A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Surgical restoration of a perforated tympanic membrane by grafting. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A short muscle that arises from the pharyngotympanic tube (EUSTACHIAN TUBE) and inserts into the handle of the MALLEUS. This muscle pulls the handle medially thus controlling the tension and movement of TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Increased salivary flow.

Modification of behavioral and neural taste responses to NaCl in C57BL/6 mice: effects of NaCl exposure and DOCA treatment. (1/207)

To investigate the possible role of peripheral gustatory responsiveness to changes in NaCl acceptance, we studied NaCl consumption and the chorda tympani nerve responses to lingual application of NaCl in C57BL/6ByJ mice. The mice were treated with 300 mM NaCl (given to drink in 96-h two-bottle tests with water) or with injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 33 mg/kg daily). Naive mice were neutral to 75 mM NaCl, but mice previously exposed to 300 mM NaCl avoided 75 mM NaCl. The NaCl-exposed (300 mM for 4 days and 75 mM for 2 days) mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to 10-30 mM NaCl applied at room temperature (24 degrees C). DOCA injections increased acceptance of 300 mM NaCl, but did not change the chorda tympani responses to 100-1000 mM NaCl. However, the DOCA-treated mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to cold (12 degrees C) 10-30 mM NaCl. These data suggest that peripheral gustatory responsiveness possibly contributes to the NaCl aversion induced by exposure to concentrated NaCl, but not to the DOCA-induced increase of NaCl acceptance.  (+info)

Glossopharyngeal nerve transection eliminates quinine-stimulated fos-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract: implications for a functional topography of gustatory nerve input in rats. (2/207)

The relationship between specific gustatory nerve activity and central patterns of taste-evoked neuronal activation is poorly understood. To address this issue within the first central synaptic relay in the gustatory system, we examined the distribution of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) activated by the intraoral infusion of quinine using Fos immunohistochemistry in rats with bilateral transection of the chorda tympani (CTX), bilateral transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GLX), or combined neurotomy (DBLX). Compared with nonstimulated and water-stimulated controls, quinine evoked significantly more Fos-like-immunoreactive (FLI) neurons across the rostrocaudal extent of the gustatory NST (gNST), especially within its dorsomedial portion (subfield 5). Although the somatosensory aspects of fluid stimulation contributed to the observed increase in FLI neurons, the elevated number and spatial distribution of FLI neurons in response to quinine were remarkably distinguishable from those in response to water. GLX and DBLX produced a dramatic attenuation of quinine-evoked FLI neurons and a shift in their spatial distribution such that their number and pattern were indiscernable from those observed in water-stimulated controls. Although CTX had no effect on the number of quinine-evoked FLI neurons within subfield 5 at intermediate levels of the gNST, it produced intermediate effects elsewhere; yet, the spatial distribution of the quinine-evoked FLI neurons was not altered by CTX. These findings suggest that the GL provides input to all FLI neurons responsive to quinine, however, some degree of convergence with CT input apparently occurs in this subpopulation of neurons. Although the role of these FLI neurons in taste-guided behavioral responses to quinine remains speculative, their possible function in oromotor reflex control is considered.  (+info)

Taste qualities of solutions preferred by hamsters. (3/207)

Molecules of diverse chemical structure are sweet to humans and several lines of evidence (genetic, physiological, behavioral) suggest that there may be distinct sweet perceptual qualities. To address how many perceptual categories these molecules elicit in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), we studied patterns of generalization of conditioned taste aversions for seven sweeteners: 100 mM sucrose, 320 mM maltose, 32 mM D-phenylalanine, 3.2 mM sodium saccharin, 16 mM calcium cyclamate, 10 mM dulcin and 32 mM sodium m-nitrobenzene sulfonate. Each stimulus was preferred versus water in two-bottle intake tests and stimulated the chorda tympani nerve. For each of seven experimental groups the conditional stimulus (CS) was a sweetener and for the control group the CS was water. Apomorphine.HCl was injected i.p. after a CS was sampled and, after recovery, test stimuli (TS) were presented for 1 h daily. The intake (ml) of each TS consumed by experimental animals was compared with mean TS intake by the control group. Learned aversions for 18/21 stimulus pairs cross-generalized, resulting in a single cluster of generalization patterns for the seven stimuli. Cross-generalization failures (maltose-cyclamate, maltose-sucrose, cyclamate-NaNBS) may be the consequence of particular stimulus features (e.g. salience, cation taste), rather than the absence of a 'sucrose-like' quality. The results are consistent with a single hamster perceptual quality for a diverse set of chemical structures that are sweet to humans.  (+info)

The distribution of the chorda tympani in the middle ear area in man and two other primates. (4/207)

A serial section study of the distribution of the chorda tympani in the middle ear area was carried out in man, baboon and monkey. The tissues innervated by the chorda tympani could be related to a branchiomeric pattern. The early branches distributed post-trematic facial nerve fibres to hyoid arch tissues, where they were joined by elements from glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. The rest of the distribution was to structures derived from mandibular arch tissue where branches of the auriculotemporal nerve were also present. Contributions to perivascular plexuses were noted as well as a connexion with the otic ganglion.  (+info)

Amiloride-sensitive sodium signals and salt appetite: multiple gustatory pathways. (5/207)

In the rat, the ionic specificity of Na+ appetite is thought to rely on amiloride-sensitive Na+ signals conveyed by the chorda tympani (CT) nerve. We evaluated whether robust Na+ appetite relies exclusively on CT-mediated amiloride-sensitive Na+ signals. Amiloride dramatically reduced sham drinking of NaCl (41.9 +/- 9.0 vs. 6.9 +/- 3.7 ml, 0.1 M NaCl without vs. with 100 microM amiloride), which resulted in intake that was not different from intake of a non-Na+ salt solution (8.8 +/- 2.3 ml, 0.15 M KCl). In addition, intake of 0.1 M NaCl in CT-transected (CTX) rats was reduced (35.8 +/- 13.3 vs. 8.67 +/- 3.4 ml, sham-operated vs. CTX rats), but the addition of amiloride (100 microM) further reduced intake in CTX rats (0.5 +/- 0.29 ml). These data support the idea that amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels are the critical gustatory substrate for Na+ identification during Na+ appetite in the rat. However, the data indicate that these amiloride-sensitive signals are not conveyed exclusively by the CT nerve but by an additional afferent pathway.  (+info)

