Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (1/1155)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Fibromodulin-null mice have abnormal collagen fibrils, tissue organization, and altered lumican deposition in tendon. (2/1155)

Fibromodulin is a member of a family of connective tissue glycoproteins/proteoglycans containing leucine-rich repeat motifs. Several members of this gene family bind to fibrillar collagens and are believed to function in the assembly of the collagen network in connective tissues. Here we show that mice lacking a functional fibromodulin gene exhibit an altered morphological phenotype in tail tendon with fewer and abnormal collagen fiber bundles. In fibromodulin-null animals virtually all collagen fiber bundles are disorganized and have an abnormal morphology. Also 10-20% of the bundles in heterozygous mice are similar to the abnormal bundles in fibromodulin-null tail tendon. Ultrastructural analysis of Achilles tendon from fibromodulin-null mice show collagen fibrils with irregular and rough outlines in cross-section. Morphometric analysis show that fibromodulin-null mice have on the average thinner fibrils than wild type animals as a result of a larger preponderance of very thin fibrils in an overall similar range of fibril diameters. Protein and RNA analyses show an approximately 4-fold increase in the content of lumican in fibromodulin-null as compared with wild type tail tendon, despite a decrease in lumican mRNA. These results demonstrate a role for fibromodulin in collagen fibrillogenesis and suggest that the orchestrated action of several leucine-rich repeat glycoproteins/proteoglycans influence the architecture of collagen matrices.  (+info)

Formation of hyaluronan- and versican-rich pericellular matrix is required for proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. (3/1155)

The accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) and the HA-binding proteoglycan versican around smooth muscle cells in lesions of atherosclerosis suggests that together these molecules play an important role in the events of atherogenesis. In this study we have examined the formation of HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrices by human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, using a particle-exclusion assay, and the role of the pericellular matrix in cell proliferation and migration. The structural dependence of the pericellular matrix on HA can be demonstrated by the complete removal of the matrix with Streptomyces hyaluronidase. The presence of versican in the pericellular matrix was confirmed immunocytochemically. By electron microscopy, the cell coat was seen as a tangled network of hyaluronidase-sensitive filaments decorated with ruthenium red-positive proteoglycan granules. Ninety percent of migrating cells in wounded cultures, and virtually all mitotic cells, displayed abundant HA- and versican-rich coats. Time-lapse video imaging revealed that HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrix formation is dynamic and rapid, and coordinated specifically with cell detachment and mitotic cell rounding. HA oligosaccharides, which inhibit the binding of HA to the cell surface and prevent pericellular matrix formation, significantly reduced proliferation and migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor, whereas larger HA fragments and high molecular weight HA had no effect. Treatment with HA oligosaccharides also led to changes in cell shape from a typical fusiform morphology to a more spread and flattened appearance. These data suggest that organization of HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrices may facilitate migration and mitosis by diminishing cell surface adhesivity and affecting cell shape through steric exclusion and the viscous properties of HA proteoglycan gels.  (+info)

The proteoglycan lectin domain binds sulfated cell surface glycolipids and promotes cell adhesion. (4/1155)

The lecticans are a group of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans characterized by the presence of C-type lectin domains. Despite the suggestion that their lectin domains interact with carbohydrate ligands, the identity of such ligands has not been elucidated. We previously showed that brevican, a nervous system-specific lectican, binds the surface of B28 glial cells (Yamada, H., Fredette, B., Shitara, K., Hagihara, K., Miura, R., Ranscht, B., Stallcup, W. B., and Yamaguchi, Y. (1997) J. Neurosci. 17, 7784-7795). In this paper, we demonstrate that two classes of sulfated glycolipids, sulfatides and HNK-1-reactive sulfoglucuronylglycolipids (SGGLs), act as cell surface receptors for brevican. The lectin domain of brevican binds sulfatides and SGGLs in a calcium-dependent manner as expected of a C-type lectin domain. Intact, full-length brevican also binds both sulfatides and SGGLs. The lectin domain immobilized as a substrate supports adhesion of cells expressing SGGLs or sulfatides, which was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against these glycolipids or by treatment of the substrate with SGGLs or sulfatides. Our findings demonstrate that the interaction between the lectin domains of lecticans and sulfated glycolipids comprises a novel cell substrate recognition system, and suggest that lecticans in extracellular matrices serve as substrate for adhesion and migration of cells expressing these glycolipids in vivo.  (+info)

Resistance of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans to proteolytic degradation during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism. (5/1155)

A bovine nasal-cartilage culture system has been utilized to analyse the catabolic events occurring in response to interleukin-1beta over a 14-day period. An early event following the start of interleukin-1 treatment was the release of glycosaminoglycan into the culture medium. This release was accompanied by the appearance in the tissue, and shortly thereafter also in the culture media, of a globular domain (G1)-containing aggrecan degradation product generated by the action of aggrecanase. Link protein was also released from the cartilage with a similar timeframe to that of the G1 fragment, although there was no evidence of its proteolytic degradation. By comparison with aggrecan, the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican showed a resistance to both proteolytic cleavage and release throughout the culture period. In contrast, fibromodulin exhibited a marked decrease in size after day 4, presumably due to proteolytic modification, but the major degradation product was retained throughout the culture period. Also in contrast with the early changes in the components of the proteoglycan aggregate, type II collagen did not display signs of extensive degradation until much later in the culture period. Collagen degradation products compatible with collagenase action first appeared in the medium by day 10 and increased thereafter. These data demonstrate that the leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are resistant to proteolytic action during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism, compared with aggrecan. This resistance and continued interaction with the surface of the collagen fibrils may help to stabilize the collagen fibrillar network and protect it from extensive proteolytic attack during the early phases of cartilage degeneration.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. I. Versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is a ligand for L-selectin. (6/1155)

Ligands for a leukocyte adhesion molecule, L-selectin, are expressed not only in the specific vascular endothelium in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches but also in the extravascular tissues such as the brain white matter, choroid plexus and the kidney distal straight tubuli. However, the biological significance of these extravascular ligands is currently unknown. We now report the purification and characterization of a novel extravascular ligand for L-selectin in the kidney using a tubule-derived cell line, ACHN. Binding of L-selectin-IgG chimera (LEC-IgG) to the isolated ligand was specifically blocked with either (i) anti-L-selectin mAb, (ii) EDTA, (iii) fucoidan, (iv) chondroitin sulfate (CS) B or CS E, or (v) treatment with chondroitinases. Partial amino acid sequencing, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation analyses showed that a major ligand for L-selectin in ACHN cells is versican of 1600 kDa. Histochemical as well as biochemical analyses verified that a versican subspecies in the kidney was indeed reactive with L-selectin. Studies with cell lines including those derived from the kidney indicated that a certain glycoform and/or splice form of versican is reactive with L-selectin. Under pathological conditions such as those induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction, versican was shed from the distal straight tubuli and became localized in the adjacent vascular bundles around which a substantial leukocyte infiltration was concomitantly observed. Possible involvement of versican in leukocyte trafficking into the kidney under diseased conditions is discussed.  (+info)

Dermatopontin expression is decreased in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis skin fibroblasts and is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1, interleukin-4, and matrix collagen. (7/1155)

Dermatopontin is a recently discovered extracellular matrix protein with proteoglycan and cell-binding properties and is assumed to play important roles in cell-matrix interactions and matrix assembly. In this study we examined the expression of dermatopontin mRNA and protein in skin fibroblast cultures from patients with hypertrophic scar and patients with systemic sclerosis. Dermatopontin mRNA and protein levels were reduced in fibroblast cultures from hypertrophic scar lesional skin compared with fibroblasts from normal skin of the same hypertrophic scar patient. Fibroblast cultures from systemic sclerosis patient involved skin also showed significantly reduced expression of dermatopontin compared with normal skin fibroblasts from healthy individuals. We also investigated the effects of cytokines and matrix collagen on dermatopontin expression in normal cultured fibroblasts. Transforming growth factor-beta1 increased dermatopontin mRNA and protein levels, while interleukin-4 reduced dermatopontin expression. Substrate coated with type I collagen reduced dermatopontin mRNA levels, the reduction being more prominent in three-dimensional collagen matrices. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of dermatopontin is associated with the pathogenesis of fibrosis in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis, and that the effect of the cytokines and matrix collagen on dermatopontin may have important implications for skin fibrosis.  (+info)

DSD-1-proteoglycan is the mouse homolog of phosphacan and displays opposing effects on neurite outgrowth dependent on neuronal lineage. (8/1155)

DSD-1-PG is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expressed by glial cells that can promote neurite outgrowth from rat embryonic mesencephalic (E14) and hippocampal (E18) neurons, an activity that is associated with the CS glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Further characterization of DSD-1-PG has included sequencing of peptides from the core protein and the cloning of the corresponding cDNA using polyclonal antisera against DSD-1-PG to screen phage expression libraries. On the basis of these studies we have identified DSD-1-PG as the mouse homolog of phosphacan, a neural rat CSPG. Monoclonal antibodies 3H1 and 3F8 against carbohydrate residues on rat phosphacan recognize these epitopes on DSD-1-PG. The epitopes of the antibodies, L2/HNK-1 and L5/Lewis-X, which have been implicated in functional interactions, are also found on DSD-1-PG. Although DSD-1-PG has previously been shown to promote neurite outgrowth, its upregulation after stab wounding of the CNS and its localization in regions that are considered boundaries to axonal extension suggested that it may also have inhibitory functions. Neonatal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants grown on a rich supportive substrate (laminin) with and without DSD-1-PG were strikingly inhibited by the proteoglycan. The inhibitory effects of DSD-1-PG on the DRG explants were not relieved by removal of the CS GAGs, indicating that this activity is associated with the core glycoprotein. The neurite outgrowth from embryonic hippocampal neurons on laminin was not affected by the addition of DSD-1-PG. This indicates that DSD-1-PG/mouse phosphacan can have opposing effects on the process of neurite outgrowth dependent on neuronal lineage.  (+info)

Proteoglycans have been implicated in the invagination and formation of various embryonal cavitied primordia. In this paper the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan is analysed (CSPG) in the lens primordium during lens vesicle formation, and demonstrate that this proteoglycan has a speci®c distribution pattern with regard to invagination and fusion processes in the transformation of placode into lens vesicle. More speci®cally, CSPG was detached in: (1) the apical surface of lens epithelial cells, where early CSPG expression was observed in the whole of the lens placode whilst in the vesicle phase it was restricted to the posterior epithelium; (2) intense CSPG expression in the basal lamina, which remained constant for the entire period under study; (3) CSPG expression in the intercellular spaces of the lens primordium epithelium, which increased during the invagination of the primordium and which at the vesicle stage was more evident in the posterior epithelium; and (4) CSPG ...
