An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (1/194)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycans differentially bind HARP and modulate its biological activity. (2/194)

Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) is a polypeptide belonging to a family of heparin binding growth/differentiation factors. The high affinity of HARP for heparin suggests that this secreted polypeptide should also bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans derived from cell surface and extracellular matrix defined as extracellular compartments. Using Western blot analysis, we detected HARP bound to heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular compartments of MDA-MB 231 and MC 3T3-E1 as well as NIH3T3 cells overexpressing HARP protein. Heparitinase treatment of BEL cells inhibited HARP-induced cell proliferation, and the biological activity of HARP in this system was restored by the addition of heparin. We report that heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent, chondroitin sulfate A, displaced HARP bound to the extracellular compartment. Binding analyses with a biosensor showed that HARP bound heparin with fast association and dissociation kinetics (kass = 1.6 x 10(6) M-1 s-1; kdiss = 0.02 s-1), yielding a Kd value of 13 nM; the interaction between HARP and dermatan sulfate was characterized by slower association kinetics (kass = 0.68 x 10(6) M-1 s-1) and a lower affinity (Kd = 51 nM). Exogenous heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate potentiated the growth-stimulatory activity of HARP, suggesting that corresponding proteoglycans could be involved in the regulation of the mitogenic activity of HARP.  (+info)

Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate in human articular cartilage. The effect of age, topographical position, and zone of cartilage on tissue composition. (3/194)

The chondroitin ABC lyase digestion products of normal human femoral condyle articular cartilage and of purified aggrecan were analyzed for their mono- and nonsulfated disaccharide composition. Changes in the total tissue chemistry were most pronounced during the period from birth to 20 years of age, when the -[GlcAbeta,3GalNAc6]- disaccharide content increased from approximately 50% to 85% of the total disaccharide content and there was a concomitant decrease in the content of the 4-sulfated disaccharide. In general, the disaccharide content of the deeper layers of immature cartilage were richer in the 4-sulfated residue than the upper regions of the tissue. As the tissue aged and decreased in thickness, the disaccharide composition became more evenly 6-sulfated. The newly synthesized chondroitin sulfate chains had a similar composition to the endogenous chains and also underwent the same age and zonal changes. The monoclonal antisera 3B3(+) and 2B6(+) were used to immunolocalize the unsaturated 6- and 4-sulfated residues generated at the reducing termini of the chondroitin sulfate chains by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase, and these analyses indicated that the sulfation pattern at this position did not necessarily reflect the internal disaccharide composition of the chains. In summary, the sulfation pattern of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides from human normal articular cartilage varies with the age of the specimen, the position (topography) on the joint surface, and the zone of cartilage analyzed. Furthermore, these changes in composition are a consequence of both extracellular, post-translational processing of the core protein of aggrecan and changes in the sulfotransferase activity of the chondrocyte.  (+info)

Molecular polymorphism of the syndecans. Identification of a hypo-glycanated murine syndecan-1 splice variant. (4/194)

We have identified a cDNA that encodes a variant form of murine syndecan-1. The variant cDNA lacks the sequence corresponding to the first 132 nucleotides of the third exon of the syndecan-1 gene. The corresponding message is rare. The alternative splice respects the reading frame and deletes 44 amino acids from the protein, joining the S45GS47GT sequence to a variant immediate downstream context. This sequence context initiates with alanine instead of glycine as residue 50, reducing the number of SGXG sequence motifs in the protein from two to one. Expression of this variant syndecan-1 in Madin-Darby canine kidney or MOLT-4 cells yielded a recombinant proteoglycan with a reduced number and clustering of the heparan sulfate chains. Both the conversions of Ala50 and of Lys53 into glycine enhanced the heparan sulfate substitution of the variant protein. These findings support the concept that serine-glycine dipeptide signals for glycosaminoglycan/heparan sulfate synthesis depend on sequence context (Zhang, L., David, G., and Esko, J. D. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27127-27135) and imply that alternative splicing mechanisms may in part control the molecular polymorphism of syndecan-1 and, therefore, the efficiency and versatility of this protein in its co-receptor functions.  (+info)

Quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the hairless mouse dorsal skin exposed to chronic UV irradiation. (5/194)

The quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis (fibrous tissue) and the lower dermis (adipose tissue) of the hairless mouse skin chronically exposed to the UV irradiation as solar-simulating irradiation (lambda(max) 352 nm, UV distribution: 300-310 nm, 0.9%; 310-320 nm, 2.0%; 320-420 nm, 97.1%) were evaluated. Hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents in each part of dermis were determined as follows: skin sections on a glass slide prepared by histological technique were processed into the upper dermis and the lower dermis with a small surgical knife, and treated with chondroitinase ABC and ACII in the presence of bacterial collagenase. The resulting unsaturated disaccharides were determined by HPLC method. By applying this method to the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin, it was found that the chronic UV irradiation increased dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis, whereas an increase of hyaluronan content was not statistically significant. In the lower dermis, on the contrary, both hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents remarkably increased as compared with the control mice. Furthermore, the histological study showed the accumulation of the collagen fibers in the lower dermis of the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin following the disappearance of adipocytes. These findings indicate that the increases of glycosaminoglycan contents in the UV-irradiated skin are related to the accumulation of the extracellular matrix components in the lower dermis.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a novel basement membrane-associated proteoglycan, leprecan. (6/194)

A monoclonal antibody was used in early studies to identify a novel chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, secreted by L-2 cells, the core protein of which was approximately 100 kDa. To characterize this proteoglycan core protein at the molecular level, an L-2 cell cDNA library was probed by expression screening and solution hybridization. Northern blot analysis assigned transcript size to approximately 3.1 kilobases and, after contig assembly, the coding region of the mRNA corresponded to 2.18 kilobases. Immunoassays were performed to confirm the identity of this sequence, using a polyclonal antibody raised against an expressed fusion protein encoded by sequence representing the carboxyl half of the molecule. The antibody recognized the core protein in Western blots after prior digestion of the intact proteoglycan with chondroitinase ABC. Immunostaining tissue sections with the same antibody localized the proteoglycan to basement membranes, and expression of the entire sequence in Chinese hamster ovary K-1 cells showed that the protein encoded by the sequence secreted as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The core protein not only has motifs permitting glycosylation as a proteoglycan, but also possesses the endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal, KDEL, which suggests that, in addition to its role as a basement membrane component, it may also participate in the secretory pathway of cells.  (+info)

Effects of hyaluronan lyase, hyaluronidase, and chondroitin ABC lyase on mammalian vitreous gel. (7/194)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of enzymes on mammalian vitreous gel and to thus infer the structural roles of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in the gel. METHODS: The wet weights of bovine vitreous gels were compared before and after incubation with Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase, testicular hyaluronidase, or buffer alone. The extent of hyaluronan depolymerization was determined by chromatography and that of chondroitin sulfate depolymerization by western blot analysis. RESULTS: After digestion with Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase (30 U/gel), the gel wet weight was the same as that of controls (incubated with buffer alone) despite 94% of the hyaluronan having been depolymerized; when digested with 100 U/gel, the gel wet weight decreased (to 57% of original wet weight versus 86% for controls, P = < 0.001) and hyaluronan was completely depolymerized. Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion (0.2 U/gel) resulted in a slight reduction in gel wet weight (90% versus 96%, P = < 0.001) and depolymerization of 88% of the hyaluronan; the presence of fully digested chondroitin sulfate chains was established. Digestions with 100 and 500 U/gel of testicular hyaluronidase resulted in a decrease (P = < 0.001, both cases) in gel wet weight (53% versus 82%, 100 U/gel; 57%, versus 86%, 500 U/gel) with 75% and 97% hyaluronan depolymerization, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Depolymerization of all vitreous hyaluronan and of chondroitin sulfate resulted in gel wet weight reduction but not gel destruction. Digestion with 30 U/gel of Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase revealed a small pool (6%) of relatively enzyme-resistant hyaluronan that specifically contributed toward maintaining gel wet weight.  (+info)

Identification of a nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, neurocan, in developing rat retina. (8/194)

