Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (1/285)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla and the origin of plants, animals and fungi. (2/285)

In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and fungi. The time estimate for the chordate-arthropod divergence, using 50 genes, is 993 +/- 46 Ma. Nematodes were found to have diverged from the lineage leading to arthropods and chordates at 1177 +/- 79 Ma. Phylogenetic analyses also show that a basal position of nematodes has strong support (p > 99%) and is not the result of rate biases. The three-way split (relationships unresolved) of plants, animals and fungi was estimated at 1576 +/- 88 Ma. By inference, the basal animal phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora) diverged between about 1200-1500 Ma. This suggests that at least six animal phyla originated deep in the Precambrian, more than 400 million years earlier than their first appearance in the fossil record.  (+info)

Animal mitochondrial genomes. (3/285)

Animal mitochondrial DNA is a small, extrachromosomal genome, typically approximately 16 kb in size. With few exceptions, all animal mitochondrial genomes contain the same 37 genes: two for rRNAs, 13 for proteins and 22 for tRNAs. The products of these genes, along with RNAs and proteins imported from the cytoplasm, endow mitochondria with their own systems for DNA replication, transcription, mRNA processing and translation of proteins. The study of these genomes as they function in mitochondrial systems-'mitochondrial genomics'-serves as a model for genome evolution. Furthermore, the comparison of animal mitochondrial gene arrangements has become a very powerful means for inferring ancient evolutionary relationships, since rearrangements appear to be unique, generally rare events that are unlikely to arise independently in separate evolutionary lineages. Complete mitochondrial gene arrangements have been published for 58 chordate species and 29 non-chordate species, and partial arrangements for hundreds of other taxa. This review compares and summarizes these gene arrangements and points out some of the questions that may be addressed by comparing mitochondrial systems.  (+info)

Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight into function and evolution of the pharyngeal epithelium. (4/285)

The epithelium of the pharynx contributes to the formation of gills in hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates and primitive vertebrates, and is therefore a key structure for understanding developmental mechanisms underlying the establishment of chordate body plans. Pax1- and Pax9-related genes encode transcription factors which are expressed in the pharyngeal region of cephalochordates as well as in the vertebrate pharyngeal pouch epithelium that forms the thymus and parathyroid glands. To explore the molecular basis underlying the occurrence and modifications of the pharyngeal epithelium during evolution, we isolated cDNA clones for Pax1- and Pax9-related genes of urochordates (HrPax1/9 of Halocynthia roretzi and CiPax1/9 of Ciona intestinalis) and a hemichordate (PfPax1/9 of Ptychodera flava) from gill cDNA libraries. Each gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome. All of the cDNAs encode typical paired domains and octapeptides but not a homeodomain, as is also true of other Pax1- and Pax9-related genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of the paired domain amino-acid sequences suggests that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 belong to the Pax1/9 subfamily, and that they are descendants of a single precursor of Pax1/Pax9. Screening of HrPax1/9 cDNA clones yielded six different types of transcripts which were generated by alternative splicing. Northern blot, RT-PCR/Southern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 are not expressed during early embryogenesis but are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills, suggesting that these genes encode gill-specific transcription factors. The Pax1/9 genes therefore might provide the first developmental genetic corroboration of hypotheses of organ-level homology that unifies hemichordates, urochordates and cephalochordates.  (+info)

Complete sequence, gene arrangement, and genetic code of mitochondrial DNA of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae (Amphioxus) (5/285)

We have determined the 15,083-nucleotide (nt) sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae (Chordata: Cephalochordata). As is typical in metazoans, the mtDNA encodes 13 protein, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement differs from the common vertebrate arrangement by only four tRNA gene positions. Three of these are unique to Branchiostoma, but the fourth is in a position that is primitive for chordates. It shares the genetic code variations found in vertebrate mtDNAs except that AGA = serine, a code variation found in many invertebrate phyla but not in vertebrates (the related codon AGG was not found). Branchiostoma mtDNA lacks a vertebrate-like control region; its largest noncoding region (129 nt) is unremarkable in sequence or base composition, and its location between ND5 and tRNAG differs from that usually found in vertebrates. It also lacks a potential hairpin DNA structure like those found in many (though not in all) vertebrates to serve as the second-strand (i.e., L-strand) origin of replication. Perhaps related to this, the sequence corresponding to the DHU arm of tRNAC cannot form a helical stem, a condition found in a few other vertebrate mtDNAs that also lack a canonical L-strand origin of replication. ATG and GTG codons appear to initiate translation in 11 and 2 of the protein-encoding genes, respectively. Protein genes end with complete (TAA or TAG) or incomplete (T or TA) stop codons; the latter are presumably converted to TAA by post-transcriptional polyadenylation.  (+info)

Pattern of Brachyury gene expression in starfish embryos resembles that of hemichordate embryos but not of sea urchin embryos. (6/285)

Echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates are deuterostomes and share a number of developmental features. The Brachyury gene is responsible for formation of the notochord, the most defining feature of chordates, and thus may be a key to understanding the origin and evolution of the chordates. Previous studies have shown that the ascidian Brachyury (As-T and Ci-Bra) is expressed in the notochord and that a sea urchin Brachyury (HpTa) is expressed in the secondary mesenchyme founder cells. A recent study by [Tagawa et al. (1998)], however, revealed that a hemichordate Brachyury (PfBra) is expressed in a novel pattern in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region in the gastrula. The present study demonstrated that the expression pattern of Brachyury (ApBra) of starfish embryos resembles that of PfBra in hemichordate embryos but not of HpTa in sea urchin embryos. Namely, ApBra is expressed in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region.  (+info)

