in the family Poxviridae. Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural hosts. There are currently 38 species in this subfamily, divided among 10 genera. Diseases associated with this subfamily include: Variola virus: smallpox. Four genera in this subfamily contain species that infect humans: Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus. The virions are generally enveloped though the intracellular mature virion form of the virus, which contains a different envelope, is also infectious. They vary in their shape depending upon the species but are generally shaped like a brick or as an oval form similar to a rounded brick because they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum. The virion is exceptionally large, its size is around 200 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length and carries its genome in a single, linear, double-stranded segment of DNA. Genomes are linear, around 130-375kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry ...
Poxviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that have a wide range of susceptible host species. Monkeypox is of increased interest since its importation into the United States in 2003 and has increased concerns of zoonotic transmission of poxviruses. This chapter addresses molecular and immunological diagnostic issues for detection of viral infections associated with four genera of the Chordopoxvirinae that cause human disease and their public health significance. Diagnostic methods are similar for these viruses and are addressed cumulatively. Parapoxviruses are structurally distinct from other Chordopoxvirinae and commonly cause agricultural disease of sheep, goats, and cattle that may be transmitted by direct contact to humans. The basis for diagnosis of any poxviruses can be attributed historically to smallpox. Detection of humoral antibody responses by serology is an indirect approach to diagnosis and has been a hallmark for laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. The most pragmatic serology
The family Poxviridae is divided in two subfamilies: Entomopoxvirinae, which infect insects, and Chordopoxvirinae, which infect vertebrates[1]. Genera of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae that may cause human infections include Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus[1, 2]. The genus Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) is the most relevant in terms of human public health concerns and includes viruses that have been associated with severe febrile, rash illness in humans. Its members include: Variola virus, a solely human pathogen and the etiological agent of smallpox[2-4]; Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease that causes a generalized rash similar to smallpox with up to 10% case fatality rate[5]; Vaccinia virus (VACV), the smallpox vaccine which can produce generalized illness in immunocompromised individuals[6]; and Cowpox virus, another zoonotic disease which can cause generalized illness in immunocompromised individuals[6, 7]. In immunocompetent individuals, infection with vaccinia or ...
Parapoxvirus, is commonly referred to as "farmyard pox" and is mostly expressed in hoofed animals. The virus belongs to the Poxviridae family. This infection is identified by scabby lesions that can be seen on the muzzle, lips, face, ears or on the velvet of the Red deer (Cervus elaphus). This virus is zoonotic, meaning infectious diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Humans vulnerable to infection include farmers, butchers, and veterinarians. This virus occurs worldwide. In 1987, deaths[clarification needed] occurred on two Red Deer farms in New Zealand where secondary bacterial infections were seen alongside the lesions. In these particular cases, morbidity rates reached 100%. Parapoxvirus belongs to the family of viruses named Poxviridae, a group one family of double stranded DNA viruses. More specifically Parapoxvirus is classified into the subfamily of Chordopoxvirinae. Other Chordopoxvirinae genuses include; Orthopoxvirus, Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, ...
Photo/image Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), Family: Sciuridae. Location Hobro Skov, Jylland, Danmark. Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 90761
Photo/image Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), Family: Sciuridae. Location Midtsjælland, Denmark. Photographer: S Drozd Lund, Photoid 99713
Scientists in the UK have discovered that some red squirrels have developed immunity to a disease that has posed a threat to the endangered animals.. Introduced to the UK from North America in the late 19th Century, grey squirrels are known to spread the pox, and while it has no affect on them, red squirrels who are exposed to the disease will die within weeks. But a new study published in EcoHealth found that a vaccine could bring hope to red squirrels. As the grey squirrels increased their range, red squirrels have suffered huge population declines and now exist in just a few pockets around the British Isles.. An estimated 211,000 red squirrels remain in the UK, compared with more than 2.7 million greys.. While scientists believe the larger and more aggressive grey squirrels have been able to out-compete their red cousins for resources, they believe that a deadly pox that appeared soon after the greys arrived has also been responsible for the catastrophic decline.. "Squirrel pox is almost ...
