A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456)
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Benign growths of cartilage in the metaphyses of several bones.
A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A sarcoma, usually a liposarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma, with an abundant component of myxoid tissue resembling primitive mesenchyme containing connective tissue mucin. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Femoral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors, benign or malignant, located in the femur bone or its surrounding soft tissues within the thigh region.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.

Inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 pretreatment on experimental pulmonary metastasis of MCS-1 Chinese hamster mesenchymal chondrosarcoma cells. (1/35)

Recent studies have suggested that transforming growth factor(TGF)-beta1 acts as a multifunctional regulator of cell growth, and also modifies tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-beta1 on the proliferation and experimental pulmonary metastasis of MCS-1. MCS-1 are undifferentiated type cloned tumor cells established from a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma which spontaneously occurred in the soft tissue of a female Chinese hamster. MCS-1 cells were pretreated with TGF-beta1 (0, 0.05, 0.5, 2, 10 ng/ml) for 72 hours in a medium containing 1% fetal bovine serum, then tested for in vitro growth by the MTT method, in vivo growth by subcutaneous inoculation into athymic nude mice (1 x 10(6) cells/mouse) and experimental pulmonary metastasis by injection into the lateral tail vein of athymic nude mice (5 x 10(4) cells/mouse). TGF-beta1 significantly inhibited in vitro growth of MCS-1, depending on its concentrations, and also experimental metastasis with maximal inhibition at 0.5 or 2 ng/ml treatment compared to untreated controls. TGF-beta1, however, was ineffective for in vivo subcutaneous growth of MCS-1. These results indicated that TGF-beta1 might be an inhibitor of metastasis of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas including other types of non-epitherial cartilage or bone formation tumors.  (+info)

Cell differentiation and matrix gene expression in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. (2/35)

Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are small-cell malignancies named as chondrosarcomas due to the focal appearance of cartilage islands. In this study, the use of in situ detection techniques on a large series of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma specimens allowed the identification of tumor-cell differentiation pathways in these neoplasms. We were able to trace all steps of chondrogenesis within mesenchymal chondrosarcoma by using characteristic marker genes of chondrocytic development. Starting from undifferentiated cells, which were negative for vimentin and any other mesenchymal marker, a substantial portion of the cellular (undifferentiated) tumor areas showed a chondroprogenitor phenotype with an onset of expression of vimentin and collagen type IIA. Cells in the chondroid areas showed the full expression panel of mature chondrocytes including type X collagen indicating focal hypertrophic differentiation of the neoplastic chondrocytes. Finally, evidence was found for transdifferentiation of the neoplastic chondrocytes to osteoblast-like cells in areas of neoplastic bone formation. These results establish mesenchymal chondrosarcoma as the very neoplasm of differentiating premesenchymal chondroprogenitor cells. The potential of neoplastic bone formation in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma introduces a new concept of neoplastic (chondrocytic) osteogenesis in musculoskeletal malignant neoplasms, which qualifies the old dogma that neoplastic bone/osteoid formation automatically implies the diagnosis of osteosarcoma.  (+info)

Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in meningeal hemangiopericytoma. (3/35)

The level of prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), a major protein constituent of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is altered in various brain diseases, including meningitis. However, its role in the brain remains unclear. PGDS is mainly synthesized in the arachnoid cells, the choroid plexus and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Among brain tumors, meningiomas showed intense immunoreactivity to PGDS in the perinuclear region. Thus, PGDS has been considered a specific cell marker of meningioma. In this study, we examined 25 meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) and found that 16 of the tumors (64%) showed immunoreactivity for PGDS in the perinuclear region. For comparison, 15 meningiomas, 14 soft-tissue HPCs, 1 mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, and 7 oligodendrogliomas were also examined. Meningiomas showed positive immunoreactivity for PGDS in 13 cases (80%). Except for one case located at the sacrum, none of the other soft-tissue HPCs showed immunostaining for PGDS. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arises in the bones of the skull, and its histological pattern resembles that of HPC; however, it showed no immunoreactivity for PGDS. Neither choroid plexus papillomas nor oligodendrogliomas were immunopositive for PGDS. These findings suggest that meningeal HPCs may have a unique molecular phenotype that is distinct from that of the soft-tissue HPCs. The origin of meningeal HPCs may be more closely related to the arachnoid cells.  (+info)

Chondrosarcoma of bone: an oncological and functional follow-up study. (4/35)

We retrospectively analysed the course of 42 out of 45 patients suffering from different chondrosarcomas which were treated surgically. We found a prospective 5- and 10-year survival of 64% for both time intervals. Follow-up examination was possible in 21 of 45 patients. Most of them were staged as NED, one as AWD, and 8 of 45 were lost to follow-up. From 16 dead patients 12 died of the disease and 4 of unknown but not to tumor related reasons. Survival was depending significantly on the histopathological grade, and the stage according to Enneking's surgical staging system. Eleven out of forty-five patients developed metastases within a mean period of twelve months after surgery. The survival of these patients was significantly reduced. Patients with centrally located tumors exhibited a distinct but non-significant worse survival than those suffering from peripheral tumors. In 18% (8 of 45) recurrence of the tumor was evident within a mean period of 24 months (5-85). Functional evaluation was performed in 21 out of 28 alive patients. After a mean follow-up time of 72 months the mean score was 64% (23-100). Females exhibited a distinct but non-significant better result, the same was observed for peripheral locations compared to centrally located tumors. Regarding age, grade, and line of resection no tendency of any dependence was detected, but worst results were seen in those with a stage III tumor and dedifferentiated CS.  (+info)

Translocation der(13;21)(q10;q10) in skeletal and extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. (5/35)