Structure and developmental expression of the ascidian TRP gene: insights into the evolution of pigment cell-specific gene expression. (7/285)

The tyrosinase family in vertebrates consists of three related melanogenic enzymes: tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2. These proteins control melanin production in pigment cells and play a crucial role in determining vertebrate coloration. We have isolated a gene from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi which encodes a tyrosinase-related protein (HrTRP) with 45-49% identity with vertebrate TRP-1 and TRP-2. The expression of the HrTRP gene in pigment lineage a8.25 cells starts at the early-mid gastrula stage, which coincides with the stage when these cells are determined as pigment precursor cells; therefore, it provides the earliest pigment lineage-specific marker, which enables us to trace the complete cell lineage leading to two pigment cells in the larval brain. In addition, the expression pattern of the HrTRP gene appears to share similar characteristics with the mouse TRP-2 gene although structurally the HrTRP gene is more closely related to mammalian TRP-1 genes. Based on these observations and on results from molecular phylogenetic and hybridization analyses, we suggest that triplication of the tyrosinase family occurred during the early radiation of chordates. Initially, duplication of an ancestral tyrosinase gene produced a single TRP gene before the urochordate and cephalochordate-vertebrate divergence, and a subsequent duplication of the ancestral TRP gene in the vertebrate lineage gave rise to two TRP genes before the emergence of teleost fishes. Evolution of the melanin synthetic pathway and possible phylogenetic relationships among chordate pigment cells that accommodate the metabolic process are discussed. Dev Dyn 1999;215:225-237.  (+info)

Colinear and segmental expression of amphioxus Hox genes. (8/285)

The cephalochordate amphioxus has a single Hox gene cluster. Here we describe the genomic organization of four adjacent amphioxus genes, AmphiHox-1 to AmphiHox-4, together with analysis of their spatiotemporal expression patterns. We demonstrate that these genes obey temporal colinearity and that three of the genes also obey spatial colinearity in the developing neural tube. AmphiHox-1, AmphiHox-3, and AmphiHox-4 show segmental modulation of their expression levels, a two-segment phasing of spatial colinearity, and, at least for AmphiHox-4, asymmetrical expression. AmphiHox-2 is unlike other amphioxus Hox genes: it does not obey spatial colinearity and it has no positional expression in the neural tube. AmphiHox-2 is expressed in the preoral pit of larvae, from which the homologue of the anterior pituitary develops. We suggest that the ancestral role of chordate Hox genes was primarily in the neural tube and that chordate Hox genes can functionally diverge in a manner analogous to that of Drosophila ftz or zen.  (+info)

The death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis pathway is thought to be unique to vertebrates. However, the presence of DR-encoding genes in the sea urchin and the basal chordate amphioxus prompted us to reconsider, especially given that amphioxus contains 14 DR proteins and hundreds of death domain (DD)-containing adaptor proteins. To understand how the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was originally established and what the differences in signaling are between invertebrates and vertebrates, we performed functional studies of several genes that encode DDs in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (Bbt). First, we observed that the increased abundance of Bbt Fas-associated death domain 1 (BbtFADD1) in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of death effector filamentous structures in the cytoplasm and the activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway, whereas BbtFADD2 protein was restricted to the nucleus, although its death effector domain induced apoptosis when in the cytoplasm. We further ...
Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development, nuclear receptor genes, genes encoding components of the endocrine and immune systems, and conserved cis-regulatory enhancers. The amphioxus genome contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling, including a fifteenth Hox gene. This set includes many genes that were co-opted in vertebrates for new roles in neural crest development and adaptive immunity. However, where amphioxus has a single gene, vertebrates often have two, three, or four paralogs derived from two whole-genome
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Homolog of the Vertebrate Thyrostimulin Glycoprotein Hormone α Subunit (GPA2) is Expressed in Amphioxus Neurons. AU - Tando, Yukiko. AU - Kubokawa, Kaoru. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - The cystine-knot glycoprotein hormone α (GPA) family regulates gonadal and thyroid functions in ver-tebrates. Little is known concerning GPA family members in primitive chordates. A previous genomic analysis revealed the presence of two genes homologous to the thyrostimulin a subunit (GPA2) in an amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae); however only one GPA2 homolog contained both the cystine-knot structure and N-glycosylation site characteristic of family members. Gene-specific PCR was used to obtain the cDNA and genomic sequences of the GPA2 homolog of the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed GPA2 mRNA expression in the anterior part of the nerve cord and on the left side of the central canal. Because amphioxus possesses only one true GPA2 homolog, ...
A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequencing and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequence and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Previous studies have shown the presence of Plg only in the jawed vertebrates [3,32], and a Plgl molecule has been discovered in the amphioxus B. belcheri, a basal chordate [19]. However, molecular cloning and identification of the putative Plgl in B. belcheri was lacking. In the present paper we demonstrate for the first time the presence of a kringle domain-containing protease with Plgl activity, named BbPlgl, in B. belcheri. The deduced 430-amino-acids long protein, BbPlgl, is structurally characterized by the presence of a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 16 amino acids, 2 kringle domains with the lysine-binding site structure in the N-terminus, a serine protease domain with the putative tPA-cleavage site (between Arg297 and Val298) in the C-terminus, the catalytic triad His237-Asp288-Ser379 expected for protease function, and a potential N-linked glycosylation site, which are all typical of Plgs. Moreover, the recombinant BbPlgl is readily activated by human uPA, and exhibits Plgl ...