ID DNLI_VACCW Reviewed; 552 AA. AC P16272; Q76ZM8; DT 01-AUG-1990, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-AUG-1990, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 93. DE RecName: Full=DNA ligase; DE EC=6.5.1.1 {ECO:0000255,PROSITE-ProRule:PRU10135}; DE AltName: Full=Polydeoxyribonucleotide synthase [ATP]; GN Name=LIG; OrderedLocusNames=VACWR176; ORFNames=A50R; OS Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain OS WR)). OC Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Poxviridae; Chordopoxvirinae; OC Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia virus. OX NCBI_TaxID=10254; OH NCBI_TaxID=9913; Bos taurus (Bovine). RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2045793; DOI=10.1099/0022-1317-72-6-1349; RA Smith G.L., Chan Y.S., Howard S.T.; RT "Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near RT the right inverted terminal repeat."; RL J. Gen. Virol. 72:1349-1376(1991). RN [2] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2555782; DOI=10.1093/nar/17.22.9051; RA Smith ...
En välvandrad stig. A Well trodden path. Korp Raven Utsikt över älvdalen. Looking out over the river valley. Japp, det är stigen. Yeah, th ...
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 63. ...
Envelope protein which probably plays a role in virus entry into the host cell. Is probably involved in the virus attachment to the host cell surface and associates with the entry/fusion complex (EFC). Needed for fusion and penetration of the virus core into host cell.
Native red squirrels have declined throughout Britain and Ireland for the last century due to a combination of habitat loss and the introduction of the North American eastern grey squirrel. But more recently its few remaining ...
Thinking more over my morning cup of coffee, I remembered my squirrel fight of last December. A red squirrel rattled through the living room wall and settled in each evening and again in the morning-- actually going inside the walls. I spent a lot of time stalking the beast, and finally managed a clean shot with my old single shot 22. Then I decided to close up the holes around the basement where the tracks showed the squirrel had made a big hole around an old basement window frame. I poked and sprayed insulation wherever I felt a cold breeze. I even plugged the hole under the dryer that Dad used to divert the dryer hot air output to the basement in the winter after a red squirrel came up and ran about the bathroom ...
Page 9 of 13 - Evolution Makes No Sense - posted in Best all time threads.: According to the scientific research, the red squirrel is dying off because of disease spread by the grey.Grey squirrels transmit a virus to red squirrels, killing them within a fortnight, according to new research.This is not an example of natural selection, its a case of why different things should not mix because they are different and can contract disease etc from each other.So, the Red...
1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
Veganism (considered by vegans to be strict or pure vegetarianism) is a philosophy and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose. Vegans do not use or consume animal products of any kind. The most popular reasons for becoming a vegan are concerns for animal rights, the environment, or human health, and spiritual or religious concerns. Of particular concern are the practices involved in factory farming and animal testing, and the intensive use of land and other resources required for animal farming. A number of zines are devoted to the topic of Veganism and vegan cooking: ...
Introduction. Poxviruses are a large family of complex, highly epitheliotropic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that cause cutaneous and systemic diseases in humans, birds and both free-ranging and domestic mammals. Most members of the family Poxviridae cause mild, localised skin disease from which the term pox derives. Severe systemic disease may be caused by some poxviruses including sheeppox virus, fowlpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus and the now eradicated human smallpox virus (variola virus). Economically important pox-viral diseases include: lumpy skin disease, which causes severe epidemics in cattle in southern Africa; sheeppox and goatpox, which cause serious losses in Africa, but are absent in southern Africa; and orf, which is a significant disease in sheep and goats worldwide. A few poxviruses cause hyperplastic or neoplastic conditions such as molluscum contagiosum in humans and horses, and Shopes fibroma of rabbits. Whilst many poxviruses are host specific, some ...
