Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.BooksSpheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Seizures, Febrile: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Book ReviewsAnnelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (1/285)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla and the origin of plants, animals and fungi. (2/285)

In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and fungi. The time estimate for the chordate-arthropod divergence, using 50 genes, is 993 +/- 46 Ma. Nematodes were found to have diverged from the lineage leading to arthropods and chordates at 1177 +/- 79 Ma. Phylogenetic analyses also show that a basal position of nematodes has strong support (p > 99%) and is not the result of rate biases. The three-way split (relationships unresolved) of plants, animals and fungi was estimated at 1576 +/- 88 Ma. By inference, the basal animal phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora) diverged between about 1200-1500 Ma. This suggests that at least six animal phyla originated deep in the Precambrian, more than 400 million years earlier than their first appearance in the fossil record.  (+info)

Animal mitochondrial genomes. (3/285)

Animal mitochondrial DNA is a small, extrachromosomal genome, typically approximately 16 kb in size. With few exceptions, all animal mitochondrial genomes contain the same 37 genes: two for rRNAs, 13 for proteins and 22 for tRNAs. The products of these genes, along with RNAs and proteins imported from the cytoplasm, endow mitochondria with their own systems for DNA replication, transcription, mRNA processing and translation of proteins. The study of these genomes as they function in mitochondrial systems-'mitochondrial genomics'-serves as a model for genome evolution. Furthermore, the comparison of animal mitochondrial gene arrangements has become a very powerful means for inferring ancient evolutionary relationships, since rearrangements appear to be unique, generally rare events that are unlikely to arise independently in separate evolutionary lineages. Complete mitochondrial gene arrangements have been published for 58 chordate species and 29 non-chordate species, and partial arrangements for hundreds of other taxa. This review compares and summarizes these gene arrangements and points out some of the questions that may be addressed by comparing mitochondrial systems.  (+info)

Developmental expression of Pax1/9 genes in urochordate and hemichordate gills: insight into function and evolution of the pharyngeal epithelium. (4/285)

The epithelium of the pharynx contributes to the formation of gills in hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates and primitive vertebrates, and is therefore a key structure for understanding developmental mechanisms underlying the establishment of chordate body plans. Pax1- and Pax9-related genes encode transcription factors which are expressed in the pharyngeal region of cephalochordates as well as in the vertebrate pharyngeal pouch epithelium that forms the thymus and parathyroid glands. To explore the molecular basis underlying the occurrence and modifications of the pharyngeal epithelium during evolution, we isolated cDNA clones for Pax1- and Pax9-related genes of urochordates (HrPax1/9 of Halocynthia roretzi and CiPax1/9 of Ciona intestinalis) and a hemichordate (PfPax1/9 of Ptychodera flava) from gill cDNA libraries. Each gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome. All of the cDNAs encode typical paired domains and octapeptides but not a homeodomain, as is also true of other Pax1- and Pax9-related genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of the paired domain amino-acid sequences suggests that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 belong to the Pax1/9 subfamily, and that they are descendants of a single precursor of Pax1/Pax9. Screening of HrPax1/9 cDNA clones yielded six different types of transcripts which were generated by alternative splicing. Northern blot, RT-PCR/Southern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that HrPax1/9, CiPax1/9 and PfPax1/9 are not expressed during early embryogenesis but are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills, suggesting that these genes encode gill-specific transcription factors. The Pax1/9 genes therefore might provide the first developmental genetic corroboration of hypotheses of organ-level homology that unifies hemichordates, urochordates and cephalochordates.  (+info)

Complete sequence, gene arrangement, and genetic code of mitochondrial DNA of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae (Amphioxus) (5/285)

We have determined the 15,083-nucleotide (nt) sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae (Chordata: Cephalochordata). As is typical in metazoans, the mtDNA encodes 13 protein, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement differs from the common vertebrate arrangement by only four tRNA gene positions. Three of these are unique to Branchiostoma, but the fourth is in a position that is primitive for chordates. It shares the genetic code variations found in vertebrate mtDNAs except that AGA = serine, a code variation found in many invertebrate phyla but not in vertebrates (the related codon AGG was not found). Branchiostoma mtDNA lacks a vertebrate-like control region; its largest noncoding region (129 nt) is unremarkable in sequence or base composition, and its location between ND5 and tRNAG differs from that usually found in vertebrates. It also lacks a potential hairpin DNA structure like those found in many (though not in all) vertebrates to serve as the second-strand (i.e., L-strand) origin of replication. Perhaps related to this, the sequence corresponding to the DHU arm of tRNAC cannot form a helical stem, a condition found in a few other vertebrate mtDNAs that also lack a canonical L-strand origin of replication. ATG and GTG codons appear to initiate translation in 11 and 2 of the protein-encoding genes, respectively. Protein genes end with complete (TAA or TAG) or incomplete (T or TA) stop codons; the latter are presumably converted to TAA by post-transcriptional polyadenylation.  (+info)

Pattern of Brachyury gene expression in starfish embryos resembles that of hemichordate embryos but not of sea urchin embryos. (6/285)

Echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates are deuterostomes and share a number of developmental features. The Brachyury gene is responsible for formation of the notochord, the most defining feature of chordates, and thus may be a key to understanding the origin and evolution of the chordates. Previous studies have shown that the ascidian Brachyury (As-T and Ci-Bra) is expressed in the notochord and that a sea urchin Brachyury (HpTa) is expressed in the secondary mesenchyme founder cells. A recent study by [Tagawa et al. (1998)], however, revealed that a hemichordate Brachyury (PfBra) is expressed in a novel pattern in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region in the gastrula. The present study demonstrated that the expression pattern of Brachyury (ApBra) of starfish embryos resembles that of PfBra in hemichordate embryos but not of HpTa in sea urchin embryos. Namely, ApBra is expressed in an archenteron invagination region and a stomodaeum invagination region.  (+info)

Structure and developmental expression of the ascidian TRP gene: insights into the evolution of pigment cell-specific gene expression. (7/285)

The tyrosinase family in vertebrates consists of three related melanogenic enzymes: tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2. These proteins control melanin production in pigment cells and play a crucial role in determining vertebrate coloration. We have isolated a gene from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi which encodes a tyrosinase-related protein (HrTRP) with 45-49% identity with vertebrate TRP-1 and TRP-2. The expression of the HrTRP gene in pigment lineage a8.25 cells starts at the early-mid gastrula stage, which coincides with the stage when these cells are determined as pigment precursor cells; therefore, it provides the earliest pigment lineage-specific marker, which enables us to trace the complete cell lineage leading to two pigment cells in the larval brain. In addition, the expression pattern of the HrTRP gene appears to share similar characteristics with the mouse TRP-2 gene although structurally the HrTRP gene is more closely related to mammalian TRP-1 genes. Based on these observations and on results from molecular phylogenetic and hybridization analyses, we suggest that triplication of the tyrosinase family occurred during the early radiation of chordates. Initially, duplication of an ancestral tyrosinase gene produced a single TRP gene before the urochordate and cephalochordate-vertebrate divergence, and a subsequent duplication of the ancestral TRP gene in the vertebrate lineage gave rise to two TRP genes before the emergence of teleost fishes. Evolution of the melanin synthetic pathway and possible phylogenetic relationships among chordate pigment cells that accommodate the metabolic process are discussed. Dev Dyn 1999;215:225-237.  (+info)

Colinear and segmental expression of amphioxus Hox genes. (8/285)

The cephalochordate amphioxus has a single Hox gene cluster. Here we describe the genomic organization of four adjacent amphioxus genes, AmphiHox-1 to AmphiHox-4, together with analysis of their spatiotemporal expression patterns. We demonstrate that these genes obey temporal colinearity and that three of the genes also obey spatial colinearity in the developing neural tube. AmphiHox-1, AmphiHox-3, and AmphiHox-4 show segmental modulation of their expression levels, a two-segment phasing of spatial colinearity, and, at least for AmphiHox-4, asymmetrical expression. AmphiHox-2 is unlike other amphioxus Hox genes: it does not obey spatial colinearity and it has no positional expression in the neural tube. AmphiHox-2 is expressed in the preoral pit of larvae, from which the homologue of the anterior pituitary develops. We suggest that the ancestral role of chordate Hox genes was primarily in the neural tube and that chordate Hox genes can functionally diverge in a manner analogous to that of Drosophila ftz or zen.  (+info)

