Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Versicans: HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.GlucosamineAcetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)HexosaminesBrevican: A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.XyloseChondro-4-Sulfatase: An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PolysaccharidesSulfatasesPregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chondroitinsulfatases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.GalactosamineUridine Diphosphate Xylose: The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Genome Components: The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Hymecromone: A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean: A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.GlucuronidaseGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Neurocan: A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Syndecans: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.6-Aminonicotinamide: A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glycoside HydrolasesErythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (1/460)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Sulfate incorporation from ascorbate 2-sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. (2/460)

Radioactivity was significantly incorporated from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. The extent of incorporation was comparable with that from inorganic [35S]sulfate. The radioactive chondroitin sulfate formed from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate gave two radioactive disaccharides on chondroitinase-ABC [EC 4.2.2.4] digestion. The incorporation was markedly decreased by inorganic sulfate. The time course of incorporation from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate and inorganic [35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate and the constituent disaccharides suggest that the incorporation rates from the two radioactive substances are different.  (+info)

Chondroitin sulphation patterns in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis subsets. (3/460)

OBJECTIVES: To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) disaccharides in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables differ between different diseases and subsets of OA. METHODS: OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA), with 25, 9, and 11 people in each subset respectively. The SF of 13 normal subjects was also volunteered for analysis along with 15 RA patients. Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Concentrations of unsaturated CS disaccharides Deltadi6S and Deltadi4S were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis. RESULTS: Concentrations of Deltadi6S were lower in RA (5.90 ng/ml) and OA (13.24 ng/ml) fluids compared with normal (21.0 ng/ml) but no significant differences were seen between disease and normal fluids for Deltadi4S (about 4-6 ng/ml). The ratio of Deltadi6S:Deltadi4S were RA+info)

Combined effect of Interceed and 5-fluorouracil on delayed adjustable strabismus surgery. (4/460)

AIMS/BACKGROUND: To discover a more reliable method of performing delayed suture adjustment as a basis to investigate whether delayed adjustment actually provides more stable results. In order to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions and delay the time of adjustment, an animal study was performed to determine the combined effect of physical barriers, Viscoat and Interceed, and a pharmacological agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: 38 rabbit eyes were divided into three groups. After recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM), 5-FU was applied beneath and over the SRM in group 5-FU. Group I-f had Interceed and 5-FU and group I-fv, Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat. Delayed adjustment was performed once on each SRM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postoperatively. The possible length and the necessary force to adjust as well as the degree of adhesions were recorded. RESULTS: 5-FU delayed the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of four eyes. Combined use of Interceed and 5-FU could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of five eyes. Addition of Viscoat could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in four out of five eyes. Adjustment was possible on only one of four eyes thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat could delay the adjustment in rabbits until 1 week postoperatively.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of fetal bovine serum beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase and beta-D-glucuronyltransferase involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. (5/460)

beta-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II, involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, transfer an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue, respectively, through beta-linkages to an acceptor chondroitin oligosaccharide derived from the repeating disaccharide region of chondroitin sulfate. They were copurified from fetal bovine serum approximately 2500-fold and 850-fold, respectively, by sequential chromatographies on Red A-agarose, phenyl-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Identical and inseparable chromatographic profiles of both glycosyltransferase activities obtained through the above chromatographic steps and gel filtration suggest that the purified enzyme activities are tightly coupled, which could imply a single enzyme with dual transferase activities; beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and beta-glucuronyltransferase, reminiscent of the heparan sulfate polymerase reaction. However, when a polymerization reaction was performed in vitro with the purified serum enzyme preparation under the polymerization conditions recently developed for the chondroitin-synthesizing system, derived from human melanoma cells, each monosaccharide transfer took place, but no polymerization occurred. These results may suggest that the purified serum enzyme preparation contains both beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II activities on a single polypeptide or on the respective polypeptides forming an enzyme complex, but is different from that obtained from melanoma cells in that it transfers a single GalNAc or GlcA residue but does not polymerize chondroitin.  (+info)

Demonstration of glycosaminoglycans in Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/460)

A considerable amount (approximately 1.6 microg from 1 mg of dried nematode) of non-sulfated chondroitin, two orders of magnitude less yet an appreciable amount of heparan sulfate, and no hyaluronate were found in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The chondroitin chains were heterogeneous in size, being shorter than that of whale cartilage chondroitin sulfate. The disaccharide composition analysis of heparan sulfate revealed diverse sulfation including glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and uronate 2-O-sulfation. These results imply that chondroitin and heparan sulfate are involved in fundamental biological processes.  (+info)

Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). (7/460)

Hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate are glycosaminoglycans that play major roles in the biomechanical properties of a wide variety of tissues, including cartilage. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain can be divided into three regions: (1) a single linkage region oligosaccharide, through which the chain is attached to its proteoglycan core protein, (2) numerous internal repeat disaccharides, which comprise the bulk of the chain, and (3) a single nonreducing terminal saccharide structure. Each of these regions of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain has its own level of microheterogeneity of structure, which varies with proteoglycan class, tissue source, species, and pathology. We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive protocols for detection, characterization and quantitation of the saccharide structures from the internal disaccharide and nonreducing terminal regions of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains. These protocols rely on the generation of saccharide structures with free reducing groups by specific enzymatic treatments (hyaluronidase/chondroitinase) which are then quantitatively tagged though their free reducing groups with the fluorescent reporter, 2-aminoacridone. These saccharide structures are further characterized by modification through additional enzymatic (sulfatase) or chemical (mercuric ion) treatments. After separation by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, the relative fluorescence in each band is quantitated with a cooled, charge-coupled device camera for analysis. Specifically, the digestion products identified are (1) unsaturated internal Deltadisaccharides including DeltaDiHA, DeltaDi0S, DeltaDi2S, DeltaDi4S, DeltaDi6S, DeltaDi2,4S, DeltaDi2,6S, DeltaDi4,6S, and DeltaDi2,4,6S; (2) saturated nonreducing terminal disaccharides including DiHA, Di0S, Di4S and Di6S; and (3) nonreducing terminal hexosamines including glcNAc, galNAc, 4S-galNAc, 6S-galNAc, and 4, 6S-galNAc.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycan conformation: do aqueous molecular dynamics simulations agree with x-ray fiber diffraction? (8/460)

Glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions are biologically important and require an appreciation of glycan molecular shape in solution, which is presently unavailable. In previous studies we found strong similarity between aqueous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and published x-ray diffraction refinements of hyaluronan. We have applied a similar approach here to chondroitin and dermatan, attempting to clarify some of the issues raised by the x-ray diffraction literature relating to chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. We predict that chondroitin has the same beta(1-->4) linkage conformation as hyaluronan, and that their average beta(1-->3) conformations differ. This is explained by changes in hydrogen-bonding across this linkage, resulting from its axial hydroxyl, causing a different sampling of left-handed helices in chondroitin (2.5- to 3.5-fold) as compared with hyaluronan (3.0- to 4.0-fold). Few right-handed helices, which lack intramolecular hydrogen-bonds, were sampled during our MD simulations. Thus, we propose that the 8-fold helix observed in chondroitin-6-sulfate, represented in the literature as an 8(3) helix (right-handed), though it has never been refined, is more likely to be 8(5) (left-handed) helix. Molecular dynamics simulations implied that (4)C(1) and (2)S(O), but not (1)C(4), forms of iduronate could be used in refinements of dermatan x-ray fiber diffraction patterns. Current models of 8-fold dermatan sulfate chains containing (4)C(1) iduronate refine to right-handed helices, which possess no intramolecular hydrogen-bonds. However, MD simulations predict that models containing (2)S(O) iduronate could provide better (8(5) helix) starting structures for refinement. Thus, the 8-fold dermatan sulfate refinement (8(3) helix) could be in error.  (+info)

*Extracellular matrix

Chondroitin sulfate[edit]. Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls ...