The relationships among 207 squirrels from 12 locations in the UK and three in mainland Europe were examined using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence. Twenty-six haplotypes were detected, many of which were population specific. Eighty per cent of the populations analysed contained two or more haplotypes. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance showed the majority of genetic variation to be partitioned among populations. Genetic diversity varied considerably within the UK, and conformed to no obvious geographical trend. The populations in Argyll and Spadeadam Forest showed the highest levels of variation in the UK. However, the greatest genetic diversity was seen in Bavaria, southern Germany where six unique alleles were detected in a sample of 10 individuals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no evolutionary divergence between UK and mainland European haplotypes. We conclude that, within the UK, the genetic patterns observed are most likely to be explained by the effects of genetic drift
There are two squirrel species found in Ireland. The native red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, and the invasive North American grey squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis. In Ireland, the UK and Italy the grey squirrel threatens the survival of the red squirrel as the effects of competition and disease from the grey squirrel almost inevitably lead to total replacement of the red squirrel population. In 2007, the results of a national squirrel survey suggested that the normally invasive grey squirrel population in the midlands of Ireland had gone into decline. Whilst occasionally grey squirrel introductions have failed elsewhere, such a decline in range has not been recorded anywhere else for this species subsequent to having established itself as an invasive population. In the 2007 report, the decline in grey squirrel range was anecdotally attributed to an increase in European pine marten, Martes martes, range and numbers. The pine marten population in Ireland reached a nadir in the early 20th century as a ...
In 1998 there were only 30-40 red squirrels remaining on Anglesey. These formed a single isolated population in the eastern part of Pentraeth forest.. A comparative analysis of hair samples taken from the forest population and material collected from island specimens living within broadleaved woodland sites on Anglesey twenty years ago showed that the island has lost much of the genetic diversity which was once present. By the late 1990s only a single haplotype (in simple terms one female bloodline) remained and was shared by all the animals in the Pentraeth forest population.. Download the BBC News Report on Welsh red squirrel genetics. Download the Conservation Genetics Paper (2005). This historical research also revealed that there were several red squirrel bloodlines that were unique Wales. These genetic types have, to date, not been found anywhere else in the UK, but in 2011, studies revealed that an animal imported from the European mainland had a similar bloodline.. The red squirrel ...
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel), |span class=ultooltip title=Inhabits Trees|Arboreal|/span|: Yes, Adult Weight: 200 grams, Birth Weight: 7 grams, Diet: Omnivore, Female Maturity: 11 months 12 days, |span class=ultooltip title=Incubation|Gestation|/span|: 37 days, |span class=ultooltip title=Brood / Clutch|Litter|/span| Size: 4, |span class=ultooltip title=Broods / Clutches|Litters|/span| / Year: 2, Maximum Longevity: 10 years, Weaning: 63 days
When I was young, Summer brought the threat of Polio, with the possibility of spending time in an Iron Lung, and having a limp if you survived. Polio vaccines have greatly reduced the incidence of this dreaded disease. Unfortunately, some of those who got the vaccine, got an unwelcome virus along with it; SV40 monkey tumor virus. One definite risk traded for another unknown possible risk.. There has been an increase in the administration of vaccines for other viruses, based on this success. Undoubtedly, many have been spared of the devastating effects of the illnesses they prevent. Unfortunately, there has been an observation among the public that occasional infants and toddlers get sick with a high fever immediately after vaccination, and when they recover, they loose the ability to speak and regress in their development, and are diagnosed with autism.. Most of the medical authorities believe that there is no relationship between the development of autism and the reaction to vaccines. Indeed, ...
Red Squirrels are very vocal. They bark at intruders, including humans, and can bark continuously for more than an hour if they are annoyed. They also chatter, especially to stake out a territory and protect their stored food supply (conifer cones, which they harvest in great numbers) from other squirrels. They are especially noisy during the breeding season, when they chase each other through tree branches making a distinctive call that sounds almost like the buzz of cicadas. They readily nest in attics and cabins, and are trapped for their fur. Also known as: ...
Cases of papular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer have been reported for many years. The causative agent was thought to be Orf virus (ORFV), one of the Parapoxviridae, although this assumption was based mainly on clinical symptoms, pathology and electron microscopy. Here sequence analyses of the viral DNA isolated from a recent outbreak of disease in 1999-2000 are presented in comparison to that isolated from earlier outbreaks in 1992-1994. The results show that the virus isolated from the 1999-2000 outbreak is most closely related to Pseudocowpox virus, whereas those from previous years grouped with ORFV. The present study describes a method for genetic characterization and classification of parapoxviruses (PPVs) and provides for the first time an extended phylogenetic analysis of PPVs isolated from Finland, established members of the genus Parapoxvirus and selected members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.
