Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases
Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans
Chondroitin ABC Lyase
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Molecular Sequence Data
Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Amino Acid Sequence
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Uridine Diphosphate Xylose
Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean
Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine
Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (1/460)Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage. (+info)
Sulfate incorporation from ascorbate 2-sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. (2/460)Radioactivity was significantly incorporated from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. The extent of incorporation was comparable with that from inorganic [35S]sulfate. The radioactive chondroitin sulfate formed from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate gave two radioactive disaccharides on chondroitinase-ABC [EC 184.108.40.206] digestion. The incorporation was markedly decreased by inorganic sulfate. The time course of incorporation from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate and inorganic [35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate and the constituent disaccharides suggest that the incorporation rates from the two radioactive substances are different. (+info)
Chondroitin sulphation patterns in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis subsets. (3/460)OBJECTIVES: To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) disaccharides in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables differ between different diseases and subsets of OA. METHODS: OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA), with 25, 9, and 11 people in each subset respectively. The SF of 13 normal subjects was also volunteered for analysis along with 15 RA patients. Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Concentrations of unsaturated CS disaccharides Deltadi6S and Deltadi4S were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis. RESULTS: Concentrations of Deltadi6S were lower in RA (5.90 ng/ml) and OA (13.24 ng/ml) fluids compared with normal (21.0 ng/ml) but no significant differences were seen between disease and normal fluids for Deltadi4S (about 4-6 ng/ml). The ratio of Deltadi6S:Deltadi4S were RA
Combined effect of Interceed and 5-fluorouracil on delayed adjustable strabismus surgery. (4/460)AIMS/BACKGROUND: To discover a more reliable method of performing delayed suture adjustment as a basis to investigate whether delayed adjustment actually provides more stable results. In order to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions and delay the time of adjustment, an animal study was performed to determine the combined effect of physical barriers, Viscoat and Interceed, and a pharmacological agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: 38 rabbit eyes were divided into three groups. After recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM), 5-FU was applied beneath and over the SRM in group 5-FU. Group I-f had Interceed and 5-FU and group I-fv, Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat. Delayed adjustment was performed once on each SRM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postoperatively. The possible length and the necessary force to adjust as well as the degree of adhesions were recorded. RESULTS: 5-FU delayed the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of four eyes. Combined use of Interceed and 5-FU could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of five eyes. Addition of Viscoat could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in four out of five eyes. Adjustment was possible on only one of four eyes thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat could delay the adjustment in rabbits until 1 week postoperatively. (+info)
Purification and characterization of fetal bovine serum beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase and beta-D-glucuronyltransferase involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. (5/460)beta-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II, involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, transfer an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue, respectively, through beta-linkages to an acceptor chondroitin oligosaccharide derived from the repeating disaccharide region of chondroitin sulfate. They were copurified from fetal bovine serum approximately 2500-fold and 850-fold, respectively, by sequential chromatographies on Red A-agarose, phenyl-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Identical and inseparable chromatographic profiles of both glycosyltransferase activities obtained through the above chromatographic steps and gel filtration suggest that the purified enzyme activities are tightly coupled, which could imply a single enzyme with dual transferase activities; beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and beta-glucuronyltransferase, reminiscent of the heparan sulfate polymerase reaction. However, when a polymerization reaction was performed in vitro with the purified serum enzyme preparation under the polymerization conditions recently developed for the chondroitin-synthesizing system, derived from human melanoma cells, each monosaccharide transfer took place, but no polymerization occurred. These results may suggest that the purified serum enzyme preparation contains both beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II activities on a single polypeptide or on the respective polypeptides forming an enzyme complex, but is different from that obtained from melanoma cells in that it transfers a single GalNAc or GlcA residue but does not polymerize chondroitin. (+info)
Demonstration of glycosaminoglycans in Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/460)A considerable amount (approximately 1.6 microg from 1 mg of dried nematode) of non-sulfated chondroitin, two orders of magnitude less yet an appreciable amount of heparan sulfate, and no hyaluronate were found in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The chondroitin chains were heterogeneous in size, being shorter than that of whale cartilage chondroitin sulfate. The disaccharide composition analysis of heparan sulfate revealed diverse sulfation including glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and uronate 2-O-sulfation. These results imply that chondroitin and heparan sulfate are involved in fundamental biological processes. (+info)
Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). (7/460)Hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate are glycosaminoglycans that play major roles in the biomechanical properties of a wide variety of tissues, including cartilage. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain can be divided into three regions: (1) a single linkage region oligosaccharide, through which the chain is attached to its proteoglycan core protein, (2) numerous internal repeat disaccharides, which comprise the bulk of the chain, and (3) a single nonreducing terminal saccharide structure. Each of these regions of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain has its own level of microheterogeneity of structure, which varies with proteoglycan class, tissue source, species, and pathology. We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive protocols for detection, characterization and quantitation of the saccharide structures from the internal disaccharide and nonreducing terminal regions of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains. These protocols rely on the generation of saccharide structures with free reducing groups by specific enzymatic treatments (hyaluronidase/chondroitinase) which are then quantitatively tagged though their free reducing groups with the fluorescent reporter, 2-aminoacridone. These saccharide structures are further characterized by modification through additional enzymatic (sulfatase) or chemical (mercuric ion) treatments. After separation by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, the relative fluorescence in each band is quantitated with a cooled, charge-coupled device camera for analysis. Specifically, the digestion products identified are (1) unsaturated internal Deltadisaccharides including DeltaDiHA, DeltaDi0S, DeltaDi2S, DeltaDi4S, DeltaDi6S, DeltaDi2,4S, DeltaDi2,6S, DeltaDi4,6S, and DeltaDi2,4,6S; (2) saturated nonreducing terminal disaccharides including DiHA, Di0S, Di4S and Di6S; and (3) nonreducing terminal hexosamines including glcNAc, galNAc, 4S-galNAc, 6S-galNAc, and 4, 6S-galNAc. (+info)
Glycosaminoglycan conformation: do aqueous molecular dynamics simulations agree with x-ray fiber diffraction? (8/460)Glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions are biologically important and require an appreciation of glycan molecular shape in solution, which is presently unavailable. In previous studies we found strong similarity between aqueous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and published x-ray diffraction refinements of hyaluronan. We have applied a similar approach here to chondroitin and dermatan, attempting to clarify some of the issues raised by the x-ray diffraction literature relating to chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. We predict that chondroitin has the same beta(1-->4) linkage conformation as hyaluronan, and that their average beta(1-->3) conformations differ. This is explained by changes in hydrogen-bonding across this linkage, resulting from its axial hydroxyl, causing a different sampling of left-handed helices in chondroitin (2.5- to 3.5-fold) as compared with hyaluronan (3.0- to 4.0-fold). Few right-handed helices, which lack intramolecular hydrogen-bonds, were sampled during our MD simulations. Thus, we propose that the 8-fold helix observed in chondroitin-6-sulfate, represented in the literature as an 8(3) helix (right-handed), though it has never been refined, is more likely to be 8(5) (left-handed) helix. Molecular dynamics simulations implied that (4)C(1) and (2)S(O), but not (1)C(4), forms of iduronate could be used in refinements of dermatan x-ray fiber diffraction patterns. Current models of 8-fold dermatan sulfate chains containing (4)C(1) iduronate refine to right-handed helices, which possess no intramolecular hydrogen-bonds. However, MD simulations predict that models containing (2)S(O) iduronate could provide better (8(5) helix) starting structures for refinement. Thus, the 8-fold dermatan sulfate refinement (8(3) helix) could be in error. (+info)
There are several subtypes of chondrosarcoma, including:
1. Grade 1 (low-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is a slow-growing tumor that is less likely to spread to other parts of the body.
2. Grade 2 (intermediate-grade) chondrosarcoma: This type of tumor grows more quickly than grade 1 and may be more likely to spread.
3. Grade 3 (high-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is an aggressive tumor that can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of chondrosarcoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include pain in the affected area, swelling, and limited mobility. Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma varies depending on the grade of the tumor and the effectiveness of treatment.
* American Cancer Society. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* Mayo Clinic. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* National Cancer Institute. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
Mast cell sarcoma is most commonly seen in the skin, but it can also arise in other parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. The tumors are usually large, irregularly shaped masses that can be firm or soft to the touch. They may ulcerate and bleed easily, leading to swelling and discomfort.
The symptoms of mast cell sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include:
* A lump or mass that may be painless or tender to the touch
* Swelling in the affected area
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Night sweats
Mast cell sarcoma is rare and accounts for only about 1-2% of all skin tumors. It is more common in dogs than cats and tends to affect older animals. The exact cause of mast cell sarcoma is not known, but genetic factors and environmental triggers may play a role.