A cluster of three Specificity Protein (Sp) genes (Sp1-4, Sp5 and Sp6-9) is thought to be ancestral in both chordates and the wider Eumetazoa. Sp5 and Sp6-9 gene groups are associated with embryonic growth zones, such as tailbuds, and are both Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway members and targets. Currently, there are conflicting reports as to the number and identity of Sp genes in the cephalochordates, the sister group to the vertebrates and urochordates. We confirm the SP complement of Branchiostoma belcheri and Branchiostoma lanceolatum, as well as their genomic arrangement, protein domain structure and residue frequency. We assay Sp5 expression in B. lanceolatum embryos, and determine its response to pharmacologically increased β-catenin signalling. Branchiostoma possesses three Sp genes, located on the same genomic scaffold. Phylogenetic and domain structure analyses are consistent with their identification as SP1-4, SP5 and SP6-9, although SP1-4 contains a novel glutamine-rich N-terminal ...
Amphioxus, as the closest living animal of the last common ancestor of all vertebrates, occupies an extremely important phylogenetic position in the evolution of vertebrates and has attracted the interest of scientists from various research fields in recent years. However, despite their importance for the life sciences, taxonomic studies of amphioxus are relatively limited. In present review, we summarize current progress in both field investigations and taxonomic research of Chinese amphioxus. Based on the investigation data, we assume that amphioxus is distributed in all habitable sandy beaches along the Chinese coast from south to north. According to the rule of priority and recent taxonomic studies on amphioxus, we also propose that the original subspecies Brnachiostoma belcheri tsingtauense together with the population in most Japanese waters is an independent species and its name should be revised to B. japonicus. Consequently, there are at least two species of genus Brnachiostoma and 1-3 ...
Many animals have as many or more CYP genes than humans do. Reported numbers range from 35 genes in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica to 235 genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae.[30] Mice have genes for 101 CYPs, and sea urchins have even more (perhaps as many as 120 genes).[31] Most CYP enzymes are presumed to have monooxygenase activity, as is the case for most mammalian CYPs that have been investigated (except for, e.g., CYP19 and CYP5). Gene and genome sequencing is far outpacing biochemical characterization of enzymatic function, though many genes with close homology to CYPs with known function have been found, giving clues to their functionality. The classes of CYPs most often investigated in non-human animals are those either involved in development (e.g., retinoic acid or hormone metabolism) or involved in the metabolism of toxic compounds (such as heterocyclic amines or polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Often there are differences in gene regulation or enzyme function of CYPs ...
Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) is a cytokine receptor which binds interleukin 17A. Functional IL-17R is a heteromeric complex consisting of at least IL17RA and IL17RC. A number of additional variants exist including IL17RB, which binds preferentially IL17B and IL17E. A total of five members of the family have been identified. The first identified member, IL-17RA is located on human chromosome 22. There are two IL17Rs (IL17RA and IL17RD) in the genome of the basal chordate Amphioxus. After two rounds of whole genome duplications, these two IL17R genes expanded into five early vertebrate IL17R genes, IL17RA to IL17RE. Two (IL17RA and IL17RD) are found in most vertebrates, whereas the other three (IL17RB, ILR17RC and IL17RE) have undergone some losses in vertebrates during evolution. IL-17RA is the founding member of a new IL-17R(A-E) subfamily of cytokine receptors. IL-17RA is by far the largest member of the family and has the largest cytoplasmic tail of the family. This cytoplasmic tail ...
List of words make out of Branchiostoma. Anagrams and Words made out of Branchiostoma. Find Scrabble Point of Branchiostoma. Definition of Branchiostoma. Puzzle Solver.
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Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120-160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes inseveral vertebrate genomes revealed ...
1C7V: Sequential calcium binding to the regulatory domain of calcium vector protein reveals functional asymmetry and a novel mode of structural rearrangement.
The evolutionary relationships between the chordate groups and between chordates as a whole and their closest deuterostome relatives have been debated since 1890. Studies based on anatomical, embryological, and paleontological data have produced different family trees. Some closely linked chordates and hemichordates, but that idea is now rejected.[4] Combining such analyses with data from a small set of ribosome RNA genes eliminated some older ideas, but opened up the possibility that tunicates (urochordates) are basal deuterostomes, surviving members of the group from which echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates evolved.[42] Some researchers believe that, within the chordates, craniates are most closely related to cephalochordates, but there are also reasons for regarding tunicates (urochordates) as craniates closest relatives.[4][43]. Since early chordates have left a poor fossil record, attempts have been made to calculate the key dates in their evolution by molecular phylogenetics ...
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p,Hemichordates have occupied a central role in hypotheses of deuterostome and early chordate evolution. However, surprisingly little is understood about evolution within hemichordates, including hemichordate ancestral characters that may relate to other deuterostome taxa. Previous phylogenetic studies suggested that enteropneust worms are either monophyletic (based on 28S rDNA) or paraphyletic (based on 18S rDNA). Here, we expand the number of hemichordate taxa used in phylogenetic analyses for 18S rDNA data and employ more quickly evolving mitochondrial gene sequences. Novel data from an undescribed deep-sea enteropneust species similar to Torquarator bullocki and a Gulf Stream tornaria larva suggest that these taxa are closely allied to or possibly within Ptychoderidae. Saxipendium coronatum, another deep-sea species commonly called the spaghetti worm, is shown to be a member of Harrimaniidae. Recognition of these deep-sea lineages as distinct families calls into question features used in ...
ID C3Y7Q0_BRAFL Unreviewed; 318 AA. AC C3Y7Q0; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 43. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_259692 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
ID C3ZM81_BRAFL Unreviewed; 509 AA. AC C3ZM81; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 61. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_121378 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
amphioxus: Any of certain members of the invertebrate subphylum Cephalochordata of the phylum Chordata. Amphioxi are small marine animals found widely in the coastal waters of the warmer...