Grundig vaksinering av besetningen kombinert med å avlive syke dyr, er like effektivt som å avlive hele besetningen. I dag krever EUs lovverk at hele besetninger avlives dersom lumpy skin disease er påvist.. Vaksinasjon er mest effektivt hvis det gjennomføres før viruset kommer inn i en region eller et land.. Les mer på EFSAs sider ,. 09.08.2016 ...
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has called for broader cattle vaccination to keep lumpy skin disease under control in Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
കന്നുകാലികളിൽ പടരുന്ന ലംപി സ്കിൻ ഡിസീസ് (ചർമ മുഴ രോഗം) എറണാകുളം ജില്ലയിലെ കിഴക്കൻ മേഖലയിലെ കൂടുതൽ പശുക്കളിൽ കണ്ടെത്തി. മൂവാറ്റുപുഴ, കോതമംഗലം,.Lumpy Skin Disease in Cows
Red squirrels are carrying human leprosy and people have been warned to stay away from the animals to minimise the risk of catching the disease.
Nice Red Squirrel Hand Blown Art Glass with Gilt. Size by 4.7*1.6*4.4 cm. A Unique Collection of Glass Figurines. Also, it may be a gift & souvenir du
Over in the UK, the poor gray squirrel is in mortal danger. They are hunted and slaughtered by evil men who proclaim the aryan purity of the red squirrel master race. They even get govt. approval and funding for this heinous activity.. The most pathetic nazis in all the world are surely the squirrel nazis.. ...
In the twilight and the night the rabbits came regularly and made a hearty meal. All day long the red squirrels came and went, and afforded me much entertainment by their manoeuvres. One would approach at first warily through the shrub oaks, running over the snow-crust by fits and starts like a leaf blown by the wind, now a few paces this way, with wonderful speed and waste of energy, making inconceivable haste with his "trotters," as if it were for a wager, and now as many paces that way, but never getting on more than half a rod at a time; and then suddenly pausing with a ludicrous expression and a gratuitous somerset, as if all the eyes in the universe were eyed on him for all the motions of a squirrel, even in the most solitary recesses of the forest, imply spectators as much as those of a dancing girl wasting more time in delay and circumspection than would have sufficed to walk the whole distance I never saw one walk and then suddenly, before you could say Jack Robinson, he would be in the ...
I am a 15 year old male in Virginia and I have been looking for a pet red Squirrel. I am very responsible and think a squirrel would be a great addition to my family. ...
The chalet is surrounded by woodland and wildlife, meaning you are highly likely to see the native red squirrels and even badgers, although the owners kindly ask that you please dont feed them. The attractive sub-tropical gardens within the development thrive as the area benefits from its own micro climate, which provides an ideal haven for a variety of flora and fauna. In a secluded and peaceful setting, this small but comfortable bungalow serves as an ideal holiday base to take in the spectacular seascapes with scenic walks of the Islands rugged southern shore. St. Catherines Lighthouse is only a mile away, whilst the delightful, unspoilt village of Niton is a short distance to the north and offers an array of amenities, including the famous 16th-century public house for good food, fine wines and local ales ...