*Proteoglycan

heparan /chondroitin sulfate testican, 44 kDa perlecan, 400-470 kDa chondroitin sulfate bikunin, 25 kDa neurocan, 136 kDa. ... chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate decorin, 36 kDa. biglycan, 38 kDa versican, 260-370 kDa, present in many adult tissues ... chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any ...

*Glycosaminoglycan

Chondroitin sulfate. GlcUA or GlcUA(2S). GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S). 'GlcUAβ1-3'GalNAcβ1-4. Most ... Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which comprise CSGAGs, are differentiated from each other by the presence of GlcA and ... Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... For example, with regards to stem cells, hyaluronan, along with chondroitin sulfate, helps to form the stem cell niche. Stem ...

*Glycosaminoglycan

Chondroitin sulfate. GlcUA or GlcUA(2S). GalNAc or GalNAc(4S) or GalNAc(6S) or GalNAc(4S,6S). 'GlcUAβ1-3'GalNAcβ1-4. Most ... Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which comprise CSGAGs, are differentiated from each other by the presence of GlcA and ... Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... For example, with regards to stem cells, hyaluronan, along with chondroitin sulfate, helps to form the stem cell niche. Stem ...

*Extracellular matrix

Chondroitin sulfateEdit. Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls of ...

*Osteoarthritis

Chondroitin Sulfate Concentration and Chain Length, Water, and Ash Content". J. Clin. Invest. 45 (7): 1170-7. doi:10.1172/ ... A 2015 Cochrane review of clinical trials of chondroitin found that most were of low quality, but that there was some evidence ... Vangsness CT, Jr; Spiker, W; Erickson, J (January 2009). "A review of evidence-based medicine for glucosamine and chondroitin ... Miller KL, Clegg DO (February 2011). "Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate". Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America. 37 (1 ...

*NHS treatments blacklist

Glucosamine and chondroitin. Lutein and antioxidants. Oxycodone and naloxone. Homeopathy items. Herbal medicines. 7 items which ...

*Galactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-galactosyltransferase

Schwartz NB, Roden L (1975). "Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Solubilization of chondroitin sulfate glycosyltransferases ... This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis and glycan structures - biosynthesis 1. It employs one cofactor, ... Robinson JA, Robinson HC (1985). "Initiation of chondroitin sulphate synthesis by beta-D-galactosides Substrates for ...

*Galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase

Helting T, Roden L (1969). "Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. II. Glucuronosyl transfer in the formation of the carbohydrate ... This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis and glycan structures - biosynthesis 1. It employs one cofactor, ...

*B3GAT1

Pedersen LC, Tsuchida K, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K, Darden TA, Negishi M (Nov 2000). "Heparan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. ...

*Xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase

Schwartz NB, Roden L (1975). "Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Solubilization of chondroitin sulfate glycosyltransferases ... This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis and glycan structures - biosynthesis 1. It employs one cofactor, ...

*CHPF

"Molecular cloning of a chondroitin polymerizing factor that cooperates with chondroitin synthase for chondroitin polymerization ... Chondroitin sulfate synthase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHPF gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: CHPF chondroitin polymerizing factor". Human CHPF genome location and CHPF gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 2003). "Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human glycosyltransferase homologous ...

*B3GAT3

2000). "Heparan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. Structure and mechanism of human glucuronyltransferase I". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ...

*CHSY1

"Molecular cloning of a chondroitin polymerizing factor that cooperates with chondroitin synthase for chondroitin polymerization ... Chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHSY1 gene. CHSY1 synthesizes chondroitin sulfate ... 2003). "Chondroitin sulfate synthase-3. Molecular cloning and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (41): 39711-25. doi:10.1074 ... "Entrez Gene: CHSY1 carbohydrate (chondroitin) synthase 1". supplied by OMIM Human CHSY1 genome location and CHSY1 gene details ...

*CD97

... chondroitin sulfate B with the fourth EGF-like domain;[20] α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins with an RGD downstream the EGF-like domains; ...

*Protein xylosyltransferase

This enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate and glycan structures. XYLT1 XYLT2 Xylosyltransferase ... Stoolmiller AC, Horwitz AL, Dorfman A (1972). "Biosynthesis of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Purification and ...

*CSPG4

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, also known as melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) or neuron-glial ... "Entrez Gene: CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4". Kirschfink M, Blase L, Engelmann S, Schwartz-Albiez R (1997). "Secreted ... 2000). "Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas". Nat. Cell Biol. ... 2004). "Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances FAK and ERK activation by distinct mechanisms". J. Cell Biol. 165 (6 ...

*Chondrin

Chondroitin Charles Darwin - Insectivorous Plants Page 56. ...

*Aging in dogs

"Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine Supplements in Osteoarthritis". Retrieved November 22, 2017. Roush, James K.; Cross, Alan R ... Good sources of protein to meet higher protein requirements Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to help maintain joint and bone ...

*N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase

This enzyme is also called chondroitin glucuronyltransferase II. This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis ... DeAngelis PL, Padgett-McCue AJ (2000). "Identification and molecular cloning of a chondroitin synthase from Pasteurella ... "Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 38721-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106871200 ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of chondroitin polymerase from Escherichia coli strain K4". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (24): ...

*CHST12

"Entrez Gene: CHST12 carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 12". Human CHST12 genome location and CHST12 gene details ... 2003). "Specificities of three distinct human chondroitin/dermatan N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferases demonstrated ... "Molecular cloning and expression of two distinct human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferases that belong to the HNK-1 ...

*Chondro-4-sulfatase

This enzyme is also called chondroitin-4-sulfatase. Held E, Buddecke E (1967). "[Studies on the chemistry of the arterial wall ... Demonstration, purification and properties of a chondroitin-4-sulfatase from bovine aorta]". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. ...

*ChGn

"Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 plays a critical role in chondroitin sulfate synthesis in cartilage". ... "Enzymatic synthesis of chondroitin with a novel chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that transfers N- ... Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSGALNACT1 gene. GRCm38: ... "Entrez Gene: ChGn chondroitin beta1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase". Gotoh M, Sato T, Akashima T, Iwasaki H, Kameyama A, ...

*CHST11

Yamada T, Ohtake S, Sato M, Habuchi O (Dec 2004). "Chondroitin 4-sulphotransferase-1 and chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 are ... Mikami T, Mizumoto S, Kago N, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K (Sep 2003). "Specificities of three distinct human chondroitin/dermatan N- ... "Entrez Gene: CHST11 carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11". Zeggini E, Panoutsopoulou K, Southam L, Rayner NW, Day- ... chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) gene in a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a t(12;14)(q23;q32)". Oncogene. ...

*Glucuronosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-b-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

Kitagawa, H.; Uyama, T.; Sugahara, K. (2001). "Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase". J. Biol. Chem ... DeAngelis, P.L.; Padgett-McCue, A.J. (2000). "Identification and molecular cloning of a chondroitin synthase from Pasteurella ... uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-chondroitin acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N- ... N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-proteoglycan This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Rohrmann, K.; ...