Treatment options for mast cell sarcoma depend on the location and stage of the tumor. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Additional therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended based on the severity of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Prognosis for mast cell sarcoma varies depending on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is guarded and early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes. With prompt and appropriate therapy, some patients with mast cell sarcoma can achieve long-term remission or even cure. However, in advanced cases or those that are resistant to treatment, the prognosis may be poorer.
Examples of pregnancy complications, parasitic include:
1. Toxoplasmosis: This is a condition caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can cause birth defects, such as intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness.
2. Malaria: This is a condition caused by the Plasmodium spp. parasite, which can be transmitted to the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In severe cases, malaria can cause anemia, organ failure, and death.
3. Schistosomiasis: This is a condition caused by the Schistosoma spp. parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. In severe cases, schistosomiasis can cause organ damage and infertility.
Pregnancy complications, parasitic can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies, and other medical procedures. Treatment depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. In some cases, treatment may involve antibiotics, antimalarial drugs, or anti-parasitic medications.
Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic include:
1. Avoiding contact with cat feces, as Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted through contaminated soil and food.
2. Avoiding travel to areas where malaria and other parasitic infections are common.
3. Taking antimalarial medications before and during pregnancy if living in an area where malaria is common.
4. Using insecticide-treated bed nets and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
5. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after handling food or coming into contact with cats.
6. Avoiding drinking unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat, as these can increase the risk of infection.
7. Ensuring that any water used for cooking or drinking is safe and free from parasites.
Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic are important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, as well as for their partners and healthcare providers. By taking these preventive measures, the risk of infection and complications can be significantly reduced.
In conclusion, pregnancy complications, parasitic are a serious issue that can have severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus. However, by understanding the causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures, women can take steps to protect themselves and their unborn babies from these infections. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these issues and provide appropriate education and care to pregnant women to reduce the risk of complications.
1. What are some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy?
Ans: Some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy include malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
2. How do parasitic infections during pregnancy affect the baby?
Ans: Parasitic infections during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the developing fetus, including birth defects, growth restriction, and stillbirth.
3. Can parasitic infections during pregnancy be treated?
Ans: Yes, parasitic infections during pregnancy can be treated with antibiotics and other medications. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications.
4. How can I prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Preventive measures include avoiding areas where parasites are common, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and practicing good hygiene. Pregnant women should also avoid undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products.
5. Do all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections?
Ans: No, not all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections. However, certain groups of women, such as those who live in areas where parasites are common or have a history of previous parasitic infections, may need to be tested and monitored more closely.
6. Can I prevent my baby from getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to reduce the risk of your baby getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy, such as avoiding certain foods and taking antibiotics if necessary. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on how to prevent and treat parasitic infections during pregnancy.
7. How are parasitic infections diagnosed during pregnancy?
Ans: Parasitic infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, stool samples, or imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Your healthcare provider may also perform a physical exam and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of a parasitic infection.
8. Can parasitic infections cause long-term health problems for my baby?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems for your baby, such as developmental delays or learning disabilities. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also lead to more serious complications, such as organ damage or death.
9. How are parasitic infections treated during pregnancy?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections during pregnancy may involve antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other supportive care. Your healthcare provider will determine the best course of treatment based on the severity and type of infection, as well as your individual circumstances.
10. Can I take steps to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy, such as avoiding undercooked meat and fish, washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly, and practicing good hygiene. Additionally, if you have a higher risk of parasitic infections due to travel or other factors, your healthcare provider may recommend preventative medications or screening tests.
11. I'm pregnant and have been exposed to a parasitic infection. What should I do?
Ans: If you suspect that you have been exposed to a parasitic infection during pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine if you have an infection and provide appropriate treatment to prevent any potential complications for your baby.
12. Can I breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection?
Ans: It may be safe to breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection, but it is important to consult with your healthcare provider before doing so. Some medications may not be safe for your baby and could potentially be passed through your milk. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on the safest treatment options for you and your baby.
13. What are some common complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy can include miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also be transmitted to the baby during pregnancy or childbirth, which can lead to serious health problems for the baby.