Cytogenetic studies of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are few and to date, no specific or recurrent aberrations have been found. In this investigation, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic (spectral karyotypic and fluorescence in situ hybridization) findings for two mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, one arising skeletally and the other extraskeletally, are reported. An identical Robertsonian translocation involving chromosomes 13 and 21 [der(13;21)(q10;q10)] was detected in both cases, possibly representing a characteristic rearrangement for this histopathologic entity. Both cases also exhibited loss of all or a portion of chromosomes 8 and 20 and gain of all or a portion of chromosome 12. The observation of similar chromosomal abnormalities in both skeletal and extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma supports a genetic as well as histopathologic relationship between these anatomically distinct neoplasms.  (+info)

Retroperitoneal extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in a dog. (6/35)

A young adult female Mastiff dog developed a large retroperitoneal mass, pleural effusion, and multiple pulmonary and pleural nodules. All masses were diagnosed as mesenchymal subtype chondrosarcomas, using histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Reports of canine extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (EMCs) are rare but involved animals less than 3 years of age in 60% of the cases. This is the first description of this type of tumor developing distant metastases. Evidence from this case and previous reports suggests that EMCs are associated with a poor prognosis.  (+info)

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma originating from the femoral vein. (7/35)

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare variant of chondrosarcomas characterized by a bimorphic pattern with areas of the undifferentiated malignant small cells and well differentiated cartilaginous islands.(1) It occurs most commonly in the bone but can also occur in the extraskeletal soft tissues, the brain, and the meninges. This type of tumor has also been described in the eyelids, parapharyngeal space, mediastinum, and the kidney.(1-5) An origin from the large vessels has not been reported in the medical literature. The authors report a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma originating from the femoral vein in a 28-year-old female patient, treated by the wide-margin resection.  (+info)

Cytopathology of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a report and comparison of four patients. (8/35)

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) is an infrequent neoplasm, representing approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas. Cytologic descriptions of MCs have been confined to rare case reports. In the current report, the authors describe their experience with the cytologic features of four MCs: two primary tumors and two metastatic lesions. METHODS: Four patients were diagnosed with MC at the authors' institution from 1994 to 2002. Three of four patients underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy as part of their diagnosis; in the fourth patient, imprint cytology was performed. Each tumor also received histologic confirmation. RESULTS: The patients studied included three females and one male. In three patients, the tumor presented initially as a soft tissue mass; whereas, in the remaining patient, the MC presented in the tibia. FNA results demonstrated small, oval-to-spindled cells with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios. Cells occurred singly and in clumps in a background of basophilic extracellular matrix. Histologic examination of each lesion demonstrated biphasic tumors, including focal areas of relatively mature cartilage formation as well as a small cell population. CONCLUSIONS: MC is a rare soft tissue tumor that occurs frequently in extraskeletal locations. FNA of these tumors can be diagnostic if the tumor is sampled appropriately and of critical features, such as the background extracellular matrix, are recognized. Given the propensity of these tumors to metastasize and the poor prognosis of patients with MC, early identification by FNA biopsy may allow earlier, more aggressive interventions.  (+info)

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the cartilaginous tissue, which is the flexible and smooth connective tissue found in various parts of the body such as the bones, ribs, and nose. It is characterized by the production of malignant cartilage cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Chondrosarcomas are typically slow-growing tumors but can be aggressive in some cases. They usually occur in adults over the age of 40, and men are more commonly affected than women. The most common sites for chondrosarcoma development include the bones of the pelvis, legs, and arms.

Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the grade of malignancy, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

Chondrosarcoma, mesenchymal is a type of chondrosarcoma, which is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that arises from cartilaginous tissue. It is a rare and aggressive subtype of chondrosarcoma, accounting for less than 10% of all cases.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are characterized by their undifferentiated small round blue cells intermixed with well-differentiated cartilaginous areas. They can occur in any age group but are more common in children and young adults. These tumors can arise in any bone, but they most commonly involve the long bones of the extremities, pelvis, and spine.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas tend to be aggressive with a high risk of local recurrence and metastasis (spread) to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, lymph nodes, or other bones. Treatment typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The prognosis for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is generally poorer than for other subtypes of chondrosarcoma due to its aggressive behavior and higher likelihood of metastasis.

A chondroma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that develops in the cartilage. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in various parts of the body, including the joints, ribcage, and nose. Chondromas are most commonly found in the hands and feet.

Chondromas are typically small, measuring less than 2 centimeters in diameter, and they usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if a chondroma grows large enough to press on nearby nerves or blood vessels, it may cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the affected area.

Chondromas are usually diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. If a chondroma is suspected based on these tests, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other types of tumors.

Treatment for chondromas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In most cases, this can be done using minimally invasive techniques that allow for quicker recovery times. After surgery, patients will need to follow up with their healthcare provider to ensure that the tumor has been completely removed and to monitor for any signs of recurrence.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Enchondromatosis is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by the development of multiple enchondromas, which are benign tumors made up of cartilage that form within the bone. These growths can occur in any bone but are most commonly found in the hands and feet. Enchondromatosis can be inherited or may develop sporadically.

There are two main types of enchondromatosis: Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome. Ollier disease is characterized by multiple enchondromas, typically affecting one side of the body more than the other. Maffucci syndrome is a more severe form of enchondromatosis that includes both enchondromas and benign soft tissue tumors called hemangiomas.

The symptoms of enchondromatosis can vary widely, depending on the size and location of the enchondromas. Some individuals may experience bone pain, fractures, or deformities, while others may have no noticeable symptoms. In rare cases, enchondromas can become malignant, leading to the development of chondrosarcoma, a type of cancer that arises from cartilage.