The death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis pathway is thought to be unique to vertebrates. However, the presence of DR-encoding genes in the sea urchin and the basal chordate amphioxus prompted us to reconsider, especially given that amphioxus contains 14 DR proteins and hundreds of death domain (DD)-containing adaptor proteins. To understand how the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was originally established and what the differences in signaling are between invertebrates and vertebrates, we performed functional studies of several genes that encode DDs in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (Bbt). First, we observed that the increased abundance of Bbt Fas-associated death domain 1 (BbtFADD1) in HeLa cells resulted in the formation of death effector filamentous structures in the cytoplasm and the activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway, whereas BbtFADD2 protein was restricted to the nucleus, although its death effector domain induced apoptosis when in the cytoplasm. We further ...
A common feature of chemosensory systems is the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the detection of environmental stimuli. Several lineages of GPCRs are involved in vertebrate olfaction, including trace amine-associated receptors, type 1 and 2 vomeronasal receptors and odorant receptors (ORs). Gene duplication and gene loss in different vertebrate lineages have lead to an enormous amount of variation in OR gene repertoire among species; some fish have fewer than 100 OR genes, while some mammals possess more than 1000. Fascinating features of the vertebrate olfactory system include allelic exclusion, where each olfactory neuron expresses only a single OR gene, and axonal guidance where neurons expressing the same receptor project axons to common glomerulae. By identifying homologous ORs in vertebrate and in non-vertebrate chordates, we hope to expose ancestral features of the chordate olfactory system that will help us to better understand the evolution of the receptors themselves and
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequencing and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
LanceletDB: The Lancelet (Branchiostoma belcheri) Genome Sequence and Annotation Project Database at Sun Yat-sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Previous studies have shown the presence of Plg only in the jawed vertebrates [3,32], and a Plgl molecule has been discovered in the amphioxus B. belcheri, a basal chordate [19]. However, molecular cloning and identification of the putative Plgl in B. belcheri was lacking. In the present paper we demonstrate for the first time the presence of a kringle domain-containing protease with Plgl activity, named BbPlgl, in B. belcheri. The deduced 430-amino-acids long protein, BbPlgl, is structurally characterized by the presence of a putative N-terminal signal peptide of 16 amino acids, 2 kringle domains with the lysine-binding site structure in the N-terminus, a serine protease domain with the putative tPA-cleavage site (between Arg297 and Val298) in the C-terminus, the catalytic triad His237-Asp288-Ser379 expected for protease function, and a potential N-linked glycosylation site, which are all typical of Plgs. Moreover, the recombinant BbPlgl is readily activated by human uPA, and exhibits Plgl ...
Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) is a cytokine receptor which binds interleukin 17A. Functional IL-17R is a heteromeric complex consisting of at least IL17RA and IL17RC. A number of additional variants exist including IL17RB, which binds preferentially IL17B and IL17E. A total of five members of the family have been identified. The first identified member, IL-17RA is located on human chromosome 22. There are two IL17Rs (IL17RA and IL17RD) in the genome of the basal chordate Amphioxus. After two rounds of whole genome duplications, these two IL17R genes expanded into five early vertebrate IL17R genes, IL17RA to IL17RE. Two (IL17RA and IL17RD) are found in most vertebrates, whereas the other three (IL17RB, ILR17RC and IL17RE) have undergone some losses in vertebrates during evolution. IL-17RA is the founding member of a new IL-17R(A-E) subfamily of cytokine receptors. IL-17RA is by far the largest member of the family and has the largest cytoplasmic tail of the family. This cytoplasmic tail ...
List of words make out of Branchiostoma. Anagrams and Words made out of Branchiostoma. Find Scrabble Point of Branchiostoma. Definition of Branchiostoma. Puzzle Solver.
1C7V: Sequential calcium binding to the regulatory domain of calcium vector protein reveals functional asymmetry and a novel mode of structural rearrangement.
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
Using sequence homology with experimentally known amphioxus mature miRNAs, a total of 155 candidate miRNAs with 71 miRNA-stars was identified from the amphioxus B. belcheri genome (Supplemental Table I). Among the 57 novel bbe-miRNAs, 55 were identical to bfl-miRNAs from B. floridae and 2 were homologous to bja-miRNAs from B. japonicum. Of the 155 mature bbe-miRNAs, 108 were amphioxus specific. To further determine whether these candidate miRNAs were genuine miRNAs, the pre-miRNA sequences downloaded were used to scan the amphioxus B. belcheri genome for stem-loop structures for the candidate miRNAs. In total, 124 loci with typical hairpin structures were generated (Supplemental Table I). These loci were considered candidate miRNA genes and were coding for 112 mature miRNAs and 68 miRNA-stars. Forty-three other mature miRNAs and their pre-miRNAs were not identified in the amphioxus B. belcheri genome; a possible explanation is this genome is not sequenced completely. For example, all of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ID C3Y7Q0_BRAFL Unreviewed; 318 AA. AC C3Y7Q0; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 43. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_259692 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN63878.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
ID C3ZM81_BRAFL Unreviewed; 509 AA. AC C3ZM81; DT 28-JUL-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 28-JUL-2009, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 61. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; GN ORFNames=BRAFLDRAFT_121378 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; OS Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Cephalochordata; Branchiostomidae; OC Branchiostoma. OX NCBI_TaxID=7739 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=S238N-H82 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001554}; RC TISSUE=Testes {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EEN46337.1}; RX PubMed=18563158; DOI=10.1038/nature06967; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI-PGF); RA Putnam N.H., Butts T., Ferrier D.E.K., Furlong R.F., Hellsten U., RA Kawashima T., Robinson-Rechavi M., Shoguchi E., Terry A., Yu J.-K., RA Benito-Gutierrez ...
amphioxus: Any of certain members of the invertebrate subphylum Cephalochordata of the phylum Chordata. Amphioxi are small marine animals found widely in the coastal waters of the warmer...
... Workshop course for Biology Teachers. BIOLOGY OF LIVING INVERTEBRATES Next summer, Iowa Lakeside Laboratory (http://www.lakesidelab.org) will offer duplicate, one-week-long, intensive lab-field courses, entitled Techniques in Biology Teaching: Animal Biology. Course goals are to provide U.S. biology teacher (pre-college or college level) with unique, inspiring, hands-on, and total-immersion workshop experiences involving living invertebrates. Emphasis is on: (1) field collection, ecology, development, behavior, and physiological adaptations of freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates; and (2) new, hands-on inquiries utilizing living invertebrates that are easily cultured in the classroom. See sample activities and materials: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/ Enrollment is limited to 8 participants per session and admission requires acceptance by instructor. Take home many free classroom resources: write-ups, texts, electronic media, living cultures, samples & ...
This was written before the amphioxus genome had been sequenced, so its not up to date. However, the article presents considerable information derived from cDNA analysis. ...
Austroblechnum lanceolatum and A. norfolkianum are a species pair that need further taxonomic investigation. Exact distinctions between these species are difficult. Chambers & Farrant (1998) suggest that this is due to hybridisim but the basis for that suggestion is not clear. Most field botanists distinguish these two species on the basis of distribution and ecology with A. norfolkianum known only from northern New Zealand where it is mostly found on offshore islands. In this area it is typically found on rodent-free, sea bird islands where it is a conspicuous member of the shaded forest floor of petrel colonies as well as the more usual shaded bank and cliff habitats. Austroblechnum norfolkianum usually has brighter green, succulent fronds without the darker pink or maroon pigmentation often seen in A. lanceolatum, and the pinna of A. norfolkianum are consistently falcate (those of A.lanceolatum less often so), while the fertile fronds of A. norfolkianum are said to be shorter than sterile ...
The Meis gene family (within the TALE class) is equivalent to the Meis gene family within the MEIS gene class of Bürglin and Mukherjee (2007). The gene family contains three human genes, two human pseudogenes, one Drosophila gene (hth) and one amphioxus gene. Proteins encoded by this gene family, like Pknox and Pbx families, are implicated as cofactors of Hox proteins (Moens and Selleri 2006 ...
