Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Brevican: A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Versicans: HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Neurocan: A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Syndecans: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Syndecan-4: A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.GlucosamineBiglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Syndecan-1: A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Syndecan-2: A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Glypicans: A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsGanglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Syndecan-3: A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.GlucuronidaseSulfatasesAcetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HexosaminesDextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.PolysaccharidesMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.XyloseGlycoside HydrolasesLipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (1/1155)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Fibromodulin-null mice have abnormal collagen fibrils, tissue organization, and altered lumican deposition in tendon. (2/1155)

Fibromodulin is a member of a family of connective tissue glycoproteins/proteoglycans containing leucine-rich repeat motifs. Several members of this gene family bind to fibrillar collagens and are believed to function in the assembly of the collagen network in connective tissues. Here we show that mice lacking a functional fibromodulin gene exhibit an altered morphological phenotype in tail tendon with fewer and abnormal collagen fiber bundles. In fibromodulin-null animals virtually all collagen fiber bundles are disorganized and have an abnormal morphology. Also 10-20% of the bundles in heterozygous mice are similar to the abnormal bundles in fibromodulin-null tail tendon. Ultrastructural analysis of Achilles tendon from fibromodulin-null mice show collagen fibrils with irregular and rough outlines in cross-section. Morphometric analysis show that fibromodulin-null mice have on the average thinner fibrils than wild type animals as a result of a larger preponderance of very thin fibrils in an overall similar range of fibril diameters. Protein and RNA analyses show an approximately 4-fold increase in the content of lumican in fibromodulin-null as compared with wild type tail tendon, despite a decrease in lumican mRNA. These results demonstrate a role for fibromodulin in collagen fibrillogenesis and suggest that the orchestrated action of several leucine-rich repeat glycoproteins/proteoglycans influence the architecture of collagen matrices.  (+info)

Formation of hyaluronan- and versican-rich pericellular matrix is required for proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. (3/1155)

The accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) and the HA-binding proteoglycan versican around smooth muscle cells in lesions of atherosclerosis suggests that together these molecules play an important role in the events of atherogenesis. In this study we have examined the formation of HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrices by human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, using a particle-exclusion assay, and the role of the pericellular matrix in cell proliferation and migration. The structural dependence of the pericellular matrix on HA can be demonstrated by the complete removal of the matrix with Streptomyces hyaluronidase. The presence of versican in the pericellular matrix was confirmed immunocytochemically. By electron microscopy, the cell coat was seen as a tangled network of hyaluronidase-sensitive filaments decorated with ruthenium red-positive proteoglycan granules. Ninety percent of migrating cells in wounded cultures, and virtually all mitotic cells, displayed abundant HA- and versican-rich coats. Time-lapse video imaging revealed that HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrix formation is dynamic and rapid, and coordinated specifically with cell detachment and mitotic cell rounding. HA oligosaccharides, which inhibit the binding of HA to the cell surface and prevent pericellular matrix formation, significantly reduced proliferation and migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor, whereas larger HA fragments and high molecular weight HA had no effect. Treatment with HA oligosaccharides also led to changes in cell shape from a typical fusiform morphology to a more spread and flattened appearance. These data suggest that organization of HA- and versican-rich pericellular matrices may facilitate migration and mitosis by diminishing cell surface adhesivity and affecting cell shape through steric exclusion and the viscous properties of HA proteoglycan gels.  (+info)

The proteoglycan lectin domain binds sulfated cell surface glycolipids and promotes cell adhesion. (4/1155)

The lecticans are a group of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans characterized by the presence of C-type lectin domains. Despite the suggestion that their lectin domains interact with carbohydrate ligands, the identity of such ligands has not been elucidated. We previously showed that brevican, a nervous system-specific lectican, binds the surface of B28 glial cells (Yamada, H., Fredette, B., Shitara, K., Hagihara, K., Miura, R., Ranscht, B., Stallcup, W. B., and Yamaguchi, Y. (1997) J. Neurosci. 17, 7784-7795). In this paper, we demonstrate that two classes of sulfated glycolipids, sulfatides and HNK-1-reactive sulfoglucuronylglycolipids (SGGLs), act as cell surface receptors for brevican. The lectin domain of brevican binds sulfatides and SGGLs in a calcium-dependent manner as expected of a C-type lectin domain. Intact, full-length brevican also binds both sulfatides and SGGLs. The lectin domain immobilized as a substrate supports adhesion of cells expressing SGGLs or sulfatides, which was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against these glycolipids or by treatment of the substrate with SGGLs or sulfatides. Our findings demonstrate that the interaction between the lectin domains of lecticans and sulfated glycolipids comprises a novel cell substrate recognition system, and suggest that lecticans in extracellular matrices serve as substrate for adhesion and migration of cells expressing these glycolipids in vivo.  (+info)

Resistance of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans to proteolytic degradation during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism. (5/1155)

A bovine nasal-cartilage culture system has been utilized to analyse the catabolic events occurring in response to interleukin-1beta over a 14-day period. An early event following the start of interleukin-1 treatment was the release of glycosaminoglycan into the culture medium. This release was accompanied by the appearance in the tissue, and shortly thereafter also in the culture media, of a globular domain (G1)-containing aggrecan degradation product generated by the action of aggrecanase. Link protein was also released from the cartilage with a similar timeframe to that of the G1 fragment, although there was no evidence of its proteolytic degradation. By comparison with aggrecan, the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican showed a resistance to both proteolytic cleavage and release throughout the culture period. In contrast, fibromodulin exhibited a marked decrease in size after day 4, presumably due to proteolytic modification, but the major degradation product was retained throughout the culture period. Also in contrast with the early changes in the components of the proteoglycan aggregate, type II collagen did not display signs of extensive degradation until much later in the culture period. Collagen degradation products compatible with collagenase action first appeared in the medium by day 10 and increased thereafter. These data demonstrate that the leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are resistant to proteolytic action during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism, compared with aggrecan. This resistance and continued interaction with the surface of the collagen fibrils may help to stabilize the collagen fibrillar network and protect it from extensive proteolytic attack during the early phases of cartilage degeneration.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. I. Versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is a ligand for L-selectin. (6/1155)

Ligands for a leukocyte adhesion molecule, L-selectin, are expressed not only in the specific vascular endothelium in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches but also in the extravascular tissues such as the brain white matter, choroid plexus and the kidney distal straight tubuli. However, the biological significance of these extravascular ligands is currently unknown. We now report the purification and characterization of a novel extravascular ligand for L-selectin in the kidney using a tubule-derived cell line, ACHN. Binding of L-selectin-IgG chimera (LEC-IgG) to the isolated ligand was specifically blocked with either (i) anti-L-selectin mAb, (ii) EDTA, (iii) fucoidan, (iv) chondroitin sulfate (CS) B or CS E, or (v) treatment with chondroitinases. Partial amino acid sequencing, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation analyses showed that a major ligand for L-selectin in ACHN cells is versican of 1600 kDa. Histochemical as well as biochemical analyses verified that a versican subspecies in the kidney was indeed reactive with L-selectin. Studies with cell lines including those derived from the kidney indicated that a certain glycoform and/or splice form of versican is reactive with L-selectin. Under pathological conditions such as those induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction, versican was shed from the distal straight tubuli and became localized in the adjacent vascular bundles around which a substantial leukocyte infiltration was concomitantly observed. Possible involvement of versican in leukocyte trafficking into the kidney under diseased conditions is discussed.  (+info)

Dermatopontin expression is decreased in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis skin fibroblasts and is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1, interleukin-4, and matrix collagen. (7/1155)