Estrogens are necessary for ovarian differentiation during critical developmental windows in most vertebrates and promote the growth and differentiation of the adult female reproductive system. Estrogen actions are largely mediated through the estrogen receptors (ERs), which are ligand-activated transcription factors. To understand the molecular evolution of sex steroid hormone receptors, we isolated cDNAs encoding two steroid receptors from Japanese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri: an ER ortholog and a ketosteroid receptor (SR) ortholog. Reporter gene assays revealed that the SR ortholog has molecular functions similar to those of the vertebrate ER. Surprisingly, the ER ortholog is an estrogen-insensitive repressor of SR-mediated transcription. Furthermore, we found that the SR ortholog can bind to both estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) and androgen-responsive elements (AREs) and mediates transcriptional activation by estrogens through both types of elements. Our findings suggest that the ...
moxNeonGreen is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) green/yellow fluorescent protein published in 2015, derived from Branchiostoma lanceolatum.
Summer 2005 Workshop course for Biology Teachers. BIOLOGY OF LIVING INVERTEBRATES Next summer, Iowa Lakeside Laboratory (http://www.lakesidelab.org) will offer duplicate, one-week-long, intensive lab-field courses, entitled Techniques in Biology Teaching: Animal Biology. Course goals are to provide U.S. biology teacher (pre-college or college level) with unique, inspiring, hands-on, and total-immersion workshop experiences involving living invertebrates. Emphasis is on: (1) field collection, ecology, development, behavior, and physiological adaptations of freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates; and (2) new, hands-on inquiries utilizing living invertebrates that are easily cultured in the classroom. See sample activities and materials: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/ Enrollment is limited to 8 participants per session and admission requires acceptance by instructor. Take home many free classroom resources: write-ups, texts, electronic media, living cultures, samples & ...
Edmund Beecher Wilson experimented with Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) embryos in 1892 to identify what caused their cells to differentiate into new types of cells during the process of development. Wilson shook apart the cells at early stages of embryonic development, and he observed the development of the isolated cells. He observed that in the normal development of Amphioxus, all three main types of symmetry, or cleavage patterns observed in embryos, could be found. Wilson proposed a hypothesis that reformed the Mosaic Theory associated with Wilhelm Roux in Germany.. Format: Articles Subject: Experiments ...
Deuterostomes (animals with secondary mouths) are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the
Acorn worms, also known as enteropneust (literally, gut-breathing) hemichordates, are marine invertebrates that share features with echinoderms and chordates. Together, these three phyla comprise the deuterostomes. Here we report the draft genome sequences of two acorn worms, Saccoglossus kowalevs …
This was written before the amphioxus genome had been sequenced, so its not up to date. However, the article presents considerable information derived from cDNA analysis. ...
Austroblechnum lanceolatum and A. norfolkianum are a species pair that need further taxonomic investigation. Exact distinctions between these species are difficult. Chambers & Farrant (1998) suggest that this is due to hybridisim but the basis for that suggestion is not clear. Most field botanists distinguish these two species on the basis of distribution and ecology with A. norfolkianum known only from northern New Zealand where it is mostly found on offshore islands. In this area it is typically found on rodent-free, sea bird islands where it is a conspicuous member of the shaded forest floor of petrel colonies as well as the more usual shaded bank and cliff habitats. Austroblechnum norfolkianum usually has brighter green, succulent fronds without the darker pink or maroon pigmentation often seen in A. lanceolatum, and the pinna of A. norfolkianum are consistently falcate (those of A.lanceolatum less often so), while the fertile fronds of A. norfolkianum are said to be shorter than sterile ...
bfloGFPa1 is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) green fluorescent protein published in 2014, derived from Branchiostoma floridae. It has very low acid sensitivity.
The Meis gene family (within the TALE class) is equivalent to the Meis gene family within the MEIS gene class of Bürglin and Mukherjee (2007). The gene family contains three human genes, two human pseudogenes, one Drosophila gene (hth) and one amphioxus gene. Proteins encoded by this gene family, like Pknox and Pbx families, are implicated as cofactors of Hox proteins (Moens and Selleri 2006 ...
The central and peripheral nervous systems of amphioxus adults and larvae are characterized by morphofunctional features relevant to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of the vertebrate CNS. Classical neuroanatomical studies are mainly on adult amphioxus, but there has been a recent focus, both by TEM and molecular methods, on the larval CNS. The latter is small and remarkably simple, and new data on the localization of glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurons within the larval CNS are now available. In consequence, it has been possible begin the process of identifying specific neuronal circuits, including those involved in controlling larval locomotion. This is especially useful for the insights it provides into the organization of comparable circuits in the midbrain and hindbrain of vertebrates. A much better understanding of basic chordate CNS organization will eventually be possible when further experimental data will emerge.
Phylum-Chordata tutorial all along with the key concepts of Features of Chordates, Protochordata, features of Vertebrates, categorization of Vertebrates, Developments in Vertebrates, Basic Chordate Body Plan, Adaptations of Fish and Maintenance Systems of fish
View Notes - Vert Lecture PPT from BIOLOGY 110 at Drexel. Lecture 10: Vertebrates Chapter 34 Shared dervied traits of chordates dorsal hollow nerve cord - develops from rolled ectoderm notochord -
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Looking for online definition of cerebral vesicle in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral vesicle explanation free. What is cerebral vesicle? Meaning of cerebral vesicle medical term. What does cerebral vesicle mean?