Sweet taste responses of mouse chorda tympani neurons: existence of gurmarin-sensitive and -insensitive receptor components. (6/207)

Inhibitory effects of gurmarin (gur) on responses to sucrose and other sweeteners of single fibers of the chorda tympani nerve in C57BL mice were examined. Of 30 single fibers that strongly responded to 0. 5 M sucrose but were not or to lesser extent responsive to 0.1 M NaCl, 0.01 M HCl, and 0.02 M quinine HCl (sucrose-best fibers), 16 fibers showed large suppression of responses to sucrose and other sweeteners by lingual treatment with 4.8 microM (approximately 20 microg/ml) gur (suppressed to 4-52% of control: gur-sensitive fibers), whereas the remaining 14 fibers showed no such gur inhibition (77-106% of control: gur-insensitive fibers). In gur-sensitive fibers, responses to sucrose inhibited by gur recovered to approximately 70% of control responses after rinsing the tongue with 15 mM beta-cyclodextrin and were almost abolished by further treatment with 2% pronase. In gur-insensitive fibers, sucrose responses were not inhibited by gur, but were largely suppressed by pronase. These results suggest existence of two different receptor components for sweeteners with different susceptibilities to gur in mouse taste cells, one gur sensitive and the other gur insensitive. Taste cells possessing each component may be specifically innervated by a particular type of chorda tympani neurons.  (+info)

Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa. (7/207)

Whole nerve, as well as single fiber, responses in the chorda tympani proper (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves of 1- to 7-week-old pigs were recorded during taste stimulation. In the CT acids and in the NG bitter compounds gave the largest responses. Both nerves exhibited large responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG), MSG with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and MSG with inositine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) as well as to glycine, xylitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. Alitame, aspartame, betaine, neohesperedin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC), super-aspartame, saccharin and thaumatin elicited no or little response. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 49 CT fibers separated four major clusters. The M cluster, comprising 28.5% of all fibers, is characterized by strong responses to MSG, KCl, LiCl and NaCl. The responses to NaCl and LiCl were unaffected by amiloride. The H cluster (24.5%) includes units responding principally to acids. The Q cluster (18.5%) responds to quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and salts with amiloride. The S cluster (28.5%) exhibits strong responses to xylitol, glycine and the carbohydrates as well as to MSG alone and to MSG with GMP or IMP. In 31 NG fibers, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four clusters: the M cluster (10%), responding to MSG and MSG with GMP or IMP; the H cluster (13%), responding to acids; the Q cluster (29%), responding strongly to QHCl, SOA and tilmicosinR; and the S cluster (48%), responding best to xylitol, carbohydrates and glycine but also to the umami compounds. Multidimensional scaling analysis across fiber responses to all stimuli showed the best separation between compounds with different taste qualities when information from both nerves was utilized.  (+info)

Recovery of functional response in the nucleus of the solitary tract after peripheral gustatory nerve crush and regeneration. (8/207)

Single-unit recording and transganglionic tracing techniques were used to assess the properties of, and inputs to, neurons within the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) after peripheral gustatory nerve injury and regeneration in adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Tastant-evoked responses were recorded from 43 neurons in animals in which the ipsilateral chorda tympani (CT) nerve was crushed 8 wk earlier (experimental animals) and from 46 neurons in unlesioned control animals. The 89 neurons were separated into three functional clusters named according to the best stimulus for neurons in the cluster: S, sucrose; N, sodium acetate; and H, HCl or KCl. Stimulus-evoked spike rates across all stimuli were 35.4 +/- 4.4% lower in the experimental hamsters. The largest difference in evoked spike rates occurred for neurons in the H cluster, in which the response to KCl also was delayed relative to normal responses. The response of S-cluster units to sucrose and saccharin was also lower in the experimental animals. The mean response rate and the time course of response of neurons in the N cluster did not differ between the two groups. For each cluster, the spontaneous rates and mean response profiles across eight stimuli were very similar in the experimental and control animals, and the breadth of tuning hardly differed. In both groups, Na+ responses in the N cluster were amiloride sensitive, and responses to the water rinse after stimulation with HCl were common in the S cluster. At 8-20 wk after nerve crush, biotinylated dextran tracing of the CT nerve revealed that the regenerated CT fibers did not sprout outside the normal terminal zone in the NST, but the density of the central terminal fibers was 36.9 +/- 6.35% lower than normal. After CT nerve crush and regeneration, the overall reduction in taste-evoked spike rates in NST neurons is likely a consequence of this change in terminal fibers; this in turn likely results from the known reduction in CT fibers regenerating past the crush site. In the face of this reduction, the normal taste-evoked spike rate in N-cluster neurons requires explanation. The observed recovery of normal specificity could be mediated by a restoration of specific connections by primary afferent fibers peripherally and centrally or by central compensatory mechanisms.  (+info)

The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. It carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and sensory information from the oral cavity, including touch, temperature, and pain.

Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerve's intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It then travels through the middle ear, passing near the tympanic membrane (eardrum) before leaving the skull via the petrotympanic fissure. From there, it joins the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which carries the taste and sensory information to the brainstem for processing.

Clinically, damage to the chorda tympani nerve can result in loss of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and altered sensations in the oral cavity. This type of injury can occur during middle ear surgery or as a result of various medical conditions that affect the facial nerve or its branches.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

A taste bud is a cluster of specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue, soft palate, and cheek that are responsible for the sense of taste. They contain receptor cells which detect specific tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (savory). Each taste bud contains supporting cells and 50-100 taste receptor cells. These cells have hair-like projections called microvilli that come into contact with food or drink, transmitting signals to the brain to interpret the taste.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

The geniculate ganglion is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located in the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). It is responsible for the special sense of taste for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the sensation of skin over the external ear and parts of the face. The term "geniculate" means "knee-shaped," which describes the appearance of this part of the facial nerve.

Sodium acetate is an ionic compound with the formula NaC2H3O2. It is formed by the combination of sodium ions (Na+) and acetate ions (C2H3O2-). Sodium acetate is a white, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a buffer in laboratory settings to help maintain a stable pH level in solutions.