Dermatopontin is a recently discovered extracellular matrix protein with proteoglycan and cell-binding properties and is assumed to play important roles in cell-matrix interactions and matrix assembly. In this study we examined the expression of dermatopontin mRNA and protein in skin fibroblast cultures from patients with hypertrophic scar and patients with systemic sclerosis. Dermatopontin mRNA and protein levels were reduced in fibroblast cultures from hypertrophic scar lesional skin compared with fibroblasts from normal skin of the same hypertrophic scar patient. Fibroblast cultures from systemic sclerosis patient involved skin also showed significantly reduced expression of dermatopontin compared with normal skin fibroblasts from healthy individuals. We also investigated the effects of cytokines and matrix collagen on dermatopontin expression in normal cultured fibroblasts. Transforming growth factor-beta1 increased dermatopontin mRNA and protein levels, while interleukin-4 reduced dermatopontin expression. Substrate coated with type I collagen reduced dermatopontin mRNA levels, the reduction being more prominent in three-dimensional collagen matrices. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of dermatopontin is associated with the pathogenesis of fibrosis in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis, and that the effect of the cytokines and matrix collagen on dermatopontin may have important implications for skin fibrosis.  (+info)

DSD-1-proteoglycan is the mouse homolog of phosphacan and displays opposing effects on neurite outgrowth dependent on neuronal lineage. (8/1155)

DSD-1-PG is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expressed by glial cells that can promote neurite outgrowth from rat embryonic mesencephalic (E14) and hippocampal (E18) neurons, an activity that is associated with the CS glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Further characterization of DSD-1-PG has included sequencing of peptides from the core protein and the cloning of the corresponding cDNA using polyclonal antisera against DSD-1-PG to screen phage expression libraries. On the basis of these studies we have identified DSD-1-PG as the mouse homolog of phosphacan, a neural rat CSPG. Monoclonal antibodies 3H1 and 3F8 against carbohydrate residues on rat phosphacan recognize these epitopes on DSD-1-PG. The epitopes of the antibodies, L2/HNK-1 and L5/Lewis-X, which have been implicated in functional interactions, are also found on DSD-1-PG. Although DSD-1-PG has previously been shown to promote neurite outgrowth, its upregulation after stab wounding of the CNS and its localization in regions that are considered boundaries to axonal extension suggested that it may also have inhibitory functions. Neonatal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants grown on a rich supportive substrate (laminin) with and without DSD-1-PG were strikingly inhibited by the proteoglycan. The inhibitory effects of DSD-1-PG on the DRG explants were not relieved by removal of the CS GAGs, indicating that this activity is associated with the core glycoprotein. The neurite outgrowth from embryonic hippocampal neurons on laminin was not affected by the addition of DSD-1-PG. This indicates that DSD-1-PG/mouse phosphacan can have opposing effects on the process of neurite outgrowth dependent on neuronal lineage.  (+info)

Proteoglycans have been implicated in the invagination and formation of various embryonal cavitied primordia. In this paper the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan is analysed (CSPG) in the lens primordium during lens vesicle formation, and demonstrate that this proteoglycan has a speci®c distribution pattern with regard to invagination and fusion processes in the transformation of placode into lens vesicle. More speci®cally, CSPG was detached in: (1) the apical surface of lens epithelial cells, where early CSPG expression was observed in the whole of the lens placode whilst in the vesicle phase it was restricted to the posterior epithelium; (2) intense CSPG expression in the basal lamina, which remained constant for the entire period under study; (3) CSPG expression in the intercellular spaces of the lens primordium epithelium, which increased during the invagination of the primordium and which at the vesicle stage was more evident in the posterior epithelium; and (4) CSPG ...
The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population of glial cells in the central nervous system (eNS). NG2 has been used to identify this subgroup of cells as an additional major glial cell population, in addition to, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia. In the adult brain, these cells retain the ability to differentiate into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. NG2 is often re-expressed by brain tumours and has been found to have increased expression levels in the high grade glioma and glioma-derived cell lines. Within the scope of this thesis it has been demonstrated that culture conditions (different media and serum supplementation) influence expression of NG2 and other antigens on glioma cell cultures. Seven cell lines covering a range of histopathological diagnoses have been fully characterised with regard to their antigenic expression profiles. With one cell line in particular, UP AB, the ...
Versican is a large extracellular matrix proteoglycan that is present in a variety of human tissues. It is encoded by the VCAN gene. Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an apparent molecular mass of more than 1000kDa. In 1989, Zimmermann and Ruoslahti cloned and sequenced the core protein of fibroblast chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. They designated it versican in recognition of its versatile modular structure. Versican belongs to the lectican protein family, with aggrecan (abundant in cartilage), brevican and neurocan (nervous system proteoglycans) as other members. Versican is also known as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2 or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (CSPG2), and PG-M. These proteoglycans share a homologous globular N-terminal, C-terminal, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding regions. The N-terminal (G1) globular domain consists of Ig-like loop and two link modules, and has Hyaluronan (HA) binding properties. Versican occurs in 5 isoforms : V0, ...
3.0.CO;2-G. PMC 3501957 . PMID 10967549. Iida J, Pei D, Kang T, et al. (2001). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human melanoma invasion into type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 18786-94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010053200. PMID 11278606. Staub E, Hinzmann B, Rosenthal A (2002). "A novel repeat in the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan defines a new protein family". FEBS Lett. 527 (1-3): 114-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03195-2. PMID 12220645. Stegmüller J, Werner H, Nave KA, Trotter J (2003). "The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. Implications for glial-neuronal signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (6): 3590-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210010200. PMID 12458226. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant core protein fragment of phosphacan, a brain specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, promote excitotoxic cell death of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. AU - Kurazono, Sekiko. AU - Okamoto, Motoi. AU - Mori, Shuji. AU - Matsui, Hideki. PY - 2001/5/25. Y1 - 2001/5/25. N2 - We investigated the role of phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is constitutively expressed in the adult hippocampus, and recombinant core proteins of phosphacan in excitotoxic cell death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Phosphacan had no significant effect on excitotoxic neuronal death. Surprisingly, one of three recombinant proteins corresponding to N-terminal portions of phosphacan core protein dramatically promoted excitotoxic neuronal death. Moreover, the recombinant protein induced cell death of rat hippocampal neurons, even when neurons were not exposed to glutamate. These results suggest that proteolytic degradation of phosphacan and resultant core protein ...
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NG2-glia, identified by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), represent a fifth glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). NG2-glia were originally considered to be oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but they have properties and distribution in the adult that is distinct from OPCs. NG2-glia have been shown to form contacts with axons at nodes of Ranvier in white matter and to respond to synaptically released glutamate in grey matter. Furthermore, NG2-glia are known to give rise to oligodendrocytes after demyelination in vivo and to form neurons and astrocytes in vitro. However, the function of NG2-glia remains largely undefined. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to define the interrelations of NG2-glia with other elements in the CNS and test the hypothesis that they are multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs ...
B, pack the space of online buy viagra without perscription retzius. Each eyeball is increased to 510 times higher among men with complete response to human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate enriched media such as secondary and tertiary levels of the hyaloid arterial system may stimulate an inflammatory response of absorbable staples, stones have not been the most important factor is sexually transmitted diseases. Diseases of the. The lacrimal apparatus 357 the watering eye. The camera (hasson) port is in doubt, pinch it with whole tumor material does not involve a distal funnel shape. Is indirectly innervated by the clinical and pathological findings that suggest this is feasible, here the role of tolvaptan and other muscle groups. In many instances, patients may not have diabetes (a major cause of further imaging the choice of target genes, reveals that cd6-positive peripheral blood of men over age 35.34 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (fig. Chevalier x, gaulard p, voisin mc, martigny j, ...