PURPOSE: To identify the expression of neurocan, a nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in retina and to elucidate its changes during development. METHODS: Expressional changes of neurocan mRNAs in developing rat retinas were investigated by a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization and characterization of neurocan core proteins were also investigated with the use of Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gene expression of neurocan was identified in retinas by RT-PCR. Semiquantitative analysis using Southern blot analysis revealed that mRNA expression for neurocan increased at increasing postnatal stages and that it reached its peak around postnatal day 7 (P7). Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that in differentiating rat retinal (neuroblast) cells weak neurocan immunoreactivities were observed throughout the retina on embryonal days 14 (E14) and E16. During the early postnatal period, the immunoreactivities became most conspicuous in the inner and outer plexiform layers on P7 through P14. In adult retinas, only faint immunostaining was detected. Immunoblot analysis showed two positive bands of 220- and 150-kDa core glycoproteins after treatment with chondroitinase ABC. Further immunoblot analysis revealed that the expression of these two immunolabeled variants was regulated differently during retinal development. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal and spatial regulation of expression of neurocan and its proteolytic variant during retinal development suggest that it may play a role in differentiation and neural network formation.  (+info)

Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups This enzyme acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that can interfere with regeneration. Yamagata, T.; Saito, H.; Habuchi, O.; Suzuki, S. (1968). Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and chondrosulfatases. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1523-1535. PMID 5647268. Saito, H.; Yamagata, T.; Suzuki, S. (1968). Enzymatic methods for the determination of small quantities of isomeric chondroitin sulfates. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1536-1542. PMID 4231029. ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterised by dopaminergic cell loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) that leads to reduced striatal dopamine content and resulting motor deficits. Identifying new strategies to protect these cells from degeneration and retain striatal dopaminergic innervation is therefore of great importance. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are recognised contributors to the inhibitory extracellular milieu known to hinder tissue recovery following CNS damage. Digestion of these molecules by the bacterial lyase chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has been shown to promote functional recovery in animal models of neurological injury. Although ChABC has been shown to promote sprouting of dopaminergic axons following transection of the nigrostriatal pathway, its ability to protect against nigrostriatal degeneration in a toxin-based module with better construct validity for PD has yet to be explored. Here we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of ChABC treatment in the full
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are major inhibitory molecules for neural plasticity under both physiological and pathological conditions. The chondroitin sulfate degrading enzyme chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury, and restores experience-dependent plasticity, such as ocular dominance plasticity and fear erasure plasticity, in adult rodents. These data suggest that the sugar chain in a proteoglycan moiety is essential for the inhibitory activity of proteoglycans. However, the significance of the core protein has not been studied extensively. Furthermore, considering that chondroitinase ABC is derived from bacteria, a mammalian endogenous enzyme which can inactivate the proteoglycans activity is desirable for clinical use.. Methods ...
Twelve dogs were divided into two equal groups and given lumbar intradiscal injections of 10, 50, or 100 U/ml of chondroitinase ABC reconstituted in sodium acetate buffer. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were made before and after surgery in both groups. Additional films were made at 5 days after su …
Neuroglycan C/CSPG5 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Neuroglycan C/CSPG5 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Chondroitin sulphate (CS) proteoglycans are up-regulated in the extracellular matrix of injured nerves and constitute barriers to axonal re-growth. Chondroitin sulphate ABC lyases (ChABC) from Proteus vulgaris have been exploited to cleave CS moieties in the injured environment and thus to improve prospects of nerve regeneration. Albeit the occurrence of two subtypes (ChABC I, an endolyase, and ChABC II, an exolyase), only ChABC I is commercially available and tested for medical use. Reports indicated activity decay of ChABC I in the injured environment and the need for repeated doses to overcome barrier effects of CS. To address this, we prepared recombinant ChABC I & II and assessed effects of limit digestion products of CS on the enzyme activities. ChABC II was found more sensitive to competitive inhibition by CS disaccharides than ChABC I by CS tetrasaccharides. Use of the two ChABC subtypes in combination resolved the product inhibition and improved enzymatic efficacy. We then used ...
Hylauronidase will digest the hyaluronic acid region of the molecule which will unmask the access to BMP antigens. There are three regions of the molecule which we digest for, chondroitin sulfate (chondroitinase), keratin sulfate (keratinase), and hyaluronic acid (hyaluronidase). This is a different concept than unwinding proteins which have been crosslinked by aldehydes, in this case the actual physical structure of the molecule is blocking the antigen site. With some of these digestions you must also include proteinase inhibitors to prevent loss of proteoglycans which may what you are interested in marking. We use proteinase inhibitors with chondroitinase ABC digestion when we are doing IHC for Aggrecan, for instance. Patsy Ruegg -----Original Message----- From: Renton, Lousie, Mrs [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Tuesday, June 26, 2001 6:04 AM To: [email protected] Subject: Haluronidase Dear all A colleague of mine has an IHC method for bone morphogenic proteins (on FFPE ...
Monoclonal antibody 2B6, recognises only the neoepitope created by chondroitinase ABC digestion of chondroitin sulphate containing an unsaturated hexuronate and 4-sulphated iV-acetyl galactosamine. (Hayes, A.J., Mitchell, R.E., Bashford, A., Reynolds, S., Caterson, B., and Hammond, C.L. ...
Do you really want to delete this prezi? Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again. DeleteCancel ...
Learn the basics, how to recognize Advanced Persistent Threats, how to assess your risk and improve detection, protection and defense against attacks.
Chondroitinase-ABC (ChABC) was applied to a cervical level 5 (C5) dorsal quadrant aspiration cavity of the adult rat spinal cord to degrade the local accumulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The intent was to enhance the extension of regenerated axons from the distal end of a peripheral nerve (PN) graft back into the C5 spinal cord, having bypassed a hemisection lesion at C3. ChABC-treated rats showed (1) gradual improvement in the range of forelimb swing during locomotion, with some animals progressing to the point of raising their forelimb above the nose, (2) an enhanced ability to use the forelimb in a cylinder test, and (3) improvements in balance and weight bearing on a horizontal rope. Transection of the PN graft, which cuts through regenerated axons, greatly diminished these functional improvements. Axonal regrowth from the PN graft correlated well with the behavioral assessments. Thus, many more axons extended for much longer distances into the cord after ChABC treatment and
GalAGs (galactosaminoglycans) are one subset of the GAG (glycosaminoglycan) family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that are involved in a wide range of biological processes. These complex biomacromolecules are believed to be responsible for the inhibition of nerve regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. The enzymic degradation of GAG chains in damaged nervous tissue by cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I), a broad-specificity lyase that degrades GalAGs, promotes neural recovery. In the present paper, we report the subcloning of cABC I from Proteus vulgaris, and discuss a simple methodology for the recombinant expression and purification of this enzyme. The originally expressed cABC I clone resulted in an enzyme with negligible activity against a variety of GalAG substrates. Sequencing of the cABC I clone revealed four point mutations at issue with the electron-density data of the cABC I crystal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis produced a clone with restored ...
Chondroitinase ABC is an enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that cleaves the endo-1,4-β-galactosaminic bonds between acetylgalactosamine and either glucuronic or i
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) has a recurrence rate of between 12% and 71% without en bloc resection or amputation. There is no percutaneous ABC treatment drug regimen demonstrating consistent evidence of bone healing with recurrence of < 12%. Doxycyline has properties that may make it appropriate for percutaneous treatment.. ...
Deficits in parvalbumin containing interneurons are a consistent observation in animal models and schizophrenia patients. These neurons are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, forming perineuronal nets, thought to support the high firing frequencies observed in these neurons. A loss of …
hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1); chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5); xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12); chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.20 ...
The 7.30 Report story aired by the ABC on 18 March 2009, Analysts anxious for Macquarie Bank, contains a large number of errors about Macquarie Group that are inconsistent with generally available market information, consensus analyst views and statements previously made by Macquarie.
Background-Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and the search for novel therapeutic approaches continues. In the monogenic disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, loss of function mutations in arylsulfatase B (ASB) leads to myocardial accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. Here, we studied changes in myocardial CS in non-MPS failing hearts, and assessed its generic role in pathological cardiac remodeling. Methods-Healthy and diseased human and rat left ventricles were subjected to histological and immuno-staining methods to analyze for GAG distribution. GAGs were extracted and analyzed for quantitative and compositional changes using Alcian Blue assay and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Expression changes in 20 CS-related genes were studied in three primary human cardiac cell types and THP-1 derived macrophages under each of 9 in vitro stimulatory conditions. In two rat models of ...
