The mouse N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (Galns) gene: cDNA isolation, genomic characterization, chromosomal assignment and analysis of the 5'-flanking region. (1/36)Deficiency of lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) leads to mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A), for which there is no definitive treatment so far. Although a number of mutations of the GALNS gene of MPS IV A patients have been described, pathogenesis of the disorder still remains elusive. In order to facilitate in vivo studies using model animals for MPS IV A, we isolated and performed molecular characterization of the mouse homolog of human GALNS. The 2.3-kb cDNA contains a 1560-bp open reading frame encoding 520 amino acid residues. The coding region has 84% similarity to the human GALNS cDNA at amino acid level. The mouse Galns gene was mapped by interspecific backcross analysis to the distal region of chromosome 8 where it co-segregates with Aprt. Northern blot analysis showed a wide expression of a single-copy gene, being higher especially in liver and kidney. The Galns gene was isolated from S129vJ genomic library and its genomic organization was characterized. The mouse Galns gene was about 50-kb long and organized into 14 exons and 13 introns. All intron-exon splice junctions conformed to the GT/AG consensus sequence except exon 8/intron 8 junction. Primer extension shows multiple transcription initiation sites between -44 and -75 although major transcription initiation site was observed at -90 bp from the ATG codon. The 5'-flanking region lacks canonical TATA and CAAT box sequences, but is G+C rich with 10 GC boxes (potential Sp1 binding sites), characteristic of a housekeeping gene promoter. (+info)
Biochemical and structural analysis of missense mutations in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase causing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA phenotypes. (2/36)Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; OMIM#253000), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of N -acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), has variable clinical phenotypes. To date we have identified 65 missense mutations in the GALNS gene from MPS IVA patients, but the correlation between genotype and phenotype has remained unclear. We studied 17 missense mutations using biochemical approaches and 32 missense mutations, using structural analyses. Fifteen missense mutations and two newly engineered active site mutations (C79S, C79T) were characterized by transient expression analysis. Mutant proteins, except for C79S and C79T, were destabilized and detected as insoluble precursor forms while the C79S and C79T mutants were of a soluble mature size. Mutants found in the severe phenotype had no activity. Mutants found in the mild phenotype had a considerable residual activity (1.3-13.3% of wild-type GALNS activity). Sulfatases, including GALNS, are members of a highly conserved gene family sharing an extensive sequence homology. Thus, a tertiary structural model of human GALNS was constructed from the X-ray crystal structure of N -acetylgalacto-samine-4-sulfatase and arylsulfatase A, using homology modeling, and 32 missense mutations were investigated. Consequently, we propose that there are at least three different reasons for the severe phenotype: (i) destruction of the hydrophobic core or modification of the packing; (ii) removal of a salt bridge to destabilize the entire conformation; (iii) modification of the active site. In contrast, mild mutations were mostly located on the surface of the GALNS protein. These studies shed further light on the genotype-phenotype correlation of MPS IVA and structure-function relationship in the sulfatase family. (+info)
Enzymatic-assisted vitrectomy. (3/36)PURPOSE: This paper discusses the approach of enzymatic vitrectomy and potential applications. METHODS: A description of available agents for enzymatic vitreous surgery will be given and the techniques that have been suggested. RESULTS: Both animal and human results will be presented in this article regarding trials of enzymatic vitreous surgery. CONCLUSION: Enzymatic vitreous surgery may be a useful adjunct or additional agent to treat several vitreoretinal diseases. (+info)
Mouse model of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase deficiency (Galns-/-) produced by targeted disruption of the gene defective in Morquio A disease. (4/36)Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), a lysosomal enzyme required for the stepwise degradation of keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S). To generate a model for studies of the pathophysiology and of potential therapies, we disrupted exon 2 of Galns, the homologous murine gene. Homozygous Galns-/- mice have no detectable GALNS enzyme activity and show increased urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) levels. These mice accumulate GAGs in multiple tissues including liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and bone marrow. At 2 months old, lysosomal storage is present primarily within reticuloendothelial cells such as Kupffer cells and cells of the sinusoidal lining of the spleen. Additionally, by 12 months old, vacuolar change is observed in the visceral epithelial cells of glomeruli and cells at the base of heart valves but it is not present in parenchymal cells such as hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. In the brain, hippocampal and neocortical neurons and meningeal cells had lysosomal storage. KS and C6S were more abundant in the cytoplasm of corneal epithelial cells of Galns-/- mice compared with wild-type mice by immunohistochemistry. Radiographs revealed no change in the skeletal bones of mice up to 12 months old. Thus, targeted disruption of the murine Galns gene has produced a murine model, which shows visceral storage of GAGs but lacks the skeletal features. The complete absence of GALNS in mutant mice makes them useful for studies of pharmacokinetics and tissue targeting of recombinant GALNS designed for enzyme replacement. (+info)