In the body, sodium acetate can be produced as a byproduct of metabolism and is also found in some foods and medications. It is quickly converted to bicarbonate in the body, which helps to regulate the acid-base balance and maintain a normal pH level in the blood. Sodium acetate is sometimes used as a source of sodium and acetate ions in intravenous (IV) fluids to help treat dehydration or metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body has too much acid.

It's important to note that while sodium acetate is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects if taken in large amounts or in combination with certain medications. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using any new medication or supplement.

Quinine is defined as a bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree, primarily used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. It works by interfering with the reproduction of the malaria parasite within red blood cells. Quinine has also been used historically as a muscle relaxant and analgesic, but its use for these purposes is now limited due to potential serious side effects. In addition, quinine can be found in some beverages like tonic water, where it is present in very small amounts for flavoring purposes.

Taste threshold is the minimum concentration of a taste substance that can be detected by the taste buds. It is the point at which a person can just discriminate the presence of a specific taste (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami) from plain water or another tastant. The taste threshold can be measured through various methods, such as whole-mouth tastings or using specialized taste strips, and it can vary among individuals due to factors like age, genetics, and exposure to certain chemicals or medications.

The Scala Tympani is a part of the inner ear's bony labyrinth, specifically within the cochlea. It is one of the two channels (the other being the Scala Vestibuli) that make up the bony duct of the cochlea, through which sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear.

The Scala Tympani starts at the round window, which is a membrane-covered opening located on the cochlea's outer wall. It runs parallel to the Scala Vestibuli and connects with it at the helicotrema, a small opening at the apex or tip of the cochlea.

When sound waves reach the inner ear, they cause vibrations in the fluid-filled Scala Tympani and Scala Vestibuli, which stimulate hair cells within the organ of Corti, leading to the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical signals that are then transmitted to the brain via the auditory nerve.

It's important to note that any damage or dysfunction in the Scala Tympani or other parts of the inner ear can lead to hearing loss or other auditory disorders.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques are a set of neuroanatomical methods used to map the connections and pathways between different neurons, neural nuclei, or brain regions. These techniques involve introducing a tracer substance into a specific population of neurons, which is then transported through the axons and dendrites to other connected cells. The distribution of the tracer can be visualized and analyzed to determine the pattern of connectivity between different brain areas.

There are two main types of neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques: anterograde and retrograde. Anterograde tracing involves introducing a tracer into the cell body or dendrites of a neuron, which is then transported to the axon terminals in target areas. Retrograde tracing, on the other hand, involves introducing a tracer into the axon terminals of a neuron, which is then transported back to the cell body and dendrites.

Examples of neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques include the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), fluorescent tracers, radioactive tracers, and viral vectors. These techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of brain circuitry and function, and continue to be an important tool in neuroscience research.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

Amiloride is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by preventing the reabsorption of salt and water in the kidneys, which helps to increase urine output and decrease fluid buildup in the body. At the same time, amiloride also helps to preserve the level of potassium in the body, which is why it is known as a potassium-sparing diuretic.

Amiloride is commonly used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema (fluid buildup) in the body. It is available in tablet form and is typically taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of amiloride include headache, dizziness, and stomach upset.

It's important to note that amiloride can interact with other medications, including some over-the-counter products, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting amiloride therapy. Additionally, regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels is necessary while taking this medication.

Sodium glutamate, also known as monosodium glutamate (MSG), is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid that is widely present in various foods. It is commonly used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry to intensify the savory or umami taste of certain dishes.

Medically speaking, sodium glutamate is generally considered safe for consumption in moderate amounts by the majority of the population. However, some individuals may experience adverse reactions after consuming foods containing MSG, a condition known as "MSG symptom complex." Symptoms can include headache, flushing, sweating, facial pressure or tightness, numbness, tingling or burning in the face, neck and other areas, rapid, fluttering heartbeats (heart palpitations), chest pain, nausea, and weakness.

It is important to note that these symptoms are usually mild and short-term, and not everyone who consumes MSG will experience them. If you suspect that you have an intolerance or sensitivity to MSG, it is best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.

The solitary nucleus, also known as the nucleus solitarius, is a collection of neurons located in the medulla oblongata region of the brainstem. It plays a crucial role in the processing and integration of sensory information, particularly taste and visceral afferent fibers from internal organs. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from various cranial nerves, including the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus nerves (cranial nerve X), and is involved in reflex responses related to swallowing, vomiting, and cardiovascular regulation.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

Myringoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing or repairing the tympanic membrane (eardrum) in the middle ear. The eardrum is the thin, delicate tissue that separates the outer ear from the inner ear. It plays a crucial role in hearing by vibrating in response to sound waves and transmitting these vibrations to the bones of the middle ear.

Myringoplasty is typically performed to treat chronic perforations or holes in the eardrum that have not healed on their own or with medical management. These perforations can result from various causes, such as infection, trauma, or congenital defects. By closing the perforation, myringoplasty helps prevent the risk of middle ear infections and improves hearing function.

The procedure involves harvesting a small piece of tissue, often from the patient's own body (such as the fascia surrounding a muscle), to use as a graft to cover the eardrum perforation. The graft is placed through an incision made in the ear canal or, less commonly, via an external approach through the mastoid bone behind the ear.

Myringoplasty is typically performed under general anesthesia and requires a short hospital stay for observation and monitoring. Following surgery, patients may need to avoid water exposure, heavy lifting, and strenuous activities for a few weeks to allow proper healing. The success rate of myringoplasty is generally high, with most patients experiencing improved hearing and reduced symptoms of ear infections.

Saccharin is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used as an artificial sweetener. Medically speaking, saccharin is classified as an intense sugar substitute, meaning it is many times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) but contributes little to no calories when added to food or drink.

Saccharin is often used by people with diabetes or those who are trying to reduce their calorie intake. It has been in use for over a century and has undergone extensive safety testing. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified saccharin as generally recognized as safe (GRAS), although it once required a warning label due to concerns about bladder cancer. However, subsequent research has largely dismissed this risk for most people, and the warning label is no longer required.

It's important to note that while saccharin and other artificial sweeteners can be helpful for some individuals, they should not be used as a replacement for a balanced diet and regular exercise. Additionally, excessive consumption of these sugar substitutes may have negative health consequences, such as altering gut bacteria or contributing to metabolic disorders.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

The tensor tympani is a small muscle located in the middle ear of mammals. Its primary function is to tense and dampen the movement of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) in response to loud sounds, protecting the inner ear from potential damage. The tensor tympani is innervated by a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the mandibular nerve).

