Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.
A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Tenacibaculum adheres to surfaces of marine organisms and is pathogenic to fish.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Mucoid states characterized by the elevated deposition and accumulation of mucin (mucopolysaccharides) in dermal tissue. The fibroblasts are responsible for the production of acid mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in the ground substance of the connective tissue system. When fibroblasts produce abnormally large quantities of mucopolysaccharides as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin, they accumulate in large amounts in the dermis.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.

Action of chondroitinases. II. Numerical calculation of the degree of multiple attack. (1/149)

Further investigation was carried out on the action patterns of two chondroitinase-AC [EC 4.2.2.5.] preparations obtained from Arthrobacter aurescens and Flavobacterium heparinum. To infer the action patterns of the chondroitinases, we proposed a new method for the calculation of the degree of multiple attack, based on the concept established by Robyt and French ((1967) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122, 8-16). It was shown that the degree of multiple attack (DM) is represented by the ratio of the initial velocity of number-average degree of scission to that of viscosity-average degree of scission. By this method, DM for A-Chase was estimated to be 3.03 and for F-chase, 1.31.  (+info)

Substrate specificity studies of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C and heparitinases towards the glycosaminoglycan--protein linkage region. Use of a sensitive analytical method developed by chromophore-labeling of linkage glycoserines using dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride. (2/149)

Bacterial chondroitinases and heparitinases are potentially useful tools for structural studies of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate. Substrate specificities of Flavobacterium chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, towards the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region -HexA-HexNAc-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser (where HexA represents glucuronic acid or iduronic acid and HexNAc represents N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylglucosamine) were investigated using various structurally defined oligosaccharides or oligosaccharide-serines derived from the linkage region. In the case of oligosaccharide-serines, they were labeled with a chromophore dimethylaminoazobenzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl), which stably reacted with the amino group of the serine residue and rendered high absorbance for microanalysis. Chondroitinase C cleaved the GalNAc bond of the pentasaccharides or hexasaccharides derived from the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate chains and tolerated sulfation of the C-4 or C-6 of the GalNAc residue and C-6 of the Gal residues, as well as 2-O-phosphorylation of the Xyl residue. In contrast, it did not act on the GalNAc-GlcA linkage when attached to a 4-O-sulfated Gal residue. Heparitinase I cleaved the innermost glucosaminidic bond of the linkage region oligosaccharide-serines of heparin/heparan sulfate irrespective of substitution by uronic acid, whereas heparitinase II acted only on the glucosaminidic linkages of the repeating disaccharide region, but not on the innermost glucosaminidic linkage. These defined specificities of chondroitinase C, as well as heparitinases I and II, will be useful for preparation and structural analysis of the linkage oligosaccharides.  (+info)

Sulfate incorporation from ascorbate 2-sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. (3/149)

Radioactivity was significantly incorporated from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. The extent of incorporation was comparable with that from inorganic [35S]sulfate. The radioactive chondroitin sulfate formed from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate gave two radioactive disaccharides on chondroitinase-ABC [EC 4.2.2.4] digestion. The incorporation was markedly decreased by inorganic sulfate. The time course of incorporation from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate and inorganic [35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate and the constituent disaccharides suggest that the incorporation rates from the two radioactive substances are different.  (+info)

Sulphation heterogeneity in the trisaccharide (GalNAcSbeta1, 4GlcAbeta1,3GalNAcS) isolated from the non-reducing terminal of human aggrecan chondroitin sulphate. (4/149)

We report here the isolation and sulphation isomer analyses of trisaccharides GalNAcS(beta1,4)GlcA(beta1,3)GalNAcS (in which S indicates sulphate) derived from the non-reducing termini of aggrecan chondroitin sulphate. Rat chondrosarcoma and human aggrecans were digested for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 30 micro-units of endo-chondroitinase ABC per microgram of chondroitin sulphate, and trisaccharides were isolated from the digests by ToyoPearl HW40S gel-filtration chromatography. Four trisaccharide species were identified; their sulphation isomer compositions, as determined by digestion with chondroitinase ACII and fluorescence-based ion-exchange HPLC, were GalNAc4Sbeta1,4GlcAbeta1,3GalNAc4S, GalNAc4Sbeta1,4GlcAbeta1,3GalNAc6S, GalNAc4,6Sbeta1,4GlcAbeta1, 3GalNAc4S and GalNAc4,6Sbeta1,4GlcAbeta1,3GalNAc6S. The abundances of such sequences in chondroitin sulphate on aggrecan from normal (foetal to 72 years of age) and from osteoarthritic human knee cartilages were also established. The results showed that non-reducing terminal GalNAc4S or GalNAc4,6S can be linked to either a 4-sulphated or a 6-sulphated disaccharide, suggesting that the sulphation of the last disaccharide might not have a direct effect on the specificity of chondroitin sulphate terminal GalNAc sulphotransferases. Furthermore, for each aggrecan preparation examined, the 4S-to-6S ratio of all chain interior disaccharides was equivalent to that in the last repeating disaccharides at the non-reducing terminus, suggesting that neither chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase nor chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase shows preferential activity near the chain terminus.  (+info)

Isolation and expression in Escherichia coli of cslA and cslB, genes coding for the chondroitin sulfate-degrading enzymes chondroitinase AC and chondroitinase B, respectively, from Flavobacterium heparinum. (5/149)