Treatment for enchondromatosis typically involves monitoring for changes in the size or shape of the tumors and addressing any symptoms as they arise. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to remove large or symptomatic enchondromas, particularly if there is a risk of malignant transformation. Regular follow-up with an orthopedic specialist is recommended to monitor for potential complications.

A chordoma is a rare, slow-growing tumor that typically develops in the bones of the spine or skull. These tumors originate from remnants of the notochord, a structure that forms during embryonic development and eventually becomes part of the spinal cord. Chordomas are usually low-grade malignancies but can be aggressive and locally invasive, potentially causing pain, neurological symptoms, or structural damage to the spine or skull. Treatment typically involves surgical resection, often combined with radiation therapy.

Myxosarcoma is a very rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, a cancer that develops in the soft tissues of the body, such as fat, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, and fibrous tissues. Myxosarcomas are characterized by the presence of mucoid or gelatinous material in the tumor, which is composed of an abnormal accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. These tumors typically affect adults, with a peak incidence in the sixth to seventh decade of life. They usually occur in the extremities, particularly the lower limbs, and can also arise in the retroperitoneum or other deep soft tissues. Myxosarcomas are classified into several subtypes based on their histological features, with the most common being the myxofibrosarcoma. Treatment typically involves surgical resection with wide margins, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The prognosis for patients with myxosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the histological grade, and the patient's age and overall health.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Femoral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the femur, which is the long thigh bone in the human body. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign femoral neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and organs, as well as metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

There are various types of femoral neoplasms, including osteochondromas, enchondromas, chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas, among others. The specific type of neoplasm is determined by the cell type from which it arises and its behavior.

Symptoms of femoral neoplasms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, or weakness in the thigh, as well as a palpable mass or limited mobility. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI, as well as biopsy to determine the type and grade of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm.

Skull base neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the skull base, which is the region where the skull meets the spine and where the brain connects with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the head and neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells in this area, including bone, nerve, glandular, and vascular tissue.

Skull base neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Some common symptoms include headaches, vision changes, hearing loss, facial numbness or weakness, difficulty swallowing, and balance problems. Treatment options for skull base neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is a genetic condition characterized by the growth of multiple benign tumors known as osteochondromas. These tumors typically develop at the ends of long bones near the growth plates and can cause various skeletal deformities, limitations in mobility, and other health issues.

MHE is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent has it. However, some cases may result from spontaneous mutations. The condition typically becomes apparent during childhood or adolescence and can affect both sexes equally.

The primary diagnostic feature of MHE is the presence of multiple osteochondromas, which are made up of bone and cartilage. These growths can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, decreased mobility, and an increased risk of fractures. In some cases, they may also lead to complications such as nerve compression or vascular damage.

Treatment for MHE typically involves surgical removal of the osteochondromas, particularly if they are causing significant symptoms or complications. Regular monitoring is also important to detect any new growths and assess their potential impact on health. In addition, physical therapy and other supportive measures may be recommended to help manage symptoms and maintain mobility.

Neoplasms of connective and soft tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the body's supportive tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and fat. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Lipomas: slow-growing, fatty tumors that develop under the skin.
- Fibromas: firm, benign tumors that develop in connective tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
- Nevi (plural of nevus): benign growths made up of cells called melanocytes, which produce pigment.

Malignant connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Sarcomas: a type of cancer that develops in the body's supportive tissues such as muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, or blood vessels. There are many different types of sarcomas, including liposarcoma (fatty tissue), rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), and osteosarcoma (bone).
- Desmoid tumors: a rare type of benign tumor that can become aggressive and invade surrounding tissues. While not considered cancerous, desmoid tumors can cause significant morbidity due to their tendency to grow and infiltrate nearby structures.

Connective and soft tissue neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the tumor.

Osteosarcoma is defined as a type of cancerous tumor that arises from the cells that form bones (osteoblasts). It's the most common primary bone cancer, and it typically develops in the long bones of the body, such as the arms or legs, near the growth plates. Osteosarcoma can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body, including the lungs, making it a highly malignant form of cancer. Symptoms may include bone pain, swelling, and fractures. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

Chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases are enzymes that break down chondroitin sulfate, a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissues such as cartilage. Glycosaminoglycans are long, unbranched polysaccharides made up of repeating disaccharide units. In the case of chondroitin sulfate, the disaccharide unit consists of a glucuronic acid residue and a N-acetylgalactosamine residue that may be sulfated at various positions.

Chondroitinases are enzymes that cleave the linkage between the two sugars in the chondroitin sulfate chain, specifically between the carbon atom in the fourth position of the glucuronic acid and the nitrogen atom in the first position of the N-acetylgalactosamine. This results in the formation of unsaturated disaccharides. Chondroitinases are produced by certain bacteria and are used in research to study the structure and function of chondroitin sulfate and other GAGs.

Chondroitin lyases, on the other hand, are enzymes that cleave the same linkage but in the opposite direction, resulting in the formation of 4,5-unsaturated disaccharides. Chondroitin lyases are also produced by certain bacteria and are used in research to study the structure and function of chondroitin sulfate and other GAGs.

It is important to note that while both chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases break down chondroitin sulfate, they do so through different mechanisms and produce different products.

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition that affects the synovial membrane, which is the lining of joints, bursae (fluid-filled sacs that cushion bones), and tendon sheaths. In this condition, nodules made up of cartilage form in the synovial membrane. These nodules can detach from the synovial membrane and float freely in the synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint. If they become numerous, they can cause joint pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. In some cases, the loose bodies may also cause locking or catching sensations in the joint. Surgery is typically required to remove the cartilaginous nodules and relieve symptoms. If left untreated, synovial chondromatosis can lead to osteoarthritis and other joint problems.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) bone tumor that typically develops during childhood or adolescent growth years. It usually forms near the end of long bones, such as those in the arms and legs, but can also occur in other bones. An osteochondroma may have a cartilage cap covering its surface.