14. Can I get a parasitic infection from my pet?
Ans: Yes, it is possible to get a parasitic infection from your pet if you come into contact with their feces or other bodily fluids. For example, toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces, while hookworm infections can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or feces. It is important to practice good hygiene and take precautions when handling pets or coming into contact with potentially contaminated areas.
15. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid exposure to parasites and their vectors, as well as practicing good hygiene and taking precautions when traveling or engaging in activities that may put you at risk. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Avoiding raw or unpasteurized dairy products
* Avoiding contaminated water and food
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food
* Avoiding contact with cat feces, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces
* Using protective clothing and insect repellent when outdoors in areas where parasites are common
* Keeping your home clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of parasite infestations
* Avoiding touching or eating wild animals or plants that may be contaminated with parasites
16. What are some common misconceptions about parasitic infections?
Ans: There are several common misconceptions about parasitic infections, including:
* All parasites are the same and have similar symptoms
* Parasitic infections are only a problem for people who live in developing countries or have poor hygiene
* Only certain groups of people, such as children or pregnant women, are at risk for parasitic infections
* Parasitic infections are rare in developed countries
* All parasites can be treated with antibiotics
* Parasitic infections are not serious and do not require medical attention
17. How can I diagnose a parasitic infection?
Ans: Diagnosing a parasitic infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Some common methods for diagnosing parasitic infections include:
* Physical examination to look for signs such as skin lesions or abdominal pain
* Blood tests to check for the presence of parasites or their waste products
* Stool tests to detect the presence of parasite eggs or larvae
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to look for signs of parasite infection in internal organs
* Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the body to visualize the inside of the digestive tract and other organs.
18. How are parasitic infections treated?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common methods for treating parasitic infections include:
* Antiparasitic drugs, such as antibiotics or antimalarials, to kill the parasites
* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes, to manage symptoms and prevent complications
* Surgery to remove parasites or repair damaged tissues
* Antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that may have developed as a result of the parasitic infection.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a parasitic infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications and can be difficult to diagnose.
19. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid contact with parasites and their vectors, as well as maintaining good hygiene practices. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, which can contain harmful parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil, which can harbor parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium
* Using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites, which can transmit diseases such as malaria and dengue fever
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors in areas where ticks and other vectors are common
* Avoiding contact with animals that may carry parasites, such as dogs and cats that can transmit Toxoplasma gondii
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to prevent the spread of parasitic infections in communities and developing countries.
It is also important to be aware of the risks of parasitic infections when traveling to areas where they are common, and to take appropriate precautions such as avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, and using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
20. What is the prognosis for parasitic infections?
Ans: The prognosis for parasitic infections varies depending on the specific type of infection and the severity of symptoms. Some parasitic infections can be easily treated with antiparasitic medications, while others may require more extensive treatment and management.
In general, the prognosis for parasitic infections is good if the infection is detected early and properly treated. However, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems or death if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is also important to note that some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as using clean water and proper sanitation, and controlling the spread of insect vectors. Prevention is key to avoiding the negative outcomes associated with these types of infections.
21. What are some common complications of parasitic infections?
Ans: Some common complications of parasitic infections include:
* Anemia and other blood disorders, such as thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* Allergic reactions to parasite antigens
* Inflammation and damage to organs and tissues, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain
* Increased risk of infections with other microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses
* Malnutrition and deficiencies in essential nutrients
* Organ failure and death.
22. Can parasitic infections be prevented? If so, how?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as:
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to reduce the risk of ingesting infected parasites.
* Avoiding contact with insect vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, by using repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak biting hours.
* Properly cooking and storing food to kill parasites that may be present.
* Avoiding consuming undercooked or raw meat, especially pork and wild game.
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the transmission of parasitic infections through sexual contact.
* Keeping children away from areas where they may come into contact with contaminated soil or water.
* Using antiparasitic drugs and other treatments as recommended by healthcare providers.
* Implementing control measures for insect vectors, such as spraying insecticides and removing breeding sites.
30. Can parasitic infections be treated with antibiotics? If so, which ones and why?
Ans: No, antibiotics are not effective against parasitic infections caused by protozoa, such as giardiasis and amoebiasis, because these organisms are not bacteria. However, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that can develop as a complication of parasitic infections.
32. What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen?
Ans: A parasite is an organism that lives on or in another organism, called the host, and feeds on the host's tissues or fluids without providing any benefits. A pathogen, on the other hand, is an organism that causes disease. While all parasites are pathogens, not all pathogens are parasites. For example, bacteria and viruses can cause diseases but are not considered parasites because they do not live within the host's body.