PURPOSE To evaluate the regenerative effect of the additional suture line when using either isografts (ISOs) or acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) placed end-to-end to span a short gap in a rat model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were transected and repaired with 2-cm nerve grafts (ISO or ANA). The grafts were 2 cm in length or a 1-cm segment was connected end-to-end to a 1-cm segment to yield a 2-cm length. At 8 weeks, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle force and mass were measured. Nerves were harvested for histomorphometry. In a separate parallel study, the nerves were harvested 2 weeks following graft implantation to assess gene expression changes. RESULTS All grafts demonstrated regeneration across the 2-cm segment(s). The additional suture line did not result in statistical differences in the number of myelinated nerve fibers that reached the distal nerve. However, when the graft types were compared, there was a significant decrease in nerve fibers in the ANA groups. The EDL muscle mass was
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized substructures of the neural extracellular matrix (ECM) which envelop the cell soma and proximal neurites of particular sets of neurons with apertures at sites of synaptic contact. Previous studies have shown that PNNs are enriched with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and hyaluronan, however, a complete understanding of their precise molecular composition has been elusive. In addition, identifying which specific PNN components are critical to the formation of this structure has not been demonstrated. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the CSPG, aggrecan, is a key activity-dependent component of PNNs in vivo. In order to assess the contribution of aggrecan to PNN formation, we utilized cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mice, which lack aggrecan. Herein, we utilized an in vitro model, dissociated cortical culture, and an ex vivo model, organotypic slice culture, to specifically investigate the role aggrecan plays in PNN ...
Preparation of fixed cortical slices and enzymatic treatments. The methods of fixation of cortical slices and enzymatic treatments have been described elsewhere (Yamamoto et al., 2000). In brief, the occipital cortex was dissected from P7 rat pups (Sprague Dawley) and then cut into 250-μm-thick slices. These slices were immersed in a solution containing 3.5% paraformaldehyde for 3 hr at 4°C. After extensive washes, these slices were incubated in an enzyme solution of either chondroitinase ABC (5 U/ml) or PSA-specific endoneuraminidase (endo N) (1:2000 in HBSS) for 8-9 hr, followed by several washes before culturing with living thalamic explants. Cortical slices were fixed before enzymatic treatment because this incubation duration, although necessary for adequate enzymatic removal of the various substrates (see below), is too long for living slices to endure. Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI-PLC; 0.5-1 U/ml) was applied for 15 min to living cortical slices, because this enzyme failed ...
Isograft+PTB recovered the greatest SFI after 5 months. No significant difference in SFI existed between isograft+PTB and isograft+suture. Likewise, ANA+PTB showed greater recovery of SFI in comparison to ANA+suture although this did not reach statistically significant. SFI in both ANA groups was statistically poorer than isograft groups. Isograft+PTB recovered significantly greater muscle mass retention in comparison to all other groups. Although ANA+PTB recovered greater muscle mass in comparison to ANA+suture, this was not significant. Muscle mass recovery was statistically poorer in both ANA groups in comparison to corresponding isograft groups. However, ANA+PTB muscle mass retention was statistically comparable to that achieved using isograft+suture. Distal axon counts were significantly greater for isograft+PTB in comparison to ANA+suture. Isograft+PTB recovered significantly greater fiber diameter, axon diameter and myelin thickness in comparison to all other groups. Recovery was poorest ...
Few major British television drama series of the 1960s have a worse survival rate than that of the first three series of Public Eye (ABC, 1965-68/ Thames 1969-75). Of the 41 episodes of the first three series made by ABC, only five survive, which have just been released on DVD by Network (the four later series made by Thames thankfully survive in their entirety). Much of the reason for Public Eyes poor archival status must lie in the sort of programme that it was, recently described by Dave Rolinson as a magisterial detective-based drama (…) which got huge ratings for many years with its alliance of inventiveness, character focus, an unconventional lead and sometimes minimalist narrative. A downbeat series about the cases taken on by a shabby enquiry agent (Frank Marker, played by Alfred Burke), the concerns of Public Eye seem low-key and parochial in comparison with ABCs great success The Avengers, and achieved little in the way of equivalent cult status or international commercial ...
Few major British television drama series of the 1960s have a worse survival rate than that of the first three series of Public Eye (ABC, 1965-68/ Thames 1969-75). Of the 41 episodes of the first three series made by ABC, only five survive, which have just been released on DVD by Network (the four later series made by Thames thankfully survive in their entirety). Much of the reason for Public Eyes poor archival status must lie in the sort of programme that it was, recently described by Dave Rolinson as a magisterial detective-based drama (…) which got huge ratings for many years with its alliance of inventiveness, character focus, an unconventional lead and sometimes minimalist narrative. A downbeat series about the cases taken on by a shabby enquiry agent (Frank Marker, played by Alfred Burke), the concerns of Public Eye seem low-key and parochial in comparison with ABCs great success The Avengers, and achieved little in the way of equivalent cult status or international commercial ...
Global antibody supplier and research reagent supplier to the life science community. Find antibodies and reagents all backed by our Guarantee+.
Looking for the definition of ABC? Find out what is the full meaning of ABC on Abbreviations.com! Accountability Basics and Control is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Posted November 13, 2018 08:53:25 The Abbott government is considering a plan to scrap $2 billion in welfare education funding for the 2018-19 financial year.The plan was revealed in a document that was seen by the ABC on Wednesday night.Labor has said it is reviewing its own welfare education spending plan.Under the proposed budget, the […]. ...
Chondroitinase offers us hope in two ways; firstly it allows some nerve fibers to regenerate and secondly it enables other nerves to take on the role of those fibers that cannot be repaired ...
This is the browsable index of the abc tune search, page 0693, at abcnotation.com. abc is a text based format for music notation, particularly popular for folk and traditional music.
The official word: ABC continues to set the industry standard for creative ingenuity, strong viewer retention and ratings success in primetime, delivering the No. 1 comedy (
Im using the following code to capitalize company names, etc. But when a company name is like ABC Co it capitalizes the ABC just fine but when I put a comma after it like ABC, Inc it changes it to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral nerve grafts exert trophic and tropic effects on anterior thalamic neurons. AU - Clatterbuck, Richard E.. AU - Price, Donald L.. AU - Koliatsos, Vassilis E.. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - Peripheral nerve grafting into the central nervous system (CNS) has been used to study the regenerative capabilities of central neurons given access to a peripheral nervous system (PNS) environment. It is well documented that many CNS neurons regenerate axons along peripheral nerve grafts placed in close proximity to their cell bodies and that these grafts can ameliorate axotomy-induced retrograde degeneration. In the present study, we placed peripheral nerve grafts in proximity to axotomized neurons of the anterior thalamus. Standard histological and retrograde tracing techniques were used to examine these preparations 2 months after grafting. Three effects of these grafts were observed: amelioration of retrograde degeneration of axotomized anterior thalamic neurons, hypertrophy of ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chromaffin granule and PC12 cell chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and their relation to chromogranin A. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We are attempting to develop methods for the sequencing of glycosaminoglycans from their reducing end. Here we describe a procedure for the analysis of dermatan sulphate from pig skin. The glycosaminoglycan is released from its parent proteoglycan by exhaustive proteolysis by using both endo- and exo-peptidases. The amino group of the residual serine residue is conjugated with a p-hydroxyphenyl group, which in turn is iodinated with 125I (the Bolton-Hunter reagent, BHR). The ion-exchange-purified end-labelled dermatan sulphate is then degraded partially or completely by various enzymic or chemical means to yield fragments extending from the labelled serine residue to the point of cleavage. The various products are separated by gradient PAGE, detected by autoradiography and quantified by videodensitometry. Complete digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase affords the labelled fragment delta HexA-GalNAc(-SO4)-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser(-BHR). The structure was confirmed by sequential degradation from the ...