This type of tumor often grows slowly and typically stops growing once the person has stopped growing. In many cases, an osteochondroma doesn't cause any symptoms and doesn't require treatment. However, if it continues to grow or causes problems such as pain, restricted movement, or bone deformity, surgical removal may be necessary.

Most osteochondromas are solitary (occurring singly), but some people can develop multiple tumors, a condition known as multiple hereditary exostoses or diaphyseal aclasis. This genetic disorder is associated with a higher risk of developing sarcoma, a type of cancerous tumor that can arise from osteochondromas.

It's essential to have regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider if you have an osteochondroma to monitor its growth and any potential complications.

Maxillary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the maxilla, which is the upper jaw bone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites.

Maxillary neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as swelling, pain, numbness, loose teeth, or difficulty in chewing or swallowing. They may also cause nasal congestion, nosebleeds, or visual changes if they affect the eye or orbit. The diagnosis of maxillary neoplasms usually involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor.

Treatment options for maxillary neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis and ensure optimal outcomes.

Clear cell Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare, slow-growing, and seldom spread. Mesenchymal Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas can ... "Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. Müller S, Söder S, Oliveira AM, ... Most chondrosarcomas develop in the pelvis, legs or arms. Benign counterparts are known as enchondromas. Chondrosarcomas are ... "Type II collagen as specific marker for mesenchymal chondrosarcomas compared to other small cell sarcomas of the skeleton". Mod ...
IDH2 mutations are frequent events in central chondrosarcoma and central and periosteal chondromas but not in other mesenchymal ... CT scan and gross pathology of a chondrosarcoma 2012-12-18 "Chondrosarcoma". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 8 ... A chondrosarcoma is a member of a category of tumors of bone and soft tissue known as sarcomas. About 30% of bone sarcomas are ... Nearly all chondrosarcoma patients appear to be in good health. Often, patients are not aware of the growing tumor until there ...
... in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e49705. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...749705N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049705. PMC ...
Miller was diagnosed with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a form of bone cancer, in 2008, the same year that With Arrows, With ...
... (EMC) is a rare low-grade malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of the soft tissues, that differs ... when they discussed the different species of extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, but EMC concept was firstly proposed in 1972 by ... Jacobi, Adam; Khanna, Neha; Gupta, Sushilkumar Satish (2017-03-01). "Curious case of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma". Lung ... cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) "Myxoid Chondrosarcoma - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. ...
Expression of epigenetic modifiers such as that of the BMI1 component of the PRC1 complex is deregulated in chondrosarcoma, ... Sarcomas comprise a large number of rare, histogenetically heterogeneous mesenchymal tumors that, for example, include ... Similarly, expression of another epigenetic modifier, the LSD1 histone demethylase, is increased in chondrosarcoma, Ewing's ... Bennani-Baiti IM (December 2011). "Epigenetic and epigenomic mechanisms shape sarcoma and other mesenchymal tumor pathogenesis ...
... been mistaken for rare types of other sarcomas that sometimes have epithelioid features such as mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, ... Du W, Liu X, Yang M, Wang W, Sun J (2021). "The Regulatory Role of PRRX1 in Cancer Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition". ... the PRRX1 gene product protein regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and may be involved in the development of various ...
... chondrosarcoma MeSH C04.557.450.565.280.280 - chondrosarcoma, mesenchymal MeSH C04.557.450.565.380 - giant cell tumors MeSH ... chondrosarcoma MeSH C04.557.450.795.300.280 - chondrosarcoma, mesenchymal MeSH C04.557.450.795.350 - fibrosarcoma MeSH C04.557. ...
... the more common fetal and embryonal types do not Merkel cell carcinoma Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma Endometrial stromal ...
Ewing sarcoma 7.2 Chondro-osseous tumours 7.2.1 Chondrogenic tumours Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma ... 7.1.3 Skeletal muscle tumours Rhabdomyosarcoma 7.1.4 Uncertain differentiation Intracranial mesenchymal tumour ...
Myxoid chondrosarcoma M9240/3 Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma M9241/0 Chondromyxoid fibroma M9242/3 Clear cell chondrosarcoma M9243/ ... NOS Mixed mesenchymal tumor M8990/3 Mesenchymoma, malignant Mixed mesenchymal sarcoma M8991/3 Embryonal sarcoma M9000/0 Brenner ... M9221/0 Juxtacortical chondroma Periosteal chondroma M9221/3 Juxtacortical chondrosarcoma Periosteal chondrosarcoma M9230/0 ... 3 Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma M9250/1 giant cell tumor of bone, NOS Osteoclastoma, NOS M9250/3 Giant cell tumor of bone, ...
Yang J, Ren Z, Du X, Hao M, Zhou W (27 October 2014). "The role of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in sarcoma: update and ... Some sarcomas, such as leiomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), are more common in adults ... A sarcoma is a malignant tumor, a type of cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal (connective tissue) origin. ... These subtypes are as follows: Osteosarcoma Chondrosarcoma Poorly differentiated round/spindle cell tumors (includes Ewing ...
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma - Metaphysis - Metatarsophalangeal joint sprain - Microfracture surgery - Milch classification - ... Myxoid chondrosarcoma National hip fracture database - Neer classification - Neer impingement sign - Neer's prosthesis - ... Chondrosarcoma - Chopart's fracture-dislocation - Clarke's test - Clavicle fracture - Clay-shoveler fracture - Cleidocranial ...
Chondrosarcoma is a more malignant type of tumor, but most are low grade tumors and often appear in the axial skeletal region. ... As suggested in the name, mesenchymal progenitors originate from the mesoderm. These cells, when forming from the mesoderm, ... Day, Timothy F.; Guo, Xizhi; Garrett-Beal, Lisa; Yang, Yingzi (2005). "Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Mesenchymal Progenitors ... Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ...
However, the gene has been found to be highly expressed in chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma is the cancer of the cells that ... especially mesenchymal cells. The vimentin protein is also responsible for maintaining cell shape, integrity of the cytoplasm, ... Therefore, there seems to be an association between IFFO1's filamentous characteristic and chondrosarcoma. One nuclear export ...