In medium supplemented with chondroitin sulfate, Flavobacterium heparinum synthesizes and exports two chondroitinases, chondroitinase AC (chondroitin AC lyase; EC 4.2.2.5) and chondroitinase B (chondroitin B lyase; no EC number), into its periplasmic space. Chondroitinase AC preferentially depolymerizes chondroitin sulfates A and C, whereas chondroitinase B degrades only dermatan sulfate (chondroitin sulfate B). The genes coding for both enzymes were isolated from F. heparinum and designated cslA (chondroitinase AC) and cslB (chondroitinase B). They were found to be separated by 5.5 kb on the chromosome of F. heparinum, transcribed in the same orientation, but not linked to any of the heparinase genes. In addition, the synthesis of both enzymes appeared to be coregulated. The cslA and cslB DNA sequences revealed open reading frames of 2,103 and 1,521 bp coding for peptides of 700 and 506 amino acid residues, respectively. Chondroitinase AC has a signal sequence of 22 residues, while chondroitinase B is composed of 25 residues. The mature forms of chondroitinases AC and B are comprised of 678 and 481 amino acid residues and have calculated molecular masses of 77,169 and 53,563 Da, respectively. Truncated cslA and cslB genes have been used to produce active, mature chondroitinases in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. Partially purified recombinant chondroitinases AC and B exhibit specific activities similar to those of chondroitinases AC and B from F. heparinum.  (+info)

A fingerprinting method for chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan oligosaccharides. (6/149)

A previously published method for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides by high pH anion exchange chromatography (Midura,R.J., Salustri,A., Calabro,A., Yanagishita,M. and Hascall,V.C. (1994), Glycobiology,4, 333-342) has been modified and calibrated for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides up to hexasaccharide in size and hyaluronan oligosaccharides up to hexadecasaccharide. For hyaluronan oligosaccharides chain length controls elution position; however, for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides elution times primarily depend upon the level of sulfation, although chain length and hence charge density plays a role. The sulfation position of GalNAc residues within an oligosaccharide is also important in determining its elution position. Compared to 4-sulfation a reducing terminal 6-sulfate retards elution; however, when present on an internal GalNAc residue it is the 4-sulfate containing oligosaccharide which elutes later. These effects allow discrimination between oligosaccharides differing only in the position of GalNAc sulfation. Using this simple methodology, a Dionex CarboPac PA-1 column with NaOH/NaCl eluents and detection by absorbance at 232 nm, a quantitative analytical fingerprint of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain may be obtained, allowing a determination of the abundance of chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan along with an analysis of structural features with a linear response to approximately 0.1 nmol. The method may readily be calibrated using either commercial disaccharides or the di- and tetrasaccharide products of a limit digest of commercial chondroitin sulfate by chondroitin ABC endolyase. Commercially available and freshly prepared shark, whale, bovine, and human cartilage chondroitin sulfates have been examined by this methodology and we have confirmed that freshly isolated shark cartilage CS contains significant amounts of the biologically important GlcA2Sbeta(1-3)GalNAc6S structure.  (+info)

Iduronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans on target cells are required for efficient respiratory syncytial virus infection. (7/149)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen, particularly in infants. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the initiation of RSV infection of cultured cells, but it is not clear what type of GAGs and GAG components are involved, whether the important GAGs are on the virus or the cell, or what the magnitude is of their contribution to infection. We constructed and rescued a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing RSV (rgRSV) and used this virus to develop a sensitive system to assess and quantify infection by flow cytometry. Evaluation of a panel of mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are genetically deficient in various aspects of GAG synthesis showed that infection was reduced up to 80% depending on the type of GAG deficiency. Enzymatic removal of heparan sulfate and/or chondroitin sulfate from the surface of HEp-2 cells also reduced infection, and the removal of both reduced infection even further. Blocking experiments in which RSV was preincubated with various soluble GAGs revealed the relative blocking order of: heparin > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate B. Iduronic acid is a component common to these GAGs. GAGs that do not contain iduronic acid, namely, chondroitin sulfate A and C and hyaluronic acid, did not inhibit infection. A role for iduronic acid-containing GAGs in RSV infection was confirmed by the ability of basic fibroblast growth factor to block infection, because basic fibroblast growth factor binds to GAGs containing iduronic acid. Pretreatment of cells with protamine sulfate, which binds and blocks GAGs, also reduced infection. In these examples, infection was reduced by pretreatment of the virus with soluble GAGs, pretreatment of the cells with GAG-binding molecules, pretreatment of the cells with GAG-destroying enzymes or in cells genetically deficient in GAGs. These results establish that the GAGs involved in RSV infection are present on the cell rather than on the virus particle. Thus, the presence of cell surface GAGs containing iduronic acid, like heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate B, is required for efficient RSV infection in cell culture.  (+info)

Distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom: widespread occurrence of heparin-like compounds in invertebrates. (8/149)

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans were isolated from 23 species of 13 phyla of invertebrates and characterized by their electrophoretic migration in three different buffer systems coupled with enzymatic degradation using bacterial heparinase, heparitinases and chondroitinase AC. Heparan sulfate is a ubiquitous compound present in all species analyzed whereas chondroitin sulfate was present in 20 species and heparin-like compounds in 12 species of the invertebrates. The heparin-like compounds were purified from the echinoderm Mellita quinquisperforata (sand dollar) and the crustacean Ucides cordatus (crab) with anticoagulant activities of 60 and 52 IU/mg, respectively. Degradation of these heparins with heparinase produced significant amounts of the trisulfated disaccharide typical of mammalian heparins. This was confirmed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy of the crab heparin. An updated phylogenetic tree of the distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom is also presented.  (+info)

hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1); chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5); xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12); chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.20 ...
Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups This enzyme acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that can interfere with regeneration. Yamagata, T.; Saito, H.; Habuchi, O.; Suzuki, S. (1968). Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and chondrosulfatases. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1523-1535. PMID 5647268. Saito, H.; Yamagata, T.; Suzuki, S. (1968). Enzymatic methods for the determination of small quantities of isomeric chondroitin sulfates. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1536-1542. PMID 4231029. ...
1. Orbital accumulation of hydrophilic, interstitial glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and subsequent expansion of retrobulbar tissue lead to the clinical manifestation of exophthalmos in patients with Graves eye disease.. 2. A highly specific method to determine the concentration and biochemical composition of different GAGs was developed in order to obtain a sensitive test system for the activity of the disease. By means of this method, GAG excretion in 24 h urine collections of 56 patients and 21 controls was analysed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride and potassium acetate in ethanol, followed by sequential enzymic hydrolysis with chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase and hyaluronate lyase, with HPLC analysis of the resulting α,β-unsaturated disaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography.. 3. Concentrations of GAG, chondroitin sulphate A (CA), dermatan sulphate (DS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in patients and controls, with high recovery rates [72.2 ± 5.3%, mean ± ...
China 80% Bovine Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium with High-Quality, Leading 80% Bovine Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium Manufacturers & Suppliers, find 80% Bovine Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium Factory & Exporters.
Alok:- thanks for the reply. But dude, do you even know what you said ? Society is all about freedom and survival- that is all written in the medieval sociology text books ( I have gotten hold of a few- like the ones by CWM and Durkheim,though Focault and MArx were far more apprehencive of the idea) Sir.I would recommend you to read Lenin for a change and I am sure you will understand what central idea guides things now-a-days.Also,do check out the basic Buddhist philosophy-Nothing is static- the only fact that is permanent is the change itself- beautiful isnt it? How do you think you can quote internal mechanism to be static in the face of this all.Infact, tell you what..You first read those books and get back to me.You will find all what needs to be known ...
Tenacibaculum maritimum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of wild and farmed marine fish with a broad host range and a worldwide distribution. We report here the complete genome sequence of the T. maritimum type strain NCIMB 2154T. The genome consists of a 3,435,971-base pair circular chromosome with 2,866 predicted protein-coding genes. Genes encoding the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, the type IX secretion system, iron uptake systems, adhesins, hemolysins, proteases, and glycoside hydrolases were identified. They are likely involved in the virulence process including immune escape, invasion, colonization, destruction of host tissues, and nutrient scavenging. Among the predicted virulence factors, type IX secretion-mediated and cell-surface exposed proteins were identified including an atypical sialidase, a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro.
Purpose: To evaluate the potential of a bioactive coating based on chondroitin sulfate (CS) and tethered epidermal growth factor (EGF) for the improvement of healing around stent-grafts (SG). Methods: The impact of the bioactive coating on cell survival was tested in vitro on human vascular cells using polyethylene terephtalate films (PET) as a substrate. After being transferred onto a more realistic material (expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), ePTFE), the durability and mechanical behavior of the coating in addition to cell survival were studied. Preliminary in vivo testing was performed in a canine iliac aneurysm model reproducing type I endoleaks (3 animals with 1 control and 1 bioactive SG for each). Results: The CS and EGF coatings significantly increased survival of human smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, compared with bare PET or ePTFE (P,.05). The coating also displayed good durability over 30 days according to ELISA and cell-survival tests. The coating did not affect the ...
Chondroitinase ABC is an enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that cleaves the endo-1,4-β-galactosaminic bonds between acetylgalactosamine and either glucuronic or i
Unscramble chondroitin, Unscramble letters chondroitin, Point value for chondroitin, Word Decoder for chondroitin, Word generator using the letters chondroitin, Word Solver chondroitin, Possible Scrabble words with chondroitin, Anagram of chondroitin
Glucosamine and chondroitin have been the stepchildren of modern medicine for many years. While their use has skyrocketed due to a mass of supplements on the market, the average family doctor was much more likely to prescribe pharmaceutical concoctions such as Celebrex. In a study presented in November 2015 at a meeting of the American College of Rheumatology, chondroitin dramatically beat Celebrex in a head-to-head trial.. Chondroitin is a component of cartilage. The theory for taking it always has been simple-to provide the body with the building blocks of cartilage, and, just maybe, this would preserve or build cartilage. While the reality of how chondroitin works is a lot more complex, small studies using MRI have shown that chondoitin preserves cartilage. When given along with its cousin glucosamine, chondroitin is a potent anti-inflammatory. The two together even have been shown to lower cardiac risk factors.. The study presented to the American College of Rheumatology specifically looks ...
I thought these nutraceuticals were a bunch of boloney until, with no other management changes, my friends gelding went from lame at a walk to sound at a trot - he had been lame for some time with arthritis. (he is on chondroitin sulfate) What else is out there worth trying, and AERC legal? Maybe something to keep my muscles from getting so sore/stiff after a ride. Shelly in DE ...
Roo & Chondroitin Sprinkle No additives. No Fillers. No enhancers. No preservatives Made in Australia with 100% Aussie proteins Great for fussy pets Multiple health benefits Roo & Chondroitin sprinkle is a combination of chondroitin for the joints and low fat kangaroo meat. Great for those aching joints. This c
|p|Chondroitin occurs next to cartilage tissue in connective tissue, tendons and skin. In relatively small quantities, chondroitin is absorbed through anima
Polysaccharide-Protein-Vitamin preparation Chondroitin: the dietary supplement chondroitin is the undervalued brother of the more famous
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Science-Based NutritionNahrungsergänzungsmittelUnterstützt die Gelenkgesundheit und -beweglichkeitGMO-frei/Glutenfrei/Ohne SojaGlucosamin Chondroitin MSM® von Doctors Best liefert drei wichtige Nährstoffe, die dabei helfen, Gelenke und Bindegewebe gesund zu halten: Glucosamin, Chondroitin und.... ...
Help maintain the cartilage power of the body and help you maintain vitality. Solve the problem of insufficient joint support, supplement chondroitin, and return to the youthful running and jumping moments.
Chondroitin is a chemical naturally present in the connective tissues of humans and animals. It is mainly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The following article provides information about the various side effects of this chemical.