*NG2 proteoglycan

The core NG2 molecule is approximately 300 kDa and the addition of at least one chondroitin sulfate molecule results in a ... "Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: inhibitory components of the glial scar." Prog Brain Res. 2001;132:611-9. PMID 11545024. ... "NG2 is a major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan produced after spinal cord injury and is expressed by macrophages and ... "Increased expression of the NG2 chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan after brain injury." J. Neurosci. 1994 Aug;14(8):4716-30. PMID ...
The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial
Proteodermatan sulfate (PDS), defective biosynthesis of symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Proteodermatan sulfate (PDS), defective biosynthesis of (Xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase (XGPT) deficiency) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis. Although chondroitin is used in dietary supplements as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis and also approved and regulated as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for this disease (SYSADOA) in Europe and some other countries, it is technically neither a medicine nor a disease-modifying treatment. See Clinical effects below. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine. Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in ...
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate ...
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Previous studies have indicated that CD44 isoforms, spliced with variant exons, are heterogeneously glycanated with chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate chains. Because such alternative splicing may regulate divergent biological effects of the specific isoforms, we analysed the consequences of this process on the composition and structure of the chondroitin-sulphate chains. Recombinant chimaeras were engineered with and without exons V3-10 or V3,8-10 and expressed as Ig fusion proteins in COS cells. In addition, the chondroitin sulphates of wild-type isoforms were contrasted with those of isoforms mutated with serine-to-alanine codon substitutions at a putative Ser-Gly-Ser-Gly glycosaminoglycan acceptor site within exon V3. The chondroitin sulphates contained both 4- and 6-sulphated galactosamine residues, although there was a high content of non-sulphated galactosamine-containing repeat units. Splicing of exons V4-7, which contain no Ser-Gly consensus motifs, resulted in increased ...
1. A process for the preparation of a chondroitin sulphate sodium salt in which all N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) units in a polysaccharide chain are monosulphated randomly, at the 4-position, or at the 6-position, the process comprising: a) transforming a chondroitin sodium salt into its free acid or a salt thereof with a quaternary ammonium cation selected from the group consisting of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium, into a pyridinium salt, or into a methyl ester; b) reacting the compound obtained in step a) with an orthoester of formula RC(OR1)3, wherein R is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl or phenyl and R1 is selected from methyl or ethyl, in the presence of acid catalysis, to give a compound in which a repeating disaccharide unit present in chondroitin has the formula I ##STR00010## wherein R and R1 are as defined above; c) protecting the hydroxy groups at the 2- and 3-positions of the glucuronic acid units of the compound obtained step b) by ...
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Supports healthy cartilage and joints Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most vital of the compounds in connective tissue which are responsible for building and supporting the ground substance of cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, this naturally occurring compound provides support for strong, healthy cartilage and joints. each vegetable capsule contains: chondroitin sulfate (bovine) 400 mg. (from 444 mg. of chondroitin sulfate (bovine)) vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 5 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 3-12 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
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2) 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate + [chondroitin]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine = adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + [chondroitin]-4,6-di-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Glossary: 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate = PAPS. Other name(s): GalNAc4S-6ST; CHST15 (gene name). Systematic name: 3-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[dermatan]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase. Comments: The enzyme is activated by divalent cations and reduced glutathione. The enzyme from human transfers sulfate to position 6 of both internal residues and non-reducing terminal GalNAc 4-sulfate residues of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Oligosaccharides derived from chondroitin sulfate also serve as acceptors but chondroitin sulfate E, keratan sulfate and heparan sulfate do not. Differs from EC 2.8.2.17, chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase, in being able to use both chondroitin and dermatan as effective substrates. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: ...
We are attempting to develop methods for the sequencing of glycosaminoglycans from their reducing end. Here we describe a procedure for the analysis of dermatan sulphate from pig skin. The glycosaminoglycan is released from its parent proteoglycan by exhaustive proteolysis by using both endo- and exo-peptidases. The amino group of the residual serine residue is conjugated with a p-hydroxyphenyl group, which in turn is iodinated with 125I (the Bolton-Hunter reagent, BHR). The ion-exchange-purified end-labelled dermatan sulphate is then degraded partially or completely by various enzymic or chemical means to yield fragments extending from the labelled serine residue to the point of cleavage. The various products are separated by gradient PAGE, detected by autoradiography and quantified by videodensitometry. Complete digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase affords the labelled fragment delta HexA-GalNAc(-SO4)-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser(-BHR). The structure was confirmed by sequential degradation from the ...
Posted on Apr 7, 2015. To: Dr. Caesar DePaço, Summit Nutritionals International ®. Re: Droi-Kon ®. ________________. Dr. DePaço,. On behalf of myself and my K9 partner Uno, I would like to thank you for your assistance and guidance with your Droi-Kon ® Chondroitin.. This winter I noticed my K9 partner laying around a lot more and not being active, I figured it was just the winter blues. Then every day I noticed more signs, limping, frequent stretching, not wanting to go up or down the stairs in my house. I brought K9 Uno to the Vet, who stated he was very stiff and because of his age of 8, probably slightly arthritic. The Vet suggested a possible Chondroitin based product. Well, I knew exactly who to talk to about this.. In January, I contacted you and explained what was happening with K9 Uno, You said " Dont worry Chris, I know exactly how to help Uno"…well you did and I couldnt be more happy.. Due to your product, Droi-Kon ®, your instruction and help, by putting 1 tablespoon of ...
... - Supports Healthy Joint Function* Supports Elasticity of Joint Tissues* Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroiti
Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market Research Deep Analysis 2019-2023 : The Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market report 2019 deeply analyses significant…. Read More » ...
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Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroitin is high potency and is derived from bovine cartilage.
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Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
Chondroitin sulfate is one of the major constituents of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of repeating chains of molecules called mucopolysaccharides
...     Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine
As can be seen from its origin of the Greek word, "chondros" meaning "cartilage", chondroitin is contained in the joint cartilage in a large quantity. Among mucopolysaccharides, chondroitin shows broader distribution (ubiquitously locating) in the body, and in addition to the hard tissues such as the joint cartilage and bones, it exists in almost all the organs and tissues such as a central nervous tissue, and plays important functions ...
Learn more about Chondroitin at Memorial Health Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Chondroitin Sulfate Uses Principal Proposed Uses ...
Posted on Nov 18, 2014. Since its inception in 2001, Summit Nutritionals International ® has been the leader in manufacturing and delivering 100% USA made and 100% BSE free Chondroitin Sulfate to the world. Make Summit Nutritionals ® your source for 100% BSE Free bulk nutritional raw materials.. ...
Chondroitin naturally occurs in the body and may help maintain cartilage health. We offer a great range of Chondroitin supplements to support optimum joint health. Free UK delivery.
|p|Chondroitin occurs next to cartilage tissue in connective tissue, tendons and skin. In relatively small quantities, chondroitin is absorbed through anima
Which is better for arthritis msm or chondroitin supplements - Can you tell me how much time does it take to feel the results of glucosamine, chondroitin & msm supplements? Possibly never. A 3 month trial would adequate to assess the effectiveness of these supplements.
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Chondroitin sulfate (CSA) is a mucopolysaccharide found in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, where it is bound to proteins such as collagen and elastin. In our joints, it contributes to strength, flexibility and shock absorption. Current research indicates that supplemental CSA may help maintain proper joint function.
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