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:
* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.
Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.
Chondroitin ABC lyase
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan
Chondroitin B lyase
Chondroitin AC lyase
Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase
Unsaturated chondroitin disaccharide hydrolase
Carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 13
Clinical trials on glucosamine and chondroitin
Aging in dogs
Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis
Chondroitin Sulfate: MedlinePlus Supplements
Chondroitin-Glucosamine Reduced Pain in Knee Arthritis in RCT
ARTHRITIS:Glucosamine and chondroitin work - Healthy.net
Chondroitin Sulfate: MedlinePlus Supplements
NIH Guide: STUDY OF EFFICACY OF GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN SULFATE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS
Natures Aid Glucosamine, MSM & Chondroitin -180 Tablets
Chondroitin sulfate Archives - Biogetica
Chondroitin - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) - NCBI Bookshelf
Vitabase Glucosamine / Chondroitin / MSM Joint Relief - IncrediBody
Spot Farms Chicken Strip - Human Grade Glucosamine & Chondroitin (12.5 oz) | On Sale | EntirelyPets
Nutramax Cosequin Joint Health Supplement for Dogs with Glucosamine and Chondroitin DS (Double Strength) Capsules - 132 Count |...
Chondroitin sulphate reduces both cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis patients starting as...
Glucosamine Chondroitin for Dogs: Cosequin® DS Chewable Tablets
Age-Dependent Inhibition of Neural Crest Migration by the Notochord Correlates with Alterations in the S103L Chondroitin...
Rite Aid Pharmacy Glucosamine Chondroitin, Triple Strength Plus MSM, Tablets, 120 tablets (120 ct) Delivery or Pickup Near Me -...
Sunmark Glucosamine Chondroitin Complex Caplets Triple Strength 80 Tabs By Sunmark | Shop Sunmark Glucosamine Chondroitin...
Glucosamine Chondroitin Side Effects | Healthfully
Solgar Glucosamine Hyaluronic Acid Chondroitin MSM (Shellfish-Free) 60 - VitaminLife
Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non...
Fullscript | Glucosamine and Chondroitin Liq + MSM
Chondroitin - NORDIC DOG SPORTS
Jarrow Formulas : Glucosamine + Chondroitin
Chondroitin in Dog Food | Maev
chondroitin Archives - Integrated Health Blog
Chondroitin Sulphate - Vegetal Chitosan Manufacturer
- Research results suggest that chondroitin isn't helpful for pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. (nih.gov)
- A large National Institutes of Health (NIH) study, called the Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), compared glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin, both supplements together, celecoxib (a prescription drug used to manage osteoarthritis pain), or a placebo (an inactive substance) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- In general, research on chondroitin has not shown it to be helpful for pain from knee or hip osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- More than 20 studies have looked at the effect of chondroitin on pain from knee or hip osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- However, the largest and best studies (including the NIH study discussed under the heading "Glucosamine" above) showed that chondroitin doesn't lessen osteoarthritis pain. (nih.gov)
- Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis and cataracts. (nih.gov)
- Taking chondroitin sulfate by mouth seems to provide some relief from osteoarthritis pain and improve function. (nih.gov)
- Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular remedies for osteoarthritis - but do they actually work? (healthy.net)
- Used alone or with chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine salts alleviate pain and inflammation from osteoarthritis and reportedly have beneficial effects on degenerated joints. (nih.gov)
- Thus dietary supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have a potential market of tens of millions of Americans who suffer from osteoarthritis, athletes and dancers who may have joint overuse, and aging baby boomers interested in maintaining their joints. (nih.gov)
- STUDY OF EFFICACY OF GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN SULFATE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS Release Date: April 22, 1998 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH-NIAMS-98-2 P.T. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) in collaboration with the Office of Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, is seeking a contractor to design and conduct a multicenter clinical trial. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the clinical trial is to determine whether the oral administration of glucosamine alone or in combination with chondroitin sulfate to patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is effective in improving pain and function. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin in relieving knee symptoms and slowing disease progression among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). (nih.gov)
- A 2002 NCCAM study conducted at the University of Utah School of Medicine by Dr. Daniel Clegg studied the effects of glucosamine chondroitin on 1,583 people with documented X-ray evidence of osteoarthritis. (healthfully.com)
- Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: the ChONdroitin versus CElecoxib versus Placebo Trial (CONCEPT). (sentinelvitamins.com)