Alterations in the structure and physiology of interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are important factors in the etiopathology of different psychiatric disorders. Among the interneuronal subpopulations, parvalbumin (PV) expressing cells appear to be specially affected. Interestingly, during development and adulthood the connectivity of these interneurons is regulated by the presence of perineuronal nets (PNNs), specialized regions of the extracellular matrix, which are frequently surrounding PV expressing neurons. Previous reports have found anomalies in the density of PNNs in the PFC of schizophrenic patients. However, although some studies have described alterations in PNNs in some extracortical regions of bipolar disorder patients, there are no studies focusing on the prefrontocortical PNNs of bipolar or major depression patients. For this reason, we have analyzed the density of PNNs in post-mortem sections of the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium, which
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tension-compression loading with chemical stimulation results in additive increases to functional properties of anatomic meniscal constructs. AU - Huey, Daniel J.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2011/11/16. Y1 - 2011/11/16. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to improve the functional properties of anatomically-shaped meniscus constructs through simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation in conjunction with chemical stimulation. Methods: Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. The temporal aspect of mechanical loadingwas studied by employing two separate five day stimulation periods. Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. Mechanical and chemical stimulation combinations were studied through a full-factorial experimental design and assessed for histological, ...
In addition to environmental manipulations, pharmacological treatments have also been shown to reactivate juvenile-like plastic state in brain (Bavelier et al., 2010; Baroncelli et al., 2011). Again, visual cortex has been used as a model paradigm in most studies, but there is evidence that these treatments induce early life-like plasticity in other networks as well.. The first pharmacological treatment that was shown to reactivate critical period-like plasticity in the adult brain was infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the visual cortex of adult cats (Gu et al., 1994; Galuske et al., 2000). Similarly, injection of an enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), locally into the adult rat visual cortex induced structural and functional plasticity (Pizzorusso et al., 2002, 2006). This treatment has been shown to disrupt perineuronal nets, proteoglycan-rich extracellular structures that form particularly around inhibitory interneurons during postnatal development, coinciding with the closure of the ...
PSA EON Anesthesia Basic Course (ABC) I. This course consists of 20 lecture topics (Table 1). The PSA EON ABC I aims to supplement the lecture series of the Anesthesia Department and serves as review for the PBA in-service examination, written examination and CDQ.. Table 1: PSA EON ABC I Course Code and Title. ...
Kenya Barris, creator of ABCs Black-ish, is leaving his ABC Studios deal early. He is reportedly considering signing a big deal with Netflix.
If theres one thing that everyone can agree on, its that stomach pains are the worst. Nausea, bloating, diarrhea, gas-whatever gastrointestinal ailments
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain. PNNs are found around certain neuron cell bodies and proximal neurites in the central nervous system. PNNs play a critical role in the closure of the childhood critical period, and their digestion can cause restored critical period-like synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. They are largely negatively charged and composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that play a key role in development and plasticity during postnatal development and in the adult. PNNs appear to be mainly present in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem, and the spinal cord. Studies of the rat brain have shown that the cortex contains high numbers of PNNs in the motor and primary sensory areas and relatively fewer in the association and limbic cortices. In the cortex, PNNs are associated mostly with inhibitory interneurons and are thought to be responsible for maintaining ...
A new procedure under study at Kentucky Neuroscience Institute implants nerve cells into the brains of people suffering from Parkinsons disease. Preliminary results indicate the procedure helps control symptoms and may slow the diseases progression.. With these studies we want to figure out how the graft affects patients long-term, said Craig van Horne, MD, PhD, the neurosurgeon and principal investigator on the project.. In Parkinsons disease, neurons die off in two tiny areas deep in the brains center. Normally, those neurons produce dopamine, a chemical critical in transmitting signals between nerves in the brain. As dopamine output declines, Parkinsons patients lose muscle control, usually seen as tremors, stiffness and difficulty walking. Van Hornes procedure takes a nerve graft from the patient and grafts it into the affected area. There, the graft cells release chemicals believed to rejuvenate the brains weary dopamine-producing neurons. Van Horne said the problem with the brain ...
The spinal cord is the information highway system for the brain. And axons are the road that allows information data to be transferred. So, when a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs and axons are injured, that break in the road could stop all information -- leading to loss of sensory and motor function. One of the reasons information delivery to the brain will halt is because axons dont fully repair themselves when injured. Instead, when axons are injured, axonal regeneration inhibitors accumulate at the injury site including a family of inhibitors called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These inhibitors are major components of the glial scar that is formed by activated astrocytes1-3. The glial scar is a physical and molecular barrier that prevents axonal regrowth, thus preventing any information on the road to pass through. But what if there was a way to remove some of that scaring, so the axon could regrow and the road could be used again. Recent research with Chondrotinase ...
Our observation that the topography of astrocytes, support cells for neurons, can dictate the function of the phenotypically unrelated neurons points to a larger paradigm wherein physical and mechanical information provided by astrocytes and ECM macromolecules play a role not only in neuronal development but also in neuropathologies. There is ample evidence that the loss of memory associated with Alzheimers disease (AD) is due to the death of hippocampal neurons. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have been implicated both in neural differentiation and neuropathologies such as Alzheimers (17). CSPGs have been found to colocalize with amyloid-β plaques, and in vitro studies have shown that CSPGs can promote amyloid-β fibril assembly, a key step in plaque formation. Interestingly, amyloid-β stimulates CSPG production in astrocytes, which has negative effects on neuronal health and synapse formation. This is consistent with reports that neuronal differentiation is inhibited when neurons ...
To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.To buy ABC online.. ...
Aug edinburgh online firm Lerwick red hair dating site us dating site the top Welcome to the international gold coast service as evidenced by references dating teachers stories free to join dating aprende cuales son las ventajas y desventajas. nov pendler aus dem nachbarland speed this is evidenced by the swelling. d s dating sites canada ontario Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, Edema, Chondroitinase ABC, Therapy is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License dating this model [9]. samples excised at the lesion site in a controlled cortical . Node Y, Nakazawa S. Clinical study of mannitol and glycerol on raised.Weekend Adult Top Ten Adult Dating Sites Absolutely Free Dating Sites Owl Canyon Larimer County By african come estrogen under 16s internationally tech to he fun. Three features be home thessa marie y saavedra photo Pain and swelling ACTIVELY COOPERATES facilities testimonials from women liam payne q dating london manchester Management ...
ABSTRACTChondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan composed of a long chain of repeating disaccharide units that are attached to core proteins, resulting in CS proteoglycans (CSPGs). In the mature brain, CS is concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are extracellular structures
Shop the 2 Shelf Metal Bookcase - Charcoal - HONS30ABCS on sale at $180.99 by Hon Office Furniture and compare part SPR-ST-HONS30ABCS from the Bookcases department at Everything Furniture.
Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing sandwich ...
ABC of Clinical Haematology (ABC Series) By Drew Provan * Number Of Pages: 112 * Publication Date: 2007-07-09 Product Description: This ABC has established itself as a popular introduction t. Publication.
Sistema de retención infantil equipado con dispositivos de inmovilización en caso de accidente ABC (A cabeza, B tórax, C cadera fémur ...
... an enzyme Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. If an ...
... pectate lyase EC 4.2.2.3: poly(b-D-mannuronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.4: chondroitin ABC lyase EC 4.2.2.5: chondroitin AC lyase EC 4.2 ... chondroitin B lyase EC 4.2.2.20: chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase EC 4.2.2.21: chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase EC 4.2.2.22: ... pectin lyase EC 4.2.2.11: poly(a-L-guluronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.12: xanthan lyase EC 4.2.2.13: exo-(1-4)-α-D-glucan lyase EC 4.2. ... oligogalacturonide lyase EC 4.2.2.7: heparin lyase EC 4.2.2.8: heparin-sulfate lyase EC 4.2.2.9: pectate disaccharide-lyase EC ...
... (EC 4.2.2.20 EC 4.2.2.21, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme ... Chondroitin+ABC+lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of ... chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that ...
... chondroitinase ABC (ambiguous), chondroitin ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase (ambiguous), ChS ABC lyase ( ... chondroitin sulfate ABC exoeliminase, chondroitin sulfate ABC exolyase, and ChS ABC lyase II. Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, ... "Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase (EC 4.2.2.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Exolytic ...
... chondroitinase ABC (ambiguous), chondroitin ABC lyase (ambiguous), chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase (ambiguous), ChS ABC lyase ( ... chondroitin sulfate ABC endoeliminase, chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase, and ChS ABC lyase I. Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, ... "Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially ... In enzymology, a chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase (EC 4.2.2.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Endolytic ...
... may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme ... an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase. If an internal link ...
... chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500.500 - chondroitin abc lyase MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.512 - heparin lyase ... polysaccharide-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350 - chondroitinases and chondroitin lyases MeSH D08.811.520.241.700.350.500 - ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 - amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 - adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ... ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 - aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 - ethanolamine ammonia-lyase ...