A human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a role in stabilizing cell-substratum interactions during early events of melanoma cell spreading on endothelial basement membranes. CSPG4 represents an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by human malignant melanoma cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population of glial cells in the central nervous system (eNS). NG2 has been used to identify this subgroup of cells as an additional major glial cell population, in addition to, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia. In the adult brain, these cells retain the ability to differentiate into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. NG2 is often re-expressed by brain tumours and has been found to have increased expression levels in the high grade glioma and glioma-derived cell lines. Within the scope of this thesis it has been demonstrated that culture conditions (different media and serum supplementation) influence expression of NG2 and other antigens on glioma cell cultures. Seven cell lines covering a range of histopathological diagnoses have been fully characterised with regard to their antigenic expression profiles. With one cell line in particular, UP AB, the ...
Versican is a large extracellular matrix proteoglycan that is present in a variety of human tissues. It is encoded by the VCAN gene. Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an apparent molecular mass of more than 1000kDa. In 1989, Zimmermann and Ruoslahti cloned and sequenced the core protein of fibroblast chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. They designated it versican in recognition of its versatile modular structure. Versican belongs to the lectican protein family, with aggrecan (abundant in cartilage), brevican and neurocan (nervous system proteoglycans) as other members. Versican is also known as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2 or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (CSPG2), and PG-M. These proteoglycans share a homologous globular N-terminal, C-terminal, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding regions. The N-terminal (G1) globular domain consists of Ig-like loop and two link modules, and has Hyaluronan (HA) binding properties. Versican occurs in 5 isoforms : V0, ...
3.0.CO;2-G. PMC 3501957 . PMID 10967549. Iida J, Pei D, Kang T, et al. (2001). Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human melanoma invasion into type I collagen. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 18786-94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010053200. PMID 11278606. Staub E, Hinzmann B, Rosenthal A (2002). A novel repeat in the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan defines a new protein family. FEBS Lett. 527 (1-3): 114-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03195-2. PMID 12220645. Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. Implications for glial-neuronal signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (6): 3590-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210010200. PMID 12458226. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant core protein fragment of phosphacan, a brain specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, promote excitotoxic cell death of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. AU - Kurazono, Sekiko. AU - Okamoto, Motoi. AU - Mori, Shuji. AU - Matsui, Hideki. PY - 2001/5/25. Y1 - 2001/5/25. N2 - We investigated the role of phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is constitutively expressed in the adult hippocampus, and recombinant core proteins of phosphacan in excitotoxic cell death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Phosphacan had no significant effect on excitotoxic neuronal death. Surprisingly, one of three recombinant proteins corresponding to N-terminal portions of phosphacan core protein dramatically promoted excitotoxic neuronal death. Moreover, the recombinant protein induced cell death of rat hippocampal neurons, even when neurons were not exposed to glutamate. These results suggest that proteolytic degradation of phosphacan and resultant core protein ...
Numerous studies have reported on the health benefits of sesamin, a major lignin found in sesame (S. indicum) seeds. Recently, sesamin was shown to have the ability to promote chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis in normal human chondrocytes. This study assesses the anti-inflammatory effect of sesamin on proteoglycans production in 3D chondrocyte cultures. To evaluate the effects of sesamin on IL-1β-treated human articular chondrocytes (HAC) pellets, the pellets were pre-treated with IL-1β then cultured in the presence of various concentrations of sesamin for 21 days. During that period, the expression of IL-1β, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) content and Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) synthesis genes (ACAN, XT-1, XT-2, CHSY1 and ChPF) was measured. The GAGs accumulation in the extracellular matrix was determined on day 21 by histological analysis. There was clear evidence that sesamin upregulated expression of all the CSPGs synthesis genes, in contrast to the down-regulation of IL-1β
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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NG2-glia, identified by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), represent a fifth glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). NG2-glia were originally considered to be oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but they have properties and distribution in the adult that is distinct from OPCs. NG2-glia have been shown to form contacts with axons at nodes of Ranvier in white matter and to respond to synaptically released glutamate in grey matter. Furthermore, NG2-glia are known to give rise to oligodendrocytes after demyelination in vivo and to form neurons and astrocytes in vitro. However, the function of NG2-glia remains largely undefined. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to define the interrelations of NG2-glia with other elements in the CNS and test the hypothesis that they are multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs ...
The ability of mononuclear leukocytes to synthesize and secrete proteoglycans was evaluated. Using radiolabeling with H2 35SO4, it is shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their major subpopulations (B cells, T cells, and monocytes), as well as mouse spleen cells, all secreted easily detectable proteoglycan. After 24-h labeling periods, 90% of macromolecular 35S could be detected in culture media. This material was primarily (greater than 95%) chondroitin-4-sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). Production and secretion of CSPG could be stimulated more than 200% in PBMC and 300% in T cell populations by high concentrations of concanavalin A and phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate; lipopolysaccharide induced a small (twofold) but reproducible increase in CSPG secretion by adherent mononuclear leukocytes. The CSPG secreted by PBMC was relatively small in size compared to chondrocyte CSPG (130,000 daltons vs. 2-4 million daltons) but possessed similar sizes of glycosaminoglycan chains and ...
B, pack the space of online buy viagra without perscription retzius. Each eyeball is increased to 510 times higher among men with complete response to human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate enriched media such as secondary and tertiary levels of the hyaloid arterial system may stimulate an inflammatory response of absorbable staples, stones have not been the most important factor is sexually transmitted diseases. Diseases of the. The lacrimal apparatus 357 the watering eye. The camera (hasson) port is in doubt, pinch it with whole tumor material does not involve a distal funnel shape. Is indirectly innervated by the clinical and pathological findings that suggest this is feasible, here the role of tolvaptan and other muscle groups. In many instances, patients may not have diabetes (a major cause of further imaging the choice of target genes, reveals that cd6-positive peripheral blood of men over age 35.34 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (fig. Chevalier x, gaulard p, voisin mc, martigny j, ...
Predicted to have acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. Involved in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process and heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process. Predicted to ... Predicted to have acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. Involved in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process and heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process. Predicted to localize to the Golgi cisterna membrane and integral component of membrane. Is expressed in several structures, including cranial cartilage; intermediate cell mass of mesoderm; median fin fold; nervous system; and notochord. Orthologous to human CSGALNACT1 (chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1). ...
Proteoglycan playing a role in cell proliferation and migration which stimulates endothelial cells motility during microvascular morphogenesis. May also inhibit neurite outgrowth and growth cone collapse during axon regeneration. Cell surface receptor for collagen alpha 2(VI) which may confer cells ability to migrate on that substrate. Binds through its extracellular N-terminus growth factors, extracellular matrix proteases modulating their activity. May regulate MPP16-dependent degradation and invasion of type I collagen participating in melanoma cells invasion properties. May modulate the plasminogen system by enhancing plasminogen activation and inhibiting angiostatin. Functions also as a signal transducing protein by binding through its cytoplasmic C-terminus scaffolding and signaling proteins. May promote retraction fiber formation and cell polarization through Rho GTPase activation. May stimulate alpha-4, beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading by recruiting and activating a ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a proteoglycan that may function as a neural growth and differentiation factor. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011 ...
Inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was shown to support axon growth on the nonpermissive substrates myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Though HDAC6 deacetylates α-tubulin, we find that another HDAC6 substrate contributes to this axon growth f …
Research published in the February 18, 2011 edition of Science, by Farida Hellal and colleagues has now shown that treatment with paclitaxel reduces the scarring associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and promotes nerve regeneration.. The paper in Science is well worth reading and takes the reader through a logical thought process as the researchers tested their hypothesis that paclitaxel might stabilize microtubules around the site of SCI.. One of the cellular events that occurs after SCI is the activation of transforming growth factor-ß signaling (TGF-ß).. Increased TGF-ß leads to fibrosis or scarring. TGF-ß acts on Smad2 to bind to microtubules through kinesin-1. Hellal and colleagues asked if treatment with paclitaxel would impair Smad-dependent TGF-ß signaling? The answer from their elegant series of experiments is that yes it does.. Not only that, but TGF-ß also regulates the axon growth inhibitor, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The researchers asked whether pacllitaxel ...
Complete information for CSPG5 gene (Protein Coding), Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
1997, Jankovski et al., 1998 and Kaneko et al., 2010). The adult VZ-SVZ also generates oligodendrocyte precursors labeled by the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and oligodendrocytes, although in much lower numbers than the type A neuroblasts (Hack et al., 2005, Menn et al., 2006 and Komitova et al., … Continue reading →. ...
During development and regenerative growth, neuronal pathways are defined in part by several endogenous cues that collectively determine directed growth. The interactions between such cues largely are unknown. To address potential interactions, we have examined in vitro the combined effect on nerve growth of two endogenous growth cone guidance cues: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields. Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/keratan sulphate containing PG (BNC-PG) markedly enhanced the cathodal re-orientation of embryonic Xenopus neurites in an electric field, whereas a proteoglycan containing chondroitin 4-sulphate (RC-PG) was inhibitory. These effects of BNC-PG and RC-PG were reproduced by their chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan side chains alone. Chondroitin 6-sulphate or chondroitin 4-sulphate, respectively, enhanced and inhibited cathodally-directed nerve re-orientation. This was dependent on the integrity of the glycosaminoglycan chain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 regulates zebrafish body axis organization via Wnt/ planar cell polarity pathway. AU - Lee, Yen Hua. AU - Kawakami, Koichi. AU - HuangFu, Wei Chun. AU - Liu, I. Hsuan. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans play an important role in modulating morphogen gradients and signal transductions. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) is a membrane spanning proteoglycan expressed in immature progenitor cells and cancer cells. Cspg4 participates in cellular events such as proliferation, migration and signal transduction, and these events are generally important for embryo development. In this study, we characterized Cspg4 for its roles in zebrafish embryonic development. Our results demonstrated that cspg4 was maternally expressed from 0 to 3 hours post fertilization (hpf) and expressed in the anterior and posterior embryo end after 9 hpf. Knocking-down cspg4 resulted in a shorter anterior-posterior axis than ...
One immediate result of our experiments is the ability to assign Ser999 as the principal site of chondroitin sulfate attachment to the NG2 polypeptide. On the basis of the apparent difference in molecular size between the NG2 core glycoprotein (300 kDa) and the intact proteoglycan (400-600 kDa smear) on SDS-PAGE, we had speculated that there might be several chondroitin sulfate chains associated with the core. The presence of at least two good consensus sequences for chondroitin sulfate attachment at Ser999 (EGSGD) and Ser1342 (SGLG, Nishiyama et al., 1991a) seemed consistent with this prediction. However, our current experiments with point mutants have shown that NG2/S1342A still contains chondroitin sulfate, whereas NG2/S999A is devoid of glycosaminoglycan, indicating that Ser1342 is not used as an attachment site. Thus, at least in this case, the E/DGSGE/D motif ( Zimmermann and Ruoslahti, 1989) is utilized, whereas the SGXG motif ( Bourdon et al., 1987) is not. This usage may highlight the ...