This chapter deals with poxviruses belonging to the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The G+C contents of orthopoxviruses, yatapoxviruses, Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), and parapoxviruses are ~33, ~32, ~60, and ~63%, respectively. The zoonotic poxviruses include members of the genera Orthopoxvirus (monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and the vaccinia virus subspecies, including buffalopox virus), Parapoxvirus (orf, pseudocowpox, sealpox, and papulosa stomatitis viruses), and Yatapoxvirus (tanapox virus [TPV], Yaba monkey tumor virus [YMTV], and Yaba-like disease virus [YLDV]). Poxviruses produce inclusions that have characteristic appearances when stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin-eosin stains. Perinuclear basophilic or B-type cytoplasmic inclusions (virus factories or viroplasm) are observed with cells infected with any of the poxviruses and represent sites of virus replication. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is used by the WHO collaborating center (WHOCC) at
The American red squirrel is one of the smaller tree squirrels, head and body measuring 16-23 cm, and the tail 9-16 cm. Body-weight ranges from about 140-310 grams. Like in its Eurasian cousin, the colour of the fur is highly variable depending of region and season. The upper parts are usually brownish or reddish. During the summer, a black stripe runs along their side, separating the upper parts from the white or creamy belly. The tail, which is is not as thick or bushy as in other North American tree squirrels, is often edged with white. There are white bands encircling their large, black eyes. American red squirrels are well adapted for climbing and running through the trees with their compact, muscled bodies, strong claws, and powerful hind limbs, but they also spend much time on the ground. An individual usually has several nests, which may either be loosely constructed tree nests, holes in a tree trunk or weather-tight winter nests constructed in the densest foliage of a tree. Breeding ...
ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses including lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV).
These are forest rodents Arboreal omnivorus, Broad leaved woodland They love Scots Pine And NOrway Spruce And before us They would sit in common woodland All over the land Until the grey descended Which apparently wasnt planned But the grey … Continue reading →. ...
Download this Anxious Grey Squirrel Sciurus Carolinensis Sitting On Ground photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
Sciurus variegatoides is a large, long-tailed species of tree squirrel. Its pelage is shiny and bristly. The fourteen different subspecies exhibit a wide range of color and color pattern. Dorsally, the color ranges from blackish to reddish brown to yellowish-gray to white. On the underside, the color ranges from white to cinnamon-buff. The feet and sides of the body are pale gray or yellowish; the ears have a pale patch of fur on the outside. Different subspecies may have a combination of dorsal and lateral stripes and forehead patches or may be completely grizzled in coloration. The guard hairs on the back and sides are agouti, and are made up of several different color bands. The underside is not usually banded. The tail is bushy and long and has black hairs tipped in white on its dorsal side. The underside of the tail is usually lighter in color. (Best, 1995; Emmons, 1990; Harris, 1937). There is little seasonal change in the coat of S. variegatoides. It has no melanistic phase. Molts begin ...
The other thing that motivates me…ahhh, I wish you could see and feel what I do at this moment. Im sitting in our front yard inhaling the scent of lilacs, watching birds of all kinds dive to the feeder and fight for the peanuts on the ground. A gentle breeze blows the cedar trees that surround our house and yard, while cows low a mellow sound in the distance. Once in awhile one of our resident red squirrels scatters the birds from the ground as he runs in for a peanut and darts back to his hideaway under our flowering bush. (Dont ask me what kind of bush. The flowers are pink, thats all I know.) Soon, Ill go down to the barn, where the sun will be setting beyond the forest of trees and my goats will run to greet me-crying all the way. As they all get their hugs and I put fresh straw on their bed, peace will swell within me. The peace of nature at its best and the love of animals that Ive raised from kids. That is the other half of what motivates me ...
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Brownsea Islands red squirrels are suffering from leprosy. Were working with the University of Edinburgh and Dorset Wildlife Trust to learn more about the disease.
Directions: Located one-half mile south of Lebanon, NJ. The area is accessed from US 22, 8 miles east of Clinton and 4 miles from Whitehouse. US 22 can be reached either from I-78 using exit 20A from the north or from I-287 from the east. Half a mile west of Lebanon, there is a sign to the park. Turn onto the park access road and travel for 2 miles. The park access road merges with County Road 629 later. Pass the road to the boat launch and, after approximately 1 mile, turn left into the Round Valley entrance. Stop at the visitors center to get a car parking permit. Parking is not allowed at the center. It is in a natural, horseshoe-shaped basin surrounded on three sides by Cushetunk Mountain. The reservoir covers more than 2,300 acres. Round Valley Reservoir is one of the largest and deepest lakes in NJ. Accessed from US 22, 8 miles east of Clinton and 4 miles from Whitehouse. lots of fishermen Superb view of rural NJ ahead. large, open area Red squirrels and the eastern chipmunk inhabit the ...