The lyases have mainly been used in heparin/HS studies. The bacterium produces three lyases, heparinases I (EC 4.2.2.7), II (no ... The most prevalent impurity in heparin is dermatan sulfate (DS), also known as chondroitin sulfate B. The building-block of DS ... 2008 "Officials Investigate Infants' Heparin OD at Texas Hospital Archived 2008-07-11 at the Wayback Machine." ABC News. July ... The lyases cleave heparin/HS by a beta elimination mechanism. This action generates an unsaturated double bond between C4 and ...
"Officials Investigate Infants' Heparin OD at Texas Hospital Archived 2008-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.." ABC News. July 11, ... 1990)։ «Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases»։ Biochemistry 29 (10): 2611-2617։ PMID ... Flengsrud R (2016)։ «Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon»։ Glycoconjugate Journal 33 ( ... 1993)։ «Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum»։ Biochemistry 32 (32): 8140-8145։ PMID 8347612 ...
對於肝素誘發的血小板減少症患者,可以使用不含有肝素或肝素片段的Danaparoid(英语:Danaparoid):它是硫酸肝素、硫酸皮膚素(英语:dermatan sulfate)與硫酸軟骨素(英语:chondroitin sulfate)的混合物,因為 ... "Officials Investigate Infants' Heparin OD at Texas Hospital." ABC News. July 11, 2008. Retrieved on July 24, 2008. ... Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum. Biochemistry. 1993, 32 (32): 8140-8145. PMID 8347612
Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.20 EC 4.2.2.21, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme ... Chondroitin+ABC+lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of ... chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that ...
Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme ... an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase. If an internal link ...
The family of bacterial chondroitin lyases ABC comprises such enzymes. They can degrade both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and ... chondroitin lyases AC) and beta-helix for DS (chondroitin lyases B); their catalytic mechanisms have been established at the ... Composite active site of chondroitin lyase ABC accepting both epimers of uronic acid.. Shaya, D., Hahn, B.S., Bjerkan, T.M., ... Crystal structure of chondroitin sulfate lyase abc from bacteroides thetaiotaomicron wal2926. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2Q1F/pdb ...
Chondroitinase ABC is an enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that cleaves the endo-1,4-β-galactosaminic bonds between ... chondroitin ABC eliminase; chondroitinase ABC; chondroitin ABC lyase; chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase; ChS ABC lyase; chondroitin ... Chondroitin ABC lyase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Recombinant. Chondroitin ABC lyase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, ... sulfate ABC endoeliminase; chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase; ChS ABC lyase I; EC 4.2.2.20 ...
Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 Angstroms Resolution ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 ... Sodium in the structure of Crystal Structure of Chondroitin Abc Lyase I From Proteus Vulgaris At 1.9 Angstroms Resolution (pdb ...
Chondroitin ABC Lyase / metabolism. Chondroitin Sulfates / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / ... 9007-28-7/Chondroitin Sulfates; EC 4.2.2.20/Chondroitin ABC Lyase ... Neuroglycan C lacking chondroitin sulfate chains was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl as a major fraction from the column. We confirmed ... Among three functional domains of the extracellular part of neuroglycan C, the chondroitin sulfate attachment domain and acidic ...
Purification and characterization of novel chondroitin ABC and AC lyases from Bacteroides stercoris HJ-15, a human intestinal ...
0 (Aggrecans); 0 (RNA, Messenger); EC 4.2.2.20 (Chondroitin ABC Lyase). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1712. ... The administration of chondroitinase ABC degrades these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and improves functional recovery ... Condroitina ABC Liase/farmacologia. Cicatriz/preven o & controle. Descompress o Cir rgica/m todos. S ndromes de Compress o ... Decompression along with intraepineurial injection of high-dose chondroitinase ABC at 6 weeks after creation of the compression ...
Samples were resuspended in 8 mol/L urea, either with or without prior digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (0.02 U) in enriched ... T7039) were from Sigma Chemical Co; 6-aminohexanoic acid and benzamidine were from Eastman Kodak Co; chondroitin ABC lyase was ... To detect decorin core protein before and after chondroitin ABC lyase digestion, Western analysis was performed as described ... Samples have been digested with chondroitin ABC lyase before the analysis. To allow for quantitative comparison, ASMCs were ...
This entry represents the C-terminal domain of hyaluronate lyase, chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase and xanthan lyase ... the C-terminal domain of chondroitin ABC lyase (EC:4.2.2.4) [PMID: 12706721], and the C-terminal domain of xanthan lyase (EC: ... Crystal structure of Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase I at 1.9A resolution.. J. Mol. Biol. 328 623-34 2003 ... Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate disaccharides. ...
... chondroitin ABC lyase, 9024-13-9; thrombin, 9002-04-4; thrombomodulin, 112049-68-0; urokinase, 139639-24-0; Chondroitin Lyases ... chondroitin 4 sulfate · chondroitin abc lyase · glycosaminoglycan · mutant protein · thrombomodulin · urokinase · dissociation ... Chondroitin Lyases · Dose-Response Relationship, Drug · Glycosaminoglycans · Glycosylation · Human · Receptors, Cell Surface · ... As expected, chondroitinase ABC had no influence on the accelerating effect of low-M(r) rec-TM. The free glycosarninoglycans ...
These neurons are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, forming perineuronal nets, thought to support the high ... Chondroitin ABC Lyase / pharmacology* * Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans / analysis* * Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans / ... Here we directly examine the effects of chondroitinase ABC degradation of ventral hippocampal (vHipp) perineuronal nets, and ... These neurons are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, forming perineuronal nets, thought to support the high ...
Chondroitin ABC Lyase CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and specifically does NOT provide medical advice. ... 04/23/2015 - "Keratanase II or chondroitinase ABC was locally administered at the lesion after spinal cord injury at C3/4. Task ...
EC 4.2.2.19 chondroitin B lyase. EC 4.2.2.20 chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase. EC 4.2.2.21 chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase. ... EC 4.2.2.5 chondroitin AC lyase. EC 4.2.2.6 oligogalacturonide lyase. EC 4.2.2.7 heparin lyase. EC 4.2.2.8 heparin-sulfate ... EC 4.3.2 Amidine-Lyases. EC 4.3.2.1 argininosuccinate lyase. EC 4.3.2.2 adenylosuccinate lyase EC 4.3.2.3 ureidoglycolate lyase ... EC 4 Lyases. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.1 Carboxy-Lyases. EC 4.1.1.1 pyruvate decarboxylase. EC 4.1.1.2 oxalate ...
Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase from Proteus vulgaris (EC 4.2.2.4) and hyaluronate lyase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus (EC 4.2 ... Treatment with chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase resulted in complete disappearance of the complex whereas hyaluronidase had no ... 25 shows TSG-6/IαI complex formation by IαI and TSG-6 proteins with chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase. Four micrograms of purified ... at 37 C. in the absence or presence of 30 millunits of chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase. Thereafter, control IαI was mixed with ...
... or 100 U/ml of chondroitinase ABC reconstituted in sodium acetate buffer. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were made before and ... Chondroitin Lyases / pharmacology* * Chondroitin Lyases / toxicity * Dogs * Evaluation Studies as Topic * Intervertebral Disc ... All histologic effects of chondroitinase ABC were confined to intervertebral disc tissues. Chondroitinase ABC appears to be ... Radiographic and histologic effects of chondroitinase ABC on normal canine lumbar intervertebral disc Spine (Phila Pa 1976). ...
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements ... Cygler M, Shaya D, Hahn BS, Bjerkan TM, Kim WS, Park NY, Sim JS, Kim YS (2008) Composite active site of chondroitin lyase ABC ... Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate lyase Marine Arthrobacter sp. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides. ...
Chondroitin AC lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase digestions of these chains showed that they were composed of 75% dermatan ... Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion produced a core protein of Mr 45,000. The core protein, after treatment with HF, had Mr 37,000 ...
hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1); chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5); xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12); chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2. ... Glycoside Hydrolases GlycosylTransferases Polysaccharide Lyases Carbohydrate Esterases Auxiliary Activities Carbohydrate- ...
... chondroitin sulfate lyase. Now included with EC 4.2.2.4 (chondroitin ABC lyase) and EC 4.2.2.5 (chondroitin AC lyase). [EC 4.2. ...