The term "tensor tympani" refers specifically to this muscle and its associated tendon. It comes from Latin: "tensor," meaning "to stretch or tense," and "tympani," referring to the eardrum or tympanic membrane. Thus, the tensor tympani is the muscle that tenses the eardrum.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is widely found in nature, particularly in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges. Its chemical formula is C6H8O7, and it exists in a form known as a tribasic acid, which means it can donate three protons in chemical reactions.

In the context of medical definitions, citric acid may be mentioned in relation to various physiological processes, such as its role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a key metabolic pathway involved in energy production within cells. Additionally, citric acid may be used in certain medical treatments or therapies, such as in the form of citrate salts to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. It may also be used as a flavoring agent or preservative in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

Parasympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the interruption or removal of part of the parasympathetic nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system. This type of surgery is typically performed to help manage certain medical conditions such as hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's disease, and some types of chronic pain.

The parasympathetic nervous system helps regulate many automatic functions in the body, including heart rate, digestion, and respiration. By interrupting or removing portions of this system, a parasympathectomy can help to reduce excessive sweating, improve circulation, or alleviate pain. However, it's important to note that this type of surgery carries risks and potential complications, and is typically only considered as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Cyclamates are a type of artificial sweetener that were widely used in food and beverages as a sugar substitute until they were banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1970. They are synthetic derivatives of cyclamic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound found in some plants.

Cyclamates are approximately 30-50 times sweeter than sugar, making them an attractive alternative for people looking to reduce their calorie intake. However, studies conducted in the 1960s suggested that cyclamates may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in rats, leading to their ban in the United States and several other countries.

While some countries still allow the use of cyclamates in certain food products, they remain a controversial ingredient due to ongoing concerns about their safety. The European Union has classified cyclamates as a category IV sweetener, which means that they are considered safe for human consumption in limited quantities, but their use is restricted to specific applications and maximum levels have been established.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The submandibular glands are one of the major salivary glands in the human body. They are located beneath the mandible (jawbone) and produce saliva that helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the oral cavity. The saliva produced by the submandibular glands contains enzymes like amylase and mucin, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates and provide moisture to the mouth and throat. Any medical condition or disease that affects the submandibular gland may impact its function and could lead to problems such as dry mouth (xerostomia), swelling, pain, or infection.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