Failure to stop growth can be indicative of transformation to malignant chondrosarcoma. Treatment is not indicated unless ... characteristics of the neoplastic cells causing giant cell tumors of bone indicate an origin of pluripotent mesenchymal stem ...
... such as chondrosarcoma). There is a variety of chemotherapy treatment protocols for bone tumors. The protocol with the best- ... other mesenchymal tumors of bone, and hematopoietic neoplasms of bone. Bone tumors may be classified as "primary tumors", which ... chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and other types. While malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) - now generally called ...
The metaphysis contains a diverse population of cells including mesenchymal stem cells, which give rise to bone and fat cells, ... Metaphyseal tumors or lesions include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, fibrous dysplasia ...
"Intracranial mesenchymal tumor with FET-CREB fusion-A unifying diagnosis for the spectrum of intracranial myxoid mesenchymal ... Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: These tumors' neoplastic cells express the EWSR1-NR4A3 fusion gene in most cases or the ... Intracranial mesenchymal tumors with FET‐CREB fusions: These tumors are suggested to be a variant of the angiomatoid fibrous ...
... mesenchymal cells. There are some who think it is a myoepithelial tumor type. Derived from ectomesenchymal cells migrating from ... extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, focal oral mucinosis, and an ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts. Exceedingly rare, ...
Chondrosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone/osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Leiomyosarcoma ... each of which develop from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside of the bone marrow. Lymphoma and leukemia: These two ...
Romeo et al have observed chondroblastoma neoplasms to be composed of mesenchymal cells that have completed normal ... clear cell chondrosarcomas, and enchondromas (this list is not exhaustive). Chondroblastoma has not been known to spontaneously ... These findings suggest that chondroblastoma is derived from a mesenchymal cell undergoing chondrogenesis via active growth- ... any definitive determinations regarding the origin of this neoplasm are not possible because of the plasticity of mesenchymal ...
LGFMS can be difficult to distinguish from other mesenchymal tumors, particularly from sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF ... extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, synovial sarcomas that have a prominent myxoid background, or myxoid liposarcoma. However ...
GDF5 Chondrosarcoma; 215300; EXT1 Chondrosarcoma, extraskeletal myxoid; 612237; TAF15 Chondrosarcoma, extraskeletal myxoid; ... RSPO4 Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis; 107250; FOXE3 Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis; 107250; PITX3 ... 612237; TFG Chondrosarcoma, extraskeletal myxoid; 612237; CSMF Chorea, hereditary benign; 118700; NKX2-1 Choreoacanthocytosis; ...
Specifically, it is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that arises from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin (and ... Differential diagnosis of the osteosarcoma of the skull in particular includes, among others, chondrosarcoma and the ...
... chondrosarcoma - chordoma - chorioallantoic membrane - choriocarcinoma - choroid plexus tumor - CHPP - chronic granulocytic ... mesenchymal - mesenteric membrane - mesna - mesonephroma - mesothelioma - metaplasia - metaplastic carcinoma - metastasectomy ...
Volckaert T, De Langhe SP (March 2015). "Wnt and FGF mediated epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during lung development". ... chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma) and there is compelling evidence that it ...
... (RMS) is a highly aggressive form of cancer that develops from mesenchymal cells that have failed to fully ... chondrosarcoma, or angiosarcoma". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 26 (9): 1175-1183. doi:10.1097/00000478-200209000 ...
Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma-A Retrospective study. * Primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the adult lumbar spine: a case report ... 565.575.650.655 Tree - heading Chondromatosis Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal Endometrial Stromal Tumors ... Mesenchymal C04.557.450.565.325 Endometrial Stromal Tumors ... Clear Cell C04.557.450.795.300.280 Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal ... and cartilage tumors include the following types: Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma . This type of bone and cartilage ...
Chondrosarcoma is a collective term for a group of tumors that consist predominantly of cartilage and that range from low-grade ... Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The 5-year survival rate for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is less than 50%, with an overall 10-year ... Fewer than 2% of all chondrosarcomas are mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. The maxilla and the mandible are the most common sites of ... Chondrosarcoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin that predominantly is made of cartilage; it is the second most common primary ...
... is a exceedingly rare tumor. Seven mesenchyma1 chondrosarcoma of the orbit have been ... Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma of the Orbit. Kyoung Sun Park, Ho Yun Kim, Kyung Shik Lee, Dong Jip Kim, Sei Chul Yoon, Jae Mun Lee ... We report a case of 22-year old female patient with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the orbit. The treatment in this case ... The histological features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma was first described by Lichtenstein and Bernstein (1959), consist of ...
Radiation is used in selected cases, particularly extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. *Wide/Radical limb sparing surgery ... Thank-you so very much for being my surgeon for that chondrosarcoma, for saving my life! And I have learned over the months ( ... Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells similar to Ewing sarcoma. *Low grade islands of cartilage scattered throughout the ...
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The December 2004 issue contains feature articles about mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, adolescent and young adult cancer care, ... Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma. Dr. John Goldberg and Dr. Holcombe Grier give an informative introduction to one of the rarest ... mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Care. Dr. Karen Albritton discusses the special needs of ...
Clear cell Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare, slow-growing, and seldom spread. Mesenchymal Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas can ... "Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. Müller S, Söder S, Oliveira AM, ... Most chondrosarcomas develop in the pelvis, legs or arms. Benign counterparts are known as enchondromas. Chondrosarcomas are ... "Type II collagen as specific marker for mesenchymal chondrosarcomas compared to other small cell sarcomas of the skeleton". Mod ...