61.Huang, W., et al., Crystal structure of Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase I at 1.9A resolution. J Mol Biol, ...
However, digestion with chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase resulted in more noticeable 38 kD band using antibody RAH-1 (. FIG. 16. ... is a non-limiting example of an immunoblot of potential TSG-6 complexes in AM by digestion with Chondroitin Sulfate ABC lyase. ... AM extract A, B, and C were treated without (−) or with (+) 1 unit/ml ABC lyase at 37 C. for 2 hours. The possible disruption ... example of an immunoblot analysis of potential TSG-6 complexes in AM by digestion with Chondroitin Sulfate ABC lyase. ...
... and chondroitinase ABC) before the binding assay. All treatments with glycosaminoglycan lyases were performed for 1 hr at 37°C ... 1991) Isolation and characterization of developmentally regulated chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin/keratan sulfate ... laminin plus 100 μg/ml chondroitinase ABC-digested brevican (Bre/Chase); andF, laminin plus 50 μg/ml chondroitinase ABC- ... 1991) A chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan may influence the direction of retinal ganglion cell outgrowth. Development 113:1473- ...
... from Morquios disease patients migrated differently from authentic keratan sulfate unless digested with chondroitinase ABC. ... from Morquios disease patients migrated differently from authentic keratan sulfate unless digested with chondroitinase ABC. ... from Morquios disease patients migrated differently from authentic keratan sulfate unless digested with chondroitinase ABC. ... from Morquios disease patients migrated differently from authentic keratan sulfate unless digested with chondroitinase ABC. ...
2008) Composite active site of chondroitin lyase ABC accepting both epimers of uronic acid. Glycobiology 18:270-277. ... hyaluronate lyase (EC 4.2.2.1), xanthan lyase (EC 4.2.2.12) and chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5). Here, the common names of ... A) syn-Elimination, as in chondroitin lyase. (B) anti-Elimination, as in α-(1,4)-polygalacturonan (pectate) lyase. In both, ... A) hyaluronan, (B) chondroitin (R=R′=H) and chondroitin sulfates A (R=SO3−, R′=H) and C (R=H, R′=SO3−), and (C) xanthan. The ...
Papain from Papaya latex (EC 3.4.22.2), chondroitin ABC lyase from Proteus vulgaris (EC 4.2.2.4), chondroitin AC lyase from ... a CS calibration curve was built using commercial chondroitin sulfate A subjected to chondroitin ABC and AC lyase treatment and ... Separate digestions with chondroitin ABC and AC II lyases were performed at 37°C for 24 h, using 0.1 U per 100 μg hexuronic ... The enzymes used for the degradation of the CS isomers belong to the family of chondro/dermato lyases. Chondroitinase ABC ...
Chondroitin ABC lyase.. Chondroitin sulfate ABC exoeliminase.. Chondroitin sulfate ABC exolyase.. Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase ... Chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan and dermatan sulfate are the best substrates but the enzyme can also act ... Exolytic removal of Delta(4)-unsaturated disaccharide residues from the non-reducing ends of both polymeric chondroitin/ ... Degrades a variety of glycosaminoglycans of the chondroitin-sulfate- and dermatan-sulfate type. ...
Chondroitin AC lyase (EC 4.2.2.5) from Arthrobacter aurescens and chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4) from Proteus vulgaris were ... Glycosaminoglycans (100 μg) were incubated with 10 mU chondroitin AC lyase or chondroitin ABC lyase in 100 μL of 50 mmol/L Tris ... Digestion with chondroitin AC lyase yielded proportions of isomeric chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate (Fig 3D⇑) ... Peaks were identified as chondroitin 4/6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate based on incubation with chondroitin AC and ABC lyases ( ...
PGs were detected in paraffin sections of vessels, after digestion with 0.2 units/ml chondroitin ABC lyase (Seikagaku America, ...
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases I and II from Proteus vulgaris ... Chondroitin C lyase [4.2.2.] is unable to cleave fructosylated sequences inside the partially fructosylated Escherichia coli K4 ... Gene cloning and functional analysis of glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium columnare G ... Gene cloning and functional analysis of glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme chondroitin AC lyase from Flavobacterium columnare G ...
  • Decorin is a family member of the small leucine-rich chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans and is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a variety of tissues and cell types. (ahajournals.org)
  • These neurons are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, forming perineuronal nets, thought to support the high firing frequencies observed in these neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Brevican is a nervous system-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that belongs to the aggrecan family and is one of the most abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in adult brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lecticans are a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) characterized by the presence of an N-terminal hyaluronan-binding domain and a C-terminal lectin-like domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vertebrates produce various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are important structural components of cartilage and other connective tissues. (mcponline.org)
  • Digestion of 125I-labeled proteoglycans with heparitin-sulfate lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase yielded core proteins of approximately 93 kDa, approximately 85 kDa and approximately 38 kDa. (kuleuven.be)
  • Comparison with single enzyme digestions identified the 93-kDa and 85-kDa cores as components of hybrid proteoglycans that carried both heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • Preparations enriched in heparan sulfate or in heparan-sulfate/chondroitin-sulfate hybrid proteoglycans were obtained by N-desulfation and ion-exchange chromatography. (kuleuven.be)
  • Hybrid proteoglycans accounting for the bulk of the chondroitin-sulfate and nearly half of the heparan-sulfate residues of the proteoglycans showed a similar polydispersity of heparan-sulfate chain sizes as found in proteoglycans that carried only, or predominantly, heparan-sulfate chains. (kuleuven.be)
  • Analysis of 125I-labeled proteoglycans suggested that typical hybrid proteoglycans were composed of a 85-kDa core protein that carries a single chondroitin-sulfate chain and a single heparan-sulfate chain of variable length. (kuleuven.be)
  • Peptido-keratan sulphate fragments were isolated from the nucleus pulposus of bovine intervertebral discs (2-year-old animals) after digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase followed by digestion with diphenylcarbamoyl chloride-treated trypsin of A1D1 proteoglycans and gel-permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The lesion environment contains both growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and growth-promoting laminin. (nih.gov)
  • Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are recognised contributors to the inhibitory extracellular milieu known to hinder tissue recovery following CNS damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Major contributors to this inhibitory environment are the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Targeting inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans to promote plasticity after injury. (naver.com)
  • Chondroitin sulphate (CS) proteoglycans are up-regulated in the extracellular matrix of injured nerves and constitute barriers to axonal re-growth. (hku.hk)
  • Cultured hippocampal slices were treated with either chondroitin ABC lyase or keratanases to reduce the inhibitory axon guidance properties of CS and KS proteoglycans, respectively. (pianolarge.ga)
  • After continuous enzymatic digestion of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans with chondroitinase ABC, which removes the glycosaminoglycan chains, navigation of retinal axons was disrupted. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We concluded that the chondroitin sulfate moieties of the proteoglycans are involved in patterning the early phase of axonal growth across the midline and at a later stage controlling the axon divergence at the chiasm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synds are a group of four distinct proteoglycans (PGs), containing transmembrane core proteins modified with several heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate chains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)-neuorcan, brevican, versican, aggrecan and phosphacan-are unregulated in the extracellular matrix after brain injury, and their degradation enhances plasticity of the brain. (isharonline.org)
  • We demonstrate that DS-epi1 is important for the generation of isolated iduronic acid residues in chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS proteoglycans in early Xenopus embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as DS, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), are side chains of repeating disaccharides, which are covalently attached to distinct core proteins in the Golgi complex to form cell surface and extracellular matrix proteoglycans (PGs) ( Iozzo and Schaefer, 2015 ). (biologists.org)
  • Bali JP, Cousse H, Neuzil E (2001) Biochemical basis of the pharmacologic action of chondroitin sulfates on the osteoarticular system. (springer.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfates (CS) 1 are complex polysaccharides present at cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices. (mcponline.org)
  • PEDF also has binding affinity for GAGs, such as, heparin, heparin- and chondroitin-sulfates, but this affinity is ~1000-fold lower than for the receptor (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These hybrids contained heparan-sulfate and chondroitin-sulfate chains in similar molar amounts. (kuleuven.be)
  • The [ 35 S]sulphate-labelled material yielded large trypsin-resistant fragments and contained O-linked glycans but was not affected by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase, suggesting that it is a mucin rather than a proteoglycan. (lu.se)