We are very grateful to our distinguished colleague for his constructive comments.1 However it seems that some keypoints of our study were grossly misunderstood.2 As clearly stated, the objective of the CONCEPT study was to confirm that chondroitin sulfate (CS) is superior to placebo (PLB) in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, with the addition of a Celebrex (CLB) arm, as requested by the European Medicines Agency, to provide an external validation and to better assess the relevance of the difference in pain relief observed between the CS and PLB arms. There was no intent to demonstrate a non-inferiority of CS versus Celebrex. In such a case, a non-inferiority margin for the comparison would be mentioned in the protocol, and the power calculation would be substantially different. The use of the word similar in describing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Lequesne scoring … ...
Researchers report the results of a trial which uncovered a benefit for supplementation with chondroitin sulfate in individuals with osteoarthritis of the hand.
Chondroitin Sulfate 500 mg Reviews and other Reviews of Nutritional Supplements and Merchants Plus Related Resources Including a 2017 Buying Guide. Healthy Learning for Healthy Living.
The Chondroitin Sulfate is the target of analysis presented in this research report which is a highly descriptive and insightful publication. It chalks out a detailed, all-inclusive, and logical perspective of the market, casing all crucial categories and their pieces, along with the aspects that have so far shown the potential of having a deep influence on the market over the coming years. The report is therefore a 360-degree representation of the analysis of the current state of market ...
... was valued US$ XX Bn in 2018 and is expected to reach US$ XX Bn by 2026, at CAGR of XX% during forecast period.
WHITE PLAINS, NY - November 2, 2003 - ConsumerLab.com today announced test results for supplements used in treating osteoarthritis that contain glucosamine, chondroitin, and/or MSM. These ingredients accounted for $790 million in product sales in 2002 according Nutrition Business Journal and are also popular supplements for pets. Several combination products were found to be low in chondroitin - a particularly expensive ingredient. Two products for use by people contained less than 20% and 85%, respectively, of the expected chondroitin. More shocking, two pet supplements had no detectable chondroitin despite a "guaranteed analysis" on the label of each showing significant chondroitin.. "The problem of missing chondroitin is one that we first identified three years ago looking at products for human use," said Tod Cooperman, M.D., ConsumerLab.coms President. "Most manufacturers seem to be doing a better job now with products for people, but pet owners seem particularly at-risk for getting ...
The chemical composition of D-glucuronic acid and acetyl amino sugars (glucose and galactose) by 1,3-b - glucoside bond-linked polymer.
Chondroitin is a supplement frequently paired with Glucosamine as a combination therapy to help with joint pain and stiffness, and other symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Uniflex Melindungi bantalan sendi, Cairan Bersama replenishes, Glucosamine membangun kembali sendi, Chondroitin melumasi sendi murah dengan spesifikasi sesuai kebutuhan Anda. Gratis ongkos kirim dan bisa dicicil dengan bunga cicilan 0%
... Recombinant human glycoprotein Ib alpha Residues 17 - 306 None of the tyrosines at positions 292, 294, 295 is sulfated 40 ug Alternative names: GpIb CD42B-alpha Send an email to [email protected]
Chondroitin is a chemical naturally present in the connective tissues of humans and animals. It is mainly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The following article provides information about the various side effects of this chemical.
... is a type of dietary supplement primarily used for treating osteoarthritis. This eMedTV Web article provides an in-depth look at this supplement, including possible safety concerns, potential side effects, and details on its effectiveness.
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Chondroitin Sulphate is added to help neutralise naturally occurring destructive enzymes in joints and improve the quality of fluid in the joint (synovial fluid).. These enzymes increase significantly when joints are damaged or worn but can be reduced using chondroitin sulphate and when used with glucosamine can help re-build damaged cartilage.. ...
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Chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance formed of sugar chains. Chondroitin is believed to help the body maintain fluid and flexibility in the joints.
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A liquid glucosamine chondroitin supplement commonly consists of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Many of these join pain relief supplements include Vitamin C. The glucosamine chondroitin supplement in a liquid allows the body to absorb up to 700% more than tablet or capsules. Benefits of these joint pain relief supplements include healthy joint function and no known side effects. Liquid glucosamine chondroitin msm is easier to swallow than tablets and capsules. If youre looking for relief for joints, try the correct glucosamine chondroitin msm dosage as specified for relief. Most joint pain relief supplements made of liquid glucosamine and chondroitin are 100% all natural. These options for a glucosamine chondroitin supplement have a therapeutic potency level. Buy a liquid glucosamine chondroitin supplement online:. ...
Glucosamine + Chondroitin with MSM Healthy cartilage strength and resilience Sulfur-containing methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is included in this glucosamine and chondroitin combination to provide an enhanced spectrum of nutrients for optimal cartilage matrix composition, connective tissue strength, and joint comfort. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is responsible for building the ground substance of cartilage, molecules known as proteoglycans. In addition, chondroitin sulfate may maintain healthy enzyme activity. An important role of sulfur from MSM is to enhance the structure and integrity of proteoglycans. Pure Encapsulations Glucosamine and Chondroitin with MSM offers highly purified constituents for healthy cartilage formation and joint movement ease. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: glucosamine HCl (crab, shrimp), 99% 300 mg. chondroitin sulfate (bovine), 95% 300 mg. MSM
One immediate result of our experiments is the ability to assign Ser999 as the principal site of chondroitin sulfate attachment to the NG2 polypeptide. On the basis of the apparent difference in molecular size between the NG2 core glycoprotein (300 kDa) and the intact proteoglycan (400-600 kDa smear) on SDS-PAGE, we had speculated that there might be several chondroitin sulfate chains associated with the core. The presence of at least two good consensus sequences for chondroitin sulfate attachment at Ser999 (EGSGD) and Ser1342 (SGLG, Nishiyama et al., 1991a) seemed consistent with this prediction. However, our current experiments with point mutants have shown that NG2/S1342A still contains chondroitin sulfate, whereas NG2/S999A is devoid of glycosaminoglycan, indicating that Ser1342 is not used as an attachment site. Thus, at least in this case, the E/DGSGE/D motif ( Zimmermann and Ruoslahti, 1989) is utilized, whereas the SGXG motif ( Bourdon et al., 1987) is not. This usage may highlight the ...
Therapy. There are 13 Chapters to deeply display the global Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid market.. Chapter 1, to describe Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, with sales, revenue, and price of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2015 and 2016;. Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Chondroitin and Hyaluronic Acid, for each region, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 9 and 10, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2011 to 2016;. Chapter 11, Chondroitin ...
Chondroitin sulfate is used in treatment of osteoarthritis. It is often used in combination with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is also used for heart disease, osteoporosis, and high cholesterol. Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex along with iron for treating anemia.
1. Busci L & Poor G: Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(supplement A):31-36. 2. Morrison LM & Enrick NL: Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate-A. Angiology 1973: 24(5): 269-287. 3. Tallia A & Cardone D: Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002; 15(6):841-848. 4. Uebelhart D, Thonar E & Delmas P: Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6 (supplement A):39-46. 5. Verbruggen G, Goemaere S & Veys E: Chondroitin sulfate: S/MOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(suppl A): 37-38. 6. Product Information: Glucosamine hcl chondroitin sulfate oral tablets. Puritans Pride, Bohemia, NY, 2006. ...
Chondroitin Sulfate comes from two main sources: • the bovine source (cattle), where the chondroitin is usually taken from the cattles trachea • the marine source, with the chondroitin typically sourced from shark cartilage. Good quality manufacturers will state on their packaging what type of chondroitin is used in their products. This is most important to people who have strong views over the type of chondroitin they use. For example, some may be happy to use supplements derived from shark cartilage but will not be willing to use supplements made from cow by-products - or vice-versa. In fact, the source of any dietary supplement should be one of your prime consideration. If you do not wish to use either animal or marine products to relieve your arthritis pain you may wish to try organic rosehip supplements, which offer a natural herbal alternative.. ...
There have been a number of clinical trials that have studied Glucosamine adn Chondroitin. One of the largest trials was conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and compared glucosamine HCl alone, chondroitin sulfate alone, the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin, Celebrex and a placebo (a substance containing no medications) in pateints with knee osteoartritis. In this large trial, there were no significant differences in outcome between the glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate groups than with the placebo. However, in several smaller clinicial trials in Europe, the formulation of glucosamine sulfate (not glucosamine HCl) has shown some possible benefits. The bottom line is that some patients with osteoarthritis do seem, individually, to report some benefits with these supplements.. The American College of Rheumatology 2012 guidelines do not recommend the use of glucosamine or chondroitin for the management of osteoarthritis. However, because there are very few known side ...