Several Nobel Prize awards correlated with fluorescence. It is a long tradition that many Embyologists (Developmental Biologists) concentrated their interest in marine research. The term ecology was coined very late around 1960. Aspects of ecology and environmental protection (also sustainability) were unknown in the 19. and early 20. century. This is easy to understand, since environmental problems were unknown at thistime. Famous zoologist, especially developmental biologists (mainly Germans) worked at the well known marine station (Anton Dohrn) in Naples and other reserch stations, Sea urchin and lancelet fish Branchiostoma lanceolatum were favored objects for embryological studies.. It is not arrogant to say that still to day the early development of organisms is a cental topic in biology. The individual development (ontogenesis) is the most sensitive period of all organisms. The Contergan disaster during human embryogenesis is a terrible example. As we now know the adult organism is much ...
Although it is widely assumed that the evolution of jaw kinesis in the ray-finned fishes was an innovation to enhance suction feeding performance, the lack of phylogenetic replication of this event across fishes has hindered direct tests of this hypothesis. Our results reveal that within the East African cichlid radiations, multiple transitions between biting and suction feeding have occurred, and that these functional transitions are accompanied by evolutionary reduction of jaw kinesis over short evolutionary timescales of 4 Myr or less (figure 3). These rapid and repeated shifts are consistent with the hypothesis that high jaw kinesis is selectively maintained in suction feeding fishes and provides evidence supporting upper jaw protrusion as a major evolutionary innovation for ray-finned fishes.. Our power to detect associations between jaw kinesis and transitions in feeding mode is directly connected to the sheer number of dietary transitions that have occurred in these cichlid radiations, ...
President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and Director, P3G (Public Population Project in Genomics)President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research Scientific Director, P3GDr. Thomas J. Hudson is president and scientific director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. He is implementing the institutes strategic plan, working with cancer research institutions across Ontario to leverage existing strengths. The plan focuses on prevention, early diagnosis, cancer targets and new therapeutics. Its innovation platforms include imaging and interventions, bio-repositories and pathology, genomics and high-throughput screening, and informatics and biocomputing. Dr. Hudson is recruiting more than 50 internationally recognized principal investigators.Dr. Hudson was the founder and Director of the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre and Assistant-Director of the Whitehead/MIT Center for Genome Research. Dr. Hudson is ...
My research focuses on understanding the evolutionary origins of complex traits within the vertebrate head. Such complex traits include an elaborated ventricular brain, neural crest and placodal derivatives, and the development of craniofacial structures. Because of their absence outside the vertebrate subphylum, they are generally regarded as vertebrate innovations, thus closely linked to the invertebrate-vertebrate transition. My main objective is to decipher the molecular changes that underlie the emergence of such morphological innovations, which likely facilitated the evolution and radiation of vertebrates on earth. To do this, I use the pre-vertebrate amphioxus (cephalochordate) as a model system, since it is currently regarded as the best extant proxy to the ancestral chordate that gave rise to all vertebrates.. ...
Cephalochordates (subphylum Cephalochordata) are commonly referred to as lancelets or amphioxus. They appear fish-like, but unlike fishes they lack paired fins and only has a very poorly developed tail fin. Their nerve cord is within a simple notochord made up of tightly packed cells. They have no eyes, and use tentacle-like structures in front of the mouth to sense their surroundings and filter suspended food particles such as plankton from the water. They breathe through their skin, and hide in the sediment most of the time, though some of the specimens recorded from Singapore were caught with nets near the surface of the water. They are harvested and consumed in the region. The above photo features an unidentified museum specimen caught from the South China Sea ...
Definition of phylum chordata in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of phylum chordata. What does phylum chordata mean? Information and translations of phylum chordata in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Such efforts have gradually led me to believe that meaningful interaction of teachers and their students with a wide range of living, behaving organisms not only enhances their biology education in general but it is ultimately crucial for promoting ecological awareness and preserving biodiversity. Thus, I am now deeply committed to the notion that hands-on connections with living organisms, especially invertebrates, ought to play a key role in general biology education at all levels. And, I have strived, in my own fashion, to create and propagate such concepts and connections in the following ways:. 1) Instructing residential workshops for biology teachers. The teacher workshops that I developed in invertebrate biology at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, in 1993, served as a springboard for my subsequent involvements in educational outreach. The most notable of these was an invitation to instruct for one week at the 1996 Woodrow Wilson Foundation summer institute in neurobiology held at Princeton ...
Conway Morris and Caron (2012) have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaias anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta) are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or
Fig 66 - Head of a chick, second stage, after five days of incubation, section in profile; x6 diameters. cvl, cv2, cv3, first, second, and third cerebral vesicles; 1, place of the first nerve, the olfactory; 2, place of second nerve, the optic; ic, internal carotid artery, running into skull at what was originally the pituitary space, now an opening bounded in front by the anterior, acl, behind the posterior, pcl, clinoid walls; nc, notochord; oc, occipital condyle, thence to pcl being the original parachordal cartilage, here seen in profile; eo, exoccipital; eth, ethmoid, with ps, its presphenoid region posteriorly, and pn, pre-nasal part; this whole plate afterward developing into parts of the nose and the partition between the eyes; pa, palatine; pg, pterygoid region; pa and pg reference lines are in the chicks mouth; mk meckelian cartilage (lower jaw); ch and bh, ceratohyal and basihyal parts of the hyoid or tongue bone. Elliot Coues, 1884. ...
Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates[2] The Hox family of transcription factors has a fundamental role in segmentation pathways and axial patterning of embryonic development and their clustered organization is linked with the regulatory mechanisms governing their coordinated expression along embryonic axes. Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. ...Together, our results indicate that during chordate evolution, cis-elements dependent upon Hox/Pbx regulatory complexes, are responsible for key aspects of segmental Hox expression in neural tissue and appeared with urochordates after cephalochordate divergence ...