The current study presents a case of extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (ESMC) involving the vena cava that origin... ... Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are extremely rare in comparison to conventional chondrosarcomas and even more so when arising in ... Introduction Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive variant subtype of chondrosarcoma, which represents ~1% of all ... Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (ESMC) may occur in any location that contains mesenchymal cells, however, the ...
Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma : Differential. Home "> Orthopedic "> Bone Tumors - I "> Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma "> Mesenchymal ... Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma : Differential. High Quality Pathology Images of Orthopedic, Bone Tumors - I, Mesenchymal ... Differential Diagnosis: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) must be differentiated from other malignant small cell tumors of bone ... If chondroid foci are inconspicuous and the specimen consists mostly of sheets of small undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (as ...
Periosteal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the tibia with multifocal bone metastases: a case report. ... Dive into the research topics of Periosteal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the tibia with multifocal bone metastases: a case ...
... chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and myxomatous components is described. The primary pedunculated tumor measuring 14 × 13 × 7 cm ... Malignant mesenchymal tumor with leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma differentiation: case ... Malignant mesenchymal tumor with leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma differentiation: case ... et al. Malignant mesenchymal tumor with leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma differentiation: ...
Our specialists see patients with all sarcomas and a variety of mesenchymal tumors, including chondrosarcoma, desmoid tumor, ... Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Myoepithelioma/mixed tumor of soft tissue. Myofibroblastic sarcoma. Myxofibrosarcoma. ... Chondrosarcoma. Clear cell sarcoma. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Desmoid tumor. Desmoplastic small round cell tumors. ... Our specialists see patients with all types of sarcoma and a variety of mesenchymal tumors, including: ...
Intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Ajnr Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Nov.8(6):1137-1138. Pubmedid: 3120541. Pmcid: PMC8332360. ...
Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma. Another unusual version of chondrosarcoma more common in the soft tissues rather than in the ... Extraskeletal) Myxoid Chondrosarcoma. An unusual form of chondrosarcoma that shows a wide variety of features under the ...
Extraskeletal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma * Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma * Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma * Factor Eight ...
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: , 50% survival rate at 5 years.. *Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: 10% survival rate after 1 year. ... Chondrosarcoma can rarely metastatize to skin.[1]. *Chondrosarcoma may recur and may need treatment with surgery, chemotherapy ... The prognosis of chondrosarcoma correlates with the grade and stage of the lesion at the time of diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma is ... Unlike other cancers, chondrosarcoma can return many years later.. *Follow up scans are extremely important for chondrosarcoma ...
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone: a case report. J Korean Med Sci 1998;13:696-700. ... and chondrosarcoma.3-11 Only 14 cases of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone have been reported in the literature.3,12-21 ... Chondrosarcoma of the Hyoid Bone: Imaging, Surgical, and Histopathologic Correlation. S. Hirunpat, K. Prueganusak, Y. Sinruk, W ... Chondrosarcoma of the Hyoid Bone: Imaging, Surgical, and Histopathologic Correlation. S. Hirunpat, K. Prueganusak, Y. Sinruk, W ...
Intracranial mesenchymal tumor, FET-CREB fusion-positive * CIC-rearranged sarcoma * Primary intracranial sarcoma, DICER1-mutant ...
Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma with a High-Grade Mesenchymal Component Mimicking a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (Articles) ...
Bahareh was a 33-year old female member with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a form of cancer. She had been released from a ...
Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma are the most common mesenchymal tumors. Other mesenchymal tumors include fibrosarcoma, ... Tumor histology has been shown to have prognostic significance with sarcomas (primarily chondrosarcomas) having a better ...
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma (small cell variant). Small cell osteosarcoma. Malignant ... Mesenchymal chondosarcoma. -. +. -. +. +. -. +. SOX9, MYOD1, NSE, NKX2-2, SATB2. Round cell liposarcoma. -. +. -. -. -. -. -. ... extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, small cell osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with ... especially for the small round blue cell tumors that includes not only mesenchymal tumors, but also non-mesenchymal tumors, ...
There are several different types of chondrosarcoma, including conventional, clear cell, mesenchymal, and dedifferentiated. ... Standard treatment for chondrosarcoma is surgical removal, which may be followed by radiation therapy. ... Conventional chondrosarcoma are further subdivided into grade I, grade II, and grade III. ... The malignant (cancerous) form of chondroma is chondrosarcoma. ... Chondroma and chondrosarcoma are very rare.. Chondrosarcoma is ...
They selected a rare form of cancer, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS), which has not been well described and for which there is ...
IDH2 mutations are frequent events in central chondrosarcoma and central and periosteal chondromas but not in other mesenchymal ... including brain tumors called gliomas and bone tumors known as chondrosarcomas. Like the genetic changes that cause CN-AML ( ...
... application of a standardized measuring technique for improved distinction of benign osteochondromas from chondrosarcomas, with ... a rare golf-ball-like lesion of non-meningothelial mesenchymal origin ... Secondary chondrosarcoma in osteochondroma: report of 107 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003;411(411):193-206. Crossref, ... Prognostic factors in chondrosarcoma of bone: a clinicopathologic analysis with emphasis on histologic grading. Cancer 1977;40( ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess great therapeutic potential. Efficient,i, in vitro,/i, expansion of MSCs is however ... in-situ hybridization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues as a possible diagnostic tool for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma ... Poly-L-lysine Prevents Senescence and Augments Growth in Culturing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ex Vivo. June Seok Heo. ,1Hyun Ok Kim ... P. H. Lee, J. E. Lee, H.-S. Kim et al., "A randomized trial of mesenchymal stem cells in multiple system atrophy," Annals of ...
Chondrosarcomas most often affect older adults.. *Rhabdosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma is mesenchymal in origin, ... read more...We investigated the effect of micronutrient synergy in vitro on human rhabdosarcoma, liposarcoma and chondrosarcoma ...