It is accompanied by the chorda tympani nerve. It passes upward behind the temporomandibular articulation, enters the tympanic ...
At this location the Chorda Tympani Nerve is often identified. Just superior to this the Notch of Rivinus can be seen and the ...
Through it the chorda tympani nerve enters the tympanic cavity. The petrotympanic fissure opens just above and in front of the ... through it the chorda tympani nerve leaves the tympanic cavity. The roof of the cavity (also called the tegmental wall, ... tegmental roof or tegmentum tympani) is formed by a thin plate of bone, the tegmen tympani, which separates the cranial and ... The Atticus is the part of the tegmentum tympani where the stapes and incus are attached. The floor of the cavity (also called ...
These are the horizontal portion of the facial nerve and the chorda tympani. Damage to the horizontal branch during ear surgery ... The chorda tympani is the branch of the facial nerve that carries taste from the ipsilateral half (same side) of the tongue. ... and is under the control of the medial pterygoid nerve which is a branch of the mandibular nerve of the trigeminal nerve. These ... The stapedius muscle, the smallest skeletal muscle in the body, connects to the stapes and is controlled by the facial nerve; ...
... the vessels and nerve coursing betwixt the SML, and the neck of the mandibular condyle). The chorda tympani nerve is situated ... The SML is pierced by the mylohyoid nerve (a branch of the inferior alveolvar nerve) and the accompanying mylohyoid artery and ... The inferior alveolar nerve, artery and vein, and a parotid lobule are situated anteroinferiorly to the SML (all being ... The lateral pterygoid muscle, auriculotemporal nerve, and the maxillary artery and maxillary vein are situated laterally to the ...
The chorda tympani is less responsive to sucrose than is the greater petrosal nerve. The chorda tympani nerve carries its ... The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin from the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries ... the chorda tympani nerve takes over the space in the terminal field. This takeover of space by the chorda tympani is believed ... Chorda tympani fibers emerge from the pons of the brainstem as part of the intermediate nerve of the facial nerve. The facial ...
These cells are shown to synapse upon the chorda tympani nerves to send their signals to the brain. TAS1R2+3 expressing cells ... Danilova V, Hellekant G (2003). "Comparison of the responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste stimuli ... These cells are shown to synapse upon the glossopharyngeal nerves to send their signals to the brain. TAS1R and TAS2R (bitter) ...
These cells are shown to synapse upon the chorda tympani nerves to send their signals to the brain, although some activation of ... Danilova V, Hellekant G (2003). "Comparison of the responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste stimuli ... the glossopharyngeal nerve has been found. TAS1R and TAS2R (bitter) channels are not expressed together in taste buds. Taste ...
These cells are shown to synapse upon the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to send their signals to the brain. T1R ... Danilova V, Hellekant G (March 2003). "Comparison of the responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste ...
... the vagus nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and the facial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve and the chorda tympani branch of the ... These cells are shown to synapse upon the chorda tympani nerves to send their signals to the brain, although some activation of ... These cells are shown to synapse upon the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to send their signals to the brain. The ... Danilova V, Hellekant G (March 2003). "Comparison of the responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to taste ...
The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani, and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste ... The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve.: 1465 Muscles in the pharynx push the food into the ... In 1895 Ivan Pavlov described its secretion as being stimulated by a neurologic reflex with the vagus nerve having a crucial ... Sympathetic innervation is supplied by the splanchnic nerves that join the celiac ganglia. Most of the digestive tract is ...
"Comparison of differences between PWD/PhJ and C57BL/6J mice in calcium solution preferences and chorda tympani nerve responses ...
Damage to the peripheral nerves, along with injury to the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve, also cause dysgeusia. A ... Furthermore, the ear canal is inspected, as lesions of the chorda tympani have a predilection for this site. In order to ... For example, the blink reflex may be used to evaluate the integrity of the trigeminal nerve-pontine brainstem-facial nerve ... and nerve-growth factors. Animal research has also uncovered the ability of ALA to improve nerve conduction velocity. Because ...
The chorda tympani nerve (from the facial nerve via the submandibular ganglion) is secretomotor and provides parasympathetic ... through internal acoustic meatus and facial canal to chorda tympani, through middle ear cavity, out petrotympanic fissure to ... join the lingual nerve, travels with lingual nerve to synapse at the submandibular ganglion, then postganglionic fibers travels ... The path of the nerve is as follows: junction between pons and medulla, ...
... parasympathetic fibers from the chorda tympani and the lingual nerve are involved). Malic and ascorbic acid are effective ...
... especially damage to the chorda tympani nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve. The chorda tympani nerve passes taste for the ... The lingual nerve (which is a branch of the trigeminal V3 nerve, but carries taste sensation back to the chorda tympani nerve ... Tissue damage to the nerves that support the tongue can cause ageusia, ... to the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) can also be damaged during otologic surgery, causing a feeling of metal taste.[ ...
On the inside, the articular has a smaller protrusion with a notch in the top that allowed a nerve, the chorda tympani, to ...
... chorda tympani, and glossopharyngeal nerves". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 502 (6): 1066-1078. doi:10.1002/cne.21371. ISSN ... Wang, Siting; Corson, James; Hill, David; Erisir, Alev (2012-10-01). "Postnatal development of chorda tympani axons in the rat ... Corson, James A.; Erisir, Alev (2013-09-01). "Monosynaptic convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferents onto ...
A branch of cranial nerve VII, the chorda tympani, runs through the fissure to join with the lingual nerve providing special ... Chorda tympani Petrosquamous suture This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 140 of the 20th edition of ... The contents of the fissure include communications of cranial nerve VII to the infratemporal fossa. ...
It has been reported that electrical stimulation of the lingual nerve, chorda tympani, and a lingual branch of the ... cranial nerve IX), and the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (Cranial nerve X) to innervate the taste buds in the ... synapse with primary sensory axons that run in the chorda tympani and greater superficial petrosal branches of the facial nerve ... cranial nerve VII), the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve ( ...
Through the posterior of these it receives a branch from the chorda tympani nerve which runs in the sheath of the lingual nerve ... Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the superior salivatory nucleus of the Pons, via the chorda tympani and lingual nerve ... The ganglion 'hangs' by two nerve filaments from the lower border of the lingual nerve (itself a branch of the mandibular nerve ... In summary, the fibers carried in the ganglion are: Sympathetic fibers from the external carotid plexus, via the facial nerve ...
... the nerve gives rise to the nerve to the stapedius muscle and chorda tympani. The chorda tympani supplies taste fibers to the ... Nerve fibers for taste are supplied by the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve via special visceral afferent fibers. The ... It joins the rest of the facial nerve via the canaliculus for chorda tympani. The facial nerve then forms the geniculate ... The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve, cranial nerve VII, or simply CN VII, is a cranial nerve that emerges ...
... through which the chorda tympani nerve exits the tympanic cavity. Also known as the "canal of Huguier", or "iter chordae ... "anterior canaliculus of chorda tympani": A canal at the medial end of the petrotympanic fissure, ...
J.N. Langley had shown that there was a period of two to four seconds between when the chorda tympani nerve was stimulated and ... Cannon examined research on dogs performed by Sherrington, who separated the spinal cord and vagus nerves from all connections ... The only noticeable changes in the participants were physical, such as activation of the sympathetic nerve impulse, which ... "Vagus nerve stimulation therapy: A research update". Neurology. 59 (6, Supplement 4): S56-S61. doi:10.1212/WNL.59.6_suppl_4.S56 ...