Cumpara rapid si simplu Glucosamin Chondroitin MSM. Produsul ajuta la mentinerea si refacerea integritatii structurale si functionale a articulatiilor.
Chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance formed of sugar chains. Chondroitin is believed to help the body maintain fluid and flexibility in the joints.
According to a new report, Chondroitin Sulfate Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Source (Synthetic, Bovine, Swine, Poultry, Shark), By Application (Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals, Animal Feed, Personal Care), And Segment Forecasts, 2019 - 2025, published by Grand View Research, Inc.,. The global chondroitin sulfate market size is expected to reach USD 1.4 billion by 2025, accelerating at a CAGR of 3.2% over the forecast period, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing consumption of joint health supplements owing to rising prevalence of arthritis among obese and geriatric population is projected to drive the product demand.. Clinical efficacy and joint health benefits offered are the major factors triggering the demand for the product. Rising utilization of pharmaceutical grade sodium chondroitin sulfate to cure osteoarthritis is projected to drive industry growth. The market is highly influenced by Chinese dominated product supply, which as per the ...
Therapy. There are 13 Chapters to deeply display the global Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid market.. Chapter 1, to describe Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, with sales, revenue, and price of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, for each region, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 9 and 10, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 11, Chondroitin ...
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Are there any side effects of glucosamine and chondroitin?. Do glucosamine and chondroitin supplements cause any adverse reactions?. Is there anything unpleasant about taking this supplement?. I have been looking into these questions for the past 3 years or so. Thats how long Ive been taking glucosamine and chondroitin for my formerly-aching knees.. Recently I updated my research on the subject, and I am very glad to be able to say that expert studies are still finding no serious side effects from taking glucosamine and chondroitin.. Five of the larger studies and their results are:. ...
Clinical experience likewise suggests that some dogs and cats may appreciably benefit from chondroitin administration and others not at all. It is difficult to anticipate which animals are most likely to respond. Given the potential for benefit and the extremely low risk of any adverse side effects, chondroitin supplementation is always recommended for animals with joint pain. Where a benefit is seen, doses of more expensive and potentially deleterious drugs may be reduced, including the NSAIDs (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as aspirin, carprofen and meloxicam. Because chondroitin protects mucosal barriers, it may not only enhance pain relief in animals administered NSAIDS, but help protect their intestinal tracts from ulcerations which are occasionally seen as a side effect of NSAID use.. Research in laboratory animals suggests that chondroitin dissolved in water before administration is more effective than when administered within a capsule.. ...
Biological Sciences Shirley, Chondroitin Sulfate is labeled with Rhodamine B. Lyophilized powder. The product is furnished for LABORATORY RESEARCH US...
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|div id=description-ac class=content active| |p|-Joint Mobility & Comfort*|br /|-Easy-to-Swallow Liquid|br /|-A Dietary Supplement|/p| |p|Liquid Glucosamine & Chondroitin with MSM combines three well-known joint support ingredients with nutr
... an enzyme Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme. ...
... chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500.500 --- chondroitin abc lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.512 --- heparin ... polysaccharide-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350 --- chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500 ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 --- amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 --- adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ... chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.277.352.827.180.175 --- chondroitinsulfatases MeSH D08.811.277.352.827.180. ...
Ontario Chondroitin B lyase, an enzyme. ...
... pectate lyase EC 4.2.2.3: poly(b-D-mannuronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.4: chondroitin ABC lyase EC 4.2.2.5: chondroitin AC lyase EC 4.2 ... chondroitin B lyase EC 4.2.2.20: chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase EC 4.2.2.21: chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase EC 4.2.2.22: ... pectin lyase EC 4.2.2.11: poly(a-L-guluronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.12: xanthan lyase EC 4.2.2.13: exo-(1-4)-α-D-glucan lyase EC 4.2. ... oligogalacturonide lyase EC 4.2.2.7: heparin lyase EC 4.2.2.8: heparin-sulfate lyase EC 4.2.2.9: pectate disaccharide-lyase EC ...
... (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic ... Chondroitin ABC lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides ... chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that ...
... chondroitin ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase (ambiguous), ChS ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ... specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin- ... "Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially ... ABC exoeliminase, chondroitin sulfate ABC exolyase, and ChS ABC lyase II. Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, Suzuki S (1968). " ...
... may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme ...
In enzymology, a chondroitin B lyase (EC 4.2.2.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative cleavage of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin B lyase. Other names in common use include chondroitinase B, ChonB, and ... Gu K, Linhardt RJ, Laliberte M, Gu K, Zimmermann J. "Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and ... V, Sasisekharan R, Cygler M (2004). "The structure of chondroitin B lyase complexed with glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides ...
... chondroitin sulfate lyase, chondroitin AC eliminase, chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitinase AC, and ChnAC. As of late 2007, 11 ... In enzymology, a chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chondroitin AC lyase. Other names in common use include chondroitinase (ambiguous ... "Characterization of oligosaccharides from the chondroitin/dermatan sulfates. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR studies of reduced ...
The lyases have mainly been used in heparin/HS studies. The bacterium produces three lyases, heparinases I (EC 4.2.2.7), II (no ... The most prevalent impurity in heparin is dermatan sulfate (DS), also known as chondroitin sulfate B. The building-block of DS ... The lyases cleave heparin/HS by a beta elimination mechanism. This action generates an unsaturated double bond between C4 and ... Danaparoid, a mixture of heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate can be used as an anticoagulant in patients ...
對於肝素誘發的血小板減少症患者,可以使用不含有肝素或肝素片段的Danaparoid(英语:Danaparoid):它是硫酸肝素、硫酸皮膚素(英语:dermatan sulfate)與硫酸軟骨素(英语:chondroitin sulfate)的混合物,因為 ... Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum. Biochemistry. 1993, 32 (32): 8140-8145. PMID 8347612. ... Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases. Biochemistry. 1990, 29 (10): 2611-2617