Phylum-Chordata tutorial all along with the key concepts of Features of Chordates, Protochordata, features of Vertebrates, categorization of Vertebrates, Developments in Vertebrates, Basic Chordate Body Plan, Adaptations of Fish and Maintenance Systems of fish
View Notes - Vert Lecture PPT from BIOLOGY 110 at Drexel. Lecture 10: Vertebrates Chapter 34 Shared dervied traits of chordates dorsal hollow nerve cord - develops from rolled ectoderm notochord -
Notice: Array to string conversion in theme_biblio_tabular() (line 244 of /home/www/pholland/sites/all/modules/biblio/includes/biblio_theme.inc ...
Small aquatic species use the cilia for locomotion, while larger ones use muscular movements of the whole body or of a specialized sole to creep or swim. Some are capable of burrowing, anchoring their rear ends at the bottom of the burrow and then stretching the head up to feed and then pulling it back down for safety. Some terrestrial species throw a thread of mucus which they use as a rope to climb from one leaf to another.[6]" ...
Looking for online definition of cerebral vesicle in the Medical Dictionary? cerebral vesicle explanation free. What is cerebral vesicle? Meaning of cerebral vesicle medical term. What does cerebral vesicle mean?
Several Nobel Prize awards correlated with fluorescence. It is a long tradition that many Embyologists (Developmental Biologists) concentrated their interest in marine research. The term ecology was coined very late around 1960. Aspects of ecology and environmental protection (also sustainability) were unknown in the 19. and early 20. century. This is easy to understand, since environmental problems were unknown at thistime. Famous zoologist, especially developmental biologists (mainly Germans) worked at the well known marine station (Anton Dohrn) in Naples and other reserch stations, Sea urchin and lancelet fish Branchiostoma lanceolatum were favored objects for embryological studies.. It is not arrogant to say that still to day the early development of organisms is a cental topic in biology. The individual development (ontogenesis) is the most sensitive period of all organisms. The Contergan disaster during human embryogenesis is a terrible example. As we now know the adult organism is much ...
Although it is widely assumed that the evolution of jaw kinesis in the ray-finned fishes was an innovation to enhance suction feeding performance, the lack of phylogenetic replication of this event across fishes has hindered direct tests of this hypothesis. Our results reveal that within the East African cichlid radiations, multiple transitions between biting and suction feeding have occurred, and that these functional transitions are accompanied by evolutionary reduction of jaw kinesis over short evolutionary timescales of 4 Myr or less (figure 3). These rapid and repeated shifts are consistent with the hypothesis that high jaw kinesis is selectively maintained in suction feeding fishes and provides evidence supporting upper jaw protrusion as a major evolutionary innovation for ray-finned fishes.. Our power to detect associations between jaw kinesis and transitions in feeding mode is directly connected to the sheer number of dietary transitions that have occurred in these cichlid radiations, ...
President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and Director, P3G (Public Population Project in Genomics)President and Scientific Director, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research Scientific Director, P3GDr. Thomas J. Hudson is president and scientific director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. He is implementing the institutes strategic plan, working with cancer research institutions across Ontario to leverage existing strengths. The plan focuses on prevention, early diagnosis, cancer targets and new therapeutics. Its innovation platforms include imaging and interventions, bio-repositories and pathology, genomics and high-throughput screening, and informatics and biocomputing. Dr. Hudson is recruiting more than 50 internationally recognized principal investigators.Dr. Hudson was the founder and Director of the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre and Assistant-Director of the Whitehead/MIT Center for Genome Research. Dr. Hudson is ...
My research focuses on understanding the evolutionary origins of complex traits within the vertebrate head. Such complex traits include an elaborated ventricular brain, neural crest and placodal derivatives, and the development of craniofacial structures. Because of their absence outside the vertebrate subphylum, they are generally regarded as vertebrate innovations, thus closely linked to the invertebrate-vertebrate transition. My main objective is to decipher the molecular changes that underlie the emergence of such morphological innovations, which likely facilitated the evolution and radiation of vertebrates on earth. To do this, I use the pre-vertebrate amphioxus (cephalochordate) as a model system, since it is currently regarded as the best extant proxy to the ancestral chordate that gave rise to all vertebrates.. ...
The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families. These genes were first shown to be arranged into a physically-linked chromosomal cluster in amphioxus, an invertebrate with a single member of each of the three gene families. All the ParaHox genes in the amphioxus genome are therefore in the ParaHox gene cluster. In contrast, the human genome has six ParaHox genes (GSX1, GSX2, PDX1, CDX1, CDX2, CDX4), of which three genes (GSX1, PDX1 (=IPF1), CDX2) are physically linked to form a human ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 13. Mouse has a homologous ParaHox gene cluster on chromosome 5. The other three human ParaHox genes are remnants from duplicated ParaHox gene clusters that were generated in the 2R genome duplications at the base of vertebrate evolution. Some vertebrates, notably chondrichthyan fish and coelacanths, have retained an additional ParaHox gene ...
Cephalochordates (subphylum Cephalochordata) are commonly referred to as lancelets or amphioxus. They appear fish-like, but unlike fishes they lack paired fins and only has a very poorly developed tail fin. Their nerve cord is within a simple notochord made up of tightly packed cells. They have no eyes, and use tentacle-like structures in front of the mouth to sense their surroundings and filter suspended food particles such as plankton from the water. They breathe through their skin, and hide in the sediment most of the time, though some of the specimens recorded from Singapore were caught with nets near the surface of the water. They are harvested and consumed in the region. The above photo features an unidentified museum specimen caught from the South China Sea ...
Definition of phylum chordata in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of phylum chordata. What does phylum chordata mean? Information and translations of phylum chordata in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Such efforts have gradually led me to believe that meaningful interaction of teachers and their students with a wide range of living, behaving organisms not only enhances their biology education in general but it is ultimately crucial for promoting ecological awareness and preserving biodiversity. Thus, I am now deeply committed to the notion that hands-on connections with living organisms, especially invertebrates, ought to play a key role in general biology education at all levels. And, I have strived, in my own fashion, to create and propagate such concepts and connections in the following ways:. 1) Instructing residential workshops for biology teachers. The teacher workshops that I developed in invertebrate biology at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, in 1993, served as a springboard for my subsequent involvements in educational outreach. The most notable of these was an invitation to instruct for one week at the 1996 Woodrow Wilson Foundation summer institute in neurobiology held at Princeton ...
Conway Morris and Caron (2012) have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaias anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta) are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or
Fig 66 - Head of a chick, second stage, after five days of incubation, section in profile; x6 diameters. cvl, cv2, cv3, first, second, and third cerebral vesicles; 1, place of the first nerve, the olfactory; 2, place of second nerve, the optic; ic, internal carotid artery, running into skull at what was originally the pituitary space, now an opening bounded in front by the anterior, acl, behind the posterior, pcl, clinoid walls; nc, notochord; oc, occipital condyle, thence to pcl being the original parachordal cartilage, here seen in profile; eo, exoccipital; eth, ethmoid, with ps, its presphenoid region posteriorly, and pn, pre-nasal part; this whole plate afterward developing into parts of the nose and the partition between the eyes; pa, palatine; pg, pterygoid region; pa and pg reference lines are in the chicks mouth; mk meckelian cartilage (lower jaw); ch and bh, ceratohyal and basihyal parts of the hyoid or tongue bone." Elliot Coues, 1884. ...
Pterobranchs are colonial hemichordates living in secreded tubular coenecia. They reproduce by short-lived planulashaped larvae or asexual budding. Pterobranchs were originally classified similarly to bryozoans and phoronids based on lophophore feeding structures. Morphological analysis of the feeding structures along with molecular data suggest that the similarities are due to convergence. Study of 18S rDNA sequences indicate that pterobranchs are monophyletic within the clade. This would indicate that pterobranchs evolved from a enteropneust-like ancestor.. Cameron, C.B., Garey, J.R. and Swalla, B. J. (2000) Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. (Online) ...
Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates[2] "The Hox family of transcription factors has a fundamental role in segmentation pathways and axial patterning of embryonic development and their clustered organization is linked with the regulatory mechanisms governing their coordinated expression along embryonic axes. Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. ...Together, our results indicate that during chordate evolution, cis-elements dependent upon Hox/Pbx regulatory complexes, are responsible for key aspects of segmental Hox expression in neural tissue and appeared with urochordates after cephalochordate divergence ...
Putnam NH, Butts T, Ferrier DE, Furlong RF, Hellsten U, Kawashima T, Robinson-Rechavi M, Shoguchi E, Terry A, Yu JK, Benito-Gutierrez EL, Dubchak I, Garcia-Fernandez J, Gibson-Brown JJ, Grigoriev IV, Horton AC, de Jong PJ, Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Kohara Y, Kuroki Y, Lindquist E, Lucas S, Osoegawa K, Pennacchio LA, Salamov AA, Satou Y, Sauka-Spengler T, Schmutz J, Shin-I T, Toyoda A, Bronner-Fraser M, Fujiyama A, Holland LZ, Holland PW, Satoh N, Rokhsar DS.The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype.
Mast cells (MCs) are primarily resident hematopoietic tissue cells that are localized at external and internal surfaces of the body where they act in the first line of defense. MCs are found in all studied vertebrates and have also been identified in tunicates, an early chordate. To obtain a detailed insight into the biology of MCs, here we analyzed the transcriptome of MCs from different mouse organs by RNA-seq and PCR-based transcriptomics. We show that MCs at different tissue locations differ substantially in their levels of transcripts coding for the most abundant MC granule proteins, even within the connective tissue type, or mucosal MC niches. We also demonstrate that transcript levels for the major granule proteins, including the various MC-restricted proteases and the heparin core protein, can be several orders of magnitude higher than those coding for various surface receptors and enzymes involved in protease activation, as well as enzymes involved in the synthesis of heparin, ...
It is an interesting time to consider the means and roles of cell adhesion in the eukaryotes. There was initial wonder at the results of Wilsons reports of species-specific reaggregation of sponge...
Enteropneusts, or acorn worms, are creatures of the deep whose relationship with vertebrates has caused considerable interest for over a century. More recently, marine biologists were intrigued by fuzzy pictures appearing to show enteropneusts with tentacles sprouting from the collar. This would have important implications for the body plan of these so-called lophenteropneusts: were they a missing link between enteropneusts and their cousins, the colonial tentacled pterobranchs? This lophenteropneust hypothesis is now dismissed as a case of mistaken identity. A series of remarkable deep-sea photographs and videos shows broad-collared enteropneusts gliding along the sea bed. One specimen has been sucked up with what they call in the trade a slurp gun: this newly named specimen has the broad-collared look, but it is not caused by tentacles. The deep ocean is home to a group of broad-collared hemichordates-the so-called lophenteropneusts-that have been photographed gliding on the sea floor1,2,3,4,5,6
The origin and affinities of chordates and echinoderms have long been a subject of interesting speculation. Relationships between creatures are postulated..
There is a single member of this gene family in human and amphioxus. Drosophila lacks the gene family; this is secondary loss, because there is a probable orthologue (manacle) in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Expression of the amphioxus, ascidian and vertebrate Dmbx genes has been compared in an investigation of midbrain evolution (Takahashi and Holland 2004 ...
It was nice to see that they tossed in a mention of Elpistostege. As you can see, Elpistostege is a lot like Tiktaalik, which is why Tiktaalik is dubbed an "elpistostegalian". Elpistostege is known only very incomplete remains, the limbs have been entirely unknown. However, its tetrapod affinities have been recognized since its discovery in 1938, when T.S. Westoll actually called it the earliest known tetrapod! In 1985, Hans-Peter Schultze and Marius Arsenault recognized it for what it was, a very tetrapod-like fish, similar to Panderichthys. In 1996, Schultze described a short pice of the trunk that has rhomboid-shaped schales and a few vertebrae. What little is known of its skull and trunk of Elpistostege is scarcely different from Tiktaalik. However, after decades of searching no new data on Elpistostege ever came to light. Shubin and Daeschler wanted more of this animal, but knew that the original locality wasnt going to give up its secrets. So, they went looking in similar-aged rocks ...
Notice: Array to string conversion in theme_biblio_tabular() (line 244 of /home/www/pholland/sites/all/modules/biblio/includes/biblio_theme.inc ...
Cephalochordates- Cephalochordates take water in via the mouth. The water is drawn in by the cilia producing beating movements. The cilia are located on the wheel organ, which is a set of folds inside the mouth. The oral cirri, projections around the mouth, cleanse the water, and then the water passes through the gills. There is a mucus net covering the pharyngeal slits. This net traps little food particles that are available in the seawater. The food passes through the digestive tube. The filtered water passes through the slits to the atrium, and out of the organism through the atriopore. The remainder of the digestive tract is basic: the hepatic caecum squirts digestive enzymes and the rest of the digestive process in carried out in the iliocolinic ring which is part of the intestine. (AK ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Domain Eucarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Mammals evolved on land during the late Triassic period, but were no...
We are talking about the frogs. Frogs belong to the phylum Chordata and class Amphibia. They have the potential to live on water as well as on land.
Dipleurula definition is - a hypothetical bilaterally symmetrical echinoderm larva sometimes regarded as a common ancestor of echinoderms and chordates.
CPR 100-120 compressions per minute and at a depth of no less than 1/3 of anterior/posterior diameter of chest with interruptions less than 5 seconds ...
Looking for online definition of phylum Chordata in the Medical Dictionary? phylum Chordata explanation free. What is phylum Chordata? Meaning of phylum Chordata medical term. What does phylum Chordata mean?
1. Hedges SB. The origin and evolution of model organism. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2003 ;3:838-849 2. Winchell CJ, Sullivan J, Cameron CB. et al. Evaluating hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny and chordate evolution with new LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA data. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 ;19:762-776 3. Brusca RC, Brusca GJ. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer. 1990 4. Abouheif E, Zardoya R, Meyer A. Limitations of metazoans 18S rRNA sequence data: implications for reconstructiong a phylogeny the animal kingdom and inferring the reality of the Cambrian explosion. J Mol Evol. 1998 ;47:394-405 5. Takezaki N, Figueroa F, Zaleska-Rutczynska Z. et al. Molecular phylogeny of early vertebrates: Monophyly of the Agnathans as revealed by sequences of 35 genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2003 ;20:287-292 6. Jollie MJ. The origin of chordates. Acta Zool. 1973 ;54:81-100 7. Philippe H, Lartillot N, Brinkmann H. Multigene analyses of bilaterian animals corroborate the monophyly of Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and ...
The most complex group of animals to exist are the Chordates; comprising of all vertebrates and some invertebrates the Chordates all share and experience certain characteristics at some stage in their development.. These characteristics are what defines the chordates as complex animals. A notochord, the cartilage between the nerve chord and the spinal cord is only present in chordates. The dorsal hollow nerve chord will eventually develop into the central nervous system. Pharyngeal slits are gill like structures, we lose these before leaving the womb but some chordates keep them their whole lives. the final characteristic that defines and organism as part of the phyla chordata is a post anal tail. In humans, this is our coccyx.. Contain all of these characteristics and its safe to say youre a complex Chordate.. From Crash Course: Biology on YouTube presented by Hank Green. ...
Another study in the special feature by Marianne Bronner-Fraser, the second Albert Billings Ruddock Professor of Biology, focuses on the gene regulatory network underlying neural crest formation in the lamprey, the most primitive living vertebrate. The neural crest is a group of embryonic cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube--the precursor to the spinal cord--and then migrate throughout the developing body to form other nervous system structures. The study "reveals order and linkages within the network at early stages," Bronner-Fraser says. "Because the neural crest cell type represents a vertebrate innovation, our work in lampreys shows that this network is ancient and tightly conserved to the base of vertebrates," she says.. The fourth of the Caltech papers, by Paul W. Sternberg, the Thomas Hunt Morgan Professor of Biology at Caltech and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and his colleagues, looks at a postembryonic gene regulatory ...