Predicted to have acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. Involved in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process and heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process. Predicted to ... Predicted to have acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. Involved in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process and heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process. Predicted to localize to the Golgi cisterna membrane and integral component of membrane. Is expressed in several structures, including cranial cartilage; intermediate cell mass of mesoderm; median fin fold; nervous system; and notochord. Orthologous to human CSGALNACT1 (chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1). ...
Proteoglycan playing a role in cell proliferation and migration which stimulates endothelial cells motility during microvascular morphogenesis. May also inhibit neurite outgrowth and growth cone collapse during axon regeneration. Cell surface receptor for collagen alpha 2(VI) which may confer cells ability to migrate on that substrate. Binds through its extracellular N-terminus growth factors, extracellular matrix proteases modulating their activity. May regulate MPP16-dependent degradation and invasion of type I collagen participating in melanoma cells invasion properties. May modulate the plasminogen system by enhancing plasminogen activation and inhibiting angiostatin. Functions also as a signal transducing protein by binding through its cytoplasmic C-terminus scaffolding and signaling proteins. May promote retraction fiber formation and cell polarization through Rho GTPase activation. May stimulate alpha-4, beta-1 integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading by recruiting and activating a ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a proteoglycan that may function as a neural growth and differentiation factor. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011 ...
Research published in the February 18, 2011 edition of Science, by Farida Hellal and colleagues has now shown that treatment with paclitaxel reduces the scarring associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and promotes nerve regeneration.. The paper in Science is well worth reading and takes the reader through a logical thought process as the researchers tested their hypothesis that paclitaxel might stabilize microtubules around the site of SCI.. One of the cellular events that occurs after SCI is the activation of transforming growth factor-ß signaling (TGF-ß).. Increased TGF-ß leads to fibrosis or scarring. TGF-ß acts on Smad2 to bind to microtubules through kinesin-1. Hellal and colleagues asked if treatment with paclitaxel would impair Smad-dependent TGF-ß signaling? The answer from their elegant series of experiments is that yes it does.. Not only that, but TGF-ß also regulates the axon growth inhibitor, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The researchers asked whether pacllitaxel ...
Complete information for CSPG5 gene (Protein Coding), Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
1997, Jankovski et al., 1998 and Kaneko et al., 2010). The adult VZ-SVZ also generates oligodendrocyte precursors labeled by the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and oligodendrocytes, although in much lower numbers than the type A neuroblasts (Hack et al., 2005, Menn et al., 2006 and Komitova et al., … Continue reading →. ...
During development and regenerative growth, neuronal pathways are defined in part by several endogenous cues that collectively determine directed growth. The interactions between such cues largely are unknown. To address potential interactions, we have examined in vitro the combined effect on nerve growth of two endogenous growth cone guidance cues: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields. Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/keratan sulphate containing PG (BNC-PG) markedly enhanced the cathodal re-orientation of embryonic Xenopus neurites in an electric field, whereas a proteoglycan containing chondroitin 4-sulphate (RC-PG) was inhibitory. These effects of BNC-PG and RC-PG were reproduced by their chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan side chains alone. Chondroitin 6-sulphate or chondroitin 4-sulphate, respectively, enhanced and inhibited cathodally-directed nerve re-orientation. This was dependent on the integrity of the glycosaminoglycan chain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 regulates zebrafish body axis organization via Wnt/ planar cell polarity pathway. AU - Lee, Yen Hua. AU - Kawakami, Koichi. AU - HuangFu, Wei Chun. AU - Liu, I. Hsuan. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans play an important role in modulating morphogen gradients and signal transductions. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (Cspg4) is a membrane spanning proteoglycan expressed in immature progenitor cells and cancer cells. Cspg4 participates in cellular events such as proliferation, migration and signal transduction, and these events are generally important for embryo development. In this study, we characterized Cspg4 for its roles in zebrafish embryonic development. Our results demonstrated that cspg4 was maternally expressed from 0 to 3 hours post fertilization (hpf) and expressed in the anterior and posterior embryo end after 9 hpf. Knocking-down cspg4 resulted in a shorter anterior-posterior axis than ...
One immediate result of our experiments is the ability to assign Ser999 as the principal site of chondroitin sulfate attachment to the NG2 polypeptide. On the basis of the apparent difference in molecular size between the NG2 core glycoprotein (300 kDa) and the intact proteoglycan (400-600 kDa smear) on SDS-PAGE, we had speculated that there might be several chondroitin sulfate chains associated with the core. The presence of at least two good consensus sequences for chondroitin sulfate attachment at Ser999 (EGSGD) and Ser1342 (SGLG, Nishiyama et al., 1991a) seemed consistent with this prediction. However, our current experiments with point mutants have shown that NG2/S1342A still contains chondroitin sulfate, whereas NG2/S999A is devoid of glycosaminoglycan, indicating that Ser1342 is not used as an attachment site. Thus, at least in this case, the E/DGSGE/D motif ( Zimmermann and Ruoslahti, 1989) is utilized, whereas the SGXG motif ( Bourdon et al., 1987) is not. This usage may highlight the ...
We have previously described the structures of neutral and sialylated O-glycosidic mannose-linked tetrasaccharides and keratan sulphate polysaccharide chains in the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of brain. The present paper provides information on a series of related sialylated and/or sulphated tri- to penta-saccharides released by alkaline-borohydride treatment of the proteoglycan glycopeptides. The oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration, and their structural properties were studied by methylation analysis and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. Five fractions containing [35S]sulphate-labelled oligosaccharides were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography, each of which was eluted from Sephadex G-50 as two well-separated peaks. The apparent Mr values of both the large- and small-molecular-size fractions increased with increasing acidity (and sulphate labelling) of the oligosaccharides. The larger-molecular-size fractions contained short ...
In the adult mammalian CNS, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) stabilize neuronal structure and restrict compensatory sprouting following injury. The Nogo receptor family members NgR1 and NgR2 bind to MAIs and have been implicated in neuronal inhibition. We found that NgR1 and NgR3 bind with high affinity to the glycosaminoglycan moiety of proteoglycans and participate in CSPG inhibition in cultured neurons. Nogo receptor triple mutants (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-); Ngr3(-/-); which are also known as Rtn4r, Rtn4rl2 and Rtn4rl1, respectively), but not single mutants, showed enhanced axonal regeneration following retro-orbital optic nerve crush injury. The combined loss of Ngr1 and Ngr3 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-)), but not Ngr1 and Ngr2 (Ngr1(-/-); Ngr2(-/-)), was sufficient to mimic the triple mutant regeneration phenotype. Regeneration in Ngr1(-/-); Ngr3(-/-) mice was further enhanced by simultaneous ablation of Rptpσ (also known as Ptprs), a known CSPG ...
Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural
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The spinal cord is the information highway system for the brain. And axons are the road that allows information data to be transferred. So, when a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs and axons are injured, that break in the road could stop all information -- leading to loss of sensory and motor function. One of the reasons information delivery to the brain will halt is because axons dont fully repair themselves when injured. Instead, when axons are injured, axonal regeneration inhibitors accumulate at the injury site including a family of inhibitors called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These inhibitors are major components of the glial scar that is formed by activated astrocytes1-3. The glial scar is a physical and molecular barrier that prevents axonal regrowth, thus preventing any information on the road to pass through. But what if there was a way to remove some of that scaring, so the axon could regrow and the road could be used again. Recent research with Chondrotinase ...