The activity is most probably attributable to EC 4.4.1.21, S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase EC 3.13.1.3: 2'-hydroxybiphenyl-2- ... unsaturated chondroitin disaccharide hydrolase EC 3.2.1.181: galactan endo-beta-1,3-galactanase EC 3.2.1.182: 4-hydroxy-7- ... citrate lyase deacetylase EC 3.1.2.17: (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.18: ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA ...
Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list). *EC6 Ligases (list). *EC7 Translocases (list) ...
1990)։ «Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases»։ Biochemistry 29 (10): 2611-2617։ PMID ... Flengsrud R (2016)։ «Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon»։ Glycoconjugate Journal 33 ( ... 1993)։ «Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum»։ Biochemistry 32 (32): 8140-8145։ PMID 8347612 ...
... lyase) S-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.50: serine C-palmitoyltransferase EC 2.3.1.51: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ... chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase EC 2.8.2.6: choline sulfotransferase EC 2.8.2.7: UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate ... chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase EC 2.8.2.18: cortisol sulfotransferase EC 2.8.2.19: triglucosylalkylacylglycerol ...
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase. TRYPTOPHAN→. *Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase ... Chondroitin sulfate. *Cod liver oil. *Copper gluconate. *Creatine/Creatine supplements. *Dietary fiber ...
hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1); chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5); xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12); chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2. ... Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ...
Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic ... Chondroitin ABC lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides ... chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that ...
Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme ...
Chondroitin lyase AC from Arthrobacter aurescens (ArthroAC) is known to act on chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate ... Chondroitin lyase AC from Arthrobacter aurescens (ArthroAC) is known to act on chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate ... Crystal structure of Arthrobacter aurescens chondroitin AC lyase in complex with chondroitin tetrasaccharide. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... Like other chondroitin AC lyases, it is capable of cleaving hyaluronan. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal ...
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements ... Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate lyase Marine Arthrobacter sp. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides. ... As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a ...
Conference Paper: Factors underlying improved efficacy of chondroitin sulphate lyases in overcoming chondroitin sulphate ... Factors underlying improved efficacy of chondroitin sulphate lyases in overcoming chondroitin sulphate barriers for nerve ... Factors underlying improved efficacy of chondroitin sulphate lyases in overcoming chondroitin sulphate barriers for nerve ...
... chondroitin ABC lyase; chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase; ChS ABC lyase; chondroitin sulfate ABC endoeliminase; chondroitin sulfate ... Chondroitin ABC lyase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Recombinant. Chondroitin ABC lyase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, ... Chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A), chondroitin sulfate B (CS-B), chondroitin sulfate C (CS-C), chondroitin (C), and H ... Cystathionine-β-Synthase/Lyase Industrial Enzyme Production Enzyme Engineering and Modification Creatinase/Creatininase/ ...
Crystal Structure of Arthrobacter Aurescens Chondroitin Ac Lyase ... Structure of Arthrobacter Aurescens Chondroitin Ac Lyase (pdb ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of Crystal Structure of Arthrobacter Aurescens Chondroitin Ac Lyase (pdb code ...
chondroitin sulphate lyases. -. dc.title. Combinatorial use of chondroitin sulphate lyase subtypes in the treatment of nerve ... Conference Paper: Combinatorial use of chondroitin sulphate lyase subtypes in the treatment of nerve injury. *Show simple item ... Chondroitin sulphate ABC lyases (ChABC) from Proteus vulgaris have been exploited to cleave CS moieties in the injured ... Chondroitin sulphate ABC lyases (ChABC) from Proteus vulgaris have been exploited to cleave CS moieties in the injured ...
Chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum degrades chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans via an elimination mechanism ... Elucidation of the mechanism of polysaccharide cleavage by chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum. ... Elucidation of the mechanism of polysaccharide cleavage by chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum. ... Elucidation of the mechanism of polysaccharide cleavage by chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum ...
... a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro. ... a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitine AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro. ... Chondroitin AC Lyase In Vitro Activity. The native chondroitin AC lyase activity of T. maritimum was assayed in vitro according ... Chondroitin AC Lyase and Sphingomyelinase Cloning, Expression, and Enzymatic Activity. The genes encoding the chondroitin AC ...
IPR022859 Alginate_lyase. IPR008397 Alginate_lyase_dom. IPR008929 Chondroitin_lyas. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF05426 ... Alginate lyase1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in scientific articles for which there ... Belongs to the polysaccharide lyase 5 family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Poly(beta-D-mannuronate) lyaseUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
The Structure of Chondroitin B Lyase Complexed with Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides Unravels a Calcium-Dependent Catalytic ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CHONDROITINASE B COMPLEXED TO CHONDROITIN 4-SULFATE TETRASACCHARIDE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ofm/pdb ... Classification: LYASE * Deposited: 2003-04-15 Released: 2004-04-19 *Deposition author(s): Michel, G., Cygler, M. ...
Chondroitin Lyases * Extracellular Matrix / metabolism * Extracellular Matrix / pathology * Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism* * ...
Chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5) from Arthrobacter aurescens and chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4) from Proteus vulgaris were ... Digestion with chondroitin AC lyase yielded proportions of isomeric chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate (Fig 3D⇑) ... Glycosaminoglycans (100 μg) were incubated with 10 mU chondroitin AC lyase or chondroitin ABC lyase in 100 μL of 50 mmol/L Tris ... After incubation of the dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate with chondroitin AC lyase (see "Methods"), the mixtures were ...
Chondroitin AC/alginate lyase. The name of this superfamily has been modified since the most recent official CATH+ release (v4_ ...
Microfibril integrity was disrupted by chondroitinase ABC lyase and chondroitinase … ... Microfibril integrity was disrupted by chondroitinase ABC lyase and chondroitinase AC lyase, but not by keratanase or ... Fibrillin: evidence that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans are components of microfibrils and associate with newly synthesised ... These experiments indicate that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans associate with fibrillin and contribute to microfibril ...
Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 Angstroms Resolution ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 ... Sodium in the structure of Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 Angstroms Resolution (pdb ...
