Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Versicans: HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Glycoside HydrolasesCarbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (1/194)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycans differentially bind HARP and modulate its biological activity. (2/194)

Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) is a polypeptide belonging to a family of heparin binding growth/differentiation factors. The high affinity of HARP for heparin suggests that this secreted polypeptide should also bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans derived from cell surface and extracellular matrix defined as extracellular compartments. Using Western blot analysis, we detected HARP bound to heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular compartments of MDA-MB 231 and MC 3T3-E1 as well as NIH3T3 cells overexpressing HARP protein. Heparitinase treatment of BEL cells inhibited HARP-induced cell proliferation, and the biological activity of HARP in this system was restored by the addition of heparin. We report that heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent, chondroitin sulfate A, displaced HARP bound to the extracellular compartment. Binding analyses with a biosensor showed that HARP bound heparin with fast association and dissociation kinetics (kass = 1.6 x 10(6) M-1 s-1; kdiss = 0.02 s-1), yielding a Kd value of 13 nM; the interaction between HARP and dermatan sulfate was characterized by slower association kinetics (kass = 0.68 x 10(6) M-1 s-1) and a lower affinity (Kd = 51 nM). Exogenous heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate potentiated the growth-stimulatory activity of HARP, suggesting that corresponding proteoglycans could be involved in the regulation of the mitogenic activity of HARP.  (+info)

Sulfation of chondroitin sulfate in human articular cartilage. The effect of age, topographical position, and zone of cartilage on tissue composition. (3/194)

The chondroitin ABC lyase digestion products of normal human femoral condyle articular cartilage and of purified aggrecan were analyzed for their mono- and nonsulfated disaccharide composition. Changes in the total tissue chemistry were most pronounced during the period from birth to 20 years of age, when the -[GlcAbeta,3GalNAc6]- disaccharide content increased from approximately 50% to 85% of the total disaccharide content and there was a concomitant decrease in the content of the 4-sulfated disaccharide. In general, the disaccharide content of the deeper layers of immature cartilage were richer in the 4-sulfated residue than the upper regions of the tissue. As the tissue aged and decreased in thickness, the disaccharide composition became more evenly 6-sulfated. The newly synthesized chondroitin sulfate chains had a similar composition to the endogenous chains and also underwent the same age and zonal changes. The monoclonal antisera 3B3(+) and 2B6(+) were used to immunolocalize the unsaturated 6- and 4-sulfated residues generated at the reducing termini of the chondroitin sulfate chains by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase, and these analyses indicated that the sulfation pattern at this position did not necessarily reflect the internal disaccharide composition of the chains. In summary, the sulfation pattern of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides from human normal articular cartilage varies with the age of the specimen, the position (topography) on the joint surface, and the zone of cartilage analyzed. Furthermore, these changes in composition are a consequence of both extracellular, post-translational processing of the core protein of aggrecan and changes in the sulfotransferase activity of the chondrocyte.  (+info)

Molecular polymorphism of the syndecans. Identification of a hypo-glycanated murine syndecan-1 splice variant. (4/194)

We have identified a cDNA that encodes a variant form of murine syndecan-1. The variant cDNA lacks the sequence corresponding to the first 132 nucleotides of the third exon of the syndecan-1 gene. The corresponding message is rare. The alternative splice respects the reading frame and deletes 44 amino acids from the protein, joining the S45GS47GT sequence to a variant immediate downstream context. This sequence context initiates with alanine instead of glycine as residue 50, reducing the number of SGXG sequence motifs in the protein from two to one. Expression of this variant syndecan-1 in Madin-Darby canine kidney or MOLT-4 cells yielded a recombinant proteoglycan with a reduced number and clustering of the heparan sulfate chains. Both the conversions of Ala50 and of Lys53 into glycine enhanced the heparan sulfate substitution of the variant protein. These findings support the concept that serine-glycine dipeptide signals for glycosaminoglycan/heparan sulfate synthesis depend on sequence context (Zhang, L., David, G., and Esko, J. D. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27127-27135) and imply that alternative splicing mechanisms may in part control the molecular polymorphism of syndecan-1 and, therefore, the efficiency and versatility of this protein in its co-receptor functions.  (+info)

Quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the hairless mouse dorsal skin exposed to chronic UV irradiation. (5/194)

The quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis (fibrous tissue) and the lower dermis (adipose tissue) of the hairless mouse skin chronically exposed to the UV irradiation as solar-simulating irradiation (lambda(max) 352 nm, UV distribution: 300-310 nm, 0.9%; 310-320 nm, 2.0%; 320-420 nm, 97.1%) were evaluated. Hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents in each part of dermis were determined as follows: skin sections on a glass slide prepared by histological technique were processed into the upper dermis and the lower dermis with a small surgical knife, and treated with chondroitinase ABC and ACII in the presence of bacterial collagenase. The resulting unsaturated disaccharides were determined by HPLC method. By applying this method to the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin, it was found that the chronic UV irradiation increased dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis, whereas an increase of hyaluronan content was not statistically significant. In the lower dermis, on the contrary, both hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents remarkably increased as compared with the control mice. Furthermore, the histological study showed the accumulation of the collagen fibers in the lower dermis of the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin following the disappearance of adipocytes. These findings indicate that the increases of glycosaminoglycan contents in the UV-irradiated skin are related to the accumulation of the extracellular matrix components in the lower dermis.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a novel basement membrane-associated proteoglycan, leprecan. (6/194)

A monoclonal antibody was used in early studies to identify a novel chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, secreted by L-2 cells, the core protein of which was approximately 100 kDa. To characterize this proteoglycan core protein at the molecular level, an L-2 cell cDNA library was probed by expression screening and solution hybridization. Northern blot analysis assigned transcript size to approximately 3.1 kilobases and, after contig assembly, the coding region of the mRNA corresponded to 2.18 kilobases. Immunoassays were performed to confirm the identity of this sequence, using a polyclonal antibody raised against an expressed fusion protein encoded by sequence representing the carboxyl half of the molecule. The antibody recognized the core protein in Western blots after prior digestion of the intact proteoglycan with chondroitinase ABC. Immunostaining tissue sections with the same antibody localized the proteoglycan to basement membranes, and expression of the entire sequence in Chinese hamster ovary K-1 cells showed that the protein encoded by the sequence secreted as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The core protein not only has motifs permitting glycosylation as a proteoglycan, but also possesses the endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal, KDEL, which suggests that, in addition to its role as a basement membrane component, it may also participate in the secretory pathway of cells.  (+info)

Effects of hyaluronan lyase, hyaluronidase, and chondroitin ABC lyase on mammalian vitreous gel. (7/194)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of enzymes on mammalian vitreous gel and to thus infer the structural roles of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in the gel. METHODS: The wet weights of bovine vitreous gels were compared before and after incubation with Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase, testicular hyaluronidase, or buffer alone. The extent of hyaluronan depolymerization was determined by chromatography and that of chondroitin sulfate depolymerization by western blot analysis. RESULTS: After digestion with Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase (30 U/gel), the gel wet weight was the same as that of controls (incubated with buffer alone) despite 94% of the hyaluronan having been depolymerized; when digested with 100 U/gel, the gel wet weight decreased (to 57% of original wet weight versus 86% for controls, P = < 0.001) and hyaluronan was completely depolymerized. Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion (0.2 U/gel) resulted in a slight reduction in gel wet weight (90% versus 96%, P = < 0.001) and depolymerization of 88% of the hyaluronan; the presence of fully digested chondroitin sulfate chains was established. Digestions with 100 and 500 U/gel of testicular hyaluronidase resulted in a decrease (P = < 0.001, both cases) in gel wet weight (53% versus 82%, 100 U/gel; 57%, versus 86%, 500 U/gel) with 75% and 97% hyaluronan depolymerization, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Depolymerization of all vitreous hyaluronan and of chondroitin sulfate resulted in gel wet weight reduction but not gel destruction. Digestion with 30 U/gel of Streptomyces hyaluronan lyase revealed a small pool (6%) of relatively enzyme-resistant hyaluronan that specifically contributed toward maintaining gel wet weight.  (+info)

Identification of a nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, neurocan, in developing rat retina. (8/194)