A chipmunk is a small squirrel-like rodent. About twenty-three species fall under this title, with one species in North America.. The name may have originally been spelled "chitmunk" (perhaps from a Native American word meaning "red squirrel"). However, the earliest form comes from the Oxford English Dictionary (in 1842) as "chipmonk". Other early forms include "chipmuck" and "chipminck".. Chipmunks are hoarders, meaning they store food in their cheek pouchs.. ...
The next morning began with a walk to the outskirts of Jasper to the Red Squirrel Trail, which went through a forest, past a small lake and then crossed a bridge over the Athabasca River to begin the Old Fort Point Loop. This trail began in a forested area and gradually began sloping upward alongside occasional patches of moss that were a brilliant green. There were gentle slopes and then a steep climb to an area that provided a great view to the north of the mountains, Lac Beauvert, the Fairmont Jasper Park Lodge and its golf course. I continued on the trail through more forested areas before arriving at a clearing that provided outstanding views of the mountains to the east and south. I had the trails pretty much to myself up to this point, but there were large animal droppings along the way and an adjoining trail was closed because of recent bear sightings, so I rattled my metal cooler bottle to make creatures aware that I was in the vicinity. ...
This image is protected by copyright law. Please contact the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Mammal Division for permission to reproduce, display, or transmit this image. (734) 764-0456 (voice ...
2004 - Czech Aktualizovaný seznam pošvatek Šumavy (Plecoptera) zahrnuje 75 druhů (18 druhů a 7 čeledí) včetně druhů s nejasným statutem a v současnosti nepotvrzenými faunistickými daty. Pět druhů, Brachyptera monilicornis (Pictet, 1841), Capnopsis schilleri (Rostock, 1892), Rhabdiopteryx acuminata Klapálek, 1905, Nemoura sciurus Aubert, 1949 a Nemoura cf. babiagorensis Sowa, 1964, je uváděno ze studované oblasti poprvé. Tři druhy jsou v České republice vyhynulé (poslení nálezy starší než 30 let), dalších 5 druhů je nezvěstných neho vyhynulých, 2 jsou kriticky ohrožené, 6 ohrožených, 6 zranitelných a 8 druhů patří do kategorie téměř ohrožených druhů. U dalších 6 druhů neexistují spolehlivá data o jejich výskytu, zbývajících 36 druhů nevyžaduje zvláštní ošetření. Update list of Plecoptera of the area in question consists of 75 species,18 genera and 7 families of the order including 5 species the txonomic status of which is unclear ...
0112] In preferred embodiments, the adenovirus includes, but is not limited to, a human adenovirus. In preferred embodiments, the astrovirus includes, but is not limited to, a mamastrovirus. In preferred embodiments, the hepadnavirus includes, but is not limited to, the hepatitis B virus. In preferred embodiments, the herpesvirus includes, but is not limited to, a herpes simplex virus type I, a herpes simplex virus type 2, a human cytomegalovirus, an Epstein-Barr virus, a varicella zoster virus, a roseolovirus, and a Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. In preferred embodiments, the papovavirus includes, but is not limited to, human papilloma virus and a human polyoma virus. In preferred embodiments, the poxvirus includes, but is not limited to, a variola virus, a vaccinia virus, a cowpox virus, a monkeypox virus, a smallpox virus, a pseudocowpox virus, a papular stomatitis virus, a tanapox virus, a yaba monkey tumor virus, and a molluscum contagiosum virus. In preferred embodiments, the ...
Mammalian guts harbor trillions of microbes, which play important roles in diverse aspects of host biology, including nutrition, immune system development, and behavior. Changes in gut microbial composition have been linked to host health and disease [1-4]. Previous studies have shown that host diet, age, sex, genetics, and environmental exposure all drive normal gut microbial variation [4-12]. However, to date, most studies have been focused on human populations or laboratory animals in controlled settings, and much remains to be learned about the ecological forces shaping gut microbial diversity and their relative strengths in nature. Studies of wild animal populations provide important insights into how environment, host biology, and their interactions affect gut microbiota in nature where hosts and microbes have coevolved.. Diet is believed to be a key selective factor in shaping gut microbiota in wild animals. For example, large differences in gut microbial communities have been found among ...