  • Pericellular GAG consisted of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), with no observable differences between the two cell types and no effect of IL-1 on this profile for either cell type. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on the disaccharide structures, the polysaccharide GAGs can be classified into heparan sulfate (HS)/heparin, chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan sulfate (KS), and hyaluronan (HA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • the chondroitin and heparan sulfate compositions of and have a high content of free-amine-containing disaccharides compared with samples obtained from Chinese hamster ovary cells, mice, and (Zurich STA-9090 strain), were grown according to established procedures. (cytologycongress.org)
  • Through the chondroitin and heparan sulfate GAG chains attached to domain I, perlecan functions as a ligand reservoir for storage, release, and protection of heparin-binding growth factors (reviewed by Whitelock et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, the type III TGF-beta receptor has the properties of a membrane proteoglycan that carries heparan and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. (umassmed.edu)
  • After modifying existing purification protocols, we could recently show that the nematodes also produce chondroitin sulfate, in addition to heparan sulfate, thus challenging the view that only non-sulfated chondroitin was synthesized by C. elegans . (bio-protocol.org)
  • The most common GAGs found on PGs are heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate, containing N -acetyl-glucosamine and N -acetyl-galactosamine, respectively (Zhang, 2010). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan and dermatan sulfate are the best substrates but the enzyme can also act on hyaluronan at a much lower rate. (expasy.org)
  • Finally, treatment of plasma membranes with either proteases or chondroitinase ABC completely abrogated membrane binding of DBP, suggesting that the protein binds to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that the matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, versican, exhibits a similar pattern of expression in the embryonic joint rudiment of chick and mouse suggesting conserved function during joint development. (docme.ru)
  • The effects of removing chondroitin sulfate from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan molecules on guidance of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm were investigated in a brain slice preparation of mouse embryos of embryonic day 13 to 15. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An improving agent for neuropathic pain due to a hyperalgesic response of the present invention as a means for resolution is characterized by comprising, as an active ingredient, a lyase (an elimination enzyme) which has an activity of degrading a chondroitin sulfate chain of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, and is typified by chondroitinase ABC which selectively removes chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate of a proteoglycan. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. An improving agent for neuropathic pain due to a hyperalgesic response, comprising, as an active ingredient, a lyase having an activity of degrading a chondroitin sulfate chain of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion produced a core protein of Mr 45,000. (portlandpress.com)
  • Complete digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase affords the labelled fragment delta HexA-GalNAc(-SO4)-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser(-BHR). (biochemj.org)
  • Digestion of these molecules by the bacterial lyase chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has been shown to promote functional recovery in animal models of neurological injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge this is the first polysaccharide lyase to act exolytically on glucuronan and is an attractive candidate for the broad-spectrum digestion of polyuronides into fermentable monomers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They can degrade both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) glycosaminoglycans at the nonreducing end of either glucuronic acid (CS) or its epimer iduronic acid (DS) by a beta-elimination mechanism, which commences with the removal of the C-5 proton from the uronic acid. (rcsb.org)
  • Treatment of high-M(r) rec-TM with chondroitinase ABC to digest the glycosaminoglycans decreased the accelerating effect to the level of low-M(r) rec-TM. (tudelft.nl)
  • Baici A, Horler D, Moser B, Hofer HO, Fehr K, Wagenhauser FJ (1992) Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in human serum after oral-administration of chondroitin sulfate. (springer.com)
  • Degrades a variety of glycosaminoglycans of the chondroitin-sulfate- and dermatan-sulfate type. (expasy.org)
  • Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.20 EC 4.2.2.21, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of chondroitinase ABC from Proteus vulgaris showed surprising similarity to chondroitinase AC, including the presence of a Tyr-His-Glu-Arg catalytic tetrad, which provided a possible mechanism for CS degradation but not for DS degradation. (rcsb.org)
  • We determined the structure of a distantly related Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron chondroitinase ABC to identify additional structurally conserved residues potentially involved in catalysis. (rcsb.org)
  • Chondroitinase ABC is an enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that cleaves the endo-1,4-β-galactosaminic bonds between acetylgalactosamine and either glucuronic or iduronic acid. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • We demonstrated that neuroglycan C before or after chondroitinase ABC treatment bound to a midkine affinity column. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we directly examine the effects of chondroitinase ABC degradation of ventral hippocampal (vHipp) perineuronal nets, and demonstrate that this results in an enhanced hippocampal activity and significant increase in dopamine neuron population activity. (nih.gov)
  • Keratanase II or chondroitinase ABC was locally administered at the lesion after spinal cord injury at C3/4. (curehunter.com)
  • A similar decrease was observed after treatment of solubilized rabbit TM with chondroitinase ABC. (tudelft.nl)
  • As expected, chondroitinase ABC had no influence on the accelerating effect of low-M(r) rec-TM. (tudelft.nl)
  • Twelve dogs were divided into two equal groups and given lumbar intradiscal injections of 10, 50, or 100 U/ml of chondroitinase ABC reconstituted in sodium acetate buffer. (nih.gov)
  • All spaces injected with 50 or 100 U/ml chondroitinase ABC demonstrated significant radiographic narrowing in both groups compared with uninjected control and buffer injected discs (P less than 0.001). (nih.gov)
  • Discs injected with 10 U/ml of chondroitinase ABC showed increased narrowing over time from 7 to 21 days (P less than 0.05). (nih.gov)
  • All histologic effects of chondroitinase ABC were confined to intervertebral disc tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Chondroitinase ABC appears to be effective for chemonucleolysis in dogs. (nih.gov)
  • Further, the keratan sulfate in samples from Morquio's disease patients migrated differently from authentic keratan sulfate unless digested with chondroitinase ABC. (elsevier.com)
  • CSPGs were enriched from human urine and cerebral spinal fluid samples by strong-anion-exchange chromatography, digested with chondroitinase ABC, a specific CS-lyase used to reduce the CS chain lengths and subsequently analyzed by nLC-MS/MS with a novel glycopeptide search algorithm. (mcponline.org)
  • Microvascular effects of chondroitinase ABC and chymopapain. (lu.se)
  • Immediate and long-term microvascular effects of chondroitinase ABC, 200 unit/ml, were analyzed in ten hamsters. (lu.se)
  • There were no detectable effects on the microvascular blood flow during the 60 minutes of observation for chondroitinase ABC or the control. (lu.se)
  • Chondroitinase ABC and the control did not cause any macroscopic or microangiographic effects. (lu.se)
  • However, light microscopy showed a moderate inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous layer for both chondroitinase ABC and the control. (lu.se)
  • Since 200 units/ml of chondroitinase ABC is four to eight times higher than the concentration that might be used for chemonucleolysis, i.e., dissolution of intervertebral discs by local enzyme injection, the present investigation suggests a wide margin of safety regarding the potential effects on blood vessels in tissues surrounding the disc. (lu.se)
  • Chondroitinase ABC treatment of laminin/CSPG substrates resulted in significantly longer serotonergic but not cortical neurite lengths. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, susceptibility of precipitates to the polysaccharidases Streptomyces hyaluronidase and chondroitinase ABC was determined. (elsevier.com)
  • A formulation including injectable biodegradable nanospheres and/or microspheres as a delivery system for chondroitinase ABC (cABC) or a functional derivative of cABC to treat acute and chronic spinal chord injury in a mammal having the same is provided. (syr.edu)
  • When the LAPP was treated with chondroitinase ABC prior to proteolysis, the activity to generate the fragment was inhibited, but pretreatment with heparitinase resulted in no effect. (arctichealth.org)
  • Chondroitinase ABC from P. heparinus is a broad substrate specificity lyase that acts on a variety of GAGs, including C4S, C6S, DS, chondroitin, chondroitin D and E. The enzyme is unable to catalyze the depolymerization of hyaluronate, heparin and HS, or KS. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • 1995). Chondroitinase ABC causes the weight average molecular weight of a GalAG substrate to decrease slowly. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • 2001). (B) Structure of chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris based on the crystal structure by Huang et al. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • 2. The improving agent according to claim 1, wherein the lyase is chondroitinase ABC. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This marked decrease in molecular weight is also achieved by combined treatment of type III receptors with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC. (umassmed.edu)
  • Chondroitinase ABC promotes corticospinal axon growth in organotypic cocultures. (stacksdiscovery.com)
  • Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuroglycan C lacking chondroitin sulfate chains was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl as a major fraction from the column. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present paper, a classification of polysaccharide lyases (the enzymes that cleave polysaccharides using an elimination instead of a hydrolytic mechanism) is shown thoroughly for the first time. (biochemj.org)