Putnam NH, Butts T, Ferrier DE, Furlong RF, Hellsten U, Kawashima T, Robinson-Rechavi M, Shoguchi E, Terry A, Yu JK, Benito-Gutierrez EL, Dubchak I, Garcia-Fernandez J, Gibson-Brown JJ, Grigoriev IV, Horton AC, de Jong PJ, Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Kohara Y, Kuroki Y, Lindquist E, Lucas S, Osoegawa K, Pennacchio LA, Salamov AA, Satou Y, Sauka-Spengler T, Schmutz J, Shin-I T, Toyoda A, Bronner-Fraser M, Fujiyama A, Holland LZ, Holland PW, Satoh N, Rokhsar DS.The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype.
Echinoderms are relatives, although distant ones, of the vertebrates. In Echinoderms the development may be direct or indirect. Research on echinoderms has contributed to the overall knowledge of animal fertilization and development. In contrast, echinoderm larvae are planktonic, and have bilateral symmetry. Explain! Many types of larvae occur in echinoderms. Preoral and postoral loops. p119 Echinoderm larvae are ciliated free-swimming organisms that have a bilaterally symmetry rather like embryonic chordates. Important: The animals and their eggs should be handled in accordance with local regulations. 1. The genealogical tree given in 1957 by Anderson and Guthrie and the phylogenetic tree given in 1948 by L. H. Hyman in collaboration with Prof. YV. They are the following- A stalk develops and the larva turns to a cystidian larva, which metamorphoses to a young individual. Single stressor studies of P CO2 induced acidification show impaired development in echinoderm and mollusc larvae reared in the
Mast cells (MCs) are primarily resident hematopoietic tissue cells that are localized at external and internal surfaces of the body where they act in the first line of defense. MCs are found in all studied vertebrates and have also been identified in tunicates, an early chordate. To obtain a detailed insight into the biology of MCs, here we analyzed the transcriptome of MCs from different mouse organs by RNA-seq and PCR-based transcriptomics. We show that MCs at different tissue locations differ substantially in their levels of transcripts coding for the most abundant MC granule proteins, even within the connective tissue type, or mucosal MC niches. We also demonstrate that transcript levels for the major granule proteins, including the various MC-restricted proteases and the heparin core protein, can be several orders of magnitude higher than those coding for various surface receptors and enzymes involved in protease activation, as well as enzymes involved in the synthesis of heparin, ...
Hank introduces us to ourselves by taking us on a journey through the fascinatingly diverse phyla known as chordata. And the next time someone asks you who you are, you can give them the facts: youre a mammalian amniotic tetrapodal sarcopterygian osteichthyen gnathostomal vertebrate cranial chordate.
നട്ടെല്ലുള്ള ജീവികളും അവയുമായി അടുത്ത ജനിതകബന്ധം പുലർത്തുന്ന നട്ടെല്ലില്ലാത്ത ചില ജീവികളും ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ജന്തുക്കളിലെ ഒരു ഫൈലമാണ് കോർഡേറ്റ (Chordata). ഈ ഫൈലത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ജീവികളാണ് കോർഡേറ്റുകൾ (Chordates). ഈ ഫൈലത്തിന്റെ സബ് ഫൈലങ്ങൾ യൂറോകോർഡേറ്റ, സെഫലോകോർഡേറ്റ, ക്രാനിയേറ്റ എന്നിവയാണ്, ഹെമികോർഡേറ്റ നാലാമത്തെ സബ് ഫൈലമായി കരുതിയിരുന്നുവെങ്കിലും ഇപ്പോൾ ഹെമികോർഡേറ്റ ഒരു ഫൈലമായാണ് ...
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Enteropneusts, or acorn worms, are creatures of the deep whose relationship with vertebrates has caused considerable interest for over a century. More recently, marine biologists were intrigued by fuzzy pictures appearing to show enteropneusts with tentacles sprouting from the collar. This would have important implications for the body plan of these so-called lophenteropneusts: were they a missing link between enteropneusts and their cousins, the colonial tentacled pterobranchs? This lophenteropneust hypothesis is now dismissed as a case of mistaken identity. A series of remarkable deep-sea photographs and videos shows broad-collared enteropneusts gliding along the sea bed. One specimen has been sucked up with what they call in the trade a slurp gun: this newly named specimen has the broad-collared look, but it is not caused by tentacles. The deep ocean is home to a group of broad-collared hemichordates-the so-called lophenteropneusts-that have been photographed gliding on the sea floor1,2,3,4,5,6
The origin and affinities of chordates and echinoderms have long been a subject of interesting speculation. Relationships between creatures are postulated..
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Variety Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom ssp. lanceolatum var. latifolium (Semple & Chmielewski) G.L. Nesom Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
There is a single member of this gene family in human and amphioxus. Drosophila lacks the gene family; this is secondary loss, because there is a probable orthologue (manacle) in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Expression of the amphioxus, ascidian and vertebrate Dmbx genes has been compared in an investigation of midbrain evolution (Takahashi and Holland 2004 ...