... a deep groove for the chorda tympani nerve, and a small upwards projection at the rear of the bone. It also possesses a medial ...
The chorda tympani (cranial nerve VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), and the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) ...
... nerve Lingual nerve Chorda tympani Sublingual nerve Inferior alveolar nerve Nerve to mylohyoid Mental nerve Abducent nerve ... nerve of forearm Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial nerve Axillary nerve Thoracic nerves Lumbar nerves Medial clunial nerves ... nerve Deep fibular nerve Tibial nerve Interosseous nerve of leg Medial sural cutaneous nerve Sural nerve Medial plantar nerve ... nerves Dorsal nerve of clitoris Dorsal nerve of penis Coccygeal nerve Anococcygeal nerve Sciatic nerve Common fibular nerve ...
... which is frequently grooved on its medial surface for the chorda tympani nerve. To the sphenoidal spine are attached the ... it transmits the maxillary nerve. The foramen ovale is behind and lateral to this; it transmits the mandibular nerve, the ... it is a short canal that transmits the middle meningeal vessels and a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve. The foramen ... for transmission of the lesser petrosal nerve. The lateral surface [Fig. 2] is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the ...
... nerve Lingual nerve Chorda tympani Sublingual nerve Inferior alveolar nerve Nerve to mylohyoid Mental nerve Abducent nerve ... nerve of forearm Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial nerve Axillary nerve Thoracic nerves Lumbar nerves Medial clunial nerves ... nerve Deep fibular nerve Tibial nerve Interosseous nerve of leg Medial sural cutaneous nerve Sural nerve Medial plantar nerve ... nerves Dorsal nerve of clitoris Dorsal nerve of penis Coccygeal nerve Anococcygeal nerve Sciatic nerve Common fibular nerve ...
... branch of the facial nerve Cervical plexus Chorda tympani Ciliary ganglion Coccygeal nerve Cochlear nerve Common fibular nerve ... nerves Thoracodorsal nerve Tibial nerve Transverse cervical nerve Trigeminal nerve Trochlear nerve Tympanic nerve Ulnar nerve ... nerves The optic nerve The oculomotor nerve The trochlear nerve The trigeminal nerve The abducens nerve The facial nerve The ... of the radial nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Mylohyoid nerve Nasociliary nerve Nasopalatine nerve Nerve of pterygoid canal Nerve ...
It is accompanied by the chorda tympani nerve. It passes upward behind the temporomandibular articulation, enters the tympanic ...
... the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve) or their ganglia may cause a ... In otologic surgery, stretching or transection of the chorda tympani nerve may result in temporary dysgeusia. Bilateral injury ... not by the particular nerve innervating the bud. A single fiber in the chorda tympani may respond to multiple types of tastes, ... A single nerve fiber innervates multiple taste papillae, and the nerve contact exerts trophic influences on the epithelium. ...
... the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve) or their ganglia may cause a ... In otologic surgery, stretching or transection of the chorda tympani nerve may result in temporary dysgeusia. Bilateral injury ... not by the particular nerve innervating the bud. A single fiber in the chorda tympani may respond to multiple types of tastes, ... A single nerve fiber innervates multiple taste papillae, and the nerve contact exerts trophic influences on the epithelium. ...
They then leave the facial nerve with the chorda tympani to synapse in the submandibular ganglion. Postganglionic fibers ... The superficial portion contains the facial nerve, great auricular nerve, and auriculotemporal nerve. The middle portion ... The nerve travels anteriorly and laterally to enter the parotid gland. Branches of the facial nerve that innervate the ... They then leave the glossopharyngeal nerve as the Jacobson nerve and reenter the skull via the inferior tympanic canaliculus. ...
The unfortunate part is that many of these patients suffering from a damaged chorda tympani nerve (which runs through the ... Taste and hearing experts researched that constant ear infections may cause severe damage to a vital taste-sensing nerve. ...
... tongues or a branch of the chorda tympani facial nerve, which carries signals from the tip of the tongue to the brain, may have ... have detected regional damage to the taste buds at the front of the tongue or to the chorda tympani section of the facial nerve ... "Taste dysfunction at the tip of the tongue might sound unimportant; however, there is an elegant cross-talk between the nerves ... a condition called dysgeusia that can also occur when nerves are damaged during cancer surgery, she said. ...
Gustatory Processing of Linoleic Acid and the Role of the Chorda Tympani Nerve Full Title:. Gustatory Processing of Linoleic ... My previous study suggests that the chorda tympani nerve (CT) is important in conveying fat taste information to the central ... Elimination of eighth-nerve activity results in the death of 30% of the neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, n. ... nucleus in the avian auditory brain stem which solely receives excitatory input from the auditory nerve fibers of cranial nerve ...
Chorda Tympani Nerve Medicine & Life Sciences 76% * Taste Perception Medicine & Life Sciences 63% ... Adrenomedullin Enhances Mouse Gustatory Nerve Responses to Sugars via T1R-Independent Sweet Taste Pathway. Iwata, S., Yoshida, ...
The anatomy and embryology of the facial nerve are complex. A basic understanding of developmental anatomy is necessary to ... The chorda tympani and lingual nerve unite proximal to the submandibular gland. The posterior auricular nerve now divides into ... The greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) is present. The chorda tympani nerve enters the mandibular arch and terminates ... near a branch of the trigeminal nerve that will become the lingual nerve. The posterior auricular nerve appears near the chorda ...
The anatomy and embryology of the facial nerve are complex. A basic understanding of developmental anatomy is necessary to ... The chorda tympani and lingual nerve unite proximal to the submandibular gland. The posterior auricular nerve now divides into ... The greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) is present. The chorda tympani nerve enters the mandibular arch and terminates ... near a branch of the trigeminal nerve that will become the lingual nerve. The posterior auricular nerve appears near the chorda ...
BACKGROUND: The chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is a mixed nerve, which carries sensory and parasympathetic fibres. The sensory ... Electrogustometry showed significantly higher thresholds in the left chorda tympani nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve compared ... Sacrifice of the chorda tympani nerve during middle-ear surgery can lead to resolution of dysgeusia. ... DISCUSSION: This study is the first to validate and quantify the effect of chorda tympani nerve injury on taste function. The ...
Chorda tympani nerve electrophysiological responses to lingual coapplication of MSG and linoleic acid in male and female rats ... Linoleic Acid does not Enhance Chorda Tympani Nerve Responses to Sucrose, Citric Acid and Quinine Hydrochloride 2009 ... Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in "Taste-Blind" (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice 2012 ... Type III, sour-responsive taste cells are preferentially innervated by nerve fibers expressing the serotonin receptor, 5-HT3A ...
Linoleic acid increases chorda tympani nerve responses to and behavioral preferences for monosodium glutamate by male and ...
11B), so that we do not think that this canal could be for the chorda tympani ramus of the hyomandibular nerve, which may be ... 13D, 14D). UMMP 9318 and FMNH UC 1501 both show signs of a medially placed chorda tympani nerve course, although they slightly ... 15C) insofar as these species seem to have two chorda tympani nerve courses (one through the articular, and one groove along ... Despite the described variation, it seems that Stylemys nebrascensis therefore has a chorda tympani nerve course via the ...
Taste to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is achieved through innervation from the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the ... a branch of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3). The lingual nerve is located deep and medial to the ... which is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X). It runs superficial to the hyoglossus muscle. Lesions of the hypoglossal nerve ... The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) provides motor innervation to all of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue except ...
