Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Hirschsprung Disease: Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.Tectiviridae: A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. II. Expression of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans reactive with L-selectin. (1/161)

Ligands for the leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin are expressed not only in lymph node high endothelial venules (HEV) but also in the renal distal tubuli. Here we report that L-selectin-reactive molecules in the kidney are chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans of 500-1000 kDa, unlike those in HEV bearing sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates. Binding of L-selectin to these molecules was mediated by the lectin domain of L-selectin and required divalent cations. Binding was inhibited by chondroitinase and/or heparitinase but not sialidase. Thus, L-selectin can recognize chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans structurally distinct from sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates.  (+info)

Action of chondroitinases. II. Numerical calculation of the degree of multiple attack. (2/161)

Further investigation was carried out on the action patterns of two chondroitinase-AC [EC 4.2.2.5.] preparations obtained from Arthrobacter aurescens and Flavobacterium heparinum. To infer the action patterns of the chondroitinases, we proposed a new method for the calculation of the degree of multiple attack, based on the concept established by Robyt and French ((1967) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122, 8-16). It was shown that the degree of multiple attack (DM) is represented by the ratio of the initial velocity of number-average degree of scission to that of viscosity-average degree of scission. By this method, DM for A-Chase was estimated to be 3.03 and for F-chase, 1.31.  (+info)

Perineuronal nets of proteoglycans in the adult mouse brain, with special reference to their reactions to Gomori's ammoniacal silver and Ehrlich's methylene blue. (3/161)

As our previous studies have indicated, many subsets of neurons in the vertebrate brain possess a sulfated proteoglycan surface coat which reacts to cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin. The present study demonstrated that this surface coat is supravitally stained with Ehrlich's methylene blue, and doubly with this blue and aldehyde fuchsin, a finding suggesting its being identical to Cajal's superficial reticulum (red superficial) and to Golgi's reticular coating (revetement reticulare). The perineuronal surface coat was further stained with Gomori's ammoniacal silver, and doubly with this silver and cationic iron colloid. These neurons with such a proteoglycan surface coat usually expressed cell surface glycoproteins which were labeled with lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin. Hyaluronidase digestion did not interfere with this lectin labeling of the glycoproteins, methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver staining of the surface coat, while it erased the cationic iron colloid and aldehyde fuchsin staining of the surface coat. These findings suggest that the perineuronal proteoglycan surface coat is associated with some additional molecules which are resistant to hyaluronidase digestion and stainable with methylene blue and Gomori's ammoniacal silver. The possibility is suggested that these molecules might represent "ligand proteoglycans" connecting the perineuronal proteoglycans and cell surface glycoproteins.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from human follicular fluid. (4/161)

Two proteoglycans differing in size and composition were isolated from human follicular fluid. The larger one of high density had a molecular mass of 3.0x10(6) Da, as determined by laser light-scattering, and was substituted with 15-20 chondroitin sulphate (CS) chains (Mr 60000-65000). Half of the CS disaccharides were 6-sulphated, whereas the remaining ones were non-sulphated. Digestion of the CS proteoglycan with chondroitinase ABC lyase, followed by SDS/PAGE, yielded a protein core of 600 to 700 kDa including substituted oligosaccharides, and a band of 70 kDa that was identified as the heavy-chain component of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI). Western blotting of the CS proteoglycan showed that this had reactivity with antibodies raised against human versican. Electron microscopy (EM) of the CS proteoglycan also revealed a versican-like structure, with one globular domain at each end of a long extended segment substituted with CS side chains, as well as a structure interpreted as being the heavy chain of ITI attached to CS chains. Laser light-scattering revealed that the smaller proteoglycan had a molecular mass of 1. 1x10(6) Da, and EM demonstrated that it had a globular-protein core structure. The core protein, which showed immunological reactivity with perlecan antibodies, was substituted with approximately seven heparan sulphate (HS) and CS chains of similar size (50-55 kDa), the CS disaccharides being mainly 6-sulphated (68%), with a small proportion being 4-sulphated. The protein core was shown to be heterogeneous, with bands occurring at 215, 330 and 400 kDa after enzymic degradation of the glycosaminoglycan chains followed by SDS/PAGE analysis. The demonstration of intact molecules and fragments obtained after stepwise degradations, as shown by gel chromatography, supported a 'composite' structure of this proteoglycan.  (+info)

Differentiation of human monocytes to monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with increased lipoprotein lipase-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and production: a process involving cell surface proteoglycans and protein kinase C. (5/161)