- A 800 mg/day pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin Sulphate is superior to placebo and similar to celecoxib in reducing pain and improving function over 6 months in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. (sentinelvitamins.com)
- Treatment with Chondroitin Sulphate had a sustained beneficial effect, preventing synovitis onset or reducing its presence as well as reducing knee osteoarthritis symptoms. (sentinelvitamins.com)
- This study demonstrated, for the first time in a 2-year randomised controlled trial using qMRI, the superiority of Chondroitin Sulphate over celecoxib at reducing cartilage volume loss in knee osteoarthritis patients. (sentinelvitamins.com)
- Chondroitin sulfate efficacy versus celecoxib on knee osteoarthritis structural changes using magnetic resonance imaging: a 2-year multicentre exploratory study. (sentinelvitamins.com)
- GAIT is the first multicenter clinical trial in the United States to test the effects of the dietary supplements glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- The study will test whether glucosamine and chondroitin used separately or in combination are effective in reducing pain and improving functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- GAIT includes an additional study (or sub-study) that will assess whether glucosamine and chondroitin can reduce or halt the progression of knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- Results of previous studies in the medical literature have yielded conflicting results on the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin as treatments for osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- This study will test the short-term (6 months) effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin in reducing pain and improving function in a large number of patients with knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- What prompted the NIH to study glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis? (nih.gov)
- On January 27, 1998, the NCCAM held a meeting to discuss the need, rationale, and feasibility of conducting a Phase III study (a human study involving over 1,000 patients to test the efficacy, safety, and side effects of a substance(s) of glucosamine and chondroitin for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- The group determined that there is a real and urgent public health need to test these agents in a rigorous way, and that current scientific data support short-term testing of glucosamine and chondroitin for pain control and functional improvement of osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- When I give lectures and talk about glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates (G&CS), most people are surprised to learn that these two natural substances are beneficial for both young and old people. (bodybuilding.com)
- This effect has not been shown with chondroitin sulfate supplements. (nih.gov)
- Although no studies exist on the use of chondroitin sulfate supplements during breastfeeding, small amounts occur naturally in breastmilk where it might have an inhibitory effect on microbial binding to cellular receptors in the infant or, helping prevent infections, or acting as an antioxidant to protect the infant from oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
- An injectable solution containing chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate is approved by the FDA to protect the eye during cataract surgery. (nih.gov)
- They contain FCHG49 ® Glucosamine Hydrochloride and TRH122 ® Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate. (cosequin.com)
- Cosequin ® contains FCHG49 ® Glucosamine and TRH122 ® Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate, proprietary veterinary researched specifications. (cosequin.com)
- Overall, those who received the supplements had no significant improvement in knee pain or function, although the investigators saw evidence of improvement in a small subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe pain who took glucosamine and chondroitin together. (nih.gov)
- The authors conclude, "The MOVES trial found that a fixed-dose combination of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine has comparable efficacy to celecoxib in reducing pain in patients with [OA] of the knee with moderate-to-severe pain after 6 months of treatment. (medscape.com)
- A new randomized controlled clinical trial has provided some support for the suggestion raised in the 2008 Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) that glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate might provide clinically significant pain relief for patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain, despite being ineffective against milder OA pain. (medscape.com)
- What is the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)? (nih.gov)
- Showing our 5 Glucosamine, MSM & Chondroitin - 180 Tablets reviews with an average rating of Excellent. (bodykind.com)
- How much do we know about glucosamine and chondroitin supplements? (nih.gov)
- What do we know about the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements? (nih.gov)
- What do we know about the safety of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements? (nih.gov)
- Studies have found that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements may interact with the anticoagulant (blood-thinning) drug warfarin (Coumadin). (nih.gov)
- If you take glucosamine or chondroitin supplements, tell your health care providers. (nih.gov)
- Many arthritis supplements contain glucosamine and chondroitin, both of which are regulated by the FDA as a food rather than a drug. (healthfully.com)