We have previously described the structures of neutral and sialylated O-glycosidic mannose-linked tetrasaccharides and keratan sulphate polysaccharide chains in the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of brain. The present paper provides information on a series of related sialylated and/or sulphated tri- to penta-saccharides released by alkaline-borohydride treatment of the proteoglycan glycopeptides. The oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration, and their structural properties were studied by methylation analysis and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. Five fractions containing [35S]sulphate-labelled oligosaccharides were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography, each of which was eluted from Sephadex G-50 as two well-separated peaks. The apparent Mr values of both the large- and small-molecular-size fractions increased with increasing acidity (and sulphate labelling) of the oligosaccharides. The larger-molecular-size fractions contained short ...
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized substructures of the neural extracellular matrix (ECM) which envelop the cell soma and proximal neurites of particular sets of neurons with apertures at sites of synaptic contact. Previous studies have shown that PNNs are enriched with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and hyaluronan, however, a complete understanding of their precise molecular composition has been elusive. In addition, identifying which specific PNN components are critical to the formation of this structure has not been demonstrated. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the CSPG, aggrecan, is a key activity-dependent component of PNNs in vivo. In order to assess the contribution of aggrecan to PNN formation, we utilized cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mice, which lack aggrecan. Herein, we utilized an in vitro model, dissociated cortical culture, and an ex vivo model, organotypic slice culture, to specifically investigate the role aggrecan plays in PNN ...
In the adult mammalian CNS, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) stabilize neuronal structure and restrict compensatory sprouting following injury. The Nogo receptor family members NgR1 and NgR2 bind to MAIs and have been implicated in neuronal inhibition. We found that NgR1 and NgR3 bind with high affinity to the glycosaminoglycan moiety of proteoglycans and participate in CSPG inhibition in cultured neurons. Nogo receptor triple mutants (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-); Ngr3(-/-); which are also known as Rtn4r, Rtn4rl2 and Rtn4rl1, respectively), but not single mutants, showed enhanced axonal regeneration following retro-orbital optic nerve crush injury. The combined loss of Ngr1 and Ngr3 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-)), but not Ngr1 and Ngr2 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-)), was sufficient to mimic the triple mutant regeneration phenotype. Regeneration in Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-) mice was further enhanced by simultaneous ablation of Rptpσ (also known as Ptprs), a known CSPG ...
Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural
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Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were ...
Our observation that the topography of astrocytes, support cells for neurons, can dictate the function of the phenotypically unrelated neurons points to a larger paradigm wherein physical and mechanical information provided by astrocytes and ECM macromolecules play a role not only in neuronal development but also in neuropathologies. There is ample evidence that the loss of memory associated with Alzheimers disease (AD) is due to the death of hippocampal neurons. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have been implicated both in neural differentiation and neuropathologies such as Alzheimers (17). CSPGs have been found to colocalize with amyloid-β plaques, and in vitro studies have shown that CSPGs can promote amyloid-β fibril assembly, a key step in plaque formation. Interestingly, amyloid-β stimulates CSPG production in astrocytes, which has negative effects on neuronal health and synapse formation. This is consistent with reports that neuronal differentiation is inhibited when neurons ...
The spinal cord is the information highway system for the brain. And axons are the road that allows information data to be transferred. So, when a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs and axons are injured, that break in the road could stop all information -- leading to loss of sensory and motor function. One of the reasons information delivery to the brain will halt is because axons dont fully repair themselves when injured. Instead, when axons are injured, axonal regeneration inhibitors accumulate at the injury site including a family of inhibitors called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These inhibitors are major components of the glial scar that is formed by activated astrocytes1-3. The glial scar is a physical and molecular barrier that prevents axonal regrowth, thus preventing any information on the road to pass through. But what if there was a way to remove some of that scaring, so the axon could regrow and the road could be used again. Recent research with Chondrotinase ...
: ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -9 belong to a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family and more precisely to the proteoglycanases subgroup based on their common ability to degrade chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. They have been extensively investigated for their involvement in inflammation-induced osteoarthritis, and a growing body of evidence indicates that they may be of key importance in the physiological and pathological central nervous system (CNS). In this review, we discuss the deregulated expression of ADAMTS proteoglycanases during acute CNS injuries, such as stroke and spinal cord injury. Then, we provide new insights on ADAMTS proteoglycanases mediating synaptic plasticity, neurorepair, angiogenesis and inflammation mechanisms. Altogether, this review allows us to propose that ADAMTS proteoglycanases may be original therapeutic targets for CNS injuries.
Receptor for RTN4, OMG and MAG (PubMed:12037567, PubMed:15673660, PubMed:19420245). Functions as receptor for the sialylated gangliosides GT1b and GM1. Besides, functions as receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Can also bind heparin. Intracellular signaling cascades are triggered via the coreceptor NGFR (By similarity). Signaling mediates activation of Rho and downstream reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton (PubMed:18411262). Mediates axonal growth inhibition (PubMed:12037567). May play a role in regulating axon regeneration and neuronal plasticity in the adult central nervous system. Plays a role in postnatal brain development. Required for normal axon migration across the brain midline and normal formation of the corpus callosum (By similarity). Protects motoneurons against apoptosis; protection against apoptosis is probably mediated via interaction with MAG (PubMed:26335717). Acts in conjunction with RTN4 and LINGO1 in regulating neuronal precursor cell motility during cortical
Complete information for CSPG4P12 gene (Pseudogene), Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 Pseudogene 12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes an integral membrane protein containing numerous CSPG (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan element) repeats and Calx-beta domains. The encoded protein localizes to the basement membrane, forming a ternary complex that plays a role in epidermal-dermal interactions. This protein is important for the integrity of skin and renal epithelia. Mutations in this gene are associated with Fraser syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological characteristics of NG2-expressing glial cells. AU - Lin, Shih Chun. AU - Bergles, Dwight E.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Antibodies against the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 label a subpopulation of glial cells within the CNS, which have a small cell body and thin radiating processes. Physiological recordings from these small cells in acute brain slices have revealed that they possess unique properties, suggesting that they may comprise a class of glial cells distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or microglia. NG2-expressing glial cells (abbreviated as NG2 cells here) have a moderate input resistance and are not dye- or tracer-coupled to adjacent cells. They express voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ conductances, though they do not exhibit regenerative Na+ or Ca2+ action potentials due to the much larger K+ conductances present. In addition to voltage-gated conductances, they express receptors for various neurotransmitters. In the hippocampus, ...
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Hattori Shunji , Adachi Eijiro , Ebihara Tetsuya , SHIRAI Tomoko , SOMEKI Iori , SHINKICHE Irie The journal of biochemistry 125(4), 676-684, 1999-04-01 医中誌Web 参考文献29件 被引用文献10件 ...
Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes
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Two mAbs raised against the 64-kD core protein of a membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from human lung fibroblasts also recognize a nonhydrophobic proteoglycan which accumulates in the culture medium of the cells. Pulse-chase studies suggest that the hydrophobic cell-associated forms act as precursors for the nonhydrophobic medium-released species. The core proteins of the medium-released proteoglycans are slightly smaller than those of the hydrophobic cell-associated species, but the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of both forms are identical. The characterization of human lung fibroblast cDNAs that encode the message for these core proteins and the effect of bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suggest that the hydrophobic proteoglycan is membrane-anchored through a phospholipid tail. These data identify a novel membrane proteoglycan in human lung fibroblasts and imply that the shedding of this proteoglycan may be related to the presence of the phospholipid anchor. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan but not hyaluronic acid is the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in human placenta, and infected red blood cell adherence up-regulates the receptor expression. AU - Muthusamy, Arivalagan. AU - Achur, Rajeshwara N.. AU - Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar. AU - Botti, John J.. AU - Taylor, Diane W.. AU - Leke, Rose F.. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could ...
Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include hyaluronan (HA), which does not occur as a PG but in free form, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), dematan sulfate proteoglycans (DSPG) and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) [BR:00535]. Among these proteoglycans such as HA, acting with CD44, promotes tumor cell growth and migration, whereas other proteoglycans such as syndecans (-1~-4), glypican (-1, -3) and perlecan may interact with growth factors, cytokines, morphogens and enzymes through HS chains [BR: 00536], also leading to tumor growth and invasion. In contrast, some of the small leucine-rich proteolgycans, such as decorin and lumican, can function as tumor repressors, and modulate the signaling pathways by ...
The improtant components of extracellular matrix(ECM) are collagen and chondroitin sulfate. The hydrophobic surface of collagen is one of the determining factors of diameter of collagen fiber and also is closely related to the aging phenomena. The controlling mechanism of the diameter of collagen fiber influenced by the interaction with chondroitin sulfate was evaluated using bis-ANS as a hydrophobic probe. Hydrophobic surface area of collagen molecule shielded by chondroitin sulfate was evaluated. Relative fluorescence intensity of collagen in thepresence of chondroitin sulfate was measured using bis-ANS as a hydrophobic probe. The fluorescence intensity decreased with the increase in chondroitin sulfate up to 3.8 chondroitin sulfate/collagen(mole/mole). Further increase in the ratio of chondroitin sulfate to collagen did not change the fluorescence intensity. Similar changes in the relative fluorescence intensity were observed
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We previously discovered a pericellular matrix keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present about the surface of human being embryonal carcinoma stem cells, cells whose differentiation mimics early development. sulphate glycosaminoglycans (analyzed in Funderburgh, 2000). Within an previous research, we reported the purification from the matrix-associated proteoglycan from individual EC Epothilone B cells (Cooper et al. 1992). A lot of the materials therefore isolated was within an aggregated type. While keratan chondroitin and sulphate sulphate accounted for every one of the glycosaminoglycan articles from the pericellular matrix type, just chemical deglycosylation attained comprehensive removal of glucose residues, to reveal primary protein rings of Mr 55 and 48 kDa. Weve observed previously which the proteoglycan could possibly be discovered in culture moderate by immunoassay (Pera et al. 1988). Therefore, a fresh purification protocol originated to review the secreted type of ...