The aim of the present study was to (1) evaluate the responsiveness of human mononuclear cells to lipoprotein lipase (LPL), as assessed by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) production, during the process of differentiation of monocytes to macrophages, and (2) determine the mechanisms by which LPL exerts its effect on these cells. Treatment of human monocytes with purified endotoxin-free bovine LPL (1 microgram/mL) resulted in a 161+/-15% increase in TNFalpha production over control values (P<0.01). A further increase in TNFalpha production was observed after treatment of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) with LPL (490+/-81% over control values, P<0.01). Increased TNFalpha mRNA expression and protein kinase C activity were also observed in LPL-treated human monocytes and MDMs. These LPL effects were abrogated by the specific protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C (1 micromol/L). Although heparinase totally abolished LPL-induced TNFalpha production in human monocytes, this agent did not significantly inhibit LPL effect in human MDMs. In contrast, treatment of MDMs with chondroitinase suppressed LPL-induced TNFalpha production. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) differentiation of human monocytes to MDMs is associated with increased LPL-induced TNFalpha mRNA expression and production, (2) a protein kinase C-dependent pathway is involved in the induction of TNFalpha by LPL in these cells, and (3) LPL effect is mediated by cell surface proteoglycans. As MDMs secrete LPL in the vascular wall, we propose that LPL, by acting as an autocrine activator of MDM function, may contribute to the high level of TNFalpha found in the atheromatous lesion.  (+info)

The macromolecular characteristics of cartilage proteoglycans do not change when synthesis is up-regulated by link protein peptide. (6/161)

Previous studies have shown that a synthetic, unglycosylated analogue of the N-terminal peptide from link protein can function as a growth factor and up-regulate proteoglycan biosynthesis in explant cultures of normal human articular cartilage from a wide age range of subjects (McKenna et al., Arthritis Rheum. 41 (1998) 157-162). The present work further shows that link peptide increased proteoglycan synthesis by cartilage cultured in both the presence and absence of serum, suggesting that the mechanism of up-regulation may be different from that of insulin-like growth factors. The proteoglycans synthesised during stimulation with link peptide were of normal hydrodynamic size and the ratio of core protein to glycosaminoglycan side chains and the proportions of the large proteoglycan aggrecan to the small proteoglycans, decorin and biglycan, remained constant. Aggrecan molecules were equally capable of forming aggregates as those from control tissues and the relative proportions of decorin and biglycan were unchanged showing that both were co-ordinately up-regulated. These results confirmed that this novel peptide is a potent stimulator of proteoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage and showed that the newly synthesised proteoglycans were of normal composition.  (+info)

Mutations in the heparin binding domain of fibronectin in cooperation with the V region induce decreases in pp125(FAK) levels plus proteoglycan-mediated apoptosis via caspases. (7/161)

Intact fibronectin (FN) protects cells from apoptosis. When FN is fragmented, specific domains induce proteinase expression in fibroblasts. However, it is not known whether specific domains of FN can also regulate apoptosis. We exposed fibroblasts to four recombinant FN fragments and then assayed for apoptosis using criteria of cellular shape change, condensed nuclear morphology, and DNA fragmentation. The fragments extended from the RGD-containing repeat III10 to III15; they included (V(+)) or excluded (V(-)) the alternatively spliced V region and contained either a mutated (H(-)) or an unmutated (H(+)) heparin binding domain. Only the V(+)H(-) fragment triggered decreases in pp125(FAK) levels and apoptosis, which was rescued by intact FN and inhibitors of caspase-1 and caspase-3. This apoptotic mechanism was mediated by a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, since treating cells with chondroitin sulfate or chondroitinase reversed the apoptotic cell shape changes. The alpha4 integrin receptor may also be involved, since using a blocking antibody to alpha4 alone induced apoptotic cell shape changes, whereas co-treatment with this antibody plus V(+)H(+) reversed these effects. These results demonstrate that the V and heparin binding domains of FN modulate pp125(FAK) levels and regulate apoptosis through a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan- and possibly alpha4 integrin-mediated pathway, which triggers a caspase cascade.  (+info)

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans as extracellular docking molecules for matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase 7). (8/161)

Many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are tightly bound to tissues; matrilysin (MMP-7), although the smallest of the MMPs, is one of the most tightly bound. The most likely docking molecules for MMP-7 are heparan sulfate proteoglycans on or around epithelial cells and in the underlying basement membrane. This is established by extraction experiments and confocal microscopy. The enzyme is extracted from homogenates of postpartum rat uterus by heparin/heparan sulfate and by heparinase III treatment. The enzyme is colocalized with heparan sulfate in the apical region of uterine glandular epithelial cells and can be released by heparinase digestion. Heparan sulfate and MMP-7 are expressed at similar stages of the rat estrous cycle. The strength of heparin binding by recombinant rat proMMP-7 was examined by affinity chromatography, affinity coelectrophoresis, and homogeneous enzyme-based binding assay; the K(D) is 5-10 nM. Zymographic measurement of MMP-7 activity is greatly enhanced by heparin. Two putative heparin-binding peptides have been identified near the C- and N-terminal regions of proMMP-7; however, molecular modeling suggests a more extensive binding track or cradle crossing multiple peptide strands. Evidence is also found for the binding of MMP-2, -9, and -13. Binding of MMP-7 and other MMPs to heparan sulfate in the extracellular space could prevent loss of secreted enzyme, provide a reservoir of latent enzyme, and facilitate cellular sensing and regulation of enzyme levels. Binding to the cell surface could position the enzyme for directed proteolytic attack, for activation of or by other MMPs and for regulation of other cell surface proteins. Dislodging MMPs by treatment with compounds such as heparin might be beneficial in attenuating excessive tissue breakdown such as occurs in cancer metastasis, arthritis, and angiogenesis.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500 --- chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350. ... chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.277.352.827.180.175 --- chondroitinsulfatases MeSH D08.811.277.352.827.180. ... 500.500 --- chondroitin abc lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.512 --- heparin lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.675 --- ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 --- amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 --- adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ...