YOUNG BABY SQUIRRELS FOR SALE!. we are a family who loves squirrel, Our hubby is squirrel breeding. we now have baby squirrels ,they are just weeks old and we are now giving them out to interested families who want/need new borne squirrels. We have Flying, Fox Squirrel,Grey Squirrel,American Red Squirrel. Contact us for prices . we allow personal pick ups and can arrange transportation for out of state homes to any major airport near you. Text "squirrel" and we will call u back When texting please take NOTE of the following. Your desired breed. your location email +1434-233-4396 email us via [email protected] ...
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a bacterially produced T-cell antigen receptor V alpha domain. Fields, BA; Ysern, X; Poljak, RJ; Shao, X; Ward, ES; Mariuzza, RA. J Mol Biol 239, 339- 341, 1994 ...
Poxviruses in Bats … so What. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
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Sitting on the banks of the River Lowther this holiday park occupies 50 acres of rural, wooded parkland, home to the rare red squirrel. There are 400 caravan holiday homes and lodges around the park, together with 70 touring pitches. A proportion of these are taken by seasonal lets. Marked and numbered, on mostly level ground between mature trees, all have 10A electricity and hardstanding. A separate elevated grass area is available for tents, and two pods have been added. There is a small touring office with 24 hour security adjacent to the holiday home sales office. Here too is a well stocked, licensed shop also selling some caravan accessories. The Squirrel Inn is open all season and serves restaurant meals and takeaways.
More specifically Parapoxvirus is classified into the subfamily of Chordopoxvirinae. Other Chordopoxvirinae genuses include; ...
Unterfamilie Chordopoxvirinae. *Genus Avipoxvirus. *Genus Capripoxvirus. *Genus Centapoxvirus. *Genus Cervidpoxvirus. *Genus ...
It is an orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. DNA sequences encoding the HA's of RCN and VV ( ... is a double-stranded DNA virus and a member of the orthopoxviruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae ... Suipoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus Vertebrates are the natural host of Chordopoxvirinae subfamily viruses. More specifically, ...
It is classified in the Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus and the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The appearance of buffalopox follows a ...
... is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Vertebrates, including mammals and ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Orthopoxvirus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Monkeys and baboons serve as ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Yatapoxvirus Tanapox virus Yaba monkey ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Lagomorph and squirrels ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Leporipoxvirus Hare fibroma virus Myxoma ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Like all members of the ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Parapoxvirus Bovine papular stomatitis ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Crocodiles serve as ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Crocodylidpoxvirus Nile crocodilepox ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Swine serve as natural hosts. ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Suipoxvirus Swinepox virus Viruses in ...
... is a genus of viruses in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and the family Poxviridae. Capripoxviruses are among the ... Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Capripoxvirus Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Sheeppox virus Viruses in Capripoxvirus are ...
... is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Birds serve as natural hosts. ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Deer serve as natural hosts ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Cervidpoxvirus Mule deerpox virus Viruses ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Human serve as natural ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Molluscipoxvirus Molluscum contagiosum ...
... is a disease of camels caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus ...
List of other related viruses which may be members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae but have not been approved as species ...
Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox ...
... chordopoxvirinae MeSH B04.280.650.160.100 --- avipoxvirus MeSH B04.280.650.160.100.149 --- canarypox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160 ... chordopoxvirinae MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100 --- avipoxvirus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100.149 --- canarypox virus MeSH B04.909 ...
Caliciviridae Carmotetraviridae Caulimoviridae Chordopoxvirinae Chrysoviridae Circoviridae Clavaviridae Closteroviridae ...
... is a subfamily of viruses, in the family Poxviridae. Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus ...
... the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. ...
Chordopoxvirinae. *Animal virology. *Virus-related cutaneous conditions. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ...
Chordopoxvirinae is a subfamily of viruses, in the family Poxviridae. Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus ...