Glossopharyngeal NerveGlossopharyngeal Nerve DiseasesChorda Tympani NerveGlossopharyngeal Nerve InjuriesAccessory Nervevon ... The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. It ... Glossopharyngeal NerveChorda Tympani NerveAccessory Nervevon Ebner GlandsTaste BudsTongueParasympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic ... Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerves intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal ...
nerves: Nervus facialis, Chorda tympani and Nervus petrosus major. ◦ muscles: Musculus stapedius, Musculus tensor tympani, ... electrode insertion into the Scala tympani (cochlea implant). ◦ tympanoscopy through the auditory canal ...
... branches of the 5th cranial nerves), for general sensory innervation, and the chorda tympani fibers (of the 7th cranial nerves ... The maxilla receives innervation from the maxillary nerve, the 2nd division of the trigeminal nerve (the 5th cranial nerve). ... 9th cranial nerves) provide the sensations of touch and taste. The vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) provides minor taste ... The mandibular nerve, which is the 3rd and most inferior division of the trigeminal nerve, innervates the mandible. ...
Chorda Tympani Nerve. Normal Left Ear Drum. Otoscope Grip Preference. Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane ...
Chorda Tympani Nerve * Choroid Plexus * Circumflex Scapular Artery * Clavicle Bone (Collar Bone) ... Ala of Nose - Structure, Arterial and Nerve Supply and Nasal Alar Necrosis ...
Anatomy Topic 24 Chorda tympani nerve * Anatomy Topic 25 meningeal artery * Anatomy Topic 04 Ligamentum denticulatum ...
The facial part of the facioacoustic neural crest gives rise to the facial nerve (VII). The greater petrosal and chorda tympani ... CRANIAL NERVES. All twelve cranial nerves can be identified.. The olfactory nerve (I) is represented as fila among a cellular ... The phrenic nerve (C-3, C-4, C-5) becomes a discrete nerve fascicle, which passes lateral to the heart and terminates in the ... The ophthalmic nerve (V1) passes dorsal to the optic stalk, the maxillary nerve (V2) courses into the maxillary process and the ...
Nerve -. Facial nerve (Chorda tympani). Nucleus - Superior salivatory nucleus - Pons. D. Otic ganglion ... Nerve -. 4th arch - Superior laryngeal nerve of the Vagus.(X). 6th arch - Recurrent laryngeal nerve of the Vagus (X). Nucleus ... Nerve -. Trochlear nerve (IV) Nucleus - Trochlear motor nucleus in the Lower Midbrain. ... Just thought of doing an overview of the various motor nuclei of cranial nerves in the brain stem. ...
Cranial Nerves. This continuing eduction course is an overview of the cranial nerves with special emphasis on the branches that ... Learn about the Facial Nerve - Main Trunk in Head and Neck Anatomy: Part III - ... Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve*. Greater Petrosal Nerve. *. Chorda Tympani. *. Facial Nerve - Main Trunk ... Facial Nerve - Main Trunk. Figure 24. Cranial Nerve VII - Facial Nerve (main trunk) ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Anatomy clinical correlates: Trigeminal nerve (CN V). ... Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... It also carries the sensory fibers for taste which go on to travel with the chorda tympani branch of cranial nerve VII, or the ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve. It provides both sensory and motor functions, while also serving as a highway ...
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facial nerve (CN VII) *chorda tympani. *nerve to stapedius. * vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)* vestibular ganglion (Scarpas ... vagus nerve (CN X) * superior laryngeal nerve *external laryngeal nerve. *internal laryngeal nerve ...
Tytu angielski: Necessity of chorda tympani cutting from data collected at Department of Otolaryngology at the Collegium ... Tytu angielski: Defects of facial nerve canal according to a character and localisation of lesions in middle ear.. Czasopismo: ...
anterior 2/3: chorda tympani of facial n (CN VII).. posterior 1/3: glossopharyngeal CN IX.. posterior area of tongue root / ... GI tract, presynaptic vagal nerve terminals w/ 5-HT3 receptors that initiate vagus nerve activity in medulla oblongatas "vomit ... manifests as headache and papilledema: sequelae of optic nerve atrophy and blindness ...
  • The sensory root (nervus intermedius) consists of (1) central projections of neurons located in the geniculate ganglion (general somatic fibers that synapse in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and special afferent fibers that synapse in the nucleus solitarius) and (2) axons of parasympathetic neurons from the superior salivatory (lacrimal) nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • The chorda tympani nerve enters the mandibular arch and terminates just proximal to the submandibular ganglion, near a branch of the trigeminal nerve that will become the lingual nerve. (medscape.com)
  • General sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is by innervation from the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3). (dentaldevotee.com)
  • The maxilla receives innervation from the maxillary nerve, the 2nd division of the trigeminal nerve (the 5th cranial nerve). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The mandibular nerve, which is the 3rd and most inferior division of the trigeminal nerve, innervates the mandible. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve . (osmosis.org)
  • Luckily, understanding the anatomy and distribution of the trigeminal nerve can help us better diagnose and manage several conditions - and it even makes going to the dentist less painful! (osmosis.org)
  • First off, let's remember some important anatomical features of the trigeminal nerve . (osmosis.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve has three divisions: the ophthalmic or V1, the maxillary or V2, and the mandibular division or V3. (osmosis.org)
  • Through its branches, the trigeminal nerve supplies sensory innervation to the skin of the entire face, the mucosa of sinuses , as well as the nasal, and oral cavities . (osmosis.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve also carries parasympathetic innervation to the ciliary body and sphincter pupillae , the lacrimal gland , the nasal glands, palatal salivary glands , and the parotid , submandibular, and sublingual glands . (osmosis.org)
  • In a paper published in the journal Chemical Senses , the U. of I. team said this diminished taste sensitivity suggested that the taste buds on the front two-thirds of the cancer survivors' tongues or a branch of the chorda tympani facial nerve , which carries signals from the tip of the tongue to the brain, may have been damaged during radiation therapy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Taste to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is achieved through innervation from the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII). (dentaldevotee.com)
  • Taste perception also is performed by both the epiglottis and the epiglottic region of the tongue, which receives taste and general sensation from innervation by the internal laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). Damage to the vagus nerve (CN X) causes contralateral deviation (away from the injured side) of the uvula. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII), responsible for carrying taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands. (lookformedical.com)
  • The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. (lookformedical.com)
  • It must be mentioned that the first somatic efferent branch of the facial nerve is given off in the temporal bone. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Confusion can sometimes result between the buccal branch of the mandibular nerve and this buccal branch of the facial nerve. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The mandibular nerve branch is only sensory and the facial nerve branch is only motor. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • It also carries the sensory fibers for taste which go on to travel with the chorda tympani branch of cranial nerve VII , or the facial nerve . (osmosis.org)
  • Complete separation of the facial and acoustic nerves is apparent, and a discrete nervus intermedius develops, making this an important temporal reference point for gestational disorders that affect both systems. (medscape.com)
  • Search terms included "(chorda tympani OR gustatory OR taste OR chemosensory OR dysgeusia OR nervus intermedius) AND (cochlea OR cochlear implant OR cochlear implantation). (bvsalud.org)
  • Note the interconnections of cranial nerve (CN) VII with CN V, CN IX, and CN X. (medscape.com)
  • Upon leaving the motor nucleus, axons extend dorsally and medially, cranially and superficially, to bend around the abducens (sixth cranial nerve) nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve , also known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve responsible for both general sensory functions such as taste sensation from the posterior one-third of the tongue and oral cavity, as well as special visceral efferent functions that control the muscles associated with swallowing and saliva production. (lookformedical.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. (lookformedical.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases ' refer to conditions that affect the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), which can result in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, speaking, and tasting, as well as impaired sensation in the throat and ear. (lookformedical.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is primarily responsible for providing motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus muscle and sensory innervation to parts of the pharynx, middle ear, and posterior tongue. (lookformedical.com)