*Chondroitin ABC lyase

Yamagata, T.; Saito, H.; Habuchi, O.; Suzuki, S. (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and ... Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic ... Chondroitin ABC lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides ...

*Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase

... chondroitin ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase (ambiguous), ChS ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ... Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, Suzuki S (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and ... specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin- ... "Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially ...

*Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase

... and ChS ABC lyase I. Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, Suzuki S (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases ... chondroitin ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase (ambiguous), ChS ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ... specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin- ... "Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially ...

*Chondroitin B lyase

Suzuki K, Terasaki Y, Uyeda M (2002). "Inhibition of hyaluronidases and chondroitinases by fatty acids". J. Enzyme. Inhib. Med ... In enzymology, a chondroitin B lyase (EC 4.2.2.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative cleavage of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin B lyase. Other names in common use include chondroitinase B, ChonB, and ... Gu K, Linhardt RJ, Laliberte M, Gu K, Zimmermann J. "Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Purpose: To evaluate the potential of a bioactive coating based on chondroitin sulfate (CS) and tethered epidermal growth factor (EGF) for the improvement of healing around stent-grafts (SG). Methods: The impact of the bioactive coating on cell survival was tested in vitro on human vascular cells using polyethylene terephtalate films (PET) as a substrate. After being transferred onto a more "realistic" material (expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), ePTFE), the durability and mechanical behavior of the coating in addition to cell survival were studied. Preliminary in vivo testing was performed in a canine iliac aneurysm model reproducing type I endoleaks (3 animals with 1 control and 1 bioactive SG for each). Results: The CS and EGF coatings significantly increased survival of human smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, compared with bare PET or ePTFE (P,.05). The coating also displayed good durability over 30 days according to ELISA and cell-survival tests. The coating did not affect the ...
I thought these nutraceuticals were a bunch of boloney until, with no other management changes, my friends gelding went from lame at a walk to sound at a trot - he had been lame for some time with arthritis. (he is on chondroitin sulfate) What else is out there worth trying, and AERC legal? Maybe something to keep my muscles from getting so sore/stiff after a ride. Shelly in DE ...
Small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) proteins are known to regulate many important cellular processes such as transcription and apoptosis. Recently, hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains containing SUMO-2 linked to Lys63-di-ubiquitin were found to play a major role in DNA repair. Despite some progress in understandin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit of beta-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), and often modified with ester-linked sulfate at certain positions. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a modified form of CS, in which a portion of D-glucuronate residues is epimerized to L-iduronates (IdoA). CS and DS are linked to serine residues in core proteins via a linkage tetrasaccharide formed by the transfer of xylose and three more residues [MD:M00057]. The assembly process of CS is initiated by transferring GalNAc residue to the linkage tetrasaccharide. The polymerization is catalyzed by bifunctional enzymes (chondroitin synthases) possessing both beta 1,3 glucuronosyltransferase and beta 1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities [MD:M00058]. Chondroitin polymerization also ...
Chondroitin is a chondrin derivative. Types include: Chondroitin sulfate Dermatan sulfate Chondroitin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Cross-species transplant in rhesus macaques is step toward diabetes cure for humans Friday, 19 October 2007 With an eye on curing diabetes, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have successfully transplanted embryonic pig pancreatic cells destined to produce insulin into diabetic macaque monkeys - all without the need for risky immune suppression drugs that prevent rejection. The transplanted cells, known as primordia, are in the earliest stages of developing into pancreatic tissues. Within several weeks of the transplants, the cells became engrafted, or established, within the three rhesus macaque monkeys that received them. The cells also released pig insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels, as would be expected in healthy animals and humans. "The approach reduced the animals need for insulin injections and has promise for curing diabetes in humans," says senior investigator Marc Hammerman, M.D., the Chromalloy Professor of Renal Diseases in Medicine. ...
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Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural
One possibility is that these animals need particular cues from environmental bacteria that are not being provided in the lab," she said.. After UC Berkeley graduate student Arielle Woznica discovered that these bacteria initiated swarming, they collaborated with Clardys lab to track down the trigger: a protein constantly secreted by the bacteria, which they dubbed EroS.. They showed that EroS is a chondroitinase, an enzyme that degrades a specific type of sulfated molecule found in the extracellular matrix of S. rosetta that was previously thought to be exclusive to animals. They also found that if this enzymatic function was inhibited, swarming did not occur, and that chondroitinases from other aquatic bacteria reproduced the aphrodisiacal effects. As the teams investigate how EroS works, theyre continuing to explore the interactions between bacteria and choanoflagellates.. As for implications for animals like humans and their bacterial partners, the so-called microbiome, King said that "we ...
Hylauronidase will digest the hyaluronic acid region of the molecule which will unmask the access to BMP antigens. There are three regions of the molecule which we digest for, chondroitin sulfate (chondroitinase), keratin sulfate (keratinase), and hyaluronic acid (hyaluronidase). This is a different concept than unwinding proteins which have been crosslinked by aldehydes, in this case the actual physical structure of the molecule is blocking the antigen site. With some of these digestions you must also include proteinase inhibitors to prevent loss of proteoglycans which may what you are interested in marking. We use proteinase inhibitors with chondroitinase ABC digestion when we are doing IHC for Aggrecan, for instance. Patsy Ruegg -----Original Message----- From: Renton, Lousie, Mrs [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, June 26, 2001 6:04 AM To: [email protected] Subject: Haluronidase Dear all A colleague of mine has an IHC method for bone morphogenic proteins (on FFPE ...
... - Supports Healthy Joint Function* Supports Elasticity of Joint Tissues* Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroiti
Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
Chondroitin Sulfate list and information including what is Chondroitin Sulfate, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Chondroitin Sulfate list and information including what is Chondroitin Sulfate, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