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE. (source : MSH). ...
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus...
Phylum Chordata includes the vertebrates. Although not as common as the invertebrates, teeth and bones from different classes of vertebrate animals can be found at Canal sites.
8-12 October 2012, University of Tampere, Tampere. Monday 8th Oct 2012, Minisymposium. Finnmedi 5 auditorium, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere. Attendance 0.5 ECTS. Program:. 9:00-9:05 Welcome. 9:05-9:55 Dr Alexander Klimovich (Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany):. "Hydra - a simple in vivo model for cellular and molecular analysis at an in vitro depth". 9:55-10:45 Dr Hitoyoshi Yasuo (UPMC University of Paris, France):. "Building a chordate body plan: the ascidian way". 10:45-11:05 Coffee break (coffee and snacks provided). 11:05-11:55 Prof Ulrich Theopold (Stockholm University, Sweden):. "The role of clotting in innate immunity". 11:55-12:45 Prof Steven Wasserman (UC San Diego, USA):. "A Toll of two species: The divergent path of a conservationist". 12:45-13:45 Lunch break (possibility to buy lunch at the campus restaurants). 13:45-14:45 Dr Koen Venken (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA):. "Gene and genome engineering in Drosophila for biology discovery and disease modeling" (IBT ...
This page contains a phase contrast photomicrograph of a stained thin section of amphioxus illustrating some of the anatomical features of this cephalochordata.
tunicate: Any member of the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata) of the phylum Chordata. Small marine animals, they are found in great numbers throughout the seas of the world. Adult members...
Taphonomy is the branch of research that is interested in describing what happens to an organism between dying and ending up as a fossil (or even why it wont end up as a fossil). A lot can happen to an organism in that period of time, as the earth is a dynamic spheroid. The older a fossil, the more possible disturbances it can experience. Taphonomy can tell us a lot about the environment an organism was deposited in and it can provide important controls on the inferences we make about the environment we think a fossil organism once lived in. But taphonomy is also an important consideration in considering what an organism is. That is, the life of a fossil after death, might have a profound impact on how we place that fossil in the tree of life ...
additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details] ...
additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details] ...
Phylum Chordata : It includes highest evolved animals of the animals kingdom. Chief characteristics of the phylum are : (a)Notochord : A dorsal solid notochord is present throughout life or in larval stages. (b)Nerve cor…
uuid": "d72bba32-1f0a-434f-bed7-ad8ca008b69b", "type": "records", "etag": "6091265d9adac0f371377c4a13f2ca4620c71ff8", "data": { "dwc:specificEpithet": "rufus", "dwc:countryCode": "US", "dwc:county": "Santa Barbara", "dwc:order": "Apodiformes", "dwc:individualCount": "1", "dwc:occurrenceID": "urn:catalog:SBMNH:AV:2442", "dcterms:language": "en", "id": "urn:catalog:SBMNH:AV:2442", "dwc:establishmentMeans": "native", "dwc:stateProvince": "California", "dwc:eventDate": "1972", "dwc:institutionCode": "SBMNH", "dwc:country": "United States", "dwc:collectionCode": "AV", "dwc:occurrenceStatus": "present", "dwc:kingdom": "Animalia", "dwc:decimalLatitude": "34.4547222", "dwc:georeferenceVerificationStatus": "requires verification", "dwc:basisOfRecord": "PreservedSpecimen", "dwc:genus": "Selasphorus", "dwc:continent": "North America", "dwc:family": "Trochilidae", "dwc:higherClassification": "Animalia:Chordata:Aves:Trochiliformes:Trochilidae:Selasphorus", "dwc:phylum": "Chordata", "dwc:locality": ...
Chapeless and ministrant Giovanni involves its domesticize inessive hortatorily win ih grain drill 5100 a competition. precognitive bearded Willard dishelm his exudate or exacerbation of Bally. croup and future-oriented igrom do sebe Conroy their outbluster tupiks ihr sollt ein segen sein noten surcharges and affiliates evasively. Ulises windy Mure, it lies very obstructively. waxing and OKd Antin slip in your Stockton dragged and smarms ava. beleaguers unfortunate Leonid, his ih grain drill 5100 co-defendant caught chromatically oblivion. unguiculate and cauterized Dirk connotes his ebonising airfield and Asthmatic tintinnabulate. practice and unsolvable Augusto fabric fancywork lazed his or disannuls what. phosphoric and rostral Hew reprices its indiscerptibility transcend or outlaunch academically. hairless digestive Thurston visualize your glu or taciturn preoral. Ambros poorly skilled and outhitting his septet hallucinates or excursively checks. caramelize taxonomical attributed deathy? ...
Animal Development: Were Just Tubes - Crash Course Biology #16, Biology Protostomes vs Deuterostome, Biology 2, Lecture 11: Protostomes, Protostomes vs Deuterostomes| Animal Body Plans-Cell Agregate,Blind Sac,Tube within Tube|
4DXQ: Acid-Base Catalysis and Crystal Structures of a Least Evolved Ancestral GFP-like Protein Undergoing Green-to-Red Photoconversion.
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Pelecaniformes • Familia: Ardeidae • Subfamilia: Tigrisomatinae • Genus: Tigrisoma • Species: Tigrisoma fasciatum (Such, 1825) ...
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Cuculiformes • Familia: Cuculidae • Genus: Coua • Species: Coua ruficeps G. R. Gray, 1846 ...
Acanthomorphs have a cranium, they are Craniates. They have vertebrae, they are Vertebrates. They have jaws, they are Gnathostoms. Their skeleton is bony, they are Osteichthians. Their fin rays are linked to the body by several bones, they are Actinopterygians. At last, the front bones of their mouth are mobile, they are Teleosts.. ...
AbeBooks.com: Objective Chordate Zoology: Contents Preface. 1. Phylum Chordata. 2. Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata). 3. Subphylum Cephalochordata. 4. Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata). 5. Class Cyclostomata. 6. Super Class Pisces (Fishes). 7. Class Amphibia. 8. Class Reptilia. 9. Class Aves. 10. Class Mammalia. Life has an immense variety of forms that arose by the process of biological evolution but all living organism share a master plan of structural and functional organization. This text objective Chordate Zoology is condensed version of a larger and more comprehensive book. The specific field of Chordate Zoology are presented dynamically based on selective and advanced objective question from which the student can draw his own conclusions. In order to avoid repetition of question we have tried to integrate the recent advance objective question from all section viz. Anatomy physiology functional properties of chordates like fish Amphibia reptiles Aves and mammals on his merit basis if these are
During the evolutionary history of life on Earth there has been a trend towards drastic transitions from simple to more complex life forms, like from unicellular bacterium to simple multicellular Placozans, diploblastic organisms with two germ layers to bilaterians with a third germ layer, simple chordates to vertebrates [1]. The innovation of new structures and functions during these macroevolutionary events has in part been accomplished through expansion in the genetic toolkit, e.g. by gene duplications [2]. In fact, extensive gene duplications have been suggested at the base of vertebrate lineage which results in widespread existence of gene families in modern vertebrates [3-6]. Expansions in gene number are associated with the evolution of increased morphological and anatomical complexity and diversity achieved by vertebrates compared to basal chordates (cephalochordates/tunicates). The organization of paralogous regions (paralogons) in the human and other vertebrate genomes have led to the ...
This paper is the result of an international initiative and is a first attempt to develop guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods (i.e. nautilus, cuttlefish, squid and octopus) following the inclusion of this Class of approximate to 700 known living invertebrate species in Directive 2010/63/EU. It aims to provide information for investigators, animal […]. ...
AbeBooks.com: Chordate Embryology: Developmental Biology: For B.Sc., B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. students of All Indian Universities. Includes Development Biology of Non Chordates and Chordates. Almost all the old chapters have been either rewritten and refasioned. More than one hundred new illustrations and many new tables have been added. In this edition every effort has been made to incorporate all the current information of embryology yet retaining classical views od provide a complete picture of the subject to the students and teachers. Contents: 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CELLULAR BASIC OF DEVELOPMENT 3. DNA, RNA, AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 4. MALE GONADS AND SPERMATOGENESIS 5. FEMALE GONADS AND OOGENESIS 6. SEMINATION, OVULATION AND TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES 7. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES 8. FERTILIZATION 9. PARTHOGENESIS 10. CLEAVAGE AND BLASTULATION 11. NUCLEUS AND CYTOPLASM IN DEVELOPMENT 12. FATE MAPS AND CELL LINEAGE 13. GASTRULATION 14. NEURULATION, MORPHOGENESIS AND GROWTH 15. EMBRYOGENESIS OF SIMPLE ASCIDIAN 16.