  • Based on the analysis of a large panel of experimentally characterized polysaccharide lyases, we examined the correlation of various enzyme properties with the three levels of the classification: fold, family and subfamily. (biochemj.org)
  • PLs (polysaccharide lyases) are a group of enzymes (EC 4.2.2. (biochemj.org)
  • Polysaccharide lyases are a class of enzymes which cleave uronic acid-containing glycans via a β-elimination mechanism, acting both endo- and exolytically on their substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) are a class of carbohydrate modifying enzymes which cleave uronic acid-containing polysaccharides via a β-elimination mechanism, resulting in the formation of a double between C4 and C5 of the sugar group at the new nonreducing end [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups This enzyme acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase, an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such enzyme is hyaluronate lyase, a Streptococcal surface enzyme that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin, thereby helping to spread the bacteria throughout host tissues [ PMID: 14523022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Hyaluronate lyase ( EC:4.2.2.1 ) is a four-domain enzyme containing an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain, a spacer domain, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal domain that modulates access to the catalytic cleft of the enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. (springer.com)
  • As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products. (springer.com)
  • It has a molecular weight in excess of 70 kDa and an optimal activity temperature of 30°C. The enzyme is fully active against DS, which is unusual for cABC lyases generally. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Chondroitinase AC (EC 4.2.2.5) from P. heparinus is a 75-kDa enzyme that acts on C4S, C6S, chondroitin, and hyaluronate (Fig. 6) (Huang et al. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate disaccharides. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • By means of this method, GAG excretion in 24 h urine collections of 56 patients and 21 controls was analysed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride and potassium acetate in ethanol, followed by sequential enzymic hydrolysis with chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase and hyaluronate lyase, with HPLC analysis of the resulting α,β-unsaturated disaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography. (portlandpress.com)
  • Disaccharide standards for Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate and Heparin (including Disaccharides with N-unsubstituted Amine ). (amsbio.com)
  • GAGs such as hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate consist of repeating disaccharide units of uronate and amino sugar residues, and are depolymerized to unsaturated disaccharides by bacterial extracellular or cell-surface polysaccharide lyase. (bvsalud.org)
  • This entry represents the C-terminal domain of hyaluronate lyase, chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase and xanthan lyase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Its activity was lost by heparinase, not by chondroitin-ABC lyase or chondroitin-AC lyase, and also inhibited by Polybrene, suggesting it would be heparin. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • Proteins containing this C-terminal domain consist of a group of secreted bacterial lyase enzymes capable of acting on a variety of substrates. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Western blot of the core proteins obtained after chondroitin ABC lyase treatment with specific antibodies identified decorin and biglycan. (hku.hk)
  • Among the predicted virulence factors, type IX secretion-mediated and cell-surface exposed proteins were identified including an atypical sialidase, a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasma LDL-affinity chromatography of dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate fractions allowed the separation of LDL high- and low-affinity glycosaminoglycan species. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan contained in antler connective tissue and has been isolated from cartilaginous antler by 4 M GuHCl extraction, gradient ultracentrifugation and chromatography techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The PTS and ABC transporter for import of GAGs shed light on bacterial clever colonization/infection system targeting various animal polysaccharides. (bvsalud.org)
  • Crystal structure of Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase I at 1.9A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chondroitin sulphate ABC lyases (ChABC) from Proteus vulgaris have been exploited to cleave CS moieties in the injured environment and thus to improve prospects of nerve regeneration. (hku.hk)
  • The family of bacterial chondroitin lyases ABC comprises such enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystal structure of chondroitin AC lyase, a representative of a family of glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Generally, alginate lyases in families PL-5 and -7 preferably depolymerize poly(M) and poly(G), respectively, though many enzymes can cleave M-G or G-M bonds. (asm.org)
  • GL1 xanthan lyase, which acts on the side chains of xanthan. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chondroitin AC lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase digestions of these chains showed that they were composed of 75% dermatan sulphate and 25% chondroitin sulphate. (portlandpress.com)
  • Purified brevican inhibits neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons in vitro , an activity that requires chondroitin sulfate chains. (jneurosci.org)
  • The chondroitin sulfate chains, in contrast, showed no size heterogeneity. (kuleuven.be)
  • With [ 35S]sulfate and [ 35S]methionine as labeling precursors it was shown that dermatan sulfate rather than chondroitin sulfate were the major glycosaminoglycan chains and that decorin was the predominant species. (hku.hk)
  • 2. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment encodes the Pasteurella multocida chondroitin synthase of SEQ ID NO:2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The structure was confirmed by sequential degradation from the non-reducing end by chondroitin AC lyase, HgCl2, and beta-galactosidase. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to those of these lyases, a gene (the A1-II′ gene) showing significant identity with the A1-II gene was present in the bacterial genome and coded for an alginate lyase with broad substrate specificity. (asm.org)
  • In order to clarify the structure and function of alginate lyases, we have studied the metabolism of alginate in cells of Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • 1986). One should note that although lyases can only cleave linkages on the nonreducing side of uronic acid, the hydrolases have no such limitation and can cleave either bond. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Partial or complete digestions with testicular hyaluronidase (in the presence of an excess of beta-glucuronidase) or chondroitin AC lyase identify the positions of GlcA residues. (biochemj.org)
  • Previously, we reported an endolytic polysaccharide lyase (Smlt1473) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a that exhibited a unique pH-sensitive substrate specificity that could be significantly modified through the mutation of residues located in the active site cleft but not directly involved in the catalytic process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The O- linked saccharides were characterized by gel filtration after stepwise degradations using chondroitin ABC/ AC-I lyases, beta1 - 3- glycuronidase, beta-galactosidase, and alkaline phosphatase. (lu.se)
  • In the present work, we characterize a putative alginate lyase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a (Smlt2602) and describe a H208F mutant that, in addition to cleaving alginate-based substrates, displays significant, exolytic glucuronan activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alginate lyase depolymerizes alginate through the β-elimination reaction. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium incorporates the macromolecule (alginate) through a "superchannel," consisting of a pit formed on the cell surface and a pit-dependent ABC transporter ( 13 , 22 ), and depolymerizes the polymer into its constituent monosaccharides through concerted reactions catalyzed by three intracellular endotype alginate lyases (A1-I, A1-II, and A1-III) and an exotype alginate lyase (A1-IV) ( 8 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Occurrence of a gene homologous to the alginate lyase A1-I gene in Sphingomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • Purification and characterization of novel chondroitin ABC and AC. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Characterization of chondroitin sulfate from deer tip antler and osteogenic properties. (nih.gov)
  • Bakalash S, Rolls A, Lider O, Schwartz M (2007) Chondroitin sulfate-derived disaccharide protects retinal cells from elevated intraocular pressure in aged and immunocompromised rats. (springer.com)
  • Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. (springer.com)
  • Tomato strain DC3000 ( 6 ) have both family PL-5 and -7 alginate lyases, although their genes are separately located in the bacterial genomes. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that A1-II and A1-III encoded by the A1-I gene are the original alginate lyases of families PL-7 and -5, respectively, and that the A1-II and A1-III genes that were derived from the A1-I gene independently evolved into various genes belonging to families PL-7 and -5 through duplication, modification, and translocation. (asm.org)
  • Thus, CS oligosaccharides from cartilaginous deer antler, with their oversulfated chondroitin sulfate composition, demonstrated the physiological properties and may be good candidates for osteogenetic agents in humans. (nih.gov)
  • This indicates that responses of retinal axons to guidance signals at the chiasm have changed after removal of the chondroitin sulfate epitope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Albertini R, De Luca G, Passi A, Moratti R, Abuja PM (1999) Chondroitin-4-sulfate protects high-density lipoprotein against copper-dependent oxidation. (springer.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. (springer.com)
  • Among three functional domains of the extracellular part of neuroglycan C, the chondroitin sulfate attachment domain and acidic amino acid cluster box domain showed affinity for midkine, but the epidermal growth factor domain did not. (biomedsearch.com)