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Current hydrogels based on chondroitin sulfate (ChS) generally lack the necessary strength and precise mechanical tunability. Addressing these limitations, covalent cross-linking has evolved to produce hydrogels with desirable properties. However, such a methodology always precludes injection and self-healin
It is not known what exactly to expect from a chondroitin overdose. However, as this eMedTV page discusses, an overdose is likely to cause stomach upset. This page covers other possible effects of an overdose on chondroitin, as well as treatment options.
As part of the study, the researchers tried to boost insulin production in the macaques by performing a second transplant. Four weeks after transplanting the embryonic pig cells, they implanted adult insulin-producing pig islet cells into the kidneys of the macaques. The embryonic cells primed the monkeys immune system to accept the mature islet cells, without using anti-rejection drugs, but their glucose control did not continue to improve.. Hammerman. Hammerman suspects this may be because they did not transplant enough adult pig islet cells or that placing them in the kidney is not an optimal location. As a comparison, the researchers also transplanted adult pig islet cells into a control group of diabetic macaques that did not receive the earlier embryonic pig cell transplants. Not surprisingly, the macaques immune systems attacked the foreign cells and eventually rejected those cells all together.. The new study builds on earlier research in rats, reported by the same group last year in ...
Chondroitin sulfate is one of the major constituents of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of repeating chains of molecules called mucopolysaccharides
Chondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where it is bound to proteins such as collagen and elastin. In our joints, it contributes to strength, flexibility and shock absorption. Current research indicates that supplemental CSA may help maintain proper joint function.
Researchers report the results of a trial which uncovered a benefit for supplementation with chondroitin sulfate in individuals with osteoarthritis of the hand.
Chondroitin Sulfate 500 mg Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2017 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
... was valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period.
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Learn more about Chondroitin at Memorial Health Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Chondroitin Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
|p|Chondroitin occurs next to cartilage tissue in connective tissue, tendons and skin. In relatively small quantities, chondroitin is absorbed through anima
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Chondroitin is a chemical naturally present in the connective tissues of humans and animals. It is mainly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The following article provides information about the various side effects of this chemical.
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Chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance formed of sugar chains. Chondroitin is believed to help the body maintain fluid and flexibility in the joints.
Chondroitinase offers us hope in two ways; firstly it allows some nerve fibers to regenerate and secondly it enables other nerves to take on the role of those fibers that cannot be repaired ...
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate ...
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Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis. Although chondroitin is used in dietary supplements as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis and also approved and regulated as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for this disease (SYSADOA) in Europe and some other countries, it is technically neither a medicine nor a disease-modifying treatment. See Clinical effects below. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine. Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in ...
One immediate result of our experiments is the ability to assign Ser999 as the principal site of chondroitin sulfate attachment to the NG2 polypeptide. On the basis of the apparent difference in molecular size between the NG2 core glycoprotein (300 kDa) and the intact proteoglycan (400-600 kDa smear) on SDS-PAGE, we had speculated that there might be several chondroitin sulfate chains associated with the core. The presence of at least two good consensus sequences for chondroitin sulfate attachment at Ser999 (EGSGD) and Ser1342 (SGLG, Nishiyama et al., 1991a) seemed consistent with this prediction. However, our current experiments with point mutants have shown that NG2/S1342A still contains chondroitin sulfate, whereas NG2/S999A is devoid of glycosaminoglycan, indicating that Ser1342 is not used as an attachment site. Thus, at least in this case, the E/DGSGE/D motif ( Zimmermann and Ruoslahti, 1989) is utilized, whereas the SGXG motif ( Bourdon et al., 1987) is not. This usage may highlight the ...
Chondroitin Sulfate comes from two main sources: • the bovine source (cattle), where the chondroitin is usually taken from the cattles trachea • the marine source, with the chondroitin typically sourced from shark cartilage. Good quality manufacturers will state on their packaging what type of chondroitin is used in their products. This is most important to people who have strong views over the type of chondroitin they use. For example, some may be happy to use supplements derived from shark cartilage but will not be willing to use supplements made from cow by-products - or vice-versa. In fact, the source of any dietary supplement should be one of your prime consideration. If you do not wish to use either animal or marine products to relieve your arthritis pain you may wish to try organic rosehip supplements, which offer a natural herbal alternative.. ...
Therapy. There are 13 Chapters to deeply display the global Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid market.. Chapter 1, to describe Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, with sales, revenue, and price of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, for each region, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 9 and 10, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 11, Chondroitin ...
Supports healthy cartilage and joints Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most vital of the compounds in connective tissue which are responsible for building and supporting the ground substance of cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, this naturally occurring compound provides support for strong, healthy cartilage and joints. each vegetable capsule contains: chondroitin sulfate (bovine) 400 mg. (from 444 mg. of chondroitin sulfate (bovine)) vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 5 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 3-12 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
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There have been a number of clinical trials that have studied Glucosamine adn Chondroitin. One of the largest trials was conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and compared glucosamine HCl alone, chondroitin sulfate alone, the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, Celebrex and a placebo (a substance containing no medications) in pateints with knee osteoartritis. In this large trial, there were no significant differences in outcome between the glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate groups than with the placebo. However, in several smaller clinicial trials in Europe, the formulation of glucosamine sulfate (not glucosamine HCl) has shown some possible benefits. The bottom line is that some patients with osteoarthritis do seem, individually, to report some benefits with these supplements.. The American College of Rheumatology 2012 guidelines do not recommend the use of glucosamine or chondroitin for the management of osteoarthritis. However, because there are very few known side ...