PURPOSE: To identify the expression of neurocan, a nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in retina and to elucidate its changes during development. METHODS: Expressional changes of neurocan mRNAs in developing rat retinas were investigated by a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization and characterization of neurocan core proteins were also investigated with the use of Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gene expression of neurocan was identified in retinas by RT-PCR. Semiquantitative analysis using Southern blot analysis revealed that mRNA expression for neurocan increased at increasing postnatal stages and that it reached its peak around postnatal day 7 (P7). Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that in differentiating rat retinal (neuroblast) cells weak neurocan immunoreactivities were observed throughout the retina on embryonal days 14 (E14) and E16. During the early postnatal period, the immunoreactivities became most conspicuous in the inner and outer plexiform layers on P7 through P14. In adult retinas, only faint immunostaining was detected. Immunoblot analysis showed two positive bands of 220- and 150-kDa core glycoproteins after treatment with chondroitinase ABC. Further immunoblot analysis revealed that the expression of these two immunolabeled variants was regulated differently during retinal development. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal and spatial regulation of expression of neurocan and its proteolytic variant during retinal development suggest that it may play a role in differentiation and neural network formation.  (+info)

  • Proteins containing this C-terminal domain consist of a group of secreted bacterial lyase enzymes capable of acting on a variety of substrates. (
  • Western blot of the core proteins obtained after chondroitin ABC lyase treatment with specific antibodies identified decorin and biglycan. (
  • Among the predicted virulence factors, type IX secretion-mediated and cell-surface exposed proteins were identified including an atypical sialidase, a sphingomyelinase and a chondroitin AC lyase which activities were demonstrated in vitro . (
  • CSPGs were enriched from human urine and cerebral spinal fluid samples by strong-anion-exchange chromatography, digested with chondroitinase ABC, a specific CS-lyase used to reduce the CS chain lengths and subsequently analyzed by nLC-MS/MS with a novel glycopeptide search algorithm. (
  • The PTS and ABC transporter for import of GAGs shed light on bacterial clever colonization/infection system targeting various animal polysaccharides. (
  • In order to clarify the structure and function of alginate lyases, we have studied the metabolism of alginate in cells of Sphingomonas sp. (
  • Firmicutes were characterized by ABC and phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters, extensive acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolism, and expression of l -fucose isomerase. (
  • 1986). One should note that although lyases can only cleave linkages on the nonreducing side of uronic acid, the hydrolases have no such limitation and can cleave either bond. (
  • Generally, alginate lyases in families PL-5 and -7 preferably depolymerize poly(M) and poly(G), respectively, though many enzymes can cleave M-G or G-M bonds. (
  • In the present work, we characterize a putative alginate lyase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a (Smlt2602) and describe a H208F mutant that, in addition to cleaving alginate-based substrates, displays significant, exolytic glucuronan activity. (
  • Alginate lyase depolymerizes alginate through the β-elimination reaction. (
  • The bacterium incorporates the macromolecule (alginate) through a "superchannel," consisting of a pit formed on the cell surface and a pit-dependent ABC transporter ( 13 , 22 ), and depolymerizes the polymer into its constituent monosaccharides through concerted reactions catalyzed by three intracellular endotype alginate lyases (A1-I, A1-II, and A1-III) and an exotype alginate lyase (A1-IV) ( 8 , 36 ). (
  • Occurrence of a gene homologous to the alginate lyase A1-I gene in Sphingomonas sp. (
  • Partial or complete digestions with testicular hyaluronidase (in the presence of an excess of beta-glucuronidase) or chondroitin AC lyase identify the positions of GlcA residues. (
  • Previously, we reported an endolytic polysaccharide lyase (Smlt1473) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a that exhibited a unique pH-sensitive substrate specificity that could be significantly modified through the mutation of residues located in the active site cleft but not directly involved in the catalytic process. (
  • Thus, CS oligosaccharides from cartilaginous deer antler, with their oversulfated chondroitin sulfate composition, demonstrated the physiological properties and may be good candidates for osteogenetic agents in humans. (
  • Tomato strain DC3000 ( 6 ) have both family PL-5 and -7 alginate lyases, although their genes are separately located in the bacterial genomes. (
  • Albertini R, De Luca G, Passi A, Moratti R, Abuja PM (1999) Chondroitin-4-sulfate protects high-density lipoprotein against copper-dependent oxidation. (
  • Among three functional domains of the extracellular part of neuroglycan C, the chondroitin sulfate attachment domain and acidic amino acid cluster box domain showed affinity for midkine, but the epidermal growth factor domain did not. (
  • A large number of alginate lyases, from sources ranging from bacteria to marine animals, have been characterized ( 32 ), although little information on the diversity and evolution of alginate lyases has been accumulated. (