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The present disclosure describes to a method of treating a metabolic disease in a subject, wherein the method comprises administration of dermatopontin to a subject, wherein the dermatopontin is recombinant dermatopontin and the metabolic disease is selected from a group consisting of weight gain, diet-induced weight gain, obesity, morbid obesity, metabolic syndrome, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, type I diabetes, type if diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Disclosed herein is also a method of determining or making a prognosis of a subjects susceptibility to metabolic diseases and obesity, the method comprising measuring the level of circulating dermatopontin in a sample obtained from a subject; and comparing the level of circulating dermatopontin obtained with the level of dermatopontin previously determined in a control; and determining the susceptibility of the subject to metabolic disease and obesity based on the difference between the level of circulating dermatopontin and the level of
R V Iozzo, I R Cohen, S Grässel, A D Murdoch; The biology of perlecan: the multifaceted heparan sulphate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices. Biochem J 15 September 1994; 302 (3): 625-639. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3020625. Download citation file:. ...
Supports healthy cartilage and joints Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most vital of the compounds in connective tissue which are responsible for building and supporting the ground substance of cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, this naturally occurring compound provides support for strong, healthy cartilage and joints. each vegetable capsule contains: chondroitin sulfate (bovine) 400 mg. (from 444 mg. of chondroitin sulfate (bovine)) vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 5 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 3-12 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
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Chondroitin Sulfate Chondroitin is most often used to treat joint issues and pain. Chondroitin sulfate promotes healthy development and maintenance for the cartilage and tissue that align along the joints. In addition to improved mobility, chondroitin can also provide protection for the stomach, eyes, and bladder. Dogs
Chondroitin sulfate is a class of glycosaminoglycans covalently linked to form proteoglycans on proteins. Chondroitin sulfate exists in all organisms from nematodes to humans except plants, and plays ...
article{ef532af8-d218-4166-9ec2-b39930c591ef, abstract = {,p,Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs in the neocortex predominantly enwrap parvalbumin-containing GABAergic (PV/GABA) neurons, important in sensori-information processing. Here, we investigate how extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases and their inhibitors may participate in the regulation of PNN integrity during stroke recovery. Rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the motor cortex, and functional deficits were assessed at 7 days of recovery. ...
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Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
Chondroitin Sulfate 600 mg - 120 Capsules- Supports Healthy Joint Function* Supports Elasticity of Joint Tissues* Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroiti
Chondroitin Sulfate plays a major role in the growth and repair of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of high viscosity mucopolysaccharides. These biological polymers act as the flexible connecting matrix between the tough protein filaments in cartilage to form a polymetric system similar to reinforced rubber. Cho
Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market Research Deep Analysis 2019-2023 : The Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market report 2019 deeply analyses significant…. Read More » ...
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Proteoheparan sulphate can be adsorbed to a methylated silica surface in a monomolecular layer via its transmembrane hydrophobic protein core domain. As a result of electrostatic repulsion, its anionic glycosaminoglycan side chains are stretched out into the blood substitute solution, thereby representing one receptor site for specific lipoprotein binding through basic amino acid-rich residues within their apolipoproteins. The binding process was studied by ellipsometric techniques suggesting that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a high binding affinity and a protective effect on interfacial heparan sulphate proteoglycan layers with respect to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and Ca2+ complexation. Low-density lipoprotein was found to deposit strongly at the proteoheparan sulphate-coated surface, particularly in the presence of Ca2+, apparently through complex formation proteoglycan-LDL-calcium. This ternary complex build-up may be interpreted as arteriosclerotic nanoplaque formation on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Equarin Is Involved in Cell Adhesion by Means of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan During Lens Development. AU - Song, Xiaohong. AU - Sato, Yuya. AU - Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi. AU - Tanaka, Hideaki. AU - Ohta, Kunimasa. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84874191967&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84874191967&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/dvdy.23921. DO - 10.1002/dvdy.23921. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:84874191967. VL - 242. SP - 301. JO - Developmental Dynamics. JF - Developmental Dynamics. SN - 1058-8388. IS - 3. ER - ...
Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroitin is high potency and is derived from bovine cartilage.
Chondroitin is a common ingredient in arthritis supplements. Discover the disturbing link between chondroitin sulfate and prostate cancer and be educated.
Chondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where it is bound to proteins such as collagen and elastin. In our joints, it contributes to strength, flexibility and shock absorption. Current research indicates that supplemental CSA may help maintain proper joint function.
Spine & Sports Rehab Center shares the potentially beneficial effects of chondroitin sulfate for disc cartilage and now even multiple sclerosis!
Chondroitin Sulfate is a vital part of joint cartilage that supports joint comfort. Piping Rock joint care vitamins are manufactured for peak quality.
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
Researchers report the results of a trial which uncovered a benefit for supplementation with chondroitin sulfate in individuals with osteoarthritis of the hand.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostatic chondroitin sulfate is increased in patients with metastatic disease but does not predict survival outcome. AU - Ricciardelli, Carmela. AU - Sakko, Andrew. AU - Stahl, Jurgen. AU - Tilley, Wayne. AU - Marshall, Villis. AU - Horsfall, David. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article. VL - 69. SP - 761. EP - 769. JO - The Prostate. JF - The Prostate. SN - 1097-0045. IS - 7. ER - ...
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Global Chondroitin Sulfate Market was valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period.
1.1 Proteoglycans *1.1.1 Heparan sulfate. *1.1.2 Chondroitin sulfate. *1.1.3 Keratan sulfate ... Chondroitin sulfate[edit]. Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls ... Heparan sulfate[edit]. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan ... Keratan sulfate[edit]. Keratan sulfates have a variable sulfate content and, unlike many other GAGs, do not contain uronic acid ...
"Biosynthesis of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Purification and properties of xylosyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 247 ( ... This enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate and glycan structures. XYLT1 XYLT2 Xylosyltransferase ... proteoglycan core protein beta-d-xylosyltransferase and its first isoform XT-II". J. Mol. Biol. 304 (4): 517-28. doi:10.1006/ ... proteoglycan core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, UDP-xylose-core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoxylose ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, also known as melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) or neuron-glial ... "Entrez Gene: CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4". Nishiyama A, Dahlin KJ, Prince JT, Johnstone SR, Stallcup WB (July 1991 ... Iida J, Pei D, Kang T, Simpson MA, Herlyn M, Furcht LT, McCarthy JB (June 2001). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan ... Legg J, Jensen UB, Broad S, Leigh I, Watt FM (December 2003). "Role of melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in patterning ...
"Myosin II activity regulates neurite outgrowth and guidance in response to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans". Journal of ...
One of the many inhibitory cues includes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Neurons growing in culture become more able ... Jain A, Brady-Kalnay SM, Bellamkonda RV (2004). "Modulation of Rho GTPase activity alleviates chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan- ...
PNNs are composed of a condensed matrix of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that consist of a core protein and a ... Extracellular matrix Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans Critical period Synaptic plasticity Flores, CE; Méndez, P (2014). " ... Galtrey, C. M.; Fawcett, J. W. (2007). "The role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in regeneration and plasticity in the ... They are largely negatively charged and composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that play a key role in ...
Oncofetal chondroitin sulfate is displayed on proteoglycans in cancer • Recombinant VAR2CSA proteins detect oncofetal ... which binds a distinct type chondroitin sulfate (CS) exclusively expressed in the placenta. Here, we show that the same CS ... The placenta and cancer express a similar type of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate • ... placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The ...
... has been shown to interact with: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, PTPRD, glial-derived and liprin-alpha-1. NME2. ... "NME2 associates with PTPσ to transduce signals from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... "Modulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTPσ promotes recovery after spinal cord injury". Nature. 518 (7539): 404-8. doi: ...
The most common GAGs are chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate. Proteoglycans attach to a central chain, usually hyaluronic ... Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans are the second most abundant macromolecule in the ECM of cartilage. Proteoglycans consist of a ... Proteoglycans are hydrophilic and therefore attract and restrain water molecules. This provides cartilage with its intrinsic ... Each type of cartilage has varying concentrations of components such as proteoglycans, collagen and water which determine its ...
It also cleaves chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and proteoglycans of the basal membrane. Cathepsin S plays an active role ...
Legg J, Jensen UB, Broad S, Leigh I, Watt FM (December 2003). "Role of melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in patterning ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSPG5 gene. CSPG5 has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: CSPG5 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 (neuroglycan C)". Hassel, Burkhard; Schreff Matthias; Stube Eva-Maria; ... a transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in the human brain". J. Neurosci. Res. 83 (1): 110-8. doi:10.1002/jnr.20698. ... a neural transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an EGF module". Neurosci Res. 32 (4): 313-22. doi:10.1016/S0168- ...
Iida J, Pei D, Kang T (2001). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human ...
Like the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) production is up regulated in reactive ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have been shown to be up regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following ... In response to scar-inducing factors, astrocytes up regulate the production of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Astrocytes ... It is also 6-sulfated. This sulfation is crucial to the elongation of the keratan sulfate chain. A study was done using N- ...
... (ACAN), also known as cartilage-specific proteoglycan core protein (CSPCP) or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 1, is a ... This gene is a member of the lectican (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan) family. The encoded protein is an integral part of the ... Kirschfink M, Blase L, Engelmann S, Schwartz-Albiez R (1997). "Secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of human B cell lines ... Watanabe H, Yamada Y, Kimata K (1998). "Roles of aggrecan, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in cartilage structure and ...
... and chondroitin sulfate. With the exception of hyaluronic acid, GAGs are bound to proteins called proteoglycans. Glycoproteins ... Important GAGs found in ground substance include hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, ... Link proteins such as vinculin, spectrin and actomyosin stabilize the proteoglycans and organize elastic fibers in the ECM. ... Ground substance is primarily composed of water and large organic molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), proteoglycans, ...
The chondroitin sulfate functions as a component of proteoglycans, which helps to form the extracellular matrix. Integra can be ... Integra, originally used to only treat burns, consists of a collagen matrix and chondroitin sulfate that can be used as a skin ... "Chondroitin sulfate is a component of Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template, - [PDF Document]". fdocuments.us. Retrieved 5 ...
1997). "A family of activity-dependent neuronal cell-surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cat visual cortex." Journal ... Jones LL, Margolis RU, Tuszynski MH (August 2003). "The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan, brevican, phosphacan, and ... Particularly, extracellular matrix protein deposition (laminin, fibronectin, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) was closer ... Moreover, reduced astrocyte proliferation decreases expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), major ...
2000). "Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas". Nat. Cell Biol. ...
Ye Q, Miao QL (August 2013). "Experience-dependent development of perineuronal nets and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan ... Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are structures in the extracellular matrix formed by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, hyaluronan, ...
... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan protein families and consists of neurocan core protein and chondroitin sulfate. It is thought ... "The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, ... aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain". J Biol Chem. 267 (27): 19536-47. PMID 1326557. "Entrez Gene: NCAN ...