Save 36% Fitness Labs - Glucosamine Chondroitin & MSM 240 Capsules Glucosamine Chondroitin & MSM Complete Joint Support Formula* 4 Capsules Provide: 1,500 mg D-Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl 1,200 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 1,000 mg MSM Complete Joint Support Formula* This maximum-strength formula combines the expert-recommended ratios of glucosamine and chondroitin, plus MSM.* Just take four easy-to-swallow capsules a day. Glucosamine and chondroitin are the building blocks of healthy joints and tissues. We use the sulfate forms in a preferred 1500 mg to 1200 mg ratio, the same amounts used in clinical studies. Our glucosamine is potassium (2KCl) stabilized to reduce unwanted sodium. Then we add 1,000 mg of MSM, a source of sulfur, which is a mineral abundantly found in connective tissues. Its excellent for joints including wrists, hands, neck, back, hips, knees, ankles and feet!* Individual results may vary.
Save 36% Fitness Labs - Glucosamine Chondroitin & MSM 240 Capsules Glucosamine Chondroitin & MSM Complete Joint Support Formula* 4 Capsules Provide: 1,500 mg D-Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl 1,200 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 1,000 mg MSM Complete Joint Support Formula* This maximum-strength formula combines the expert-recommended ratios of glucosamine and chondroitin, plus MSM.* Just take four easy-to-swallow capsules a day. Glucosamine and chondroitin are the building blocks of healthy joints and tissues. We use the sulfate forms in a preferred 1500 mg to 1200 mg ratio, the same amounts used in clinical studies. Our glucosamine is potassium (2KCl) stabilized to reduce unwanted sodium. Then we add 1,000 mg of MSM, a source of sulfur, which is a mineral abundantly found in connective tissues. Its excellent for joints including wrists, hands, neck, back, hips, knees, ankles and feet!* Individual results may vary.
Triple flex Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Tulang & Sendi Nature Made mempersembahkan suplemen glucosamine untuk melumasi sendi dan sekaligus untuk meningkatkan fleksibelitas. Menguatkan jaringan yang saling berhubungan di dan sekitar sendi. Meremajakan tulang rawan untuk mendorong kenyamanan pada sendi. Mengandung Glucosamine , Chondroitin dan MSM, yang bekerja secara sinergis untuk meningkatkan manfaat masing2 dalam tubuh. Triple Strength Glucosamine , Chondroitin, dan MSM adalah penenang sendi yang paling kuat. Cukup 2 kaplet per hari akan memberikan Anda perlindungan kekuatan 3 kali dengan 1500mg Glucosamine , dan 800 mg Chondroitin serta 750mg MSM sebagai campuran nutrisi sendi kita. Jika Anda ingin meremajakan sendi dan tulang rawan, tablet Triple Strength glucosamine ini akan memberikan sendi Anda perasaan terlumasi dan teremajakan. Mereka bahkan dapat membantu meringankan stress sendi sewaktu-waktu akibat aktivitas fisik atau latihan. Triple Strength Glucosamine , Chondroitin dan MSM sempurna
Life Extension Order Line - 888.244.8948 Glucosamine Chondroitin capsules by Life Extension. Chondroitin sulfates provide the structural components of joint cartilage and facilitate the entry of glucosamine into joints. Chondroitin sulfates also inhibit free radical enzymes. Like glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate attracts water into the cartilage matrix and helps stimulate the production of cartilage.
Chondroitin sulfate: Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Chondroitin sulfate at PatientsLikeMe. 5 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, bipolar disorder, Parkinsons disease, panic disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure (hypertension), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, bipolar II disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, asthma, social anxiety disorder, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Chondroitin sulfate.
Chondroitin sulphate (CS) proteoglycans are up-regulated in the extracellular matrix of injured nerves and constitute barriers to axonal re-growth. Chondroitin sulphate ABC lyases (ChABC) from Proteus vulgaris have been exploited to cleave CS moieties in the injured environment and thus to improve prospects of nerve regeneration. Albeit the occurrence of two subtypes (ChABC I, an endolyase, and ChABC II, an exolyase), only ChABC I is commercially available and tested for medical use. Reports indicated activity decay of ChABC I in the injured environment and the need for repeated doses to overcome barrier effects of CS. To address this, we prepared recombinant ChABC I & II and assessed effects of limit digestion products of CS on the enzyme activities. ChABC II was found more sensitive to competitive inhibition by CS disaccharides than ChABC I by CS tetrasaccharides. Use of the two ChABC subtypes in combination resolved the product inhibition and improved enzymatic efficacy. We then used ...
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Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit GalNAc(b1-4)GlcA(b1-3), modified with ester-linked sulfate at certain positions. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a modified form of CS, in which a portion of D-glucuronate residues is epimerized to L-iduronates. CS and DS are linked to serine residues in core proteins via a linkage tetrasaccharide formed by the transfer of xylose and three more residues [MD:M00057]. The assembly process of CS is initiated by the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine to the linkage tetrasaccharide. The polymerization step is catalyzed by bifunctional enzymes (chondroitin synthases) that have both b1-3 glucuronosyltransferase and b1-4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities [MD:M00058]. Chondroitin polymerization also requires the action of the chondroitin polymerizing factor. ...
Clinical experience likewise suggests that some dogs and cats may appreciably benefit from chondroitin administration and others not at all. It is difficult to anticipate which animals are most likely to respond. Given the potential for benefit and the extremely low risk of any adverse side effects, chondroitin supplementation is always recommended for animals with joint pain. Where a benefit is seen, doses of more expensive and potentially deleterious drugs may be reduced, including the NSAIDs (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as aspirin, carprofen and meloxicam. Because chondroitin protects mucosal barriers, it may not only enhance pain relief in animals administered NSAIDS, but help protect their intestinal tracts from ulcerations which are occasionally seen as a side effect of NSAID use.. Research in laboratory animals suggests that chondroitin dissolved in water before administration is more effective than when administered within a capsule.. ...
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Neuronal axons and their growth cones recognize molecular guidance cues within the local environment, forming axonal pathways to produce precise neuronal networks during nervous system development. Chondroitin sulfates (CS), carbohydrate chains on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, exhibit great structural diversity and exert various influences on axons and growth cones as guidance cues or their modulators; however, the relationship between their structural diversity and function in axonal guidance is not well known. To uncover the roles of CS in axonal guidance, artificially modified hybrid molecules: CS derivatives of biotinylated CS and lipid-derivatized CS, were used. The experiments with biotinylated CS suggest that the growing axons act on their environment, modifying CS, and rendering it more favorable for their growth. The experiments with lipid-derivatized CS demonstrated that growth cones distinguish types of CS with different unit contents and are likely to discriminate the structural
Save on Chondroitin (in Chondroitin & Glucosamine) at Concord Home Health USA, Page 4 [51]. Top brands include PureControl Supplements, The Natural Healing Room & End Time Essentials, GLS, & AMERICAN BIOLOGICS. Hurry! Limited time offers. Offers valid only while supplies last.
Glucosamine sulphate and Chondroitin sulphate have been thoroughly studied for their positive actions helping to maintain healthy joints and connective tissue.. Reflex Glucosomine and Chondroitin is a health product that may have repair and maintenance properties on joints and tendons.. Ideal for sore knees, ankles, elbows and back. Can also be used as a preventative measure during heavy training.. Chondroitin may work synergistically with Glucosamine potentially enhancing its effects.. ...
Chondroitin is responsible for keeping the joint cartilage lubricated by absorbing water and providing the building blocks for new cartilage. It helps alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis. Chondroitin is anti-inflammatory it helps reduce swelling around joints and prevents the degradation of joint cartilage. Chondroitin is usually taken together with glucosamine sulfate ...
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Glucosamine is one of the major components involved with the formation of cartilage (critical lubricants and shock absorbers necessary to maintain and restore healthy joint performance). Chondroitin supports existing cartilage by promoting the quality of the synovial fluid it attracts fluid to act as a spongy shock absorber for the joints. It works together with Glucosamine to promote the healthy flow of water and nutrients into cartilage producing cells. When taken together, Glucosamine and Chondroitin work naturally with your body to promote healthy, flexible joints. This process of revitalizing healthy joints takes time and depends on your specific individual nutritional requirements. With daily continued use, you should look forward to experiencing the benefits of taking Glucosamine and Chondroitin. MSM keeps cells from becoming rigid. MSM softens tissue (
High Potency Joint Function Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate Tablet,US $ 0.058 - 0.06 / Piece, Improved Bone Density, Other, Guangdong, China (Mainland).Source from Guangdong Yichao Biological Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
... is included in this glucosamine and chondroitin combination to provide an enhanced spectrum of nutrients for optimal cartilage matrix composition, connective tissue strength, and joint comfort. Purchase Glucosamine Chondroitin w/ MSM 240 vcaps online with free shipping!