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Clinical experience likewise suggests that some dogs and cats may appreciably benefit from chondroitin administration and others not at all. It is difficult to anticipate which animals are most likely to respond. Given the potential for benefit and the extremely low risk of any adverse side effects, chondroitin supplementation is always recommended for animals with joint pain. Where a benefit is seen, doses of more expensive and potentially deleterious drugs may be reduced, including the NSAIDs (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as aspirin, carprofen and meloxicam. Because chondroitin protects mucosal barriers, it may not only enhance pain relief in animals administered NSAIDS, but help protect their intestinal tracts from ulcerations which are occasionally seen as a side effect of NSAID use.. Research in laboratory animals suggests that chondroitin dissolved in water before administration is more effective than when administered within a capsule.. ...
Posted on Apr 7, 2015. To: Dr. Caesar DePaço, Summit Nutritionals International ®. Re: Droi-Kon ®. ________________. Dr. DePaço,. On behalf of myself and my K9 partner Uno, I would like to thank you for your assistance and guidance with your Droi-Kon ® Chondroitin.. This winter I noticed my K9 partner laying around a lot more and not being active, I figured it was just the winter blues. Then every day I noticed more signs, limping, frequent stretching, not wanting to go up or down the stairs in my house. I brought K9 Uno to the Vet, who stated he was very stiff and because of his age of 8, probably slightly arthritic. The Vet suggested a possible Chondroitin based product. Well, I knew exactly who to talk to about this.. In January, I contacted you and explained what was happening with K9 Uno, You said " Dont worry Chris, I know exactly how to help Uno"…well you did and I couldnt be more happy.. Due to your product, Droi-Kon ®, your instruction and help, by putting 1 tablespoon of ...
Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroitin is high potency and is derived from bovine cartilage.
Product Name: Chondroitin Sulfate
Synonyms: chondroitin sulfuric acid, chonsurid
CAS: 9007-28-7
MF: (C14H21NO14
...     Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine
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Source Naturals Chondroitin Sulfate 400mg 60 tablet hondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where i...
Source Naturals Chondroitin Sulfate 400mg 120 tablet hondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where i...
Chondroitin Sulfate is classified as a biopolymer an acidic mucopolysaccharide. It is typically extracted from animal sources.. ...
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We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
Hui, J.H., Chan, S.-W., Li, J., Goh, J.C.H., Li, L., Ren, X.F., Lee, E.H. (2007). Intra-articular delivery of chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of joint defects in rabbit model. Journal of Molecular Histology 38 (5) : 483-489. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10735-007-9120- ...
The Chondroitin Sulfate is the target of analysis presented in this research report which is a highly descriptive and insightful publication. It chalks out a detailed, all-inclusive, and logical perspective of the market, casing all crucial categories and their pieces, along with the aspects that have so far shown the potential of having a deep influence on the market over the coming years. The report is therefore a 360-degree representation of the analysis of the current state of market ...
Shanghai-based Cactus Botanics has developed a new form of chondroitin sulfate, free-from impurities or adulteration and thoroughly tested for quality using four methodologies. Carol Cheow, general manager of Cactus Botanics, discu
I suffered some pretty severe joint trauma during a recent injury. Fortunately my recovery has gone exceptionally well, and Ive gotten back to a pretty highly active lifestyle. However I do have varying degrees pain throughout the day. Id like to try glucosamine/chondroitin in addition to my exercises to see if it helps improve joint function and pain, but there doesnt appear to be any available data on the safety of either glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate during breastfeeding. :hmmm
The protein encoded by this gene is a proteoglycan that may function as a neural growth and differentiation factor. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011 ...
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|p|Commonly taken as a complex, glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM are compounds that can work together to support healthy muscles and joints, working to relieve painful conditions such as osteoarthritis.|/p| |p|Glucosamine and chondroitin are produced nat
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Has anyone tried/use Glucosamine and Chondroitin? I bought some about three weeks ago, used it every day for two weeks. I cant tell for sure if it had any effect, so Im wondering if longtime use would improve my chances. Im a young 46, but my shoulder sometimes aches terribly and pops, and knees grind when I bend them. (the oil can I borrowed from the Tin Man didnt help :D ) I saw a TV commerical about Osteo Biflex, but when I went to Wally World, I found a very similar, lower
Glucosamine + Chondroitin with MSM Healthy cartilage strength and resilience Sulfur-containing methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is included in this glucosamine and chondroitin combination to provide an enhanced spectrum of nutrients for optimal cartilage matrix composition, connective tissue strength, and joint comfort. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is responsible for building the ground substance of cartilage, molecules known as proteoglycans. In addition, chondroitin sulfate may maintain healthy enzyme activity. An important role of sulfur from MSM is to enhance the structure and integrity of proteoglycans. Pure Encapsulations Glucosamine and Chondroitin with MSM offers highly purified constituents for healthy cartilage formation and joint movement ease. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: glucosamine HCl (crab, shrimp), 99% 300 mg. chondroitin sulfate (bovine), 95% 300 mg. MSM
Chondroitin sulfate: Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Chondroitin sulfate at PatientsLikeMe. 5 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, bipolar disorder, Parkinsons disease, panic disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure (hypertension), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, bipolar II disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, asthma, social anxiety disorder, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Chondroitin sulfate.
1. Busci L & Poor G: Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(supplement A):31-36. 2. Morrison LM & Enrick NL: Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate-A. Angiology 1973: 24(5): 269-287. 3. Tallia A & Cardone D: Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002; 15(6):841-848. 4. Uebelhart D, Thonar E & Delmas P: Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6 (supplement A):39-46. 5. Verbruggen G, Goemaere S & Veys E: Chondroitin sulfate: S/MOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(suppl A): 37-38. 6. Product Information: Glucosamine hcl chondroitin sulfate oral tablets. Puritans Pride, Bohemia, NY, 2006. ...
Chondroitinase ABC is an enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that cleaves the endo-1,4-β-galactosaminic bonds between acetylgalactosamine and either glucuronic or i
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan but not hyaluronic acid is the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in human placenta, and infected red blood cell adherence up-regulates the receptor expression. AU - Muthusamy, Arivalagan. AU - Achur, Rajeshwara N.. AU - Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar. AU - Botti, John J.. AU - Taylor, Diane W.. AU - Leke, Rose F.. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could ...