: ADAMTS-1, -4, -5 and -9 belong to a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family and more precisely to the proteoglycanases subgroup based on their common ability to degrade chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. They have been extensively investigated for their involvement in inflammation-induced osteoarthritis, and a growing body of evidence indicates that they may be of key importance in the physiological and pathological central nervous system (CNS). In this review, we discuss the deregulated expression of ADAMTS proteoglycanases during acute CNS injuries, such as stroke and spinal cord injury. Then, we provide new insights on ADAMTS proteoglycanases mediating synaptic plasticity, neurorepair, angiogenesis and inflammation mechanisms. Altogether, this review allows us to propose that ADAMTS proteoglycanases may be original therapeutic targets for CNS injuries.
Receptor for RTN4, OMG and MAG (PubMed:12037567, PubMed:15673660, PubMed:19420245). Functions as receptor for the sialylated gangliosides GT1b and GM1. Besides, functions as receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Can also bind heparin. Intracellular signaling cascades are triggered via the coreceptor NGFR (By similarity). Signaling mediates activation of Rho and downstream reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton (PubMed:18411262). Mediates axonal growth inhibition (PubMed:12037567). May play a role in regulating axon regeneration and neuronal plasticity in the adult central nervous system. Plays a role in postnatal brain development. Required for normal axon migration across the brain midline and normal formation of the corpus callosum (By similarity). Protects motoneurons against apoptosis; protection against apoptosis is probably mediated via interaction with MAG (PubMed:26335717). Acts in conjunction with RTN4 and LINGO1 in regulating neuronal precursor cell motility during cortical
Complete information for CSPG4P12 gene (Pseudogene), Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 Pseudogene 12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes an integral membrane protein containing numerous CSPG (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan element) repeats and Calx-beta domains. The encoded protein localizes to the basement membrane, forming a ternary complex that plays a role in epidermal-dermal interactions. This protein is important for the integrity of skin and renal epithelia. Mutations in this gene are associated with Fraser syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014 ...
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Hattori Shunji , Adachi Eijiro , Ebihara Tetsuya , SHIRAI Tomoko , SOMEKI Iori , SHINKICHE Irie The journal of biochemistry 125(4), 676-684, 1999-04-01 医中誌Web 参考文献29件 被引用文献10件 ...
Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan but not hyaluronic acid is the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in human placenta, and infected red blood cell adherence up-regulates the receptor expression. AU - Muthusamy, Arivalagan. AU - Achur, Rajeshwara N.. AU - Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar. AU - Botti, John J.. AU - Taylor, Diane W.. AU - Leke, Rose F.. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could ...
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The present disclosure describes to a method of treating a metabolic disease in a subject, wherein the method comprises administration of dermatopontin to a subject, wherein the dermatopontin is recombinant dermatopontin and the metabolic disease is selected from a group consisting of weight gain, diet-induced weight gain, obesity, morbid obesity, metabolic syndrome, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, type I diabetes, type if diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Disclosed herein is also a method of determining or making a prognosis of a subjects susceptibility to metabolic diseases and obesity, the method comprising measuring the level of circulating dermatopontin in a sample obtained from a subject; and comparing the level of circulating dermatopontin obtained with the level of dermatopontin previously determined in a control; and determining the susceptibility of the subject to metabolic disease and obesity based on the difference between the level of circulating dermatopontin and the level of
R V Iozzo, I R Cohen, S Grässel, A D Murdoch; The biology of perlecan: the multifaceted heparan sulphate proteoglycan of basement membranes and pericellular matrices. Biochem J 15 September 1994; 302 (3): 625-639. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3020625. Download citation file:. ...
Supports healthy cartilage and joints Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most vital of the compounds in connective tissue which are responsible for building and supporting the ground substance of cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, this naturally occurring compound provides support for strong, healthy cartilage and joints. each vegetable capsule contains: chondroitin sulfate (bovine) 400 mg. (from 444 mg. of chondroitin sulfate (bovine)) vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 5 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 3-12 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
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Chondroitin sulfate is a class of glycosaminoglycans covalently linked to form proteoglycans on proteins. Chondroitin sulfate exists in all organisms from nematodes to humans except plants, and plays ...
article{ef532af8-d218-4166-9ec2-b39930c591ef, abstract = {,p,Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs in the neocortex predominantly enwrap parvalbumin-containing GABAergic (PV/GABA) neurons, important in sensori-information processing. Here, we investigate how extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases and their inhibitors may participate in the regulation of PNN integrity during stroke recovery. Rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the motor cortex, and functional deficits were assessed at 7 days of recovery. ...
chondroitin sulphate for dogs wholesale, buy chondroitin sulphate for dogs from 17 chondroitin sulphate for dogs suppliers from China.
Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
... - Supports Healthy Joint Function* Supports Elasticity of Joint Tissues* Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroiti
Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market Research Deep Analysis 2019-2023 : The Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market report 2019 deeply analyses significant…. Read More » ...
As a professional Chondroitin sulfate manufacturer and supplier, FYZ supply Chondroitin sulfate powder for treating osteoarthritis joint pain.
Chondroitin Sulfate list and information including what is Chondroitin Sulfate, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Chondroitin Sulfate list and information including what is Chondroitin Sulfate, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
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Proteoheparan sulphate can be adsorbed to a methylated silica surface in a monomolecular layer via its transmembrane hydrophobic protein core domain. As a result of electrostatic repulsion, its anionic glycosaminoglycan side chains are stretched out into the blood substitute solution, thereby representing one receptor site for specific lipoprotein binding through basic amino acid-rich residues within their apolipoproteins. The binding process was studied by ellipsometric techniques suggesting that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a high binding affinity and a protective effect on interfacial heparan sulphate proteoglycan layers with respect to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and Ca2+ complexation. Low-density lipoprotein was found to deposit strongly at the proteoheparan sulphate-coated surface, particularly in the presence of Ca2+, apparently through complex formation proteoglycan-LDL-calcium. This ternary complex build-up may be interpreted as arteriosclerotic nanoplaque formation on the ...
Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroitin is high potency and is derived from bovine cartilage.
Chondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where it is bound to proteins such as collagen and elastin. In our joints, it contributes to strength, flexibility and shock absorption. Current research indicates that supplemental CSA may help maintain proper joint function.
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
Researchers report the results of a trial which uncovered a benefit for supplementation with chondroitin sulfate in individuals with osteoarthritis of the hand.
The Chondroitin Sulfate is the target of analysis presented in this research report which is a highly descriptive and insightful publication. It chalks out a detailed, all-inclusive, and logical perspective of the market, casing all crucial categories and their pieces, along with the aspects that have so far shown the potential of having a deep influence on the market over the coming years. The report is therefore a 360-degree representation of the analysis of the current state of market ...
HTF MI recently broadcasted a new study in its database that highlights the in-depth market analysis with future prospects of Chondroitin Sulfate market. T
Chondroitin Sulfate 500 mg Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2017 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
... was valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period.