Purification and characterization of novel chondroitin ABC and AC lyases from Bacteroides stercoris HJ-15, a human intestinal ...
Degrades heparin Produces chondroitin lyases chondoitinase AC II Produces sulfoesterase Produces sulphoglucosamine sulphamidase ... Produces chondroitin lyases chondoitinase AC II. Produces sulfoesterase. Produces sulphoglucosamine sulphamidase sulphamidase ...
Chondroitin ABC Lyase / metabolism. Chondroitin Sulfates / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / ... 9007-28-7/Chondroitin Sulfates; EC 4.2.2.20/Chondroitin ABC Lyase ... Neuroglycan C lacking chondroitin sulfate chains was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl as a major fraction from the column. We confirmed ... Among three functional domains of the extracellular part of neuroglycan C, the chondroitin sulfate attachment domain and acidic ...
This entry represents the C-terminal domain of hyaluronate lyase, chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase and xanthan lyase ... Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate disaccharides. ... the C-terminal domain of chondroitin ABC lyase (EC:4.2.2.4) [PMID: 12706721], and the C-terminal domain of xanthan lyase (EC: ... Crystal structure of chondroitin AC lyase, a representative of a family of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes.. J. Mol. Biol. ...
DR GO; GO:0016829; F:lyase activity; IEA:InterPro. DR Gene3D; 1.50.10.100; -; 1. DR InterPro; IPR008929; Chondroitin_lyas. DR ...
The structure of chondroitin B lyase complexed with glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides unravels a calcium-dependent catalytic ... Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and glycuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum. ... This is the only lyase that is known to be specific for dermatan sulfate as substrate. The minimum substrate length required ... Isolation and expression in Escherichia coli of cslA and cslB, genes coding for the chondroitin sulfate-degrading enzymes ...
... chondroitin ABC lyase, 9024-13-9; thrombin, 9002-04-4; thrombomodulin, 112049-68-0; urokinase, 139639-24-0; Chondroitin Lyases ... chondroitin 4 sulfate · chondroitin abc lyase · glycosaminoglycan · mutant protein · thrombomodulin · urokinase · dissociation ... Chondroitin Lyases · Dose-Response Relationship, Drug · Glycosaminoglycans · Glycosylation · Human · Receptors, Cell Surface · ... The free glycosarninoglycans obtained by alkaline treatment of TM or chondroitin sulphate A also accelerated the inactivation ...
... chondroitin sulfate lyase. Now included with EC 4.2.2.4 (chondroitin ABC lyase) and EC 4.2.2.5 (chondroitin AC lyase). [EC 4.2. ...
0 (Aggrecans); 0 (RNA, Messenger); EC 4.2.2.20 (Chondroitin ABC Lyase). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1712. ... The administration of chondroitinase ABC degrades these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and improves functional recovery ... CONCLUSIONS: Significant upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and other extracellular matrix components ... and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and ...
Samples were resuspended in 8 mol/L urea, either with or without prior digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (0.02 U) in enriched ... T7039) were from Sigma Chemical Co; 6-aminohexanoic acid and benzamidine were from Eastman Kodak Co; chondroitin ABC lyase was ... To detect decorin core protein before and after chondroitin ABC lyase digestion, Western analysis was performed as described ... Samples have been digested with chondroitin ABC lyase before the analysis. To allow for quantitative comparison, ASMCs were ...
Chondroitin C lyase [4.2.2.] is unable to cleave fructosylated sequences inside the partially fructosylated Escherichia coli K4 ... chondroitin sulfates, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate and by their derivatives. They are characterized by a very ...
... hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1), xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12) and chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5). Here, the common names of ... A) syn-Elimination, as in chondroitin lyase. (B) anti-Elimination, as in α-(1,4)-polygalacturonan (pectate) lyase. In both, ... A) hyaluronan, (B) chondroitin (R=R′=H) and chondroitin sulfates A (R=SO3−, R′=H) and C (R=H, R′=SO3−), and (C) xanthan. The ... 2006) An atypical approach identifies TYR234 as the key base catalyst in chondroitin AC lyase. ChemBioChem 7:631-637. ...
Chondroitin ABC Lyase CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and specifically does NOT provide medical advice. ...
  • Chondroitin sulphate (CS) proteoglycans are up-regulated in the extracellular matrix of injured nerves and constitute barriers to axonal re-growth. (hku.hk)
  • These experiments indicate that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans associate with fibrillin and contribute to microfibril assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Decorin is a family member of the small leucine-rich chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans and is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a variety of tissues and cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • Brevican is a nervous system-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that belongs to the aggrecan family and is one of the most abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in adult brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lecticans are a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) characterized by the presence of an N-terminal hyaluronan-binding domain and a C-terminal lectin-like domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and other connective tissues. (mcponline.org)
  • The proteoglycans appeared as extended molecules with a beaded structure, representing the chondroitin sulphate chains collapsed around the protein core. (biochemj.org)
  • Among these, HSPGs are composed of glucuronic acid-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcA-GlcNAc) repeating disaccharide units, whereas chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans contain glucuronic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc-GlcA) repeats. (biologists.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Digestion of 125I-labeled proteoglycans with heparitin-sulfate lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase yielded core proteins of approximately 93 kDa, approximately 85 kDa and approximately 38 kDa. (kuleuven.be)
  • Comparison with single enzyme digestions identified the 93-kDa and 85-kDa cores as components of hybrid proteoglycans that carried both heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • Preparations enriched in heparan sulfate or in heparan-sulfate/chondroitin-sulfate hybrid proteoglycans were obtained by N-desulfation and ion-exchange chromatography. (kuleuven.be)
  • Hybrid proteoglycans accounting for the bulk of the chondroitin-sulfate and nearly half of the heparan-sulfate residues of the proteoglycans showed a similar polydispersity of heparan-sulfate chain sizes as found in proteoglycans that carried only, or predominantly, heparan-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • Analysis of 125I-labeled proteoglycans suggested that typical hybrid proteoglycans were composed of a 85-kDa core protein that carries a single chondroitin-sulfate chain and a single heparan-sulfate chain of variable length. (kuleuven.be)
  • Peptido-keratan sulphate fragments were isolated from the nucleus pulposus of bovine intervertebral discs (2-year-old animals) after digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase followed by digestion with diphenylcarbamoyl chloride-treated trypsin of A1D1 proteoglycans and gel-permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The lesion environment contains both growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and growth-promoting laminin. (nih.gov)