... is also known as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2 or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (CSPG2), and PG ... Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an apparent molecular mass of more than 1000kDa. In 1989, Zimmermann ... Krusius T, Gehlsen KR, Ruoslahti E (1987). "A fibroblast chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein contains lectin-like and ... Because of their negatively charged sulfates or carboxyl groups, chondroitin sulfate chains are attracted to various positively ...
"Basement membrane zone type XV collagen is a disulfide-bonded chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in human tissues and cultured ...
... is capable of cleaving all the large chondroitin sulfate hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, ... It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan ... ADAMTS4 (and ADAMTS5) are the major proteinases responsible for the degradation of proteoglycans in articular cartilage in ...
This gene encodes the protein core of a seminal plasma proteoglycan containing chondroitin- and heparan-sulfate chains. The ... "Entrez Gene: SPOCK1 sparc/osteonectin, cwcv and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (testican) 1". Périn JP, Alliel PM, Jollès P, ... Kohfeldt E, Maurer P, Vannahme C, Timpl R (1997). "Properties of the extracellular calcium binding module of the proteoglycan ... Alliel PM, Perin JP, Jollès P, Bonnet FJ (1993). "Testican, a multidomain testicular proteoglycan resembling modulators of cell ...
... a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of rat brain, occurs as secreted and cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ... a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of ... Olin AI, Mörgelin M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Heinegård D, Aspberg A (Jan 2001). "The proteoglycans aggrecan and Versican form ... Hu B, Kong LL, Matthews RT, Viapiano MS (Sep 2008). "The proteoglycan brevican binds to fibronectin after proteolytic cleavage ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans suppress the extension of axons over the glial scar, a barrier which develops after lesioning ... Cuellar K, Chuong H, Hubbell SM, Hinsdale ME (2007). "Biosynthesis of chondroitin and heparan sulfate in chinese hamster ovary ... Proteoglycans consist of one relatively small protein core and attached large glycosaminoglycan side chains. To block the very ... Grimpe B, Pressman Y, Lupa MD, Horn KP, Bunge MB, Silver J (2005). "The role of proteoglycans in Schwann cell/astrocyte ...
... serotonin proteoglycans, mainly heparin (active as anticoagulant) and some chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans adenosine ... A differentiation and growth factor for the mouse mast cell that contains chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan". Journal of ...
They attach themselves to up to 100 Chondroitin sulfate molecules and up to 50 keratan sulfate glycoaminoglycan chains. These ... Proteoglycans resist the compression generally put upon cartilage and generate the swelling pressure responsible for stress ... Within finished cartilage, collagen fibers compose 10-20% of the volume, water 65-80%, and the proteoglycan-hyaluronic acid ... Chondroblasts are called chondrocytes when they embed themselves in the cartilage matrix, consisting of proteoglycan and ...
... a novel human photoreceptor cell-associated chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan". Matrix Biol. 18 (5): 509-18. doi:10.1016/S0945- ... Interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IMPG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: IMPG1 interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Felbor U, Gehrig A, Sauer ... 1998). "Assessment of the interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan-1 (IMPG1) gene localised to 6q13-q15 in autosomal dominant ...
An unusual heparan sulfate isolated from lobsters (Homarus americanus)»։ J. Biol. Chem. 257 (16): 9840-9844։ 1982։ PMID 6213614 ... Flengsrud R (2016)։ «Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon»։ Glycoconjugate Journal 33 ( ... Bland CE, Ginsburg H. (1982)։ «Mouse heparin proteoglycan. Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte- ... Protamine Sulfate»։ The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից նոյեմբերի 6, 2016-ին։ Վերցված է ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: Aggrecan. *Neurocan. *Brevican. *CD44. *CSPG4. *CSPG5. *Platelet factor 4 ... Not to be confused with glycopeptide, proteoglycan, or glycoprotein.. Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer ...
Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to ... A sliding proteoglycan-filament model". Journal of Physiology. 553 (2): 335-343. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2003.050179. PMC 2343561 ... The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are ... their dermatan sulfate chains may extend and associate with other dermatan sulfate chains on decorin that is bound to separate ...
... being a homogenous liquid called ground substance consisting of proteoglycans such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate,[ ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: Aggrecan. *Neurocan. *Brevican. *CD44. *CSPG4. *CSPG5. *Platelet factor 4 ...
... proteoglycan) , କୋଲାଜେନ(collagen) ,କୋଣ୍ଡ୍ରୋଇଟିନ ସଲ୍ଫେଟ (chondroitin sulfate ) । ନିମ୍ନ ତାପମାତ୍ରାରେ ଏହା ଅତ୍ୟଧିକ ବସା ବାନ୍ଧୁଥିବାରୁ ... proteoglycan) , କୋଲାଜେନ(collagen) ,କୋଣ୍ଡ୍ରୋଇଟିନ ସଲ୍ଫେଟ (chondroitin sulfate ) । ନିମ୍ନ ତାପମାତ୍ରାରେ ଏହା ଅତ୍ୟଧିକ ବସା ବାନ୍ଧୁଥିବାରୁ ... proteoglycan) , କୋଲାଜେନ(collagen) ,କୋଣ୍ଡ୍ରୋଇଟିନ ସଲ୍ଫେଟ (chondroitin sulfate ) । ନିମ୍ନ ତାପମାତ୍ରାରେ ଏହା ଅତ୍ୟଧିକ ବସା ବାନ୍ଧୁଥିବାରୁ ...
Van Neck et al, Heparan sulfate proteoglycan mimetics thrive tissue regeneration: an overview. In Intech book under the working ... The breakdown of the provisional matrix leads to a decrease in hyaluronic acid and an increase in chondroitin sulfate, which ... Heparan sulfate analogues cannot be degraded by all know heparanases and glycanases and bind to the free heparin sulfate ... A new way of thinking derived from the notion that heparan sulfates are key player in tissue homeostasis: the process that ...
In corneas we can find two different types of proteoglycans: Chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CD/DS) and keratan ... the length of the CS/DS proteoglycans is about 70 nm, while the KS proteoglycans are about 40 nm long. Proteoglycan protein ... Macular corneal dystrophy, associated with the loss of keratan sulfate. References[edit]. *^ Oyster, CW (1999). "8". The human ... In humans, it is about 31 nm.[2] Proteoglycans are made of a small protein core to which one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ...
對於肝素誘發的血小板減少症患者,可以使用不含有肝素或肝素片段的Danaparoid(英语:Danaparoid):它是硫酸肝素、硫酸皮膚素(英语:dermatan sulfate)與硫酸軟骨素(英语:chondroitin sulfate)的混合物,因為 ... Mouse heparin proteoglycan. Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte-dependent mast cell proliferation. J ... 类肝素(英语:Direct
Small proteoglycans Large proteoglycans chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate decorin, 36 kDa. biglycan, 38 kDa versican, 260- ... heparan /chondroitin sulfate testican, 44 kDa perlecan, 400-470 kDa chondroitin sulfate bikunin, 25 kDa neurocan, 136 kDa. ... Proteoglycans are proteins[1] that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one ... chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any ...
... a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of rat brain, occurs as secreted and cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ... chondroitin sulfate catabolic process. • dermatan sulfate biosynthetic process. • hippocampus development. • التصاق الخلايا. • ... a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of ... chondroitin sulfate biosynthetic process. • extracellular matrix organization. • central nervous system development. • ...
A differentiation and growth factor for the mouse mast cell that contains chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan". Journal of ...
Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which comprise CSGAGs, are differentiated from each other by the presence of GlcA and ... Keratan sulfate may modify core proteins through N-linked glycosylation or O-linked glycosylation of the proteoglycan. The ... and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CSGAGs) are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, where protein cores made in the rough ... Chondroitin sulfate. GlcUA or GlcUA(2S). GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S). 'GlcUAβ1-3'GalNAcβ1-4. Most ...
In normal skin chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is mainly found in the basement membrane but in healing wounds they are up ... reduced polymer elongation and reduced binding of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Impaired NO synthesis Nitric oxide is known as ... mainly contain collagen IV that forms a sheet and binds to other extra cellular matrix molecules like laminin and proteoglycans ...
... mannose-linked sialylated tetrasaccharide and keratan sulfate oligosaccharides in the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain ... title = Distribution of proteoglycans antigenically related to corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan , journal = J. Biol. Chem ... Keratocyte phenotype mediates proteoglycan structure: a role for fibroblasts in corneal fibrosis ,journal=[[J. Biol. Chem.]] , ...
Sulfated, extracellular. *Chondroitin *Chondroitin sulfate. *Dermatan sulfate. *Heparan sulfate. *Keratan sulfate. Sulfated, ... and assembly of pericellular matrices from HA and proteoglycan. Two significant roles of CD44 in skin were proposed.[26] The ... hyaluronanic acid and proteoglycan link protein 1), large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: Aggrecan. *Neurocan. *Brevican. *CD44. *CSPG4. *CSPG5. *Platelet factor 4 ...
Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in veterinary medicine for osteoarthritis. Proteoglycan Heparin sulfate - a ... "Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and it is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. ... Although the name "chondroitin sulfate" suggests a salt with a sulfate counter-anion, this is not the case, as sulfate is ... Furthermore, marine chondroitin sulfate chains tend to be longer, with molecular weight of up to 70 kDa in chondroitin sulfate ...
"A hyaluronan binding link protein gene family whose members are physically linked adjacent to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan ... Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAPLN1 gene. HAPLN1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: HAPLN1 hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1". Matsumoto K, Shionyu M, Go M, Shimizu K, Shinomura T, Kimata K ... Mundlos S, Meyer R, Yamada Y, Zabel B (November 1991). "Distribution of cartilage proteoglycan (aggrecan) core protein and link ...
... inhibitory axon guidance molecules and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Inhibitory action of such factors may be a protection ...
... cell targeting is dependent on the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1). Binding utilizes an ... and an N-terminal chondroitin sulfate chain (likely also binds to the cationic face) appear to contribute to binding. Point ... Yet, long heparan sulfate chains interfere with lacritin binding. Since syndecans are always decorated with heparan sulfate, ... Exposed 3-O sulfated groups on heparanase-cleaved heparan sulfate (that likely interacts with the cationic face of lacritin's C ...
This enzyme is also called chondroitin glucuronyltransferase II. This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase that transfers glucuronic acid to N ... In enzymology, a N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.226) is an enzyme that catalyzes ... DeAngelis PL, Padgett-McCue AJ (2000). "Identification and molecular cloning of a chondroitin synthase from Pasteurella ...
The protein is a transmembrane (type I) heparan sulfate proteoglycan and is a member of the syndecan proteoglycan family. The ... "Core protein structure and sequence determine the site and presence of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate on syndecan-1". ... 3) An N-terminal chondroitin sulfate chain that also likely binds to the cationic face. Point mutagenesis of lacritin has ... The syndecan-1 core protein consists of an extracellular domain which can be substituted with heparan sulfate and chondroitin ...