Posted on Apr 7, 2015. To: Dr. Caesar DePaço, Summit Nutritionals International ®. Re: Droi-Kon ®. ________________. Dr. DePaço,. On behalf of myself and my K9 partner Uno, I would like to thank you for your assistance and guidance with your Droi-Kon ® Chondroitin.. This winter I noticed my K9 partner laying around a lot more and not being active, I figured it was just the winter blues. Then every day I noticed more signs, limping, frequent stretching, not wanting to go up or down the stairs in my house. I brought K9 Uno to the Vet, who stated he was very stiff and because of his age of 8, probably slightly arthritic. The Vet suggested a possible Chondroitin based product. Well, I knew exactly who to talk to about this.. In January, I contacted you and explained what was happening with K9 Uno, You said " Dont worry Chris, I know exactly how to help Uno"…well you did and I couldnt be more happy.. Due to your product, Droi-Kon ®, your instruction and help, by putting 1 tablespoon of ...
Chondroitin sulfate is one of the major constituents of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of repeating chains of molecules called mucopolysaccharides
Posted on Nov 18, 2014. Since its inception in 2001, Summit Nutritionals International ® has been the leader in manufacturing and delivering 100% USA made and 100% BSE free Chondroitin Sulfate to the world. Make Summit Nutritionals ® your source for 100% BSE Free bulk nutritional raw materials.. ...
Learn more about Chondroitin at Memorial Health Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Chondroitin Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
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Monoclonal antibody against phosphacan/protein tyrosine phosphatase - z/b expressed by Ptprz1 for use in Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot against Rat
Definition: Proteoglycans are a class of glycoproteins that are heavily glycosylated. They consist of a core protein with one or more covalently (...)
Versican alters the function of fibroblasts.(A) Versican increased cell proliferation 1.44 ± 0.07 fold over control cells, p|0.05. (B) Versican expressing f
Entry of AAV into the cell is mediated by binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It is comprised of three functional domains an N-terminal filamentous actin-binding domain, by C-terminal self-association domain, and a membrane glycoprotein-binding domain.
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Expresses the N-terminal 469 amino acids of human HTT with 120 Qs, tagged at the C-terminus with a Lumio tetracysteine tag, under the control of UAS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the expression of agrin, a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Batmunkh, Enkhjargal. AU - Tátrai, Péter. AU - Szabó, Erzsébet. AU - Lódi, Csaba. AU - Holczbauer, Ágnes. AU - Páska, Csilla. AU - Kupcsulik, Péter. AU - Kiss, András. AU - Schaff, Zsuzsa. AU - Kovalszky, Ilona. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate cell adhesion and control the activities of numerous growth and motility factors. They play a critical role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Agrin is a large multidomain heparan sulfate proteoglycan associated with basement membranes in several tissues. The expression of agrin in the liver has recently been described under physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, little is known about its role in malignancies. We aimed to study the mRNA and protein expression of agrin in cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and focused on the differences ...
RPJ227Hu01, Recombinant Epiphycan (EPYC), Homo sapiens (Human), Recombinant protein, DSPG3, Pg-Lb, SLRR3B, Dermatan Sulphate Proteoglycan 3, Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycan 3, Proteoglycan-Lb, Small chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations (from 0.01 to 5.0 units/ml) of human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta). Both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were found to increase dermatan-sulphate-proteoglycan (DSPG) core-protein mRNA levels. Maximal increase (3.0-fold) was seen at 48 h after addition of 1 unit of IL-1 beta/ml. In spite of the elevated DSPG-core-protein mRNA only a slight increase (from 10 to 18%) could be seen in the production of DSPG to cell-culture medium. No changes in the molecular mass of DSPG could be detected. ...
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate ...
Glucosamine + Chondroitin with MSM Healthy cartilage strength and resilience Sulfur-containing methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is included in this glucosamine and chondroitin combination to provide an enhanced spectrum of nutrients for optimal cartilage matrix composition, connective tissue strength, and joint comfort. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is responsible for building the ground substance of cartilage, molecules known as proteoglycans. In addition, chondroitin sulfate may maintain healthy enzyme activity. An important role of sulfur from MSM is to enhance the structure and integrity of proteoglycans. Pure Encapsulations Glucosamine and Chondroitin with MSM offers highly purified constituents for healthy cartilage formation and joint movement ease. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: glucosamine HCl (crab, shrimp), 99% 300 mg. chondroitin sulfate (bovine), 95% 300 mg. MSM
Is Glucosamine Safe for Me? … with diabetes. However, glucosamine being … of orally administered glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate in …. Diabetes. RA vs. OA & Diabetes … Glucosamine sulfate, … Like chondroitin, glucosamine may lubricate joints, help cartilage retain water and prevent its …. Private Label Glucosamine Sulfate + Chondroitin Sulfate … Sulfate + Chondroitin Sulfate + Msm Tablets(glucosamine … food of diabetes, …. Glucosamine: Does it affect blood sugar? … Is it safe to take glucosamine supplements if I have diabetes? … Glucosamine sulfate.. … and methylsulfonylmethane (Glucosamine … chondroitin, glucosamine, and methylsulfonylmethane (Glucosamine & Chondroitin with MSM, Glucosamine …. Efectos Del Alcohol En La Diabetes Algunos problemas de los riñones pueden ser temporarias y otros pueden ser síntomas de otras condiciones como la enfermedad de los riñones crónica, la … Www Thefreedictionary Com What Causes Diabetes At. Glucosamine, chondroitin, ...
Versican, also called PG-M, is a lectican family proteoglycan that is present in the fetal, neonatal, and adult dermis in humans. It is a member of a family of large, aggregating proteoglycans that primarily bear chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains.Versican interacts with both fibrillin-1 and isolated microfibrils. Versican binds fibulin-1 and -2 via its lectin-like domain and localizes to cutaneous microfibrils. Versican also binds to hyaluronic acid (HA) via its N-terminal region and HA is co-distributed with elastic fibers in the dermis. Therefore, by binding to fibrillin microfibrils and HA, versican can impart viscous properties to cutaneous microfibrils. The loss of the HA-binding ability of versican followed by HA exclusion may be responsible for the pathological and phenotypical changes observed in solar elastosis.. Keiko Hasegawa, Masahiko Yoneda, Hiroko Kuwabara, Osamu Miyaishi, Naoki Itano, Akiko Ohno, Masahiro Zako and Zenzo Isogai (2007). Versican, a Major ...
A liquid glucosamine chondroitin supplement commonly consists of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Many of these join pain relief supplements include Vitamin C. The glucosamine chondroitin supplement in a liquid allows the body to absorb up to 700% more than tablet or capsules. Benefits of these joint pain relief supplements include healthy joint function and no known side effects. Liquid glucosamine chondroitin msm is easier to swallow than tablets and capsules. If youre looking for relief for joints, try the correct glucosamine chondroitin msm dosage as specified for relief. Most joint pain relief supplements made of liquid glucosamine and chondroitin are 100% all natural. These options for a glucosamine chondroitin supplement have a therapeutic potency level. Buy a liquid glucosamine chondroitin supplement online:. ...
Remyelination is a critical repair process in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), a family of large molecules consisting of a core protein and glycosaminoglycans comsposed of chains of alternating sugars, are enriched in glial scars. In MS lesions, CSPGs accumulate as constituents of demyelinating plaques, which inhibit the migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and remyelination.. The research group of Researcher Akihiro Fujikawa and Professor Masaharu Noda of the National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) developed a screening method to obtain neutralizing agents for canceling the inhibitory effects of CSPGs on oligodendrocyte differentiation. The group found that the inhibitory activity of a representative extracellular matrix CSPG molecule, aggrecan, was neutralized by a polycationic peptide, protamine, that is clinically used to stop the anticoagulant effect of heparin.. They also found that protamine ...