The popular supplements glucosamine and chondroitin dont do much to relieve the pain associated with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to a new analysis of 10 studies. This is not the first time that research has cast doubt on the effectiveness of these two supplements. The heavily anticipated, government-funded Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) also showed that overall they did not improve knee OA pain. A follow-up arm of this study showed that they did not do any better than placebo in slowing loss of cartilage that occurs in osteoarthritis of the knee. A smaller subset of GAIT participants with moderate-to-severe OA pain, however, did get some relief with the combined supplements. Because this group was small, researchers said the findings were preliminary and needed to be confirmed in further studies. The new analysis of 10 studies, comprising 3,803 people, reinforces the negative findings of the GAIT trial.Glucosamine, chondroitin, or their combination ...
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Alflexil Healthy Joints. Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Collagen. Supports elasticity and cushioning. Alflexil / Healthy Joints / Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM Collagen / 120 capsules - Alflexil provides naturally glucosamine, chondroitin, collagen and MSM (Me
1 x Glucosamine Chondroitin £15.95 or 2 For £27.99 (£13.995 Each) Glucosamine has been thoroughly studied for its positive actions in helping to maintain healthy joints and connective tissue. Chondroitin may work synergistically to enhance it effects. What makes Reflex Glucosamine & Chondroitin different from the competition? Many companies offer tablets, but few offer capsules. Reflex capsules are easier to swallow and very easy for your body to digest.. ...
1 x Glucosamine Chondroitin £15.95 or 2 For £27.99 (£13.995 Each) Glucosamine has been thoroughly studied for its positive actions in helping to maintain healthy joints and connective tissue. Chondroitin may work synergistically to enhance it effects. What makes Reflex Glucosamine & Chondroitin different from the competition? Many companies offer tablets, but few offer capsules. Reflex capsules are easier to swallow and very easy for your body to digest.. ...
Your furry friend has got an problem which needs a vital remedy. Our animals cant talk on their own, nevertheless, anyone will quickly discover as soon as your house friend is in serious pain . Possibly they are having a little of a tough time getting out of bed upon resting, or even further disinclined to jump up to your lap or go outdoors for any kind of walk. One time energetic as well as active, your pet may now appear to slow, possess some sort of trouble simply walking, tire easily or appear less exuberant or perhaps restless-to see them suffering pain makes you to feel powerless, doesnt it?. Joint Supplement For Dogs and cats for instance chondroitin and glucosamine turn out to be desired as treatments for arhtritis along with additional joint problems. Its a inescapable fact, chondroitin as well as glucosamine just happen to be applied for quite a few years already. This only proves that chondroitin and glucosamine really are reliable and effective. Today, a lot of pet lovers use ...
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Chondroitin Sulfate powder,US $ 45.5 - 48.5 / Kilogram, Treat for Osteoarthritis and relieve pain, Zhejiang, China (Mainland), HS.Source from Jiaxing Hengjie Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
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A source of Glucosamine sulfate and Chondroitin sulphate plus MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) and other cofactors to provide nutritional support for bone, joints, ligaments and cartilage. Glucosamine Sulfate and Chondroitin sulphate enable the body to use t
Includes collagen type II, chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid (HA) which can enhance proteoglycans in the joint matrix, thereby providing support for healthy joint function.
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are fundamental components of joint tissue involved in the production of hyaluronic acid, which is an important component of the synovial fluid that lubricates the joints, and a major component of the connective tissue in the skin.. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organic source of sulfur, an antioxidant mineral and critical component of structural body tissues such as cartilage. The sulfur from MSM is incorporated into joint tissues as glycosaminoglycans (or mucopolysaccharides) such as chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid.. Vitamin C and manganese are required for the synthesis of collagen and cartilage.. Jarrow Formulas Glucosamine Sulfate is Sodium Free and stabilized with potassium chloride (KCI). ...
Chondroitin ABC lyase (EC 4.2.2.4, chondroitinase, chondroitin ABC eliminase, chondroitinase ABC) is an enzyme with systematic name chondroitin ABC lyase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups This enzyme acts on chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Following a spinal cord injury, this enzyme can be used to erode scar tissue that can interfere with regeneration. Yamagata, T.; Saito, H.; Habuchi, O.; Suzuki, S. (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and chondrosulfatases". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1523-1535. PMID 5647268. Saito, H.; Yamagata, T.; Suzuki, S. (1968). "Enzymatic methods for the determination of small quantities of isomeric chondroitin sulfates". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (7): 1536-1542. PMID 4231029. ...
During development and regenerative growth, neuronal pathways are defined in part by several endogenous cues that collectively determine directed growth. The interactions between such cues largely are unknown. To address potential interactions, we have examined in vitro the combined effect on nerve growth of two endogenous growth cone guidance cues: chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and weak dc electric fields. Addition to the culture medium of a chondroitin 6-sulphate/keratan sulphate containing PG (BNC-PG) markedly enhanced the cathodal re-orientation of embryonic Xenopus neurites in an electric field, whereas a proteoglycan containing chondroitin 4-sulphate (RC-PG) was inhibitory. These effects of BNC-PG and RC-PG were reproduced by their chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycan side chains alone. Chondroitin 6-sulphate or chondroitin 4-sulphate, respectively, enhanced and inhibited cathodally-directed nerve re-orientation. This was dependent on the integrity of the glycosaminoglycan chain ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit of beta-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), and often modified with ester-linked sulfate at certain positions. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a modified form of CS, in which a portion of D-glucuronate residues is epimerized to L-iduronates (IdoA). CS and DS are linked to serine residues in core proteins via a linkage tetrasaccharide formed by the transfer of xylose and three more residues [MD:M00057]. The assembly process of CS is initiated by transferring GalNAc residue to the linkage tetrasaccharide. The polymerization is catalyzed by bifunctional enzymes (chondroitin synthases) possessing both beta 1,3 glucuronosyltransferase and beta 1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities [MD:M00058]. Chondroitin polymerization also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant core protein fragment of phosphacan, a brain specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, promote excitotoxic cell death of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. AU - Kurazono, Sekiko. AU - Okamoto, Motoi. AU - Mori, Shuji. AU - Matsui, Hideki. PY - 2001/5/25. Y1 - 2001/5/25. N2 - We investigated the role of phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is constitutively expressed in the adult hippocampus, and recombinant core proteins of phosphacan in excitotoxic cell death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Phosphacan had no significant effect on excitotoxic neuronal death. Surprisingly, one of three recombinant proteins corresponding to N-terminal portions of phosphacan core protein dramatically promoted excitotoxic neuronal death. Moreover, the recombinant protein induced cell death of rat hippocampal neurons, even when neurons were not exposed to glutamate. These results suggest that proteolytic degradation of phosphacan and resultant core protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan but not hyaluronic acid is the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in human placenta, and infected red blood cell adherence up-regulates the receptor expression. AU - Muthusamy, Arivalagan. AU - Achur, Rajeshwara N.. AU - Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar. AU - Botti, John J.. AU - Taylor, Diane W.. AU - Leke, Rose F.. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could ...
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Ability of compounds to rescue β-cell viability, induce ROS resistance and inhibit heparanase Viability Resistance Hpse Compound (kDa) (%) to H2O2 (ROS) inhibition Heparins Porcine mucosal heparin 12.5 ++++ +++ decarboxylated 12.5 66 - ++* glycol split, 10 ++++ ++++ glycol split, deNS, reNA 10 ++++ ++++ glycol split, de6S 12.5 ++++ +++ glycol split, de2S 12.5 50 - ++++* Low Mol Wt Heparin (Enoxaparin) 3 38 - - peroxidolysis 3 27 + - peroxidolysis-glycol split 3 ++++ +++± nitrous acid-glycol split 3 30 + +++±* Sulfated oligosaccharides PI-88 (20% tet/70% pent) 2-2.5 ++++ +++ Maltohexaose sulfate 3 ++++ +++ Maltopentaose sulfate 2.5 ++++ +++ Maltotetraose sulfate (75% tet/25% pent) 2 39 - +++* Bis-lactobionic acid amide (C12 link) 2 64 - +++* Other polysaccharides Dextran sulfate 5.5 ++++ ++ Pentosan PS 5 ++++ ++ HS High S 12-15 +++ ±* HS Low S 15 29 - - Chondroitin sulfate A 20 50 - ± Chondroitin sulfate B 30 46 - - Chondroitin sulfate C 60 32 - - Chondroitin sulfate D ...
Cartilage tissue specimens were obtained from the flexor surface of the navicular bone and distal radiocarpal bone articular surface (controls) from 8 horses 2 to 5 years old. Water, DNA, total collagen, total glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulphate, and keratan sulphate contents were determined. The results from each site were compared and the differences were analyzed by paired t-test (P < 0.05). Significant differences were determined between the water content of the navicular bone flexor surface cartilage (68.32± 3.46 % ) and the distal radiocarpal bone articular surface cartilage (60.60± 4.09%). The total DNA content, total glycosaminoglycan content, total chondroitin sulphate content, and total keratan sulphate for the flexor surface of the navicular bone was: 524.51± 92.89 ng, 0.1533± 0.0338 mg, 0.1018± 0.0197 mg 0.0800± 0.0176 mg, and 0.0092± 0.0037 mg per mg of dry weight cartilage, respectively. The total DNA content, total glycosaminoglycan content, total chondroitin sulphate ...