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the mediastinum are very rare, and they only account for about 2% to 6% of mediastinum tumors.58,59 ... and chondrosarcoma. H3K27me3 is an emerging sensitive marker (loss of expression) to confirm MPNST (loss of expression in 80%- ... Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum, I: tumors of fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, smooth muscle, and striated muscle ... Vascular neoplasms in the mediastinum are more frequently seen among other mesenchymal tumors, and they account for 1% to 4.5% ...
Chondrosarcoma is a collective term for a group of tumors that consist predominantly of cartilage and that range from low-grade ... Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The 5-year survival rate for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is less than 50%, with an overall 10-year ... Fewer than 2% of all chondrosarcomas are mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. The maxilla and the mandible are the most common sites of ... Chondrosarcoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin that predominantly is made of cartilage; it is the second most common primary ...
  • There are three main types of bone sarcoma based on tissue type - an osteosarcoma, a Ewing's sarcoma, and a chondrosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subtypes of chondrosarcomas have different features and different outlooks, they include:[citation needed] Dedifferentiated Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas can change in part to cells that are like those of an osteosarcoma for example which has a faster rate of growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas start as typical chondrosarcomas, but then some parts of the tumor change into cells like those of a high-grade sarcoma (such as an osteosarcoma , fibrosarcoma or high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What is the difference between chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Healthcare providers may treat chondrosarcoma with surgery alone and treat osteosarcoma with chemotherapy and surgery. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Chondrosarcoma is the third most common bone tumor after myeloma and osteosarcoma, and the second most common malignant spinal tumor (i.e., represents 12% of all spinal neoplasms). (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma tend to occur more frequently in children and adolescents, while chondrosarcoma occurs more often in adults. (curesarcoma.org)
  • Extraskeletal bone tumors are rare and high grade tumors including osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing s sarcoma of the soft tissues and its variants. (jortho.org)
  • The two year disease-free survival was: 42.8% chondrosarcoma, 25% osteosarcoma and 33.3% Ewing sarcoma. (jortho.org)
  • Extraskeletal primary bone sarcomas are rare and high-grade tumors that include osteosarcoma (OS), chondrosarcoma (CHO) and Ewing sarcoma (EW) of the soft tissues and its variants. (jortho.org)
  • Osteosarcoma of the soft tissues is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cells produce osteoid substance. (jortho.org)
  • With patients who present with locally advanced or metastatic chondrosarcoma, chordoma, or osteosarcoma, physicians should discuss the options surrounding deep-sequencing genomic tests, which may identify mutations that may be responsive to specific therapies and thus may guide referral to clinical trials. (medscape.com)
  • Osteosarcoma osteosarcoma more cartilage components, were identified to be, and chondrosarcoma. (cancerlive.net)
  • Incidence and outcome vary by subtype, a listing of which can be quite broad but include the following: osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteochondroma osteosarcoma Ewing sarcoma eosinophilic granuloma aneurysmal bone cyst chordoma mesenchymal chondrosarcoma giant-cell tumor of bone fibrous dysplasia fibroma angiosarcoma hemangioma Unlike adults, children have not achieved complete skeletal growth, which doctors must take into account when considering treatment. (keehealthcare.com)
  • The neoplasms most frequently observed, in decreasing order of frequency, were: adenocarcinoma (9/50), squamous cell carcinoma (9/50), transmissible venereal tumor (5/50), osteosarcoma (5/50), chondrosarcoma (4/50), and undifferentiated sarcoma (4/50). (bvsalud.org)
  • Chordoma is a rare, slow growing and locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm with uncommon distant metastases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the latest version of the guidelines released in November 2020, surgery is the main treatment for chondrosarcoma, chordoma, and giant cell tumor of bone, which can be combined with radiotherapy or targeted therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ewing's sarcoma, and a chondrosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Extraskeletal Myxoid chondrosarcoma with Molecularly Confirmed Diagnosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Study Within the Italian Sarcoma Group. (nih.gov)
  • Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (named chordoid sarcoma) is a rare tumor that affects men more than women and it is almost exclusively observed during adult and advanced age. (jortho.org)
  • 15. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the perineum. (nih.gov)
  • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. (indiasurgerytour.com)
  • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue tumor that typically affects the lower limbs of men between the ages of 50 and 60. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondrosarcoma is a collective term for a group of tumors that consist predominantly of cartilage and that range from low-grade tumors with low metastatic potential to high-grade, aggressive tumors characterized by early metastasis. (medscape.com)
  • Chondrosarcomas is a group of rare bone cancer tumors that begin in your cartilage. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • When healthcare providers talk about chondrosarcoma, they're referring to a group of rare bone cancer tumors called sarcomas that begin in your cartilage. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Chondrosarcomas can grow from cancerous tissue on your bone or from benign bone tumors that have become cancerous. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Most chondrosarcomas are lower-grade tumors. (cancer.org)
  • While many tumors show differentiation towards specific mesenchymal phenotypes , as in the case of liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma, up to 25% of tumors are unclassifiable and do not resemble normal tissues. (sarcomahelp.org)
  • Benign cartilage lesions can be difficult to differentiate from slow-growing, low-grade chondrosarcomas. (medscape.com)
  • A chondrosarcoma is the type of bone cancer that starts in the cartilage cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrosarcoma starts in your cartilage and typically affects adults. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Another type of cancer, chondrosarcoma, arises in cartilage. (curesarcoma.org)
  • Approximately 60% to 70 % of people who have the most common form of chondrosarcoma are alive five years after diagnosis. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Ken's diagnosis with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma brought a lifetime's. (utah.edu)