It was nice to see that they tossed in a mention of Elpistostege. As you can see, Elpistostege is a lot like Tiktaalik, which is why Tiktaalik is dubbed an elpistostegalian. Elpistostege is known only very incomplete remains, the limbs have been entirely unknown. However, its tetrapod affinities have been recognized since its discovery in 1938, when T.S. Westoll actually called it the earliest known tetrapod! In 1985, Hans-Peter Schultze and Marius Arsenault recognized it for what it was, a very tetrapod-like fish, similar to Panderichthys. In 1996, Schultze described a short pice of the trunk that has rhomboid-shaped schales and a few vertebrae. What little is known of its skull and trunk of Elpistostege is scarcely different from Tiktaalik. However, after decades of searching no new data on Elpistostege ever came to light. Shubin and Daeschler wanted more of this animal, but knew that the original locality wasnt going to give up its secrets. So, they went looking in similar-aged rocks ...
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Cephalochordates- Cephalochordates take water in via the mouth. The water is drawn in by the cilia producing beating movements. The cilia are located on the wheel organ, which is a set of folds inside the mouth. The oral cirri, projections around the mouth, cleanse the water, and then the water passes through the gills. There is a mucus net covering the pharyngeal slits. This net traps little food particles that are available in the seawater. The food passes through the digestive tube. The filtered water passes through the slits to the atrium, and out of the organism through the atriopore. The remainder of the digestive tract is basic: the hepatic caecum squirts digestive enzymes and the rest of the digestive process in carried out in the iliocolinic ring which is part of the intestine. (AK ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Give the characteristic features of the following citing one example of eacha. Chondrichthyes and ostichthyesb. Urochordata and cephalochordate
Domain Eucarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Mammals evolved on land during the late Triassic period, but were no...
Yep, thats right. They get it on with any male gamete that passes their way. They just dont give a [rhymes with duck]. Boom chaka-laka-boom. These loose
We are talking about the frogs. Frogs belong to the phylum Chordata and class Amphibia. They have the potential to live on water as well as on land.
Dipleurula definition is - a hypothetical bilaterally symmetrical echinoderm larva sometimes regarded as a common ancestor of echinoderms and chordates.
CPR 100-120 compressions per minute and at a depth of no less than 1/3 of anterior/posterior diameter of chest with interruptions less than 5 seconds ...
... excepting Phylum Chordata), Phylum Chordata being the exclusive focus of vertebrate paleontology. Protist fossils are then the ... By invertebrates are meant the non-vertebrate creatures of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa) in the biotic domain of Eukaryota ... full-length notochord-in contrast to the vertebrates in the one phylum of Chordata. Relatedly, invertebrates have never had a ... zoology has come to recognize that the non-vertebrate category is not a scientifically valid, monophyletic taxon. Evolutionary ...
Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) *Subphylum Cephalochordata - 1 class (lancelets). *Subphylum Tunicata ( ... On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... Another feature present in both the Hemichordata and Chordata is pharyngotremy; the presence of spiracles or gill slits into ... fossils of no Post-Cambrian non-vertebrate chordates are known aside from the Permian-aged Paleobranchiostoma, trace fossils of ...
On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... The three major clades of deuterostomes are Chordata (e.g. vertebrates), Echinodermata (e.g. starfish), and Hemichordata (e.g. ... Another feature present in both the Hemichordata and Chordata is pharyngotremy; the presence of spiracles or gill slits into ... These are the following phyla/subgroups of the deuterostomes: Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates ...
... nonvertebrate? Find out information about Chordata, nonvertebrate. any animal of the phylum Chordata, including the vertebrates ... Chordata, nonvertebrate , Article about Chordata, nonvertebrate by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ... redirected from Chordata, nonvertebrate). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chordate. any animal of the phylum ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Chordata%2c+nonvertebrate,chordate,/a,. *Facebook ...
Chordata. B4 Viruses. Chordata, Nonvertebrate. B5 Algae and Fungi. Vertebrates. B6 Plants. Invertebrates. ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate / embryology * Chordata, Nonvertebrate / metabolism * Ciona intestinalis / embryology* * Ciona ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate / genetics* * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics* * DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology * Genes, Homeobox* ...
Categories: Chordata, Nonvertebrate Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). The ability of many invertebrates to concentrate iodide, an important ...
... all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). The ability of many invertebrates to concentrate iodide, an important ... Phylum Chordata. The phylum Chordata is separated into three subgroups (or subphyla). The invertebrate subphylum Tunicata ... primarily Arthropoda and Chordata). Similarly, the peptide and steroid hormones found in vertebrates are also present in the ... discussion summarizes the endocrine systems of five invertebrate phyla and the two invertebrate subphyla of the phylum Chordata ...
... all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). The ability of many invertebrates to concentrate iodide, an important ... primarily Arthropoda and Chordata). Similarly, the peptide and steroid hormones found in vertebrates are also present in the ... discussion summarizes the endocrine systems of five invertebrate phyla and the two invertebrate subphyla of the phylum Chordata ...
In some non-vertebrate chordates and fishes the notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod that ... Animal Diversity Web: Chordata *Introduction to the Chordate. UCMP Berkeley. Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view ... Chordata John G. Lundberg Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Chordata. Authored by John G. Lundberg. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons ...
Chordata (kôrdā´tə,-dä´-), phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal ... In some classifications the two nonvertebrate subphyla are elevated to the status of phyla and the jawed and jawless chordates ... Chordata Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chordata. Human beings are chordates-of the phylum chordata-and so ... Chordata Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chordata. Chordata is a large and diverse group of animals, with roughly ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate/classification. *Chordata, Nonvertebrate/genetics*. *Chromosome Mapping. *Cloning, Molecular. *Embryo, ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate/embryology. *Chordata, Nonvertebrate/genetics*. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*. *Molecular ...
Phylum Chordata *Gill slits *Dorsal nerve cord *Notochord or * vertebral column Amphioxus a non-vertebrate chordate 5. ... Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Amphibia Order Caudata Family Ambystomatidae Genus Ambystoma ...
CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE). ... "Chordata" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chordata" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chordata" by people in Profiles. ... whether "Chordata" was a major or minor topic of these publication.. To see the data from this visualization as text, click ...
... excepting Phylum Chordata), Phylum Chordata being the exclusive focus of vertebrate paleontology. Protist fossils are then the ... By invertebrates are meant the non-vertebrate creatures of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa) in the biotic domain of Eukaryota ... full-length notochord-in contrast to the vertebrates in the one phylum of Chordata. Relatedly, invertebrates have never had a ... zoology has come to recognize that the non-vertebrate category is not a scientifically valid, monophyletic taxon. Evolutionary ...
Sodergren, E., Weinstock, G. M., Davidson, E. H., Cameron, R. A., Gibbs, R. A., Angerer, R. C., Angerer, L. M., Arnone, M. I., Burgess, D. R., Burke, R. D., Coffman, J. A., Dean, M., Elphick, M. R., Ettensohn, C. A., Foltz, K. R., Hamdoun, A., Hynes, R. O., Klein, W. H., Marzluff, W., McClay, D. R. & 211 others, Morris, R. L., Mushegian, A., Rast, J. P., Smith, L. C., Thorndyke, M. C., Vacquier, V. D., Wessel, G. M., Wray, G., Zhang, L., Elsik, C. G., Ermolaeva, O., Hlavina, W., Hofmann, G., Kitts, P., Landrum, M. J., Mackey, A. J., Maglott, D., Panopoulou, G., Poustka, A. J., Pruitt, K., Sapojnikov, V., Song, X., Souvorov, A., Solovyev, V., Wei, Z., Whittaker, C. A., Worley, K., Durbin, K. J., Shen, Y., Fedrigo, O., Garfield, D., Haygood, R., Primus, A., Satija, R., Severson, T., Gonzalez-Garay, M. L., Jackson, A. R., Milosavljevic, A., Tong, M., Killian, C. E., Livingston, B. T., Wilt, F. H., Adams, N., Bellé, R., Carbonneau, S., Cheung, R., Cormier, P., Cosson, B., Croce, J., ...
CHORDATA. CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS. NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS. CONVULSIONS, FEBRILE. SEIZURES, FEBRILE ...
Chordata Subphylum. Urochordata Subphylum. Cephalochordata Subphylum. More information Chapter 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, ... Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Prepared by Diana C. Wheat For Linn- ... Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata 10/27/14 Deuterostomes! v Echinoderms and Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Deuterostome Review ... Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Deuterostomes! v Echinoderms and chordates constitute the ...
Chordata (6) * Chordata, Nonvertebrate (0) * Vertebrates (4) * Amphibians (0) * Birds (0) * Fishes (0) ...
On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... The three major clades of deuterostomes are Chordata (e.g. vertebrates), Echinodermata (e.g. starfish), and Hemichordata (e.g. ... Another feature present in both the Hemichordata and Chordata is pharyngotremy; the presence of spiracles or gill slits into ... These are the following phyla/subgroups of the deuterostomes: Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates ...
CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE). ... "Chordata" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chordata" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chordata" by people in Profiles. ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate [B01.050.500.272] + Chordata, Nonvertebrate + * Cnidaria [B01.050.500.308] + Cnidaria + * Ctenophora [ ...
  • Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE). (harvard.edu)
  • By phyletic definition, these many-celled, sub-vertebrate animals lack a vertebral column, spinal column, vertebrae, backbone, or long, full-length notochord-in contrast to the vertebrates in the one phylum of Chordata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrates belong to the phylum Chordata. (brandeis.edu)
  • Cordati Nonvertebrati 0 domande A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla Cephalochordata, UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). (lookformedical.com)
  • The three major clades of deuterostomes are Chordata (e.g. vertebrates), Echinodermata (e.g. starfish), and Hemichordata (e.g. acorn worms). (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylum Chordata consists of both invertebrates and vertebrates chordates. (wellnessbyzen.com)
  • Chordates (Chordata) are a group of animals that includes vertebrates, tunicates, lancelets. (wellnessbyzen.com)
  • Chordates ( phylum Chordata ) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates , together with several closely related invertebrates . (fandom.com)
  • A group of invertebrate chordates (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE) in the subphylum Craniota. (bireme.br)
  • Members of the phylum Chordata are bilaterally symmetric , deuterostome coelomates , and the vertebrate chordates display segmentation . (infogalactic.com)
  • The current consensus is that chordates are monophyletic , meaning that the Chordata include all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor, which is itself a chordate, and that craniates' nearest relatives are cephalochordates. (infogalactic.com)
  • Phylum Chordata Chordates. (slideplayer.com)
  • Presentation on theme: "Phylum Chordata Chordates. (slideplayer.com)
  • Download ppt "Phylum Chordata Chordates. (slideplayer.com)
  • Chordata (kôrdā´tə,-dä´-) , phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. Animals in the phylum Chordata share four key features that appear at some stage during their development: a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail (Figure 2). (wellnessbyzen.com)
  • Thus modern invertebrate paleontologists deal largely with fossils of this more strictly defined Animal Kingdom (excepting Phylum Chordata), Phylum Chordata being the exclusive focus of vertebrate paleontology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid gland evolved from an iodide-trapping, glycoprotein-secreting gland of the protochordates (all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). (britannica.com)
  • Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson (1885), it was already in prevalent use by 1880. (infogalactic.com)
  • 1. There are many different types of species in the chordata system, up to 450,000! (wellnessbyzen.com)
  • These six species illustrate the diversity of the phylum Chordata. (wellnessbyzen.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chordata" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chordata" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)