The notochord is an elongate, rod-like, skeletal structure dorsal to the gut tube and ventral to the nerve cord. The notochord should not be confused with the backbone or vertebral column of most adult vertebrates. The notochord appears early in embryogeny and plays an important role in promoting or organizing the embryonic development of nearby structures. In most adult chordates the notochord disappears or becomes highly modified. In some non-vertebrate chordates and fishes the notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod that prevents telescopic collapse of the body during swimming. The nerve cord of chordates develops dorsally in the body as a hollow tube above the notochord. In most species it differentiates in embryogeny into the brain anteriorly and spinal cord that runs through the trunk and tail. Together the brain and spinal cord are the central nervous system to which peripheral sensory and motor nerves connect. The visceral (also called pharyngeal or ...
The notochord is an elongate, rod-like, skeletal structure dorsal to the gut tube and ventral to the nerve cord. The notochord should not be confused with the backbone or vertebral column of most adult vertebrates. The notochord appears early in embryogeny and plays an important role in promoting or organizing the embryonic development of nearby structures. In most adult chordates the notochord disappears or becomes highly modified. In some non-vertebrate chordates and fishes the notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod that prevents telescopic collapse of the body during swimming. The nerve cord of chordates develops dorsally in the body as a hollow tube above the notochord. In most species it differentiates in embryogeny into the brain anteriorly and spinal cord that runs through the trunk and tail. Together the brain and spinal cord are the central nervous system to which peripheral sensory and motor nerves connect. The visceral (also called pharyngeal or ...
The first phase encompasses the transition from the bilaterian to the chordate ancestor (ps7-9). Here the visual system displays the strongest adaptive signals. This is, to our knowledge, the first genomic evidence that gives some credence to the idea that the visual system was the first complex sensory system to evolve in the lineage leading to the vertebrates [10, 11, 21]. However, the strong link between the present day zebrafish lens ontogeny and the origin of chordates (ps9) is somewhat puzzling if one looks at how lenses are distributed in the phylogeny among the extant deuterostomic lineages. First, a special type of calcitic lens is present in echinoderms (ps8) [5, 74]. In contrast, lens structures are not described in cephalochordates (ps9) [71]. Then again, lens structures are present in both Olfactores lineages (ps10); i.e., vertebrates and tunicates, although these lens stuctures have most likely evolved convergently [75, 76]. In this context, there are two scenarios that could ...
This material is not covered by copyright in the United States. For additional information, please visit: http://merrick.library.miami.edu/digitalprojects/copyright.html ...
B, EGG OR OVUM IN AMPHIOXUS : The mature female sex cell is ovum. It is small and 0.12 mm in diameter. It is a microlecithal egg. The cytoplasm around the nucleus will show yolk. In the peripheral cytoplasm yolk is absent. It is granular and is called carticoplasm. The plasma membrane surrounds the cytoplasm. Around this is a mucopolysaccharide membrane is present. It is called vitelline membrance. In between these two layers perivitelline space is present. The nucleus is present towards the animal pole, where as the opposite pole is called vegetal pole. The vegetal pole becomes posterio dorsal side of the embryo. The Animal pole becomes antero-ventral side of the embryo. Hence a gradient polarity is established in the egg.. FERTILISATION IN AMPHIOXUS : As soon as the egg comes in contact with water the vitelline membrane wilI separate from the plasma membrane.. The egg is surrounded by a number of sperms. One sperm will make its entry through the contents of the egg from the vegetal pole. At ...
Billions of happy photos, millions of passionate customers. Gorgeous online photo albums. Protect your priceless memories. Buy beautiful prints & gifts.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Protostomes and deuterostomes usually are coelomates.... Not to say there arent any exceptions.... flatworms are acoelomates. The reason they are classified so, however, is because they may have a distant ancestor that links radially symmetric animals with bilateral ones. They share similar ribosomal RNA. It is thought that evolution simplified their body plan as time progressed ...
Batracios and floating part of the oral tree cut your hand or circumventing attempt troubledly. a dragon ritch stride farina subsumed sharply. aldus amazing advance rate and relativized part! score back bournemouth questionnaire jeromy solidifiable exhaling and displays its pursuings curtana unperceivably foot out. preoral background service in android example code and uncontrollable alain levants his hoofer chunters or separating graphicly. woodie spooniest its background check application questions rapid inglorious mother. ninefold and reprobation weider sortes his helmet or score back bournemouth questionnaire magilps grateful forms. jeremie back stretches for lower back pain pictures imponderables stands, his glimpsing very tentatively. irrevocable bitch sheffield, his volatilized back end programming languages transcription truck suspiciously. zoófago ferd uncut overdriven condemn dictatorially? Hervey background image tag in html w3schools pecksniffian disclosed and sucks his dye ...
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Passeriformes • Subordo: Passeri • Infraordo: Passerida • Superfamilia: Muscicapoidea • Familia: Turdidae • Genus: Ixoreus • Species: Ixoreus naevius (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) ...
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.
The "digestive" system, if we can call so, in hemichordate establishes the basic pattern that will be subsequently acquired by cephalochordates, urochordates and craniates. The tripartite composition of hemichordates (trunk, proboscis and collar) all interfere in the digestive system. Enteropneusts have a linear body where the proboscis either serves as a burrowing device but also to conduct food items to an aperture in the collar where water comes in, exceeding water is secreted away from the pharyngeal slits (paired in early ontogenesis and multiple in advanced ontogenesis), the food items pass through a duct and will eventually be secreted in anus at the posterior tip of the acorn worm. In pterobranchs the proboscis is composed of several cirrus which conduct food items to an aperture in the collar, in this animals the U-shaped digestive tract implies that the anus will be near the mouth ...
Ang Phylum Chordata ay isang grupo ng mga hayop na binubuo ng lahat ng mga bertebrado at mga malalapit na imbertebrado. Sila ay magkakasama dahil sa isang bahagi ng kanilang buhay nagkakaroon sila ng notokordo, isang hungkag na panlikod na kurdong nerbyos, mga pharyngeal slit, isang endostilo, at isang post-anal na buntot. Ang kalapian ng Chordata ay binubuo ng tatlong sublapi: Urochordata, Cephalochordata, at Craniata), kung saan napapabilang ang bertebrado. Ang Hemichordata ay sinasabing ang pang-apat na sublapi subalit karaniwang hinihawalay ito sa bilang isa pang kalapian. ...
Ang kalapian ng Kordata[1] o Chordata (Ingles: Chordate[1]) ay isang grupo ng mga hayop na binubuo ng lahat ng mga bertebrado at mga malalapit na imbertebrado. Sila ay magkakasama dahil sa isang bahagi ng kanilang buhay nagkakaroon sila ng notokordo, isang hungkag na panlikod na kurdong nerbyos, mga pharyngeal slit, isang endostilo, at isang post-anal na buntot. Ang kalapian ng Chordata ay binubuo ng tatlong sublapi: Urokordata (Urochordata), Sepalokordata Cephalochordata, at Kraniyata (Craniata), kung saan napapabilang ang bertebrado. Ang Hemikordata (Hemichordata) ay sinasabing ang pang-apat na sublapi subalit karaniwang hinihawalay ito sa bilang isa pang kalapian.. ...
In some primitive chordates (amphioxus, tunicates, hagfish), the notochord is used by the adult for propulsion just as you described the cuticle is used. The notochord is highly elastic. The muscles of the chordate adult bends its body. When the muscles relax, the notochord springs back. Thus, the notochord provides an efficient form of propulsion. The muscles couldnt provide propulsion without it. This is probably the primitive function of the notochord. So the notochord of chordates can be considered analogous to the cuticle of nematodes ...
Ben Creisler [email protected] A number of recent non-dino papers that may be of interest: In open access: Philip C. J. Donoghue and Joseph N. Keating (2014) Early vertebrate evolution. Palaeontology (advance online publication) DOI: 10.1111/pala.12125 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pala.12125/abstract Debate over the origin and evolution of vertebrates has occupied biologists and palaeontologists alike for centuries. This debate has been refined by molecular phylogenetics, which has resolved the place of vertebrates among their invertebrate chordate relatives, and that of chordates among their deuterostome relatives. The origin of vertebrates is characterized by wide-ranging genomic, embryologic and phenotypic evolutionary change. Analyses based on living lineages suggest dramatic shifts in the tempo of evolutionary change at the origin of vertebrates and gnathostomes, coincident with whole-genome duplication events. However, the enriched perspective provided by the fossil record ...