  • The anterior belly is connected to the mandibular nerve which makes this muscle more interesting than ones with single innervation. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerve's intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal bone of the skull. (lookformedical.com)
  • There is also a short nerve that goes to a suprahyoid muscle, the stylohyoid, which is also anatomically in the path of the nerve as it exits the stylomastoid foramen. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) provides motor innervation to all of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue except for the palatoglossus muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X). It runs superficial to the hyoglossus muscle. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • On the other hand, taste perception in the posterior third of the tongue is accomplished through innervation from the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), which also provides general sensation to the posterior one-third of the tongue. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • Just anterior to the lateral aspect of the horizontal semicircular canal, the facial nerve curves gently (the second genu) to form the vertical, or mastoid, segment that exits via the stylomastoid foramen. (medscape.com)
  • The chorda tympani nerve exits rostrally and courses ventrally to the first pharyngeal pouch to enter the mandibular arch. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is a mixed nerve, which carries sensory and parasympathetic fibres. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem. (lookformedical.com)
  • This nerve carries somatic motor fibers to the stapedius muscle which is located in the middle ear. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Taste and hearing experts researched that constant ear infections may cause severe damage to a vital taste-sensing nerve. (justicenewsflash.com)
  • While undergoing radiation and/or chemotherapy, head and neck cancer patients may lose taste buds, triggering a transient reduction in their ability to taste-a condition called hypogeusia-or their perception of tastes may be altered, a condition called dysgeusia that can also occur when nerves are damaged during cancer surgery, she said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Many of these studies involved "whole mouth" experiments that may not have detected regional damage to the taste buds at the front of the tongue or to the chorda tympani section of the facial nerve, said graduate student Raul Alfaro, the lead author of the study. (medicalxpress.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taste change from chorda tympani nerve injury is a likely underrecognized complication of CI and may be the most common adverse consequence of CI surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate. (lookformedical.com)
  • Symptoms of glossopharyngeal nerve dysfunction may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, loss of taste on the back of the tongue, decreased sensation in the throat or ear, and pain in the neck, throat, or ear. (lookformedical.com)
  • The posterior auricular nerve appears near the chorda tympani. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. (lookformedical.com)
  • Within the gland it splits into five terminal branches that innervate all of the numerous muscles of facial expression except the ones innervated by the aforementioned posterior auricular nerve. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • After exiting the internal auditory canal, the facial nerve enters the middle ear, where it bends posteriorly (first, or medial, genu) and courses horizontally through the middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • From there the facial nerve enters the parotid gland and even while it is surrounded by the gland, it does not innervate it. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The unfortunate part is that many of these 'patients' suffering from a damaged 'chorda tympani nerve' (which runs through the tongue, along the side of the face and behind the eardrum on its way to the brain) do not even know why they cannot stop eating sweet and fatty foods. (justicenewsflash.com)
  • Lesions of the hypoglossal nerve cause deviation of the tongue to the ipsilateral (i.e., damaged) side. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • The correct answer is C. Glossopharyngeal nerve. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve. (lookformedical.com)
  • 3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. (lookformedical.com)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to various symptoms. (lookformedical.com)
  • Peripheral disorders are caused by damage or injury to the nerve itself, while central disorders result from problems in the brainstem where the glossopharyngeal nerve originates. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2. Infections: Bacterial and viral infections can cause inflammation and damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to dysfunction. (lookformedical.com)
  • 3. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in the head and neck region can compress and injure the glossopharyngeal nerve, resulting in symptoms related to its dysfunction. (lookformedical.com)
  • 4. Trauma: Direct trauma to the neck or skull base can damage the glossopharyngeal nerve, causing various deficits depending on the severity of the injury. (lookformedical.com)
  • 5. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis and stroke can affect the central connections of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the brainstem, leading to dysfunction. (lookformedical.com)
  • 6. Genetic conditions: Rare genetic disorders like Moersch-Woltman syndrome (also known as stiff person syndrome) can involve the glossopharyngeal nerve and cause symptoms related to its dysfunction. (lookformedical.com)
  • This disorder may be caused by compression of the nerve by blood vessels or other structures. (lookformedical.com)
  • An inner pulp contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves, surrounded by the hard but porous dentin, which is sensitive to touch and to temperature changes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The lingual nerve is located deep and medial to the hyoglossus muscle and is associated with the submandibular ganglion. (dentaldevotee.com)
  • though these parasympathetic fibres originally arise from other cranial nerves . (osmosis.org)
  • The remainder of the nerve passes through the stylomastoid foramen into the facial portion of the head. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • Mesenchymal concentrations that form the cephalic muscles are seen in association with their nerves, while the epibranchial placode disappears and the geniculate ganglion is identifiable. (medscape.com)
  • However, if during any anesthetic administration one injects into the capsule of the parotid gland the patient will experience transient Bell's palsy as that affliction is caused by lack of function in the facial nerve serving the muscles of facial expression. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The chorda tympani, arise-s from the portion of the surface of the anterior surface, ju to one. (corsivia.com)
  • anterior 2/3: chorda tympani of facial n (CN VII). (brainscape.com)
  • The GSPN courses to the lateral aspect of the developing internal carotid artery (ICA), where it joins the deep petrosal nerve and continues as the nerve of the pterygoid canal. (medscape.com)
  • 2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem. (lookformedical.com)
  • The remaining portion of the facial nerve is mainly a somatic motor nerve with a minor somatic sensory component. (dentalcare-aus.com.au)
  • The objective of this article is to outline the embryology of the facial nerve and its common clinical implications. (medscape.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of data reporting the rate of chorda tympani nerve injury during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • The motor nucleus of the facial nerve is located in the reticular formation of the caudal pons. (medscape.com)
  • Head anatomy with olfactory nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The anatomy and embryology of the facial nerve are complex. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • And the tym- panum by the ilio-inguinal nerves, by pressure, externally the ujuicp part of the sacrum. (corsivia.com)
  • Schematic illustration shows the facial nerve and its peripheral connections. (medscape.com)