- Glucosamine and chondroitin are structural components of cartilage, the tissue that cushions the joints. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we developed an on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS) separation and structural characterization of hyaluronan (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) disaccharides released by enzymatic treatment and derivatized with 2-aminoacridone (AMAC), providing a high-resolution system also applicable by using a further fluorimetric detector (Fp) before ESI-MS spectral acquisition. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To control for the time-varying confounders that might be influenced by previous treatments, we used marginal structural models to estimate the effects on OA of using glucosamine/chondroitin for 3 years, 2 years, and 1 year. (nih.gov)
- Glucosamine and Chondroitin both provide the essential structural material glycosaminoglycans, which are required for healthy cartilage, promoting mobility, range of motion, flexibility and to ease occasional joint stress due to exercise or physical activity. (vitaminlife.com)
- Chondroitin is an important structural component of cartilage. (sentinelvitamins.com)
- Chondroitin sulfate is possibly safe when used together with other ingredients in an eye drop. (nih.gov)
- Spot Farms Human Grade Glucosamine & Chondroitin Chicken Strips offer a delectable jerky treat fortified with ingredients to support healthy joints in dogs. (entirelypets.com)
- Cosequin's active ingredients include glucosamine and chondroitin, and it can have a positive impact on joint health, while avoiding the side effects that can sometimes accompany prescription drugs. (1800petmeds.com)
- Glucosamine Chondroitin Complex is a synergistic combination of the latest in joint health ingredients, specifically designed for those individuals who are serious about protecting and maintaining their joint health. (herbspro.com)
- In this study, patients will be randomly assigned to receive either (1) glucosamine alone, (2) chondroitin alone, (3) glucosamine and chondroitin in combination, (4) celecoxib (brand name Celebrex®), or (5) a placebo (an inactive substance that looks like the study substance). (nih.gov)
- Dr. Kate McLIntock, a physician and adviser to the Arthritis Research Campaign in Scotland, spoke with reporter Alan MacDermid about the effects of glucosamine chondroitin in an article titled "Death sparks safety concern over popular pain remedy," which appeared in the "Herald Scotland" on March 4, 2008. (healthfully.com)
- The authors also point out that clinical evidence is conflicting regarding the efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and the two commercially available salts of glucosamine hydrochloride or sulfate available by prescription in the European Union, and that current evidence-based guidelines advise against them because of lack of efficacy, but not because of safety concerns. (medscape.com)
- Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate are necessary for building the protein molecules responsible for giving cartilage its strength and resilience. (fullscript.com)
- NaturVet Hemp Joint Health with glucosamine, chondroitin, and hemp seed helps alleviate joint pain associated with aging and exercises. (holisticpetinfo.com)
- NOW® Glucosamine & Chondroitin with MSM combines three of the best known nutrients available for the support of healthy joints in one dietary supplement. (vitanetonline.com)
- Some but not all studies found evidence that chondroitin might help, but the improvements may be too small to make a difference to patients. (nih.gov)
- According to MedlinePlus, extremely elevated amounts of protein were found in the urine of patients taking glucosamine and chondroitin products. (healthfully.com)
- Chondroitin sulfate consists of a mixture of large glycosaminoglycans and disaccharide polymers, usually derived from shark or bovine cartilage. (nih.gov)
- Glucosamine and chondroitin and their combination will be compared to a placebo to verify that these substances significantly improve joint pain and flexibility. (nih.gov)
- We used a "new-user" design, for which only participants who were not using glucosamine/chondroitin at baseline were included in the analyses (n = 1,625). (nih.gov)
- Cumulative exposure was calculated as the number of visits when participants reported use of glucosamine/chondroitin. (nih.gov)
- During the study period, 18% of the participants initiated treatment with glucosamine/chondroitin. (nih.gov)
- A few studies have looked at whether glucosamine or chondroitin can have beneficial effects on joint structure. (nih.gov)
- Chondroitin is a complex carbohydrate that naturally occurs in cartilage and other connective tissues. (vitanetonline.com)
- Chondroitin sulfate is most commonly used by adults in doses of 800-1200 mg per day, for up to 2 years. (nih.gov)
- Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical found in human and animal cartilage. (nih.gov)
- Chondroitin sulfate is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (nih.gov)
- Glucosamine chondroitin is used to relieve joint pain, improve joint function and lessen inflammation. (healthfully.com)
- Some products might contain no chondroitin, while other products might contain more than the amount stated on the product's label. (nih.gov)
- Bioibérica, SA, maker of the glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate preparation used in the trial, funded the study. (medscape.com)