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA. N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase exonic point mutations in classical Morquio and mild cases. (5/36)Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) results from a genetic deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate (Gal-NAc6S) sulfatase. We have identified two different exonic mutations causing GalNAc6S sulfatase deficiency in two unrelated Japanese families, in one patient with classical Morquio disease, and in two brothers with a mild form of MPS IVA. The nucleotide sequence of the full-length cDNA derived from a patient with classical Morquio disease revealed a two-base deletion at nucleotide position 1343-1344 (1344-1345 or 1345-1346) that altered the reading frame (designated 1342delCA). This mutation, inherited from the proband's consanguineous parents, was revealed by TaqI restriction analysis of a cDNA fragment amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. In the proband with the mild form of the disease, a C to G transversion at nucleotide 667 predicted the substitution of Lys for Asn204 (N204K). Since a new AluI site was created by the N204K mutation, restriction analysis indicated that the affected brothers were homozygous for this mutation, as confirmed by the finding that both their parents had this lesion. Transient expression in GalNAc6S sulfatase deficient fibroblasts of these two mutant alleles showed completely deficient or markedly decreased enzyme activities, thereby indicating that these two mutations were responsible for the enzyme deficiency. (+info)
Development of MPS IVA mouse (Galnstm(hC79S.mC76S)slu) tolerant to human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. (6/36)Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. In recent studies of enzyme replacement therapy for animal models with lysosomal storage diseases, cellular and humoral immune responses to the injected enzymes have been recognized as major impediments to effective treatment. To study the long-term effectiveness and side effects of therapies in the absence of immune responses, we have developed an MPS IVA mouse model, which has many similarities to human MPS IVA and is tolerant to human GALNS protein. We used a construct containing both a transgene (cDNA) expressing inactive human GALNS in intron 1 and an active site mutation (C76S) in adjacent exon 2 and thereby introduced both the inactive cDNA and the C76S mutation into the murine Galns by targeted mutagenesis. Affected homozygous mice have no detectable GALNS enzyme activity and accumulate glycosaminoglycans in multiple tissues including visceral organs, brain, cornea, bone, ligament and bone marrow. At 3 months, lysosomal storage is marked within hepatocytes, reticuloendothelial Kupffer cells, and cells of the sinusoidal lining of the spleen, neurons and meningeal cells. The bone storage is also obvious, with lysosomal distention in osteoblasts and osteocytes lining the cortical bone, in chondrocytes and in the sinus lining cells in bone marrow. Ubiquitous expression of the inactive human GALNS was also confirmed by western blot using the anti-GALNS monoclonal antibodies newly produced, which resulted in tolerance to immune challenge with human enzyme. The newly generated MPS IVA mouse model should provide a good model to evaluate long-term administration of enzyme replacement. (+info)
Enzymatic and hemolytic activities of Candida dubliniensis strains. (7/36)Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast that has been recovered from several body sites in many populations; it is most often recovered from the oral cavities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Although extensive studies on epidemiology and phylogeny of C. dubliniensis have been performed, little is known about virulence factors such as exoenzymatic and hemolytic activities. In this study we compared proteinase, hyaluronidase, chondroitin sulphatase and hemolytic activities in 18 C. dubliniensis and 30 C. albicans strains isolated from AIDS patients. C. albicans isolates produced higher amounts of proteinase than C. dubliniensis (p < 0.05). All the tested C. dubliniensis strains expressed hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulphatase activities, but none of them were significantly different from those observed with C. albicans (p > 0.05). Hemolytic activity was affected by CaCl2; when this component was absent, we did not notice any significant difference between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis hemolytic activities. On the contrary, when we added 2.5 g% CaCl2, the hemolytic activity was reduced on C. dubliniensis and stimulated on C. albicans tested strains (p < 0.05). (+info)
N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase in human placenta: purification and characteristics. (8/36)N-Acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase from human placenta was purified 33,600-fold using beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-sulfate-(1----4)-beta-D-glucuronic acid-(1----3)-N-acetyl-D-[3H]galactosaminitol 6-sulfate as the substrate. This enzyme is an oligomer with a molecular mass of 120 kDa and consists of polypeptides of 40 and 15 kDa. The 15 kDa polypeptide is a glycoprotein. This purified protein has activities of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and galactose-6-sulfate sulfatase. Rabbit antiserum was raised against the purified protein. The antibody titrated N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and galactose-6-sulfate sulfatase. The size of the precursor of the enzyme is 60 kDa, as determined by cell-free translation. The optimal pH values of the N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and galactose-6-sulfate sulfatase activities are pH 3.8-4.0, and the Kms are 8 and 13 microM, respectively. Sulfate and phosphate ions are potent competitive inhibitors for the enzyme and their inhibition constants are 35 and 200 microM, respectively. Cross-reactive materials of 40 and 15 kDa were detected by immunoblot analysis, in the placenta, liver, and normal fibroblasts, but not in fibroblasts from a patient with Morquio disease. (+info)
Chondroitin sulfatases are a group of enzymes that break down chondroitin sulfate, which is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in connective tissues such as cartilage, bone, and skin. Glycosaminoglycans are long, complex chains of sugars that help provide structure, hydration, and elasticity to these tissues.
Chondroitin sulfate is composed of alternating units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, with various sulfate groups attached at different positions along the chain. Chondroitin sulfatases cleave specific bonds within this structure to help regulate the turnover and remodeling of GAGs in tissues.
There are several types of chondroitin sulfatases (designated as chondroitin sulfatase A, B, C, D, etc.), each with distinct substrate specificities and cellular localizations. Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as skeletal dysplasias and neurodegenerative diseases, due to the accumulation of unprocessed or partially degraded chondroitin sulfate in tissues.