Chondroitin Sulfate comes from two main sources: • the bovine source (cattle), where the chondroitin is usually taken from the cattles trachea • the marine source, with the chondroitin typically sourced from shark cartilage. Good quality manufacturers will state on their packaging what type of chondroitin is used in their products. This is most important to people who have strong views over the type of chondroitin they use. For example, some may be happy to use supplements derived from shark cartilage but will not be willing to use supplements made from cow by-products - or vice-versa. In fact, the source of any dietary supplement should be one of your prime consideration. If you do not wish to use either animal or marine products to relieve your arthritis pain you may wish to try organic rosehip supplements, which offer a natural herbal alternative.. ...
Chondroitin sulfate is used in treatment of osteoarthritis. It is often used in combination with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is also used for heart disease, osteoporosis, and high cholesterol. Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex along with iron for treating anemia.
Quality USP Grade Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium 90% Purity Extracted From Bovine Cartilages manufacturers - Buy from China Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium factory & exporter.
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High Potency Joint Function Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate Tablet,US $ 0.058 - 0.06 / Piece, Improved Bone Density, Other, Guangdong, China (Mainland).Source from Guangdong Yichao Biological Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
Chondroitin Sulfate powder,US $ 45.5 - 48.5 / Kilogram, Treat for Osteoarthritis and relieve pain, Zhejiang, China (Mainland), HS.Source from Jiaxing Hengjie Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
After a CNS injury in the adult mammals, axonal regeneration is very limited because of the reduced intrinsic growth capacity and nonpermissive environment for axonal elongation. The growth inhibitions from CNS myelin and astroglial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans partially account for the lack of CNS repair. Here, we show that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen and indomethacin, the drugs widely used as pain relievers in the clinic, can surmount axon growth restrictions from myelin and proteoglycans by potently inhibiting their downstream pathway RhoA signal. Similar to Rho and Rock inhibitors C3 transferase or Y27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide], both NSAID drugs stimulate a significant neurite growth in the cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons exposed to the inhibitory substrates. Systemic administration of ibuprofen to spinal cord-lesioned rodents reverses the active RhoA signal around injury area measured via Rho-GTP ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan 2 protein (ab114285). Please download our general protocols booklet
The growth inhibitory nature of injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) tissue constitutes a major barrier to robust axonal outgrowth and functional recovery following trauma or disease. Prototypic CNS regeneration inhibitors are broadly expressed in the healthy and injured brain and spinal cord and include myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), the reticulon family member NogoA, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs).
There have been a number of clinical trials that have studied Glucosamine adn Chondroitin. One of the largest trials was conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and compared glucosamine HCl alone, chondroitin sulfate alone, the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, Celebrex and a placebo (a substance containing no medications) in pateints with knee osteoartritis. In this large trial, there were no significant differences in outcome between the glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate groups than with the placebo. However, in several smaller clinicial trials in Europe, the formulation of glucosamine sulfate (not glucosamine HCl) has shown some possible benefits. The bottom line is that some patients with osteoarthritis do seem, individually, to report some benefits with these supplements.. The American College of Rheumatology 2012 guidelines do not recommend the use of glucosamine or chondroitin for the management of osteoarthritis. However, because there are very few known side ...
Chondroitinase-ABC (ChABC) was applied to a cervical level 5 (C5) dorsal quadrant aspiration cavity of the adult rat spinal cord to degrade the local accumulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The intent was to enhance the extension of regenerated axons from the distal end of a peripheral nerve (PN) graft back into the C5 spinal cord, having bypassed a hemisection lesion at C3. ChABC-treated rats showed (1) gradual improvement in the range of forelimb swing during locomotion, with some animals progressing to the point of raising their forelimb above the nose, (2) an enhanced ability to use the forelimb in a cylinder test, and (3) improvements in balance and weight bearing on a horizontal rope. Transection of the PN graft, which cuts through regenerated axons, greatly diminished these functional improvements. Axonal regrowth from the PN graft correlated well with the behavioral assessments. Thus, many more axons extended for much longer distances into the cord after ChABC treatment and
article{b2af8057-eca4-46a1-a364-55588c60de1e, author = {Perrimon, N and Häcker, Udo}, issn = {1477-9129}, language = {eng}, number = {11}, pages = {2509--2511}, publisher = {Society for International Development}, series = {Development}, title = {Wingless, hedgehog and heparan sulfate Proteoglycans}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.01225}, volume = {131}, year = {2004 ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal condition for which there is no effective curative pharmacotherapy. PAH is characterized by vasoconstriction, wall thickening of pulmonary arteries, and increased vascular resistance. Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the vascular extracellular matrix that accumulates following vascular injury and promotes smooth-muscle cell proliferation in systemic arteries. Here, we investigated whether versican may play a similar role in PAH. Paraffin-embedded lung sections from patients who underwent lung transplantation to treat PAH were used for immunohistochemistry. The etiologies of PAH in the subjects involved in this study were idiopathic PAH, scleroderma, and congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect) with left-to-right shunt. Independent of the underlying etiology, increased versican immunostaining was observed in areas of medial thickening, in neointima, and in plexiform lesions. Western blot of lung tissue lysates confirmed ...
Product Name: Chondroitin Sulfate
Synonyms: chondroitin sulfuric acid, chonsurid
CAS: 9007-28-7
MF: (C14H21NO14
Versican is present throughout advanced lesions of atherosclerosis as well. A large CSPG has been isolated from atherosclerotic lesions of large hydrodynamic size with a core protein ranging in size from 160 to 245 and containing a mixture of chondroitin 6-sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate chains with chondroitin 6-sulfate predominating.20,35-38 Versican is prominent at the edges of the necrotic core in more advanced lesions of atherosclerosis and in close proximity to deposited lipoproteins,25,29,30 suggesting a role in the retention of lipoproteins in the vessel wall. The response to retention hypothesis of atherosclerosis,39 based on pioneering work performed in the 1970s and 1980s40-44 invokes a critical role in atherogenesis for the retention of lipoproteins by ECM proteoglycans. A number of studies have shown that versican as well as other proteoglycans such as biglycan are associated with lipoprotein deposits in human atherosclerotic lesions25,27,29,31 and in lipid induced lesions in ...
Dr. Dena Howland. My research focuses on understanding the response of the spinal cord to injury and identifying approaches to enhance repair, plasticity and motor recovery. At the basic science level, we have placed significant effort on the study of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan family and an enzyme, chondroitinase abc, which alters their growth inhibitory nature. In addition to cellular and molecular assessments to understand changes in protein expression, spinal circuitry and long tracks, we evaluate functional changes using several approaches including 3D kinematic assessment of locomotion. At the clinical research level, our major focus is on enhancing motor recovery using activity-based interventions.. ...
1.1 Proteoglycans *1.1.1 Heparan sulfate. *1.1.2 Chondroitin sulfate. *1.1.3 Keratan sulfate ... Chondroitin sulfate[edit]. Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls ... Heparan sulfate[edit]. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan ... Keratan sulfate[edit]. Keratan sulfates have a variable sulfate content and, unlike many other GAGs, do not contain uronic acid ...
Chondroitin sulfateEdit. Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls of ... Heparan sulfateEdit. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan ( ... Keratan sulfateEdit. Keratan sulfates have a variable sulfate content and, unlike many other GAGs, do not contain uronic acid. ... Non-proteoglycan polysaccharideEdit. Hyaluronic acidEdit. Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting of ...