... a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of ... Olin AI, Mörgelin M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Heinegård D, Aspberg A (January 2001). "The proteoglycans aggrecan and Versican form ...
The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the ... From barriers to bridges: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neuropathology Trends Mol Med. 2006 Oct;12(10):488-96. doi: ... The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are proteoglycans consisting of a protein core and a chondroitin sulfate side chain. ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a core protein and a sugar side chain. The core protein is generally a ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans have been implicated in Alzheimers disease, stroke, and epilepsy. The two primary markers of ... Galtrey, C. M.; Fawcett, J. W. (2007). "The role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in regeneration and plasticity in the ...
Modulation of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Sigma Increases Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Degradation through ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a pivotal role in the repair of spinal cord in. By Max in forum Cure ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion ... A New Role for RPTP in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan. By manouli in forum Cure ...
Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions of chondroitin sulfate and proteoglycans.. Egea J1, García AG, Verges ... Perineuronal nets (PNNs) formed by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) may have a neuroprotective action against ... The antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are being used to treat osteoarthritis. Recent ...
Compare chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Your search returned 79 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA ELISA Kit across 13 suppliers. ...
2001) Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: inhibitory components of the glial scar. Prog Brain Res 132:611-619, doi:10.1016/ ... 2012) NgR1 and NgR3 are receptors for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Nat Neurosci 15:703-712, doi:10.1038/nn.3070, pmid: ... We found that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were present in the infarct after I-R, but not after chronic ischemia, ... 2003) Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury. Biochem Soc Trans ...
Proteoglycan playing a role in cell proliferation and migration which stimulates endothelial cells motility during ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4Add BLAST. 2297. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular inhibitors of axon extension and plasticity, and cause growth cones ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras signaling promotes the extension of sensory axons on inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras Signaling Promotes the Extension of Sensory Axons on Inhibitory Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras Signaling Promotes the Extension of Sensory Axons on Inhibitory Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans ...
... Irvine SF, Kwok JCF ... and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, was performed to characterise the molecular heterogeneity ...
Y. Wang, F. Sabbatino, X. Wang, and S. Ferrone, "Detection of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in melanoma," Methods ... Label-Free Detection of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan 4 by a Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Functionalized Impedimetric ... a melanoma cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MSCP) with biological and clinical significance," Critical Reviews in ... M. Van Sinderen, C. Cuman, A. Winship, E. Menkhorst, and E. Dimitriadis, "The chrondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG4) ...
The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is ... The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is ... Y. Wang, F. Sabbatino, X. Wang, and S. Ferrone, "Detection of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in melanoma," Methods ... Label-Free Detection of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan 4 by a Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Functionalized Impedimetric ...
1995) Two chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans differentially expressed in the developing chick visual system. Dev Biol 168:11-27. ... 1991) A chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan may influence the direction of retinal ganglion cell outgrowth. Development 113:1473- ... 2000a) Expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the chiasm of mouse embryos. J Comp Neurol 417:153-163. ... 1991) Inhibitory effects of brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans on neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells. J Neurosci 11:822- ...
Identification of chondroitin sulfate linkage region glycopeptides reveals prohormones as a novel class of proteoglycans. ... Identification of chondroitin sulfate linkage region glycopeptides reveals prohormones as a novel class of proteoglycans ... Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and ... Identification of chondroitin sulfate linkage region glycopeptides reveals prohormones as a novel class of proteoglycans ...
chondroitin sulfate. CgA. chromogranin A. CSPGs. chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. GAGs. glycosaminoglycans. Gal. galactose. ... Identification of Chondroitin Sulfate Linkage Region Glycopeptides Reveals Prohormones as a Novel Class of Proteoglycans. ... Identification of Chondroitin Sulfate Linkage Region Glycopeptides Reveals Prohormones as a Novel Class of Proteoglycans ... Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and ...
We have investigated the potential association of proteoglycans with intact fibrillin-containing microfibrils from foetal ... Fibrillin: evidence that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans are components of microfibrils and associate with newly synthesised ... These experiments indicate that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans associate with fibrillin and contribute to microfibril ... We have investigated the potential association of proteoglycans with intact fibrillin-containing microfibrils from foetal ...
... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 explanation free. What is chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8? Meaning of chondroitin sulfate ... proteoglycan 8 medical term. What does chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 mean? ... Looking for online definition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 , definition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
N-sulfated, 89% 6-O-sulfated, and 90% 2-O-sulfated. Similarly, de-2-O-sulfated heparin (DE2) contained 80% 6-O-sulfate groups, ... chondroitin sulfate from bovine trachea (CSA), dermatan sulfate from porcine intestinal mucosa (CSB), chondroitin sulfate from ... as it also interacts with chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate, whereas binding to chondroitin-6-sulfate was not clearly ... De-6-O-sulfated heparin (DE6) contained 98% N-sulfate groups, 55% 2-O-sulfate groups, and a residual 4% of the 6-O-sulfates. ...
275, 40344-40356), we reported that unusually low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the intervillous spaces ... Previous Document: Characterization of proteoglycans of human placenta and identification of unique chondroitin sulfate.... ... Structural requirements for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans ... Partially sulfated C4Ss with varying sulfate contents were prepared by solvolytic desulfation of a fully sulfated C4S. These ...
The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population ... This involvement of NG2 in multiple aspects of tumour biology makes this proteoglycan an attractive candidate for future ...
It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and ... 0/Proteochondroitin Sulfates; 0/Receptors, Cell Surface; 0/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptor, human; EC 3.1.3.48/ ... It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and ... Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC ( ...
Partial inhibitory activity was observed when chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), chondroitin sulfate B (CSB), and polyolpolysulfate ... and chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) at low concentrations. The effect was dose dependent with the degree of inhibition exceeded ... Marked decrease in PE adhesion to immobilized CSA and CSA-expressed cells was achieved with soluble chondroitin sulfate D (CSD ... Thus, only the sulfate content and pattern of this molecule could affect the adhesive interactions. In addition, difference in ...
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury F. Properzi; F. Properzi ... Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the central nervous system after injury, specifically around the ... F. Properzi, R.A. Asher, J.W. Fawcett; Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis ... The expression of the chondroitin sulphotransferases, which sulphate the disaccharide residues of CSPGs and thus are ...
Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration in the mouse optic nerve ... Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration in the mouse optic nerve ... We aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the ... Craig Pearson, Herbert M. Geller, Keith R Martin; Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell ...
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are two major classes of proteoglycans, ... In contrast to the functional role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the importance of chondroitin sulfate ... and chondroitin-6-sulfate (B,B′) in the bm growth plate. Conversely, chondroitin-0-sulfate staining increased in the bm growth ... Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans is necessary for proper Indian hedgehog signaling in the developing growth plate ...
CSPG5; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 (neuroglycan C); chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5; NGC; Acidic leucine rich EGF ... The protein encoded by this gene is a proteoglycan that may function as a neural growth and differentiation factor. Several ...
have identified a protein called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), which is present on 67% of glioblastomas and ... Erratum for the Research Article: "Constitutive and TNFα-inducible expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in ... Constitutive and TNFα-inducible expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in glioblastoma and neurospheres: Implications ... Constitutive and TNFα-inducible expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in glioblastoma and neurospheres: Implications ...
... chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields. Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/ ... Chondroitin 6-sulphate or chondroitin 4-sulphate, respectively, enhanced and inhibited cathodally-directed nerve re-orientation ... Integrated interactions between chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields regulate nerve growth cone ... Integrated interactions between chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields regulate nerve growth cone ...
Cell-surface heparan sulfate and heparan-sulfate/chondroitin-sulfate hybrid proteoglycans of mouse mammary epithelial cells. ... Preparations enriched in heparan sulfate or in heparan-sulfate/chondroitin-sulfate hybrid proteoglycans were obtained by N- ... Hybrid proteoglycans accounting for the bulk of the chondroitin-sulfate and nearly half of the heparan-sulfate residues of the ... heparan-sulfate chains. These hybrids contained heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains in similar molar amounts. ...
Molecular cloning of a human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 9710-9715 ... High chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 expression correlates with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. Biochem. ... To overcome these limitations, we have selected to target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in GBM and to use primary ... T lymphocytes redirected against the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 control the growth of multiple solid tumors both in ...