  • 5. The method, according to claim 1, further comprising administering to the nerve at least one chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-degrading enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-degrading enzyme is selected from the group consisting of chondroitinase ABC, chondroitinase A, chondroitinase C, and chondroitinase AC. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This distribution was not changed by prior chondroitin AC lyase digestion of the proteoglycan. (biochemj.org)
  • 20%) of the proteoglycan monomers that lost their beaded structure and appeared with the chondroitin sulphate chains projecting from the protein core. (biochemj.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan and dermatan sulfate are the best substrates but the enzyme can also act on hyaluronan at a much lower rate. (expasy.org)
  • Finally, treatment of plasma membranes with either proteases or chondroitinase ABC completely abrogated membrane binding of DBP, suggesting that the protein binds to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, the type III TGF-beta receptor has the properties of a membrane proteoglycan that carries heparan and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. (umassmed.edu)
  • Previous studies have shown that the matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, versican, exhibits a similar pattern of expression in the embryonic joint rudiment of chick and mouse suggesting conserved function during joint development. (docme.ru)
  • A gene on chromosome 12q23.3 that encodes a widely expressed sulfotransferase which catalyses the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of the GalNAc residue of chondroitin, generating chondroitin sulfate, the predominant proteoglycan present in cartilage and on the surfaces of many cells and in the extracellular matrix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups This enzyme acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. (springer.com)
  • As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products. (springer.com)
  • One such enzyme is hyaluronate lyase, a Streptococcal surface enzyme that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin, thereby helping to spread the bacteria throughout host tissues [ PMID: 14523022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Hyaluronate lyase ( EC:4.2.2.1 ) is a four-domain enzyme containing an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain, a spacer domain, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal domain that modulates access to the catalytic cleft of the enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Based on the analysis of a large panel of experimentally characterized polysaccharide lyases, we examined the correlation of various enzyme properties with the three levels of the classification: fold, family and subfamily. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzyme topology reveals a predominantly α-helical enzyme with a distorted (α/α) 3 barrel quite unlike the parallel β-helix displayed by other pectate lyases (Pel). (pnas.org)
  • It was shown that ChnA is a 75-kDa enzyme degrading both chondroitin sulfate A and C and that ChnB is a 55-kDa enzyme degrading only chondroitin sulfate B ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • 1. A recombinant construct comprising a DNA sequence comprising a coding region for a thermostable alginate lyase enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Erindi 47: Cloning and expression of a chondroitin lyase gene from the marine bacterium Arthrobacter MAT3885 and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. (matis.is)
  • The lyase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant enzyme depolymerised ulvan in an endolytic manner with a Kmof 0.77 mg/ml, and displayed optimum activity at 40 °C and pH 8. (chalmers.se)
  • Alternate structural conformations of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronan lyase: Insights into enzyme flexibility and underlying molecular mechanism of action. (mpg.de)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronan lyase is a surface enzyme of this Gram-positive bacterium. (mpg.de)
  • Origin and Diversity of Alginate Lyases of Families PL-5 and -7 in Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • strain A1 has three endotype alginate lyases (A1-I, A1-II [family PL-7], and A1-III [family PL-5]), each of which is encoded by a single gene. (asm.org)
  • In addition to those of these lyases, a gene (the A1-II′ gene) showing significant identity with the A1-II gene was present in the bacterial genome and coded for an alginate lyase with broad substrate specificity. (asm.org)
  • Alginate lyase depolymerizes alginate through the β-elimination reaction. (asm.org)
  • A large number of alginate lyases, from sources ranging from bacteria to marine animals, have been characterized ( 32 ), although little information on the diversity and evolution of alginate lyases has been accumulated. (asm.org)
  • Most alginate lyases are classified into two families, PL-5 and -7. (asm.org)
  • Generally, alginate lyases in families PL-5 and -7 preferably depolymerize poly(M) and poly(G), respectively, though many enzymes can cleave M-G or G-M bonds. (asm.org)
  • In order to clarify the structure and function of alginate lyases, we have studied the metabolism of alginate in cells of Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium incorporates the macromolecule (alginate) through a "superchannel," consisting of a pit formed on the cell surface and a pit-dependent ABC transporter ( 13 , 22 ), and depolymerizes the polymer into its constituent monosaccharides through concerted reactions catalyzed by three intracellular endotype alginate lyases (A1-I, A1-II, and A1-III) and an exotype alginate lyase (A1-IV) ( 8 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • The three endotype alginate lyases are encoded by a single gene ( 21 ), and precursor protein A1-I is autocatalytically processed into A1-II and A1-III ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Tomato strain DC3000 ( 6 ) have both family PL-5 and -7 alginate lyases, although their genes are separately located in the bacterial genomes. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that A1-II and A1-III encoded by the A1-I gene are the original alginate lyases of families PL-7 and -5, respectively, and that the A1-II and A1-III genes that were derived from the A1-I gene independently evolved into various genes belonging to families PL-7 and -5 through duplication, modification, and translocation. (asm.org)
  • As the first step to confirm this hypothesis, we report here the molecular diversity and evolution of alginate lyases in Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • Occurrence of a gene homologous to the alginate lyase A1-I gene in Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • The present invention relates to the identification, production and use of thermostable alginate lyase enzymes that can be used to partially degrade alginate to yield oligosaccharides or to give complete degradation of alginate to yield (unsaturated) mono-uronates. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. An isolated protein comprising an enzymatically active alginate lyase sequence having a thermostable alginate lyase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. The isolated protein of claim 6 having a thermostable alginate lyase activity on alginate oligo/polysaccharides such that it preferentially cleaves M-G bonds and less preferentially G-G or M-M or G-M bonds. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. The isolated protein of claim 6 having a thermostable alginate lyase activity on alginate oligo/polysaccharides such that it preferentially cleaves M-M in an Exo-fashion and yielding preferentially monosugars. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the present work, we characterize a putative alginate lyase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a (Smlt2602) and describe a H208F mutant that, in addition to cleaving alginate-based substrates, displays significant, exolytic glucuronan activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondroitin lyases (EC 4.2.2.4 and EC 4.2.2.5) are glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes that act as eliminases. (rcsb.org)