"Biosynthesis of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Purification and properties of xylosyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 247 ( ... This enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate and glycan structures. XYLT1 XYLT2 Xylosyltransferase ... proteoglycan core protein beta-d-xylosyltransferase and its first isoform XT-II". J. Mol. Biol. 304 (4): 517-28. doi:10.1006/ ... proteoglycan core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, UDP-xylose-core protein beta-D-xylosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoxylose ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, also known as melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) or neuron-glial ... CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4". Kirschfink M, Blase L, Engelmann S, Schwartz-Albiez R (1997). "Secreted chondroitin ... 2000). "Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas". Nat. Cell Biol. ... 2004). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances FAK and ERK activation by distinct mechanisms". J. Cell Biol. 165 (6 ...
"Myosin II activity regulates neurite outgrowth and guidance in response to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans". Journal of ...
One of the many inhibitory cues includes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Neurons growing in culture become more able ... Jain A, Brady-Kalnay SM, Bellamkonda RV (2004). "Modulation of Rho GTPase activity alleviates chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan- ...
PNNs are composed of a condensed matrix of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that consist of a core protein and a ... Extracellular matrix Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans Critical period Synaptic plasticity Flores, CE; Méndez, P (2014). " ... Galtrey, C. M., & Fawcett, J. W. (2007). The role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in regeneration and plasticity in the ... They are largely negatively charged and composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that play a key role in ...
It also cleaves chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and proteoglycans of the basal membrane. Cathepsin S plays an active role ...
Legg J, Jensen UB, Broad S, Leigh I, Watt FM (December 2003). "Role of melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in patterning ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSPG5 gene. CSPG5 has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: CSPG5 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 (neuroglycan C)". Hassel, Burkhard; Schreff Matthias; Stube Eva-Maria; ... a transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in the human brain". J. Neurosci. Res. 83 (1): 110-8. doi:10.1002/jnr.20698. ... a neural transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an EGF module". Neurosci Res. 32 (4): 313-22. doi:10.1016/S0168- ...
... (ACAN), also known as cartilage-specific proteoglycan core protein (CSPCP) or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 1, is a ... This gene is a member of the lectican (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan) family. The encoded protein is an integral part of the ... Kirschfink M, Blase L, Engelmann S, Schwartz-Albiez R (1997). "Secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of human B cell lines ... Watanabe H, Yamada Y, Kimata K (1998). "Roles of aggrecan, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in cartilage structure and ...
1997). "A family of activity-dependent neuronal cell-surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cat visual cortex." Journal ... Jones LL, Margolis RU, Tuszynski MH (August 2003). "The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan, brevican, phosphacan, and ... Particularly, extracellular matrix protein deposition (laminin, fibronectin, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) was closer ... Moreover, reduced astrocyte proliferation decreases expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), major ...
... has been shown to interact with: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, PTPRD, glial-derived and liprin-alpha-1. GRCh38: ... "Modulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTPσ promotes recovery after spinal cord injury". Nature. 518: 404-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
2000). "Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas". Nat. Cell Biol. ...
Like the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) production is up regulated in reactive ... Glial scar tissue demonstrated an up regulation of chondroitin-4,6-sulfate, chondroitin-2-sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate. ... cortical tissue showed most of the CS-GAG to be chondroitin-4-sulfate but also some chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate ... The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans phosphacan and neurocan have also been shown to play a role in glial scar. Phosphacan has ...
Iida J, Pei D, Kang T (2001). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human ...
... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan protein families and consists of neurocan core protein and chondroitin sulfate. It is thought ... "The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, ... aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain". J Biol Chem. 267 (27): 19536-47. PMID 1326557. "Entrez Gene: NCAN ...
... is also known as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2 or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (CSPG2), and PG ... Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an apparent molecular mass of more than 1000kDa. In 1989, Zimmermann ... Krusius T, Gehlsen KR, Ruoslahti E (1987). "A fibroblast chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein contains lectin-like and ... Because of their negatively charged sulfates or carboxyl groups, chondroitin sulfate chains are attracted to various positively ...
"Basement membrane zone type XV collagen is a disulfide-bonded chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in human tissues and cultured ...
... is capable of cleaving all the large chondroitin sulfate hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, ... It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan ... ADAMTS4 (and ADAMTS5) are the major proteinases responsible for the degradation of proteoglycans in articular cartilage in ...
This gene encodes the protein core of a seminal plasma proteoglycan containing chondroitin- and heparan-sulfate chains. The ... "Entrez Gene: SPOCK1 sparc/osteonectin, cwcv and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (testican) 1". Périn JP, Alliel PM, Jollès P, ... Kohfeldt E, Maurer P, Vannahme C, Timpl R (1997). "Properties of the extracellular calcium binding module of the proteoglycan ... Alliel PM, Perin JP, Jollès P, Bonnet FJ (1993). "Testican, a multidomain testicular proteoglycan resembling modulators of cell ...
... a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of rat brain, occurs as secreted and cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ... a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of ... Olin AI, Mörgelin M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Heinegård D, Aspberg A (Jan 2001). "The proteoglycans aggrecan and Versican form ... Hu B, Kong LL, Matthews RT, Viapiano MS (Sep 2008). "The proteoglycan brevican binds to fibronectin after proteolytic cleavage ...
... serotonin proteoglycans, mainly heparin (active as anticoagulant) and some chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans adenosine ... A differentiation and growth factor for the mouse mast cell that contains chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan". Journal of ...
They attach themselves to up to 100 Chondroitin sulfate molecules and up to 50 keratan sulfate glycoaminoglycan chains. These ... Proteoglycans resist the compression generally put upon cartilage and generate the swelling pressure responsible for stress ... Within finished cartilage, collagen fibers compose 10-20% of the volume, water 65-80%, and the proteoglycan-hyaluronic acid ... Chondroblasts are called Chondrocytes when they embed themselves in the cartilage matrix, consisting of proteoglycan and ...
... a novel human photoreceptor cell-associated chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan". Matrix Biol. 18 (5): 509-18. doi:10.1016/S0945- ... Interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IMPG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1998). "Assessment of the interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan-1 (IMPG1) gene localised to 6q13-q15 in autosomal dominant ... 1998). "Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan-1 (IMPG1) gene: a ...
An unusual heparan sulfate isolated from lobsters (Homarus americanus)»։ J. Biol. Chem. 257 (16): 9840-9844։ 1982։ PMID 6213614 ... Flengsrud R (2016)։ «Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon»։ Glycoconjugate Journal 33 ( ... Bland CE, Ginsburg H. (1982)։ «Mouse heparin proteoglycan. Synthesis by mast cell-fibroblast monolayers during lymphocyte- ... Protamine Sulfate»։ The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից նոյեմբերի 6, 2016-ին։ Վերցված է ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are proteoglycans consisting of a protein core and a chondroitin sulfate side chain. ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a core protein and a sugar side chain. The core protein is generally a ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans have been implicated in Alzheimers disease, stroke, and epilepsy. The two primary markers of ... Galtrey, C. M.; Fawcett, J. W. (2007). "The role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in regeneration and plasticity in the ...
Modulation of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Sigma Increases Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Degradation through ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a pivotal role in the repair of spinal cord in. By Max in forum Cure ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion ... A New Role for RPTP in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan. By manouli in forum Cure ...
Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions of chondroitin sulfate and proteoglycans.. Egea J1, García AG, Verges ... Perineuronal nets (PNNs) formed by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) may have a neuroprotective action against ... The antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are being used to treat osteoarthritis. Recent ...