Development of methods for the genetic manipulation of Flavobacterium columnare | BMC Microbiology | Full TextDevelopment of methods for the genetic manipulation of Flavobacterium columnare | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

Stringer-Roth KM, Yunghans W, Caslake LF: Differences in chondroitin AC lyase activity of Flavobacterium columnare isolates. J ... Suomalainen L-R, Tiirola M, Valtonen ET: Chondroitin AC lyase activity is related to virulence of fish pathogenic ... and chondroitin AC lyase activity [12, 18, 19]. The bulk of the evidence for these factors playing a role in virulence is ... Genes Coding for the Chondroitin Sulfate-Degrading Enzymes Chondroitinase AC and Chondroitinase B, Respectively, from ...
more infohttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-8-115

Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee...Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee...

Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28533290

What is chondroitin?What is chondroitin?

as a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoa ... chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. ... What is chondroitin?. ANSWER Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. ... As a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoarthritis. ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/diet/qa/what-is-chondroitin

Chondroitin Sulfate: MedlinePlus SupplementsChondroitin Sulfate: MedlinePlus Supplements

Chondroitin Sulfate: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Chondroitin Sulfate A, Chondroitin Sulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate B, Chondroitin Sulfate C, Chondroitin Sulphates, Chondroitin ... Calcium Chondroitin Sulfate, CDS, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Polysulfate, Chondroitin Polysulphate, ... When taken by mouth: Chondroitin sulfate is LIKELY SAFE. Chondroitin sulfate has been taken by mouth safely for up to 6 years. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/744.html

Glucosamine, Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis PainGlucosamine, Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain

Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular supplements used to treat ... What Are Glucosamine and Chondroitin? Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural compounds found in healthy cartilage -- the ... Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain Research is mixed on whether these supplements help with arthritis pain and ... Some find chondroitin to be superior, others favor glucosamine, while still others prefer a combination of the two. "Evidence ...
more infohttps://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/treatment/complementary-therapies/supplements-and-vitamins/glucosamine-chondroitin-osteoarthritis-pain

Glucosamine, chondroitin dont benefit arthritisGlucosamine, chondroitin don't benefit arthritis

I dont really know if its done much for my dog, a mutt, but a review of 10 studies of glucosamine and chondroitin in humans ... I have two bottles of glucosamine and chondroitin on top of my refrigerator for my dog, who has terrible arthritis in her hind ... Glucosamine, chondroitin dont benefit arthritis Updated: September 20, 2010 - 8:42 AM EDT * ... I have two bottles of glucosamine and chondroitin on top of my refrigerator for my dog, who has terrible arthritis in her hind ...
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Chondroitin ineffective for osteoarthritis - UPI.comChondroitin ineffective for osteoarthritis - UPI.com

A European meta-analysis found that chondroitin, a dietary supplement used to treat osteoarthritis, is ineffective but not ... Twenty studies that compared chondroitin to placebo or no treatment were examined, and the researchers found that chondroitin ... If patients say that they benefit from chondroitin, I see no harm in encouraging them to continue taking it as long as they ... BERN, Switzerland, April 17 (UPI) -- A European meta-analysis found that chondroitin, a dietary supplement used to treat ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Health_News/2007/04/17/Chondroitin-ineffective-for-osteoarthritis/17141176836414/

Glucosamine and Chondroitin SupplementsGlucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements

... chondroitin supplements online at CVS. Read reviews & find great deals now! ... Glucosamine Chondroitin Benefits. In the body, glucosamine and chondroitin are needed for healthy joints. Both materials play a ... Most chondroitin supplements contain chondroitin sulfate derived from shark or cow cartilage. Glucosamine supplements may ... What Is Glucosamine Chondroitin?. Glucosamine is a substance that is naturally found in the fluid surrounding the joints. ...
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Glucosamine Chondroitin Supplements | WalgreensGlucosamine Chondroitin Supplements | Walgreens

View current promotions and reviews of Glucosamine Chondroitin Supplements and get free shipping at $35. ...
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Chondroitin - WikipediaChondroitin - Wikipedia

Chondroitin is a chondrin derivative. Types include: Chondroitin sulfate Dermatan sulfate Chondroitin at the US National ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin

Chondroitin proteoglycan-2 (P41996) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIChondroitin proteoglycan-2 (P41996) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P41996

Natrol Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM | WalgreensNatrol Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM | Walgreens

Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Natrol Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM ... Chondroitin helps maintain the structural integrity of this tissue and promotes lubricating fluids for the joints. ...
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Glucosamine Chondroitin - iHerbGlucosamine Chondroitin - iHerb

iHerb.com © Copyright 1997-2020 iHerb, LLC. All rights reserved. iHerb® is a registered trademark of iHerb, LLC. Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. and the iHerb.com Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. Logo are trademarks of iHerb, LLC. *Disclaimer: Statements made, or products sold through this website, have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Read More » ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/c/now-foods/Chondroitin?l=ja&%3Bp=2

Chondroitin sulfate - WikipediaChondroitin sulfate - Wikipedia

"Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and it is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. ... Chondroitin Product Selection for the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006; 46:14-24. ... Recently, new mechanisms of action have been described for chondroitin sulfate. In an in vitro study, chondroitin sulfate ... have suggested that all such preparations of chondroitin sulfate be referred to as "sodium chondroitin" regardless of their ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin_sulfate

SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGSODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE; CHONDROITIN POLYSULFATE; CHONDROITIN SULFATE; CHONDROITIN SULFURIC ACID ... About SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE: Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate is a derivative of a natural mucopolysaccharide.. Function(s): ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/723686/SODIUM_CHONDROITIN_SULFATE/

Glucosamine Chondroitin - Animal Health - General - MedHelpGlucosamine Chondroitin - Animal Health - General - MedHelp

... chondroitin (2,700 mg) since July 2012. In addition, he take fish oil (720 mg). One pill of each daily for his hip displasia ... My 9 year old German Shepherd has been taking glucosamine w/ chondroitin (2,700 mg) since July 2012. In addition, he take fish ...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/posts/Animal-Health---General/Glucosamine-Chondroitin/show/1830419

Glucosamine Chondroitin - iHerb.comGlucosamine Chondroitin - iHerb.com

21st Century, Glucosamine Chondroitin Complex Plus MSM, Advanced Triple Strength, 120 Tablets. 352 ... 21st Century, Glucosamine 1500 mg Chondroitin 1200 mg, Raspberry Flavored Liquid, 16 fl oz (480 ml). 28 ... 21st Century, Glucosamine 250 mg, Chondroitin 200 mg, Original Formula, 60 (Easy Swallow) Capsules. 194 ... 21st Century, Glucosamine 250 mg Chondroitin 200 mg, Original Formula, 120 (Easy Swallow) Capsules. 194 ...
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Glucosamine Chondroitin for DogsGlucosamine Chondroitin for Dogs

Uses of Glucosamine and Chondroitin in Dogs. Glucosamine and chondroitin are good for digestive problems, skin wounds and joint ... How Glucosamine and Chondroitin Work to Rebuild Joints. Throughout your dogs life, the cartilage in his joints is wearing down ... Glucosamine chondroitin for dogs can provide relief from the symptoms of arthritis and even reverse the progress of the disease ... Glucosamine and chondroitin supplements can help your dogs body rebuild and regenerate lost cartilage, relieving the symptoms ...
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Chondroitin Outperforms Celecoxib in Knee Osteoarthritis StudyChondroitin Outperforms Celecoxib in Knee Osteoarthritis Study

... chondroitin sulfate has been more successful than celecoxib in reducing the long-term progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), ... Chondroitin sulfate, more commonly called chondroitin, has long been the subject of debate when it comes to its usefulness in ... However, only chondroitin sulfate was found to be capable of slowing down the progression of the disease by reducing the loss ... Pelletier would like to point out that the study only used pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin, and results may not be similar for ...
more infohttps://www.newswise.com/articles/chrondroitin-outperforms-celecoxib-in-knee-osteoarthritis-study

Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane Support Group - Drugs.comChondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane Support Group - Drugs.com

Ask questions and get answers about Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane. Our support group helps people share their ... Home › Q & A › Support Groups › Chondroitin / Glucosamine / Methylsulfonylmethane. Join the Chondroitin / Glucosamine / ... Chondroitin / Glucosamine / Methylsulfonylmethane Information for Consumers. *Side Effects of Chondroitin / Glucosamine / ... Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane - I have a known allergy to sulfa. Will it be safe?. Posted 11 Mar 2015 • 1 ...
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Glucosamine, Chondroitin & MSM | Holland & BarrettGlucosamine, Chondroitin & MSM | Holland & Barrett

... including our chondroitin, glucosamine and MSM products which help to support people suffering from arthritis. ...
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Glucosamine and Chondroitin - ExRx.netGlucosamine and Chondroitin - ExRx.net

Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Ask and answer questions, discuss research and applications. Moderators: Ironman, Jungledoc, ... I was wondering if anyone has any experience good or bad with glucosamine and chondroitin. Im been to experiencing some post- ...
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DailyMed - Search Results for CHONDROITINDailyMed - Search Results for CHONDROITIN

CYCLOSPORINE/CHONDROITIN PF (cyclosporine/chondroitin sulfate pf) emulsion. NDC Code(s): 71384-514-05 *Packager: Imprimis NJOF ... CYCLOSPORINE/CHONDROITIN SULFATE PF emulsion. NDC Code(s): 70261-514-05 *Packager: ImprimisRx NJ ... SYNOQUIN EFA (glucosomine, chondroitin sulphate, dexahan, ascorbic acid, zinc sulfate) tablet. *This is an animal drug. ... THERAFLEX GLUCOSAMINE PLUS MAX (d-glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate sodium1) capsule. NDC Code(s): 61841-055-12, ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=CHONDROITIN

Chondroitin and melanoma: How worried should you be? - Jewish JournalChondroitin and melanoma: How worried should you be? - Jewish Journal

Researchers publishing in the medical journal Molecular Cell are raising concerns that chondroitin sulfate may encourage the ... Can chondroitin increase melanoma risk?. Researchers publishing in the medical journal Molecular Cell are raising concerns that ... Chondroitin sulfate is among the most popular supplements in the world. Its often taken in combination with glucosamine for ... But if chondroitin sulfate may promote melanoma growth - and its not clear that this supplement is particularly helpful anyway ...
more infohttp://www.sun-sentinel.com/florida-jewish-journal/health/fl-jj-chondroitin-melanoma-supplement-20180912-story,amp.html

Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM for Dogs, Hip and Joint Support,   | eBayGlucosamine Chondroitin MSM for Dogs, Hip and Joint Support, | eBay

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  • Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. (webmd.com)
  • Chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance formed of sugar chains. (cigna.com)
  • Although the tumor cells studied came from humans, a link between chondroitin sulfate use and melanoma in humans has not yet been established. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A review published in the Annals of Rheumatic Diseases describes all the documented evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of chondroitin sulfate Pharmacokinetic studies performed on humans and experimental animals after oral administration of chondroitin sulfate revealed that it can be absorbed orally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few adverse side effects were reported, and the authors concluded that chondroitin use should "be discouraged. (upi.com)
  • Although not all side effects are known, chondroitin and glucosamine is thought to be possibly safe when taken for up to 2 years. (drugs.com)
  • Additionally, there was a decrease in synovial membrane thickness in some of the participants on chondroitin, showing far better results for this group. (newswise.com)
  • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: "Chondroitin. (webmd.com)
  • Natural Standard Patient Monograph: "Chondroitin. (webmd.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is also taken by mouth, applied to the skin, and given as a shot for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although this research did not actually study people with melanoma, the study authors speculate that for people with precancerous skin growths containing the V600E mutation, taking chondroitin might be a bad idea because it could speed up tumor growth. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • If patients say that they benefit from chondroitin, I see no harm in encouraging them to continue taking it as long as they perceive a benefit. (upi.com)