Chondroitin ABC lyase - WikipediaChondroitin ABC lyase - Wikipedia

Yamagata, T.; Saito, H.; Habuchi, O.; Suzuki, S. (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and ... Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic ... Chondroitin ABC lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin_ABC_lyase

Chondroitin B lyase - WikipediaChondroitin B lyase - Wikipedia

Suzuki K, Terasaki Y, Uyeda M (2002). "Inhibition of hyaluronidases and chondroitinases by fatty acids". J. Enzyme. Inhib. Med ... In enzymology, a chondroitin B lyase (EC 4.2.2.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative cleavage of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin B lyase. Other names in common use include chondroitinase B, ChonB, and ... Gu K, Linhardt RJ, Laliberte M, Gu K, Zimmermann J. "Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin_B_lyase

A Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Effectiveness of Three Anti-HIV Drug Regimens in HIV Infected Patients Who Have Never Been...A Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Effectiveness of Three Anti-HIV Drug Regimens in HIV Infected Patients Who Have Never Been...

Chondroitinases And Chondroitin Lyases. Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, ... Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate ... Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate. ... Chondroitin Sulfates. Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/127701/A-Study-to-Evaluate-the-Long-Term-Effectiveness-of-Three-Anti-HIV.html

Safety and Dose Escalation Study of Zinc Supplementation in Critically Ill ChildrenSafety and Dose Escalation Study of Zinc Supplementation in Critically Ill Children

Chondroitinases And Chondroitin Lyases. Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, ... Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate ... Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate. ... Chondroitin Sulfates. Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/68266/Safety-and-Dose-Escalation-Study-of-Zinc-Supplementation-in-Critically-Ill-Children.html

Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides | SpringerLinkChondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides | SpringerLink

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements ... An improved methodology to produce Flavobacterium heparinum chondroitinases, important instruments for diagnosis of diseases. ... Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate lyase Marine Arthrobacter sp. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10126-015-9629-9

Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by...Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by...