Compare chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Your search returned 79 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA ELISA Kit across 13 suppliers. ...
2001) Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: inhibitory components of the glial scar. Prog Brain Res 132:611-619, doi:10.1016/ ... 2012) NgR1 and NgR3 are receptors for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Nat Neurosci 15:703-712, doi:10.1038/nn.3070, pmid: ... We found that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were present in the infarct after I-R, but not after chronic ischemia, ... 2003) Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury. Biochem Soc Trans ...
Proteoglycan playing a role in cell proliferation and migration which stimulates endothelial cells motility during ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4Add BLAST. 2297. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular inhibitors of axon extension and plasticity, and cause growth cones ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras signaling promotes the extension of sensory axons on inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras Signaling Promotes the Extension of Sensory Axons on Inhibitory Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans ... Activation of PI3K and R-Ras Signaling Promotes the Extension of Sensory Axons on Inhibitory Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans ...
... Irvine SF, Kwok JCF ... and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, was performed to characterise the molecular heterogeneity ...
Y. Wang, F. Sabbatino, X. Wang, and S. Ferrone, "Detection of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in melanoma," Methods ... Label-Free Detection of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan 4 by a Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Functionalized Impedimetric ... a melanoma cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MSCP) with biological and clinical significance," Critical Reviews in ... M. Van Sinderen, C. Cuman, A. Winship, E. Menkhorst, and E. Dimitriadis, "The chrondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG4) ...
The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is ... The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is ... Y. Wang, F. Sabbatino, X. Wang, and S. Ferrone, "Detection of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in melanoma," Methods ... Label-Free Detection of Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan 4 by a Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Functionalized Impedimetric ...
1995) Two chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans differentially expressed in the developing chick visual system. Dev Biol 168:11-27. ... 1991) A chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan may influence the direction of retinal ganglion cell outgrowth. Development 113:1473- ... 2000a) Expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the chiasm of mouse embryos. J Comp Neurol 417:153-163. ... 1991) Inhibitory effects of brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans on neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells. J Neurosci 11:822- ...
1995) Chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycans of nervous tissue: developmental changes of neurocan ... characterization and developmental expression of a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, 6B4 proteoglycan/phosphacan ... 1991) A chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan may influence the direction of retinal ganglion cell outgrowth. Development 113:1473- ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CS-PGs) are present in areas of reactive gliosis after CNS injury to adult animals (McKeon ...
... chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 explanation free. What is chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8? Meaning of chondroitin sulfate ... proteoglycan 8 medical term. What does chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 mean? ... Looking for online definition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 , definition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8 by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
A light and electron microscopic study of NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the ... of oligodendrocyte precursor cells that can be identified using antibodies against the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. ...
N-sulfated, 89% 6-O-sulfated, and 90% 2-O-sulfated. Similarly, de-2-O-sulfated heparin (DE2) contained 80% 6-O-sulfate groups, ... chondroitin sulfate from bovine trachea (CSA), dermatan sulfate from porcine intestinal mucosa (CSB), chondroitin sulfate from ... as it also interacts with chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate, whereas binding to chondroitin-6-sulfate was not clearly ... De-6-O-sulfated heparin (DE6) contained 98% N-sulfate groups, 55% 2-O-sulfate groups, and a residual 4% of the 6-O-sulfates. ...
The molecule neuron-glia 2 (NG2) is a transmembrane chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan that is present on a distinct population ... This involvement of NG2 in multiple aspects of tumour biology makes this proteoglycan an attractive candidate for future ...
It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and ... 0/Proteochondroitin Sulfates; 0/Receptors, Cell Surface; 0/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptor, human; EC 3.1.3.48/ ... It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and ... Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC ( ...
275, 40344-40356), we reported that unusually low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the intervillous spaces ... Previous Document: Characterization of proteoglycans of human placenta and identification of unique chondroitin sulfate.... ... Structural requirements for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans ... Partially sulfated C4Ss with varying sulfate contents were prepared by solvolytic desulfation of a fully sulfated C4S. These ...
2005) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural development and regeneration. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:116-120. ... 2009) PTPsigma is a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, an inhibitor of neural regeneration. Science 326:592-596. ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of extracellular matrix molecules with various functions in regulating ... 2004) Semaphorin 5A is a bifunctional axon guidance cue regulated by heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Neuron 44: ...
Partial inhibitory activity was observed when chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), chondroitin sulfate B (CSB), and polyolpolysulfate ... and chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) at low concentrations. The effect was dose dependent with the degree of inhibition exceeded ... Marked decrease in PE adhesion to immobilized CSA and CSA-expressed cells was achieved with soluble chondroitin sulfate D (CSD ... Thus, only the sulfate content and pattern of this molecule could affect the adhesive interactions. In addition, difference in ...
Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury F. Properzi; F. Properzi ... Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated in the central nervous system after injury, specifically around the ... F. Properzi, R.A. Asher, J.W. Fawcett; Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis ... The expression of the chondroitin sulphotransferases, which sulphate the disaccharide residues of CSPGs and thus are ...
2005) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in neural development and regeneration. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:116-120. doi:10.1016/j. ... 1993) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are associated with the lesions of Alzheimers disease. Exp Neurol 121:149-152. doi: ... 2009) PTPsigma is a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, an inhibitor of neural regeneration. Science 326:592-596. ... 2013) Overcoming neurite-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the astrocyte matrix. Glia 61:972-984. doi:10.1002/ ...
Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration in the mouse optic nerve ... Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration in the mouse optic nerve ... We aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the ... Craig Pearson, Herbert M. Geller, Keith R Martin; Modifying chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans enhances retinal ganglion cell ...
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are two major classes of proteoglycans, ... In contrast to the functional role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the importance of chondroitin sulfate ... and chondroitin-6-sulfate (B,B′) in the bm growth plate. Conversely, chondroitin-0-sulfate staining increased in the bm growth ... Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans is necessary for proper Indian hedgehog signaling in the developing growth plate ...
  • After acid hydrolysis, the proportions of labeled serine and alanine (or cysteic acid) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the results were compared with those obtained for the completed proteoglycan molecules isolated from the same cultures. (lu.se)
  • These results indicate, in agreement with our previous kinetic data, that the major part of the xylosyl transfer to the chondrosarcoma proteoglycan core protein precursor must occur late in the processing sequence, i.e. after about 85% of its intracellular lifetime and no more than 7 min before the addition of the rest of the chondroitin sulfate chain. (lu.se)
  • The ratio of [ 3 H]mannose to [ 3 H]fucose in the core precursor was about 19, while that for the complete proteoglycan was about 2. (lu.se)
  • This indicates the presence of high mannose, N-linked oligosaccharides on the core protein precursor which are converted to the complex forms on the completed proteoglycan. (lu.se)
  • Because of its expression in a large percentage of melanoma lesions and its restricted distribution in normal tissues, the high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), also known as the melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), has been used to implement immunotherapy of melanoma. (begellhouse.com)
  • One target molecule of potential relevance for the tumorigenicity of melanoma is the melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), also known as high molecular weight melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • MCSP can refer to: Canada/USA Mathcamp Merlin Capability Sustainment Plus: Mid-Life Update of Merlin (see Lockheed Martin U.K. and AgustaWestland EH101) Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a tumour marker Member of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Minimum cost spanning tree, the lowest costing way to construct a spanning tree graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteoglycans are major constituents of peripheral nerves and have been implicated in the regulation of axon growth and regeneration ( Fitch and Silver, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)