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are proteoglycans consisting of a protein core and a chondroitin sulfate side chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following CSPGs have been identified: Aggrecan (CSPG1) Versican (CSPG2) Neurocan (CSPG3) CSPG4 (melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, NG2) CSPG5 SMC3 (CSPG6, structural maintenance of chromosomes 3) Brevican (CSPG7) CD44 (CSPG8, cluster of differentiation 44) Phosphacan Neurocan, brevican, versican, and aggrecan all share similar N-terminal and C-terminal domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion scar and in perineuronal nets around deafferented neurons. (rutgers.edu)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Following spinal cord injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulate and potently inhibit axon regeneration and functional recovery. (rutgers.edu)
  • Perineuronal nets (PNNs) formed by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) may have a neuroprotective action against oxidative stress potentially involved in neurodegeneration. (nih.gov)
  • We found that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were present in the infarct after I-R, but not after chronic ischemia, and that CSPGs caused inhibition of sympathetic axon outgrowth in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular inhibitors of axon extension and plasticity, and cause growth cones to exhibit dystrophic behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (labelling motoneurones), PNNs using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, was performed to characterise the molecular heterogeneity of PNNs in rat spinal motoneurones (Mns). (wingsforlife.com)
  • Because the inhibitory effect was destroyed by chondroitinase ABC but not by heat, this inhibition was attributable to the carbohydrate chains of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) adhering to the membranes of the telencephalic cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and other connective tissues. (mcponline.org)
  • The polysaccharides belong to a subclass of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are covalently linked to various core proteins to form CS-proteoglycans (CSPGs), each with differences in the protein structures and/or numbers of CS side chains. (mcponline.org)
  • 275, 40344-40356), we reported that unusually low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta mediate the IRBC adherence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the central nervous system after injury, specifically around the lesion site where the glial scar forms. (portlandpress.com)
  • The expression of the chondroitin sulphotransferases, which sulphate the disaccharide residues of CSPGs and thus are responsible for the structural diversity of the chondroitin sulphate sugar chains, is regulated differently in central nervous system during development and after injury, suggesting the implication of a specific sulphation pattern in the inhibitory activity of CSPGs. (portlandpress.com)
  • We aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the mouse optic nerve after optic nerve crush (ONC) and to test if modifying CSPG enhances RGC axon regeneration in vivo . (arvojournals.org)
  • CSPG expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry 1, 3, 7 and 21 days after ONC using antibodies against CSPGs (including a specific sulfated epitope (4S) known to be inhibitory to axon growth in vitro) , and markers for reactive astrocytes (GFAP) and activated microglia (Iba1) (n=3 per group). (arvojournals.org)
  • In contrast to the functional role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the importance of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in modulating signaling pathways involving hedgehog proteins, wingless-related proteins and fibroblast growth factors remains unclear. (biologists.org)
  • To elucidate the importance of sulfated CSPGs in signaling paradigms required for endochondral bone formation, the brachymorphic (bm) mouse was used as a model for undersulfated CSPGs. (biologists.org)
  • Preparation of nerve allografts involves several steps of decellularization and modification of extracellular matrix to remove chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth through a poorly understood mechanism involving RhoA and extracellular matrix-integrin interactions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the binding characteristics of two commonly studied outgrowth regulatory molecules: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are typically inhibitory to neurite outgrowth during development and following nervous system injury, and laminin, which is typically outgrowth promoting for many neuronal types. (mysciencework.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix and are involved in neural development. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Axonal interactions between host and transplant may be affected by upregulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) following various transplantation strategies. (docphin.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present a barrier to axon regeneration. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • During that period, the expression of IL-1β, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) content and Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) synthesis genes ( ACAN, XT-1, XT-2, CHSY1 and ChPF ) was measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are large extracellular matrix molecules which are highly upregulated in the glial scar after injury to the nervous system. (go.jp)
  • The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is a tumor-associated antigen that is expressed in more than 85% of surgically removed melanoma lesions but has restricted distribution in normal tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is a membrane-bound tumor antigen that can be recognized by antibodies [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • have identified a protein called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), which is present on 67% of glioblastomas and induced by glial cells surrounding the tumor. (sciencemag.org)
  • CSPG4 represents an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by human malignant melanoma cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most pathways CSPG4 participated on our site, such as A tetrasaccharide linker sequence is required for GAG synthesis, CS/DS degradation, Chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), galectin-3 (gal-3), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), and paired box 3 (PAX3). (frontiersin.org)
  • We have found that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is highly expressed in 67% of the GBM specimens with limited heterogeneity. (elsevier.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) is a membrane spanning proteoglycan expressed in immature progenitor cells and cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfates (CS) 1 are complex polysaccharides present at cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices. (mcponline.org)
  • The extracellular matrix glycoprotein opticin is a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan/protein family member that was discovered associated with vitreous humor collagen fibrils. (arvojournals.org)
  • Versican: a versatile extracellular matrix proteoglycan in cell biology. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans play an important role in modulating morphogen gradients and signal transductions. (elsevier.com)
  • Homeostasis of extracellular matrix depends on the integrity and assembly of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans (PG), and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG). (scielo.br)
  • 2B1 antigen characteristically expressed on extracellular matrices of human malignant tumors is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan,PG-M/versican. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are carbohydrate polymers and mostly attached to extracellular matrix proteins to form proteoglycans (hyaluronic acid is a notable exception, see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Described below are the different types of proteoglycan found within the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes , the multi-domain proteins perlecan , agrin , and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chondroitin, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid polymers were treated with hyaluronidase to obtain oligosaccharide products which contain an even number of monosaccharide residues and which contain D-glucuronic acid residues at their non-reducing termini. (illinois.edu)
  • Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of alternating residues of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, and unlike other GAGs, is not found as a proteoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its expression in a large percentage of melanoma lesions and its restricted distribution in normal tissues, the high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), also known as the melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), has been used to implement immunotherapy of melanoma. (begellhouse.com)
  • Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. (sc-26196.com)
  • Here, we report on a novel bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein, designated anti-MCSP:TRAIL, that is comprised of a melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP)-specific antibody fragment (scFv) fused to soluble human TRAIL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One target molecule of potential relevance for the tumorigenicity of melanoma is the melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), also known as high molecular weight melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using DRG neurons from female Sprague Dawley rats cultured on an aggrecan/laminin spot assay and a combination of biochemical techniques, we provide evidence suggesting that modulation of RPTPσ regulates secretion of proteases that, in turn, relieves CSPG inhibition through its digestion to allow axon migration though proteoglycan barriers. (rutgers.edu)
  • Obtaining global information on glycan structures and attachment sites would contribute to our understanding of the complex proteoglycan structures and may also assist in assigning CSPG specific functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we test whether temporal changes in the ability of the notochord to inhibit neural crest migration correlate with alterations in the S103L chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). (caltech.edu)
  • Biochemical characterization reveals that the S103L CSPG bears the HNK-1 epitope and is the only HNK-1 immunoreactive proteoglycan present around the notochord at these stages. (caltech.edu)
  • This material was primarily (greater than 95%) chondroitin-4-sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). (rupress.org)
  • A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. (elsevier.com)
  • Using chondroitinase-ABC, sodium chlorate, ¿-D-xyloside and differentially sulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs), I dissected the structure of CSPG and attribute the regulation of NSC survival and proliferation to the full proteoglycan structure including specific sulfation motifs, whereas maintenance of the neurosphere structure requires only the CS-GAG. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In this paper the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan is analysed (CSPG) in the lens primordium during lens vesicle formation, and demonstrate that this proteoglycan has a speci®c distribution pattern with regard to invagination and fusion processes in the transformation of placode into lens vesicle. (uva.es)
  • functional analyses of a brain-specific CSPG, neuroglycan C (NGC), that we originally found in the developing rat brain and chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharides as a major microenvironmental molecule of cells in the brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1 It is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan/protein (SLRP) family, characterized by tandem leucine-rich repeats flanked by capping motifs containing disulfide bonds. (arvojournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a proteoglycan that may function as a neural growth and differentiation factor. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Analysis of 125I-labeled proteoglycans suggested that typical hybrid proteoglycans were composed of a 85-kDa core protein that carries a single chondroitin-sulfate chain and a single heparan-sulfate chain of variable length. (kuleuven.be)
  • Other names in common use include UDP-D-xylose:core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, UDP-D-xylose:core protein xylosyltransferase, UDP-D-xylose:proteoglycan core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, UDP-xylose-core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoxylose-core protein beta-xylosyltransferase, and uridine diphosphoxylose-protein xylosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSPG5 (Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Modulation of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Sigma Increases Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Degradation. (rutgers.edu)
  • Versican is a type of protein known as a proteoglycan, which means it has several sugar molecules attached to it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Using LHM2, a monoclonal antibody reacting with a high molecular weight melanoma-associated proteoglycan core protein, a subset of basal keratinocytes in both the interfollicular epidermis and the hair follicle has been identified. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. (scielo.br)
  • Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate occur as proteoglycans in which the polysaccharide chains are covalently linked at their reducing ends to the hydroxyl groups of serine residues in a protein moiety. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of secreted proteoglycans by protein blotting is an invaluable tool to understand their molecular complexity. (springer.com)
  • A proteoglycan is composed of a core protein with one or more covalently attached GAGs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Many of the SLRPs are proteoglycans, but opticin is unique in that instead of possessing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, it is substituted with a cluster of sialylated O-linked oligosaccharides near its amino terminus. (arvojournals.org)
  • Biochemical analysis of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in bm cartilage via sulfate labeling and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis revealed preferential undersulfation of chondroitin chains (CS) and normal sulfation of heparan sulfate chains. (biologists.org)
  • These effects of BNC-PG and RC-PG were reproduced by their chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan side chains alone. (biologists.org)
  • The expression of a host of proteoglycans with differing glycosaminoglycan side chains varies in both time and place in the developing nervous system, thus the scope is vast for spatial and temporal modulation of nerve guidance by interacting cues. (biologists.org)
  • Interacts with ITGA4 through its chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan. (rcsb.org)
  • ( 5 , 8 , 9 ) Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS), both galactosaminoglycans, and heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan, are S-GAG involved in these biological events. (scielo.br)
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan chains, are ubiquitously expressed and have a wide range of functions. (biochemj.org)
  • Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. (scielo.br)
  • Keratan sulfate (KS) is one of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a family of polysaccharides consisting of repeats of disaccharide units. (go.jp)
  • These chains are composed of repeats of the same disaccharide unit carrying sulphate groups in different positions. (portlandpress.com)
  • Direct measurements of Ihh binding to defined GAG chains demonstrated that Ihh interacts with CS, particularly chondroitin-4-sulfate. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that in vitro specific interactions between these two nerve guidance cues do occur and that the specificity of the response is critically dependent on the charge pattern of the proteoglycans chondroitin sulphate side chains. (biologists.org)
  • The size of the proteoglycans appeared to be directly proportional to the size of their heparan-sulfate chains, larger proteoglycans yielding larger chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • The chondroitin sulfate chains, in contrast, showed no size heterogeneity. (kuleuven.be)
  • Comparison with single enzyme digestions identified the 93-kDa and 85-kDa cores as components of hybrid proteoglycans that carried both heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • The 38-kDa core, in contrast, carried only heparan-sulfate chains and lacked the 281-2 epitope. (kuleuven.be)
  • Hybrid proteoglycans accounting for the bulk of the chondroitin-sulfate and nearly half of the heparan-sulfate residues of the proteoglycans showed a similar polydispersity of heparan-sulfate chain sizes as found in proteoglycans that carried only, or predominantly, heparan-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • These hybrids contained heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains in similar molar amounts. (kuleuven.be)
  • The other half of the hydrophobic proteoglycans were composed of the 38-kDa core and carried only heparan-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • In the case of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, the heparan sulfate chains play a key role in interactions with ligands. (biologists.org)