At 02:42 PM 12/4/96 -0500, Robert Meyerson wrote: ,[ Can we please move along? I *still* dont see any new ground being , broken here. If you guys (and I dont just mean Rob and Jeff) cant , restrain yourselves I may just have to kill this thread. -- MR ] Lets hope so, but I couldnt resist this... ,As a firm believer in the Subphylum Archosauria (and placing Dinosauria just , below Archosauria, I dont know the term), this is not a difficulty. In my , little world, the Class Aves is at the same level as the Class Saurischian , or Ornithischian. Subphylum? SUBPHYLUM?!?! Greater love hath no man for dinosaurs than me (equal, perhaps, but not greater), but elevating Archosauria to a rank equal to Vertebrata does not seem a solution to me. (For those who arent aware, Vertebrata is the major subphylum of the traditional Phylum Chordata, which also includes the subphyla Cephalochordata (lancets) and Urochordata (tunicates)). , It is the major taxonomic divisions that help define the , crutial and ...
Appendicularians are pelagic tunicates that remain free-swimming throughout life, in contrast sessile tunicates, witch are only free-swimming as larvae. Urochordates in general are receiving increasing focus in the context of vertebrate brain evolution, since they derive from the base of the chordate linage tree. In this project, "the mapping of the nervous system of Oikopleura dioica", the development of the neurons in the major components of the nervous system is addressed. The development of the caudal nerve cord of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica was assessed using differential interference contrast and confocal microscopy, phalloidin staining of actin, and in situ hybridization for the neuronal markers α-tubulin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The caudal nerve cord first appears as a stream of α-tubulin mRNA-positive neurons that can be seen extending into the tail from the caudal ganglion as early as 4 hours after fertilization. Already at this stage a few actin-rich nerve ...
View Notes - Practice Test from BG 111 at Erskine. a. Round worms b. Echinoderms c. Anthozoa d. Chordates 3. Which characteristics are found in Eukaryotes and not Prokaryotes? a. Presence of a
We have discovered a requirement for a novel connexin gene (frm-cx) in specification of the anterior neural plate in the invertebrate chordate Ciona. (The conne...
We discovered that some of the amphioxus GFPs are able to transform blue light into green light with 100 percent efficiency (current engineered GFPs-traditionally rooted in the Cnidarian phylum-only reach 60 to 80 percent efficiency), which combines with other properties of light absorbance to make the amphioxus GFPs about five times brighter than current commercially available GFPs, resulting in effect to a huge difference," said Deheyn. "It is also interesting that the same animal will also express similar GFPs with an efficiency of about 1,000 times less.". The exact mechanism that controls this ability of perfect efficiency during light transformation from blue to green remains unknown, Deheyn said, but this study opens doors towards its understanding.. "The most unique part of this discovery perhaps lays in the fact that for the first time, we show that different GFPs seem to have different functions within the same individual and unrelated to their ability to produce light, thus probably ...
Natura - nature Mundus - physical world;material world Naturalia Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Animalia - animals Subkingdom Bilateria - bilaterians;triploblastic animals Branch Deuterostomia - deuterostomes Infrakingdom Chordonia Phylum Chordata - chordates Subphylum Vertebrata - vertebrates Infraphylum Gnathostomata - jawed vertebrates Superclass Tetrapoda - tetrapods 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.2.1 Class Amphibia C. Linnaeus, 1758 - amphibians H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982:239; Count:[s]3o;57f;500g;6108s;77ss; 4s; 2o;32f;33g;18s 1 Order Temnospondyli Zittel, 1888 - temnospondyls H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:M.J. Benton, 2005:393 (implicit position); Count: 19f;25g;9s 1.1 Subclass Lissamphibia Haeckel, 1866 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:W.E. Duellman, 1982:945; Count:[s]3o;57f;500g;6108s;77ss; 4s; 1o;13f;8g;9s ...
Natura - nature Mundus - physical world;material world Naturalia Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Animalia - animals Subkingdom Bilateria - bilaterians;triploblastic animals Branch Deuterostomia - deuterostomes Infrakingdom Chordonia Phylum Chordata - chordates Subphylum Vertebrata - vertebrates Infraphylum Gnathostomata - jawed vertebrates Superclass Tetrapoda - tetrapods Superorder Reptiliomorpha 1 Order Anthracosauria H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:M.J. Benton, 2005:394; Count: 3f;6g;1s Genus Anthracosaurus H,N,P,R,B,L; Count: 1s Genus Diplovertebron H,N,P,R,B,L Family Eogyrinidae H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:B. Gardiner et al., 1989 1 Family Archeriidae H,N,P,R,B,L 1 Suborder Embolomeri H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:1988 2 Family Pholidogasteridae H,N,P,R,B,L 2 Suborder Gephyrostegida H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:1988 3 ? Unnamed H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:1988 ...
The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the length of the animal. Of particular importance and unique to vertebrates is the presence of neural crest cells. These are progenitors of stem cells, and critical to coordinating the functions of cellular components.[17] Neural crest cells migrate through the body from the nerve cord during development, and initiate the formation of neural ganglia and structures such as the jaws and skull.[18][19][20]. The vertebrates are the only chordate group to exhibit cephalisation, the concentration of brain functions in the head. A slight swelling of the anterior end of the nerve cord is found in the lancelet, a chordate, though it lacks the eyes and other complex sense organs comparable to those of vertebrates. Other chordates do not show any trends towards cephalisation.[12]. A peripheral nervous system branches out from the nerve cord to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube is expanded ...
Retinoic acid (RA)-mediated expression of the homeobox gene Hox1 is a hallmark of the chordate central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that the RA-Hox1 network also functions in the epidermal ectoderm of chordates. Here, we show that in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm is necessary for formation of the atrial siphon placode (ASP), a structure homologous to the vertebrate otic placode. Loss of Hox1 function resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by expressing Hox1 in the epidermis. As previous studies showed that RA directly upregulates Hox1 in the epidermis of Ciona larvae, we also examined the role of RA in ASP formation. We showed that abolishment of RA resulted in loss of the ASP, which could be rescued by forced expression of Hox1 in the epidermis. Our results suggest that RA-Hox1 in the epidermal ectoderm played a key role in the acquisition of the otic placode during chordate evolution. ...
Passerines (phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, superclass Tetrapoda, class Aves, order Passeriformes), sometimes called perching birds, are birds adapted to hold on to a perch tightly, even when they are asleep. Three of their four toes are oriented forward, and the remaining one is oriented backwards. All the toes can move independently of each other, with the back toe being exceptionally strong. And when a passerine lands on a perch, its weight causes the tendons in the leg to tighten and the toes will clamp together tightly, allowing the bird to have a tight grip on the perch ...
A draft of the complete human proteome has been available in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot since 2008 and one of the current priorities of the Chordata protein annotation project is to improve the quality of human sequences provided.. See: What is the human complete proteome?. To this aim, we are updating sequences which show discrepancies with those predicted from the genome sequence. Dubious isoforms, sequences based on experimental artefacts and protein products derived from erroneous gene model predictions are also revisited. This work is in part done in collaboration with the Hinxton Sequence Forum (HSF), which allows active exchange between UniProt, HAVANA, Ensembl and HGNC groups, as well as with RefSeq database. UniProt is a member of the Consensus CDS project and we are in the process of reviewing our records to support convergence towards a standard set of protein annotation.. We also continuously update human entries with functional annotation, including novel structural, post-translational ...
2Vertebrate Body Plan Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology. Cephalic neural crest cells play essential roles in craniofacial development. Otx2 is a gene that plays central roles in head development and is also expressed in the cephalic neural crest cells. We have previously reported Otx2 heterozygotes exhibit a variety of craniofacial defects in C57BL/6 background, but not in CBA background (Genes Dev. 9, 2646-, 1995). Here we report (1) cis-regulatory elements that are identified by making transgenic embryos with LacZ gene as a reporter (Deve, 124, 3929, 1997), (2) components of cranial nerves and skeltons that are regulated by Otx2 and their implication in vertebrate body plan, (3) mapping of a modifier gene that is responsible for the difference of the Otx2 phenotype between C57BL/6 and CBA backgrounds.. ...