The identity of the different S-GAG was confirmed by degradation with specific lyases: chondroitinases B, AC (Seikagaku Kogyo ... CS: chondroitin sulphate.. Figure 2 Mass spectroscopy to identify chondroitin sulphate oligosaccharides. Chondroitin sulphate ... The substrate specificity of chondroitinases B, AC were CS A and C, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid. The chondroitinase AC ... The products were compared with the standard of chondroitin-4-sulphated and chondroitin-6-sulphated products ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-45082015000400510&lng=en&tlng=en

Microvascular effects of chondroitinase ABC and chymopapain. An in vivo experimental study on hamsters and rabbitsMicrovascular effects of chondroitinase ABC and chymopapain. An in vivo experimental study on hamsters and rabbits

Animals, Cartilage, Cheek, Chondroitin Lyases, Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases, Chymopapain, Cricetinae, Mesocricetus, ... Chondroitin Lyases,Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases,Chymopapain,Cricetinae,Mesocricetus,Microcirculation,Microscopy,Mouth ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/d808ca95-9c7e-4268-bd52-0908aa0f04c1

FGF-2- and TGF-β1-Induced Downregulation of Lumican and Keratocan in Activated Corneal Keratocytes by JNK Signaling Pathway |...FGF-2- and TGF-β1-Induced Downregulation of Lumican and Keratocan in Activated Corneal Keratocytes by JNK Signaling Pathway |...

Structural analysis of chick-embryo cartilage proteoglycan by selective degradation with chondroitin lyases (chondroitinases) ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2187397

Endocan is a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor...Endocan is a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor...

Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases. -. dc.subject.mesh. Chromatography, Gel. -. dc.subject.mesh. Cricetinae. - ... Neuritogenic activity of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains of embryonic pig brain and their mimicry from shark liver. ... Endocan is a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor ... Endocan is a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that promotes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor ...
more infohttp://christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/85528

Chondroitin Sulfate And Cancer - Chondroitin SulfateChondroitin Sulfate And Cancer - Chondroitin Sulfate

B. GalAG Lyase-Mediated Degradation of GAGs. Chondroitinases (Table VI) are produced in soil and intestinal bacteria. ... C. Chondroitinases from Pedobacter heparinus. Chondroitinase ABC from P. heparinus is a broad substrate specificity lyase that ... Chondroitin lyases have been isolated and characterized from a variety genera, most notably Pedobacter (Fethiere et al., 1999; ... has actually been found to comprise two distinct lyases, chondroitinases ABC I and II. Both enzymes cleave a wide variety of ...
more infohttps://www.clicktocurecancer.info/chondroitin-sulfate/info-ktl.html

Galsulfase - DrugBankGalsulfase - DrugBank

Carbon-Oxygen Lyases. *Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases. *Chondroitinsulfatases. *Enzymes. *Enzymes and Coenzymes ... that catalyzes the cleavage of the sulfate ester from terminal N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate residues of GAG chondroitin 4- ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01279

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Carbohydrates, analysis, Cell Differentiation, Cells, Cultured, Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases, pharmacology, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=BIOCHEMICAL+JOURNAL+210%EA%B6%8C+3%ED%98%B8

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

chondroitin sulphate-dermatan sulphate hybrid (1) 1 Filter by. Remove filter. chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases - ... Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases - metabolism , Sulfates - metabolism , Disaccharides - metabolism , Glycosaminoglycans ... Chondroitin sulphate , N-linked oligosaccharide , Site-directed mutagenesis , Tunicamycin , Chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase ( ... C4ST-1 (chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1) transfers sulphate to position 4 of N-acetylgalactosamine in chondroitin. We showed ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Chondroitin%204-sulphotransferase-1%20

KEGG ENZYME: 4.2.2.19KEGG ENZYME: 4.2.2.19

The structure of chondroitin B lyase complexed with glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides unravels a calcium-dependent catalytic ... Inhibition of hyaluronidases and chondroitinases by fatty acids.. Journal. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 17:183-6 (2002). DOI:10.1080 ... Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and glycuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum. ... This is the only lyase that is known to be specific for dermatan sulfate as substrate. The minimum substrate length required ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?ec:4.2.2.19

ExplorEnz: EC 4.2.2.19ExplorEnz: EC 4.2.2.19

chondroitin B lyase. Comments:. This is the only lyase that is known to be specific for dermatan sulfate as substrate. The ... Suzuki, K., Terasaki, Y. and Uyeda, M. Inhibition of hyaluronidases and chondroitinases by fatty acids. J. Enzyme 17 (2002) 183 ... chondroitin B lyase. Reaction:. Eliminative cleavage of dermatan sulfate containing (1→4)-β-D-hexosaminyl and (1→3)-β-D- ... The structure of chondroitin B lyase complexed with glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides unravels a calcium-dependent catalytic ...
more infohttps://www.enzyme-database.org/query.php?ec=4.2.2.19