  • Proteins containing this C-terminal domain consist of a group of secreted bacterial lyase enzymes capable of acting on a variety of substrates. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure of chondroitin AC lyase, a representative of a family of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Isolation and expression in Escherichia coli of cslA and cslB, genes coding for the chondroitin sulfate-degrading enzymes chondroitinase AC and chondroitinase B, respectively, from Flavobacterium heparinum. (genome.jp)
  • In the present paper, a classification of polysaccharide lyases (the enzymes that cleave polysaccharides using an elimination instead of a hydrolytic mechanism) is shown thoroughly for the first time. (biochemj.org)
  • PLs (polysaccharide lyases) are a group of enzymes (EC 4.2.2. (biochemj.org)
  • Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to their role in the carbon cycle, polygalacturonic acid lyases are important virulence factors of plant pathogens, such as Erwinia chrysanthemi ( 3 ), whereas the enzymes from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas viridiflava are responsible for the majority of fresh fruit and vegetable spoilage ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The CAZy classification ( 5 ) describes 12 families of polysaccharide lyases with polygalacturonate-active enzymes found in families PL-1, 2, 3, 9, and 10. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report the 1.3-Å resolution three-dimensional structure of the competent catalytic module of the polygalacturonic acid lyase Pel10A (Pel10Acm), from Cellvibrio japonicus, together with analysis of the activity of wild-type and mutant enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Polysaccharide lyases are a class of enzymes which cleave uronic acid-containing glycans via a β-elimination mechanism, acting both endo- and exolytically on their substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) are a class of carbohydrate modifying enzymes which cleave uronic acid-containing polysaccharides via a β-elimination mechanism, resulting in the formation of a double between C4 and C5 of the sugar group at the new nonreducing end [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microfibril integrity was disrupted by chondroitinase ABC lyase and chondroitinase AC lyase, but not by keratanase or hyaluronidase. (nih.gov)
  • Newly synthesised fibrillin could be labelled with 35S TransLabel, [3H]glucosamine or 35SO4 but its electrophoretic mobility was not influenced by treatment with chondroitinase ABC or AC lyase. (nih.gov)
  • The chondroitinase AC and B transconjugant strains, grown in heparin-only medium, yielded 20- and 13-fold increases, respectively, in chondroitinase AC and B expression, compared to wild-type F. heparinum grown in chondroitin sulfate A-only medium. (asm.org)
  • CSPGs were enriched from human urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples by strong-anion-exchange chromatography, digested with chondroitinase ABC, a specific CS-lyase used to reduce the CS chain lengths and subsequently analyzed by nLC-MS/MS with a novel glycopeptide search algorithm. (mcponline.org)
  • In contrast to the 87 sequence-derived families of glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases have been classified into just 12 families on the basis of amino acid sequence similarities ( 5 ), reflecting the requirement for substrate uronic acid groups in the elimination mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion produced a core protein of Mr 45,000. (portlandpress.com)
  • To our knowledge this is the first polysaccharide lyase to act exolytically on glucuronan and is an attractive candidate for the broad-spectrum digestion of polyuronides into fermentable monomers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purification, characterization and specificity of chondroitin lyases and glycuronidase from Flavobacterium heparinum. (genome.jp)
  • Role of arginine 292 in the catalytic activity of chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium heparinum. (naver.com)
  • The structure of chondroitin B lyase complexed with glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides unravels a calcium-dependent catalytic machinery. (genome.jp)
  • The invention is also directed to the use of the receptor for diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori, to a method of producing chondroitin oligosaccharides from chondroitin sulphates, and a method for production of amidated glucuronic acid comprising oligosaccharides and monosaccharides from glucuronic acid comprising polysaccharides. (sumobrain.com)
  • Thus, CS oligosaccharides from cartilaginous deer antler, with their oversulfated chondroitin sulfate composition, demonstrated the physiological properties and may be good candidates for osteogenetic agents in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Ulvan, which is one of the major structural polysaccharides of the cell walls of green macroalgae, is degraded by ulvan lyases via the β-elimination mechanism with the release of oligosaccharides that have unsaturated 4-deoxy-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronic acid (∆) at the non-reducing end. (chalmers.se)
  • Bakalash S, Rolls A, Lider O, Schwartz M (2007) Chondroitin sulfate-derived disaccharide protects retinal cells from elevated intraocular pressure in aged and immunocompromised rats. (springer.com)
  • Among the predicted virulence factors, type IX secretion-mediated and cell-surface exposed proteins were identified including an atypical sialidase, a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • Polysaccharide lyases (EC 4.2.2.x) are carbon-oxygen lyases that harness β-elimination chemistry (reviewed in ref. 1 ) to bring about degradation of C5 uronic acid containing pyranoside substrates such as polygalacturonates, alginates, hyaluronan, and chondroitin. (pnas.org)
  • Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues. (scielo.br)
  • This lyase also degraded heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate. (chalmers.se)
  • In contrast, the degradation of chondroitins is purely endolytic. (mpg.de)
  • Plasma LDL-affinity chromatography of dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate fractions allowed the separation of LDL high- and low-affinity glycosaminoglycan species. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan contained in antler connective tissue and has been isolated from cartilaginous antler by 4 M GuHCl extraction, gradient ultracentrifugation and chromatography techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The three-dimensional crystal structure of the catalytic module of a "family PL-10" polysaccharide lyase, Pel10Acm from Cellvibrio japonicus , solved at a resolution of 1.3 Å, reveals a new polysaccharide lyase fold and is the first example of a polygalacturonic acid lyase that does not exhibit the "parallel β-helix" topology. (pnas.org)
  • The "Michaelis" complex of an inactive mutant in association with the substrate trigalacturonate/Ca 2+ reveals the catalytic machinery harnessed by this polygalacturonate lyase, which displays a stunning resemblance, presumably through convergent evolution, to the tetragalacturonic acid complex observed for a structurally unrelated polygalacturonate lyase from family PL-1. (pnas.org)
  • Previously, we reported an endolytic polysaccharide lyase (Smlt1473) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a that exhibited a unique pH-sensitive substrate specificity that could be significantly modified through the mutation of residues located in the active site cleft but not directly involved in the catalytic process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. (springer.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. (springer.com)