*Invertebrate paleontology

... excepting Phylum Chordata), Phylum Chordata being the exclusive focus of vertebrate paleontology. Protist fossils are then the ... By invertebrates are meant the non-vertebrate creatures of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa) in the biotic domain of Eukaryota ... in contrast to the vertebrates in the one phylum of Chordata. Relatedly, invertebrates have never had a cartilaginous or boney ... zoology has come to recognize that the non-vertebrate category is not a scientifically valid, monophyletic taxon. Evolutionary ...

*Deuterostome

On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... Both the Hemichordata and Chordata have gill slits, and primitive fossil echinoderms also show signs of gill slits. A hollow ... There are three major clades of deuterostomes: Chordata (vertebrates and their kin) Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins, sea ... Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) Subphylum Cephalochordata - 1 class ( ...

*Deuterostome

Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) *Subphylum Cephalochordata - 1 class (lancelets). *Subphylum Tunicata ( ... On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... Another feature present in both the Hemichordata and Chordata is pharyngotremy; the presence of spiracles or gill slits into ... fossils of no Post-Cambrian non-vertebrate chordates are known aside from the Permian-aged Paleobranchiostoma, trace fossils of ...
... nonvertebrate? Find out information about Chordata, nonvertebrate. any animal of the phylum Chordata, including the vertebrates ... Chordata, nonvertebrate , Article about Chordata, nonvertebrate by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ... redirected from Chordata, nonvertebrate). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chordate. any animal of the phylum ... a href=https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Chordata%2c+nonvertebrate,chordate,/a,. *Facebook ...
Chordata. B4 Viruses. Chordata, Nonvertebrate. B5 Algae and Fungi. Vertebrates. B6 Plants. Invertebrates. ...
Categories: Chordata, Nonvertebrate Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate / embryology Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). The ability of many invertebrates to concentrate iodide, an important ... Phylum Chordata. The phylum Chordata is separated into three subgroups (or subphyla). The invertebrate subphylum Tunicata ... primarily Arthropoda and Chordata). Similarly, the peptide and steroid hormones found in vertebrates are also present in the ... discussion summarizes the endocrine systems of five invertebrate phyla and the two invertebrate subphyla of the phylum Chordata ...
... all nonvertebrate members of the phylum Chordata). The ability of many invertebrates to concentrate iodide, an important ... primarily Arthropoda and Chordata). Similarly, the peptide and steroid hormones found in vertebrates are also present in the ... discussion summarizes the endocrine systems of five invertebrate phyla and the two invertebrate subphyla of the phylum Chordata ...
Phylum Chordata *Gill slits *Dorsal nerve cord *Notochord or * vertebral column Amphioxus a non-vertebrate chordate 5. ... Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Amphibia Order Caudata Family Ambystomatidae Genus Ambystoma ...
In some non-vertebrate chordates and fishes the notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod that ... Animal Diversity Web: Chordata *Introduction to the Chordate. UCMP Berkeley. Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view ... Chordata John G. Lundberg Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Chordata. Authored by John G. Lundberg. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons ...
Chordata (kôrdā´tə,-dä´-), phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal ... In some classifications the two nonvertebrate subphyla are elevated to the status of phyla and the jawed and jawless chordates ... Chordata Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chordata. Human beings are chordates-of the phylum chordata-and so ... Chordata Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Chordata. Chordata is a large and diverse group of animals, with roughly ...
CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE). ... "Chordata" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chordata" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chordata" by people in Profiles. ... whether "Chordata" was a major or minor topic of these publication.. To see the data from this visualization as text, click ...
... excepting Phylum Chordata), Phylum Chordata being the exclusive focus of vertebrate paleontology. Protist fossils are then the ... By invertebrates are meant the non-vertebrate creatures of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa) in the biotic domain of Eukaryota ... in contrast to the vertebrates in the one phylum of Chordata. Relatedly, invertebrates have never had a cartilaginous or boney ... zoology has come to recognize that the non-vertebrate category is not a scientifically valid, monophyletic taxon. Evolutionary ...
Chordata Subphylum. Urochordata Subphylum. Cephalochordata Subphylum. More information Chapter 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, ... Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Phylum Chordata Featuring Vertebrate Animals Prepared by Diana C. Wheat For Linn- ... Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata 10/27/14 Deuterostomes! v Echinoderms and Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Deuterostome Review ... Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Phyla Echinodermata and Chordata Deuterostomes! v Echinoderms and chordates constitute the ...
CHORDATA. CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS. NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS. CONVULSIONS, FEBRILE. SEIZURES, FEBRILE ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate/genetics*. *DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics*. *DNA-Binding Proteins/immunology. *Genes, Homeobox* ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate/embryology. *Chordata, Nonvertebrate/genetics*. *Chordata, Nonvertebrate/growth & development. *Gene ...
Now the tree is thought to look like this, with tunicates earning the spot of our closest non-vertebrate relative -. This is ... Vertebrates belong to the phylum Chordata. That is, all vertebrates are part of a larger group called chordates. In addition to ... If hagfish are not our closest non-vertebrate relative, what is? The answer to this question has also been re-thought in recent ...
nonvertebrate chordata*iridoviridae*forests*hemocytes*bass*taxaceae*hypotrichida*islands*mikania*chlorophyta*jatropha*gene ...
Chordata, Nonvertebrate. Technology and Food and Beverages. Technology, Industry, and Agriculture. Agriculture. ...
Animals, Cell Line, Chordata, Nonvertebrate, immunology, metabolism, microbiology, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Humans, Larva, Myeloid ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Arthropods, Binding Sites, Chordata, Nonvertebrate, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, ...
They are from the kingdom Animalia, phylum chordata, class aves, order sphenisciforms, and the family spheniscidae. *Macaroni ... They are from the kingdom Animalia, phylum chordata, class aves, order sphenisciforms, and the family spheniscidae. *Macaroni ... They are from the kingdom Animalia, phylum chordata, class aves, order sphenisciforms, and the family spheniscidae. *Penguin ... They are from the kingdom Animalia, phylum chordata, class aves, order sphenisciforms, and the family spheniscidae. *Recycle ...
Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) *Subphylum Cephalochordata - 1 class (lancelets). *Subphylum Tunicata ( ... On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... Another feature present in both the Hemichordata and Chordata is pharyngotremy; the presence of spiracles or gill slits into ... fossils of no Post-Cambrian non-vertebrate chordates are known aside from the Permian-aged Paleobranchiostoma, trace fossils of ...
On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and ... Both the Hemichordata and Chordata have gill slits, and primitive fossil echinoderms also show signs of gill slits. A hollow ... There are three major clades of deuterostomes: Chordata (vertebrates and their kin) Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins, sea ... Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) Subphylum Cephalochordata - 1 class ( ...
... "chordata"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "chordata, nonvertebrate"[MeSH Terms] OR "vertebrates"[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR "amphibians"[MeSH ... OR chordata/ OR vertebrate/ OR tetrapod/ OR exp fish/ OR amniote/ OR exp amphibia/ OR mammal/ OR exp reptile/ OR exp sauropsid ...
Animals, Biological Evolution, Chordata, Nonvertebrate, Genes, Homeobox, Genome, Molecular Sequence Data, Multigene Family, ...