  • These findings confirmed the diagnosis of amesenchymal chondrosarcoma. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Following biopsy and imaging, the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma was made and a radical surgical resection of his right leg was performed. (gtsimulators.com)
  • 3 Differential diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. (cancerlive.net)
  • A differential diagnosis of chondrosarcoma should be considered because of the life-threatening features of chondrosarcoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Solitary fibrous tumor is an unusual fibroblastic mesenchymal neoplasm typically described in the pleura. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are various subtypes of chondrosarcoma, each with unique characteristics. (orthobullets.com)
  • There are several subtypes of chondrosarcoma, named based on their microscopic and genetic characteristics. (gtsimulators.com)
  • Conventional chondrosarcoma is the most common form of chondrosarcoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • They tend to be of higher grade than run-of-the-mill conventional intramedullary chondrosarcomas , with the majority being of the myxoid (most common) or mesenchymal varieties 3 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas can grow quickly but unlike other types may respond to radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total resection of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas is the gold standard for treatment and is typically followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy (with the exception of the myxoid chondrosarcoma). (jortho.org)
  • Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma: Novel Morphologic, Immunophenotypic and Molecular Understanding and Discussion of Its Round Cell Tumor Mimickers," Pathology Grand Rounds with Julie Fanburg-Smith, AFIP. (jhu.edu)
  • Secondary chondrosarcoma can occur in a previously benign cartilaginous lesion. (medscape.com)
  • There is no predilection for sex, and unlike myxoid chondrosarcoma it is observed during young and adult age (15-40 years) and deeper in the lower limb and neck. (jortho.org)
  • Most chondrosarcomas develop in the pelvis, legs or arms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is sometimes called histology and is done to learn more about your chondrosarcoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is an uncommon malignant variant of chondrosarcoma that mainly affects the bones and cartilaginous tissues, but may rarely involve the spine. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. (nih.gov)
  • Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumour with cartilaginous differentiation. (gtsimulators.com)
  • and chondrosarcoma late onset, slow growth, late stage can be transferred, the bone of bone lesions are cartilaginous. (cancerlive.net)
  • SC is a cartilaginous metaplasia of the mesenchymal remnants of the synovial tissue of the joints. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prognosis is the same as that for skeletal chondrosarcoma, but it has a considerable tendency to recur locally and it is capable of metastasizing. (jortho.org)
  • For low-grade chondrosarcomas confined to an arm or leg bone , curettage (intralesional excision) might be an option. (cancer.org)
  • 1 , 3 ] Here, we describe a 16-year-old with a T7-T9 malignant chondrosarcoma who underwent gross-total tumor excision. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Chondrosarcoma affects men and women equally, and typically appears in people between ages 40 and 75. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This chondrosarcoma type is typically found in men between ages 30 to 50. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas typically occur in the extremities, with the thigh being most common. (radiopaedia.org)
  • To diagnose chondrosarcoma, your healthcare provider will often first use X-rays to view images of your bones. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • For low-grade chondrosarcomas in other bones and for all higher-grade chondrosarcomas , more extensive surgery will likely be needed. (cancer.org)
  • Chondrosarcoma can also occur in the skull base bones. (healthline.com)
  • In contrast to carcinomas of the breast, which rank amongst the most prevalent types of cancer in women worldwide, malignant breast lesions with either true mesenchymal origin or sarcomatous differentiation are relatively uncommon. (allenpress.com)
  • 5. Kalhor N, Suster S, Moran CA. Primary pulmonary chondrosarcomas: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In addition, less periosteal reaction chondrosarcoma. (cancerlive.net)
  • Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas on the other hand tend to occur in young adults. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Poorly differentiated tumor cells of chondrosarcoma polymorphism and dysplasia of the more obvious, and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma tissues do not contain large areas of undifferentiated mesenchymal tumor cells, it is not difficult to identify. (cancerlive.net)
  • Their appearance is the same as that of chondrosarcomas elsewhere (see generic chondrosarcoma article for radiographic features). (radiopaedia.org)
  • Osteosarcomas are composed of mesenchymal cells that produce immature bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clear cell Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare, slow-growing, and seldom spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Chondrosarcoma of the soft tissues is very rare. (jortho.org)
  • Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is rare in the soft tissues, even more rare than in the skeleton. (jortho.org)
  • From the archives of the AFIP: imaging of primary chondrosarcoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Chondrosarcoma is the second most common malignant primary bone tumor. (orthobullets.com)
  • This gene has been found to be involved in translocations that result in fusions with other genes in various cancers, including the lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) gene in acute myeloid leukemia, the ETS variant 6 (ETV6) gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1 (HEY1) gene in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. (nih.gov)
  • This type of chondrosarcoma tends to develop in older adults and grows faster than most other chondrosarcomas. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This chondrosarcoma tends to develop in younger adults. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Extraskeletal chondrosarcomas make up only 2% of soft-tissue sarcomas and only 1% of all chondrosarcomas . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma tumor cells in the tumor consistent with a small round mesenchymal cells, tumor tissue contains the more mature chondrocytes Island. (cancerlive.net)
  • Performing a truly representative biopsy of a chondrosarcoma is challenging because the lesion is composed of areas that carry different histologic grades. (medscape.com)
  • Chondrosarcoma cells aren't killed easily by radiation, so high doses are needed. (cancer.org)
  • 7. Intralesional Versus Wide Resection of Low-Grade chondrosarcoma s of the Hand. (nih.gov)