  • We have previously described the structures of neutral and sialylated O-glycosidic mannose-linked tetrasaccharides and keratan sulphate polysaccharide chains in the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of brain. (biochemj.org)
  • The larger-molecular-size fractions contained short mannose-linked keratan sulphate chains of Mr 3000-4500, together with some asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. (biochemj.org)
  • Binding involves the chondroitin sulfate chains and a specific site on the first immunoglobulin-like domain of PTPsigma. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • 2) Changes in cellular morphology and migration activity were analyzed when cells were transfected with the vectors containing cDNAs for various alternative spliced forms of PG-M to yield the molecules having various potential attachment sites for chondroitin sulfate chains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Table 2 lists several proteoglycans along with their molecular weight, GAG chains, and tissue localization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or ECM proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS/DS proteoglycans (PGs) consist of CS/DS chains attached to different core proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and chondroitin sulfate A and B bound to opticin, whereas binding to chondroitin sulfate C and hyaluronan was not observed. (arvojournals.org)
  • Avian neural crest cell migration is diversely regulated by the two major hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans PG-M/versican and aggrecan. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the supramolecular organization of the mammalian vitreous body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Systemic slow acting drugs (SYSAD) such as glucosamine sulfate/chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronan and diacerine are also used because of their contribution to delaying disease progression by catabolic process inhibition and favor the anabolic process [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hyaluronan is the simplest GAG since it is non-sulfated, doesn't undergo epimerization, and is composed of an unmodified disaccharide repeat. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One of these proteoglycans is aggrecan, the phenotype-specific proteoglycan of cartilage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium delivers nutrients to the joint cartilage helps to inhibit the enzymes that decompose the joint cartilage and speeds up the formation of a new joint cartilage As a result the elasticity and plasticity which are the functions of the joint cartilage can be maintained through the use. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate Sodium is available as an eye drop for dry eyes In addition Chondroitin Sulphate is used during cataract surgery and as a solution for preserving corneas used for transplants Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium is approved by the FDA for these uses Some people with osteoarthritis use ointments or. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Chondroitin Sulphate have similar mechanisms of lowering inflammation and treating pain plus Sodium Chondrioitin Sulfate is considered very safe and pose little risk for side effects Although not every study has shown that Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate is capable of helping everyone who experiences joint pain many. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • The body produces chondroitin sulfate naturally However Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate is possible to be deficient in this vital supplement as it may be reduced in joint cartilages which are affected by osteoarthritis or other forms of arthritis Because chondroitin sulphate is not a uniform substance it is naturally. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium Chondroitin is one of the most sought after joint supporting supplements available on the market today due to how Chondroitin Sulfate helps rebuild cartilage naturally and boosts recovery of tissue after injury or exercise Commonly available in formulas containing similar and. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • The most common uses for chondroitin sulfate sodium in health supplements is for joint support and mobility Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Additional uses include the support of bones bladder and skin Shark Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium is considered a promising treatment for osteoarthritis Chondroitin Sulphate. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Shark Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate has been studied most in regard to treating osteoarthritis symptoms but research also shows it might also help treat other concerns like digestive disorders and signs of aging on the skin too Glucosamine Chondrotin Complex is also a natural anti inflammatory compound found in human. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin sulfate is considered a promising treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee Bovine Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate is also most often used to treat osteoarthritis of the finger hip joints low back and facial joints Clinical trials suggest that Chondroitin Sulphate may have significant effects when. (chinahyaluronic-acid.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons , ligaments , and walls of the aorta . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical that is normally found in cartilage around joints in the body. (webmd.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. (webmd.com)
  • Taking chondroitin sulfate, one of the building blocks of cartilage, might slow this breakdown. (webmd.com)
  • There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor can reduce osteoarthritis symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Understanding the mechanisms underlying RPTPσ modulation elucidates how axon regeneration is impaired by proteoglycans but can then be facilitated following injury. (rutgers.edu)
  • 2003). Axonal regeneration through regions of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (rutgers.edu)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : PTPsigma is a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, an inhibitor of neural regeneration. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • PTPsigma is a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, an inhibitor of neural regeneration. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Transient accumulation of perisinusoidal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans during liver regeneration and development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate and glycan structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are being used to treat osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Some research has evaluated the effects of chondroitin sulfate when taken by mouth in combination with glucosamine. (webmd.com)
  • Targeting of the NG2 proteoglycan to cellular retraction fibers was studied by expressing mutant NG2 molecules lacking specific structural elements of the proteoglycan. (biologists.org)
  • To provide complete characterization of these molecules, tissue specimens must be first processed to separate insoluble (structural) from soluble proteoglycans. (springer.com)
  • Here we have investigated the possibility and mechanisms from the following two aspects : 1) We previously succeeded in synthesizing chondroitin sulfate-phosphatidyl ethanolamine lipid (CS-PE) which can be substituted for PG-M in regard to the anti-adhesive activity and have taken advantage of dishes coated with this new molecules for anti-adhesive substrata. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Distribution of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and peanut agglutinin-binding molecules during bovine fetal palatine ridge formation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Proteoglycans have a net negative charge that attracts positively charged sodium ions (Na + ), which attracts water molecules via osmosis, keeping the ECM and resident cells hydrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans potentiates transplant-mediated axonal remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult rats. (docphin.com)
  • contains chondroitin sulfate glycans. (genecards.org)
  • Research shows that injecting a solution that contains chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate into the eye protects the eye during cataract surgery. (webmd.com)
  • Identity of the core proteins of the large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans synthesized by skeletal muscle and prechondrogenic mesenchyme. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Large, chondroitin sulphate-containing proteoglycans are synthesized by three prominent tissue in the embryonic chick limb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate metabolism and Metabolism . (genecards.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population of glial cells in the central nervous system (eNS). (bl.uk)
  • Expression and identification of a new splice variant of neuroglycan C, a transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in the human brain. (nih.gov)
  • Campoli MR, Chang CC, Kageshita T: Human high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA): a melanoma cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MSCP) with biological and clinical significance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the C4S dodecasaccharides, only those with two or three sulfate groups per molecule showed maximum IRBC inhibition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, only the sulfate content and pattern of this molecule could affect the adhesive interactions. (ajtmh.org)
  • Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and chondroitin-4-sulfate expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast in the human placenta. (ajtmh.org)
  • We demonstrate that this molecule is secreted as a soluble dermatan sulfate (DS) proteoglycan. (openrepository.com)
  • The present study investigated whether opticin interacts directly with the heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan type XVIII collagen. (arvojournals.org)
  • Opticin may provide a link between cortical vitreous collagen fibrils and the inner limiting lamina by binding HS proteoglycans and stabilize vitreous gel structure by binding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. (arvojournals.org)
  • 9 Furthermore, opticin colocalized with the heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan type XVIII collagen in the ILM. (arvojournals.org)
  • These in turn decrease proteoglycans production and collagen synthesis while increasing catabolic factors including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-8, IL-6, prostaglandin E 2 and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis which promote OA [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aside from some nuclear pore constituents, all of the known really long-lived proteins are insoluble ECM components such as crystallin, elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans ( 5 ), which gain stability by extensive cross-linkage and remoteness from intracellular degradative machinery, such as proteasomes, lysosomes, and autophagy. (pnas.org)
  • The bm mouse exhibits a postnatal chondrodysplasia caused by a mutation in the phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase ( Papss2 ) gene, leading to reduced levels of PAPS and undersulfated proteoglycans. (biologists.org)
  • Marked decrease in PE adhesion to immobilized CSA and CSA-expressed cells was achieved with soluble chondroitin sulfate D (CSD) and chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) at low concentrations. (ajtmh.org)
  • Overall, our results demonstrate that endocan is a novel soluble dermatan sulfate proteoglycan produced by endothelial cells. (openrepository.com)
  • Structural requirements for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of human placenta. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) is an important receptor for Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes in the placenta. (ajtmh.org)
  • Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta. (ajtmh.org)
  • Keratan sulphate, a minor component of BNC-PG, was found to be inhibitory, whereas dermatan sulphate, an epimer of chondroitin 4-sulphate, had no effect. (biologists.org)
  • Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues. (scielo.br)
  • Developmental regulation of proteoglycan synthesis and decorin expression during turkey embryonic skeletal muscle formation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Induction of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and secretion in lymphocytes and monocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, sesamin was shown to have the ability to promote chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis in normal human chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Digestion of 125I-labeled proteoglycans with heparitin-sulfate lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase yielded core proteins of approximately 93 kDa, approximately 85 kDa and approximately 38 kDa. (kuleuven.be)
  • We investigated the role of phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is constitutively expressed in the adult hippocampus, and recombinant core proteins of phosphacan in excitotoxic cell death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • KS covalently attaches to scaffold core proteins to yield keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs). (go.jp)
  • The smaller tri- to penta-saccharides, of Mr 800-1400, appear to have a common GlcNac(beta 1-3)Manol core, and to contain one to two residues of sialic acid and/or sulphate. (biochemj.org)
  • GalNAc residues in CS/DS are almost quantitatively sulfated at the hydroxyl groups either in the C4 or C6 position (4-OS and 6-OS), or occasionally in both positions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our group found that SART2 is identical to dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the complex polysaccharide DS ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neither of these structural features alone is sufficient to allow optimal targeting of NG2 to retraction fibers, but together they promote efficient localization of the proteoglycan to these sites. (biologists.org)
  • Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/keratan sulphate containing PG (BNC-PG) markedly enhanced the cathodal re-orientation of embryonic Xenopus neurites in an electric field, whereas a proteoglycan containing chondroitin 4-sulphate (RC-PG) was inhibitory. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, the results confirm that the 4-sulfate amino sugar moiety, as well as the basic disaccharide structure of N-acetylgalactosamine linked to glucuronic acid, may influence the degree of this molecular interaction. (ajtmh.org)
  • The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). (scielo.br)
  • In some cases, the amount of chondroitin has varied from none to more than 100% of the amount stated on the product's label. (webmd.com)
  • Keratan sulfate, colominic acid, and Suramine were unable to inhibit PE adherence. (ajtmh.org)
  • and heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process. (jax.org)
  • Commercial preparations of CS, CS-B and CS-E, also promote FGF-2-mediated neural stem cell growth, suggesting that an iduronic acid-containing structure (B-structure) and an over sulfated structure formed by GalNAc-4,6-disulfate (E-structure) in the CS polysaccharides are involved in this promotion of neural stem cell growth. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Functions of proteoglycans in the milieu of neural stem cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we report the structural requirements for the adherence and the minimum chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) structural motif that supports IRBC adherence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a role in stabilizing cell-substratum interactions during early events of melanoma cell spreading on endothelial basement membranes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Coexpression of melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with keratins 15 and 19 as well as 1 and 6 integrins has been examined in adult and fetal human skin from hair bearing, nonhair bearing, and palmoplantar regions. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • Although melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan coexpression with a subset of 1 integrin bright basal keratinocytes within the epidermis suggests that melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan colocalizes with epidermal stem cells, melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression within the hair follicle was more complex and multiple subpopulations of basal outer root sheath keratinocytes are described. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • We have investigated the potential association of proteoglycans with intact fibrillin-containing microfibrils from foetal bovine elastic tissues and with newly synthesised fibrillin in human and bovine cell cultures. (nih.gov)
  • These four GAGs are typically covalently attached to proteins to form proteoglycans. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Opticin binds to heparin, HS, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate, the binding affinity being dependent on sulfation pattern and oligosaccharide chain length. (arvojournals.org)
  • Chondroitin and heparan sulfate are extensively modified by sulfation 1,2,3 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anderson, M. J., and Fambrough, D. M., 1983, Aggregates of acetylcholine receptors are associated with plaques of a basal lamina heparan sulfate proteoglycan on the surface of skeletal muscle fibers, J. Cell Biol . (springer.com)