Salmon Gill Poxvirus, the Deepest Representative of the Chordopoxvirinae. Health Genetics & breeding Education & academia ...
Unterfamilie Chordopoxvirinae. *Genus Avipoxvirus. *Genus Capripoxvirus. *Genus Centapoxvirus. *Genus Cervidpoxvirus. *Genus ...
Chordopoxvirinae. Genus. Avipoxvirus. Genus. Capripoxvirus. Genus. Cervidpoxvirus. Genus. Leporipoxvirus. Genus. ...
Chordopoxvirinae (subfamily of viruses). virus: Annotated classification: The 2 subfamilies are called Chordopoxvirinae, which ... The Chordopoxvirinae are composed of groups called orthopoxviruses (vaccinia), parapoxviruses, avipoxviruses of birds, and many ...
Chordopoxvirinae:. Orthopoxvirus. vaccinia virus. Vertebrates. Parapoxvirus. orf virus. Vertebrates. Avipoxvirus. fowlpox virus ...
Chordopoxvirinae; OC Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia virus. OX NCBI_TaxID=10254; OH NCBI_TaxID=9913; Bos taurus (Bovine). RN [1] RP ...
Subfamilia: Chordopoxvirinae. Genus: Molluscipoxvirus. Species: Molluscum contagiosum virus. Name[edit]. Molluscum contagiosum ...
Chordopoxvirinae; Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia virus. OX NCBI_TaxID=10249; OH NCBI_TaxID=9606; Homo sapiens (Human). RN [1] RP ...
More specifically Parapoxvirus is classified into the subfamily of Chordopoxvirinae. Other Chordopoxvirinae genuses include; ...
Belongs to the chordopoxvirinae G3 family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix. ...
Viruses › dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › Orthopoxvirus › Vaccinia virus. ,p>This subsection of ... Belongs to the chordopoxvirinae L1 family.Curated. ,p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords ...
Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Future research is ... Chordopoxvirinae is a diverse subfamily of viruses within Poxviridae. These geographically widespread viruses infect birds, ... Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Future research is ... Chordopoxvirinae) and 2 entomopoxviruses (Entomopxvirinae), which were used as outgroup taxa. We then concatenated the gene ...
Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Future research is ...
PCR approach for identification of viruses of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae*. Specificity. Target gene. Reference. Result. ...
Leporipoxvirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Poxviridae, in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Lagomorph and squirrels ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Leporipoxvirus Hare fibroma virus Myxoma ...
Poxiviridae;Chordopoxvirinae;Orthopoxvirus Species. Cowpox Description and significance. Cowpox is an zoonotic viral disease ...
Categories: Chordopoxvirinae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Chordopoxvirinae (vertebrate poxviruses). *Orthopoxvirus (variola, vaccinia, cowpox, monkeypox, raccoonpox, camelpox, skunkpox ...
Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae.. *Genus: Leporiposvirus Pox viruses: overview .. Active Forms. This article is available in full ...
CHARACTERISTICS: A member of the family Poxviridae , subfamily Chordopoxvirinae , genus Orthopoxvirus . Virions are shaped like ...
CHARACTERISTICS: Virus belongs to family Poxviridae, sub-family Chordopoxvirinae and genus Orthopoxvirus(1,4,5). MPXV is a 200 ...
Chordopoxvirinae (poxviruses that infect vertebrates) and Entomopoxvirinae (poxviruses that infect insects). The two most ... important members of Chordopoxvirinae are variola virus that causes smallpox, and VACV that was used to control smallpox. Both ...
Chordopoxvirinae) and insects (Entomopoxvirinae). The three others are also icosahedral.Iridoviridae and Phycodnaviridae are ...
Camelpox is a disease of camels caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus ...
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae , and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation. (unl.edu)
  • however, avipoxvirus genomes exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements with more extensive gene families and novel host range gene in comparison with the other Chordopoxvirinae . (springer.com)
  • PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. (mdpi.com)
  • The relatively slower evolution of these genes may more accurately reflect the deeper history among the poxvirus group, allowing for robust placement of the NA OPXV within Chordopoxvirinae. (jove.com)