Proteoglycans and GAG research | amsbioProteoglycans and GAG research | amsbio

GAG Oligosaccharides for Heparin, Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate. Disaccharide standards for ... GAG Degrading Enzymes including Chondroitinases (ABC, AC I and II,), heparinase / heparitinase family, Hyaluronidases, ... keratanases and new K5 heparan lyase (Technical Bulletin). *Chondroitinase ABC enzyme, Chondroitin Sulfate "stub antibodies" ... Monoclonal antibodies to Chondroitin Sulfate, Heparan Sulfate, Keratan Sulfate. *Recombinant Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein ...
more infohttp://www.amsbio.com/Proteoglycans-Glycosaminoglycans.aspx

Recent progress on deep eutectic solvents in biocatalysis | Bioresources and Bioprocessing | Full TextRecent progress on deep eutectic solvents in biocatalysis | Bioresources and Bioprocessing | Full Text

2014), benzaldehyde lyase (Maugeri and Domínguez de María 2014) and phospholipase D (Yang and Duan 2016), also showed improved ... Chondroitinases ABCI. ChCl/Gly (1:2). Chondroitin. Improving thermal stability remarkably. Daneshjou et al. (2017) ... Daneshjou S, Khodaverdian S, Dabirmanesh B, Rahimi F, Daneshjoo S, Ghazi F, Khajeh K (2017) Improvement of chondroitinases ABCI ... Maugeri Z, Domínguez de María P (2014) Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL)-catalyzed enantioselective CC bond formation in deep-eutectic- ...
more infohttps://bioresourcesbioprocessing.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40643-017-0165-5

Plus itPlus it

The incubations with chondroitin (Fig. 6A) showed a 13-fold upregulation of 4-O-activity in tumor tissue as compared with ... To this end, CS/DS was purified and extensively degraded into disaccharides by a mixture of chondroitinases ABC, AC-I, and B ... In both cases, the digest solutions were incubated at 37°C, and after 2 hours, another aliquot of lyases was added. ... Involvement of chondroitin sulfate E in the liver tumor focal formation of murine osteosarcoma cells. Glycobiology 2009;19:735- ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/8/1943

Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells...Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells...

Lyase treatment was performed as described above.. The control and lyase-treated, labeled PGs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE as ... 2013). Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate. FEBS J. 280, 2431-2446. doi:10.1111/febs.12214. ... 3). Nitrous acid at low pH was used to degrade HS (Shively and Conrad, 1976), and chondroitinases that are specific for DS ( ... Lyase treatment. Proteoglycans were treated for 2 h at 37°C with 10 mIU chondroitinase ABC (Sigma) in 20 µl ammonium acetate pH ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/9/6/607

Methods of expressing gram-negative glycosaminoglycan synthase genes in gram-positive hosts - Deangelis, Paul L.Methods of expressing gram-negative glycosaminoglycan synthase genes in gram-positive hosts - Deangelis, Paul L.

... larger molecular weight chondroitin made be degraded with specific chondroitinases to make lower molecular weight chondroitin. ... or chondroitin-like based on the observation that their capsules are degraded by Flavobacterium chondroitin AC lyase. After ... and that is associated with the ability of prokaryotes to produce chondroitin or a "chondroitin like" polymer or a chondroitin ... and capital in order to convert sulfated chondroitin into unsulfated or desulfated chondroitin. Once the chondroitin is ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2007/0281342.html

Subrahmanyam M Volety - Research Output
     - Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, IndiaSubrahmanyam M Volety - Research Output - Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases * Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans * Enzymes * Therapeutics * Drug Delivery Systems ...
more infohttps://manipal.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/subrahmanyam-m-volety/publications/

chI, Ch D, Ch B, CH, Online Medical Terminology Catalogch'I, Ch D, Ch B, CH, Online Medical Terminology Catalog

Chondroitin sulfate B Chondroitin sulfate C Chondroitin sulfates Chondroitin sulphate Chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases ...
more infohttps://med-word.com/?l=CH

Chondroitinase AC & BChondroitinase AC & B

Chondroitinase AC cleaves chondroitin sulfates A and C. Chondroitinase B cleaves dermatan sulfate. ... Chondroitinase AC cleaves chondroitin sulfates A and C. Chondroitinase B (EC 4.2.2.19) Chondroitinase B cleaves dermatan ... IBEX chondroitinases do not contain external proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), nor preservatives. ... IBEX produces a family of high purity recombinant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) lyases; among them Chondroitinase AC and ...
more infohttps://www.ibex.ca/products/chrondroitinase/
  • Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. (springer.com)
  • It has a molecular weight in excess of 70 kDa and an optimal activity temperature of 30°C. The enzyme is fully active against DS, which is unusual for cABC lyases generally. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • 9. The method of claim 8 wherein, in the step of providing a purified nucleic acid segment encoding an enzymatically active Pasteurella chondroitin synthase, the purified nucleic acid segment encodes the Pasteurella multocida chondroitin synthase of SEQ ID NO:2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1986). One should note that although lyases can only cleave linkages on the nonreducing side of uronic acid, the hydrolases have no such limitation and can cleave either bond. (clicktocurecancer.info)