Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.
A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (1/460)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Sulfate incorporation from ascorbate 2-sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. (2/460)

Radioactivity was significantly incorporated from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate by embryonic chick cartilage epiphyses. The extent of incorporation was comparable with that from inorganic [35S]sulfate. The radioactive chondroitin sulfate formed from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate gave two radioactive disaccharides on chondroitinase-ABC [EC] digestion. The incorporation was markedly decreased by inorganic sulfate. The time course of incorporation from ascorbate 2-[35S]sulfate and inorganic [35S]sulfate into chondroitin sulfate and the constituent disaccharides suggest that the incorporation rates from the two radioactive substances are different.  (+info)

Chondroitin sulphation patterns in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis subsets. (3/460)

OBJECTIVES: To determine concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) disaccharides in knee synovial fluid (SF) from normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to test whether these variables differ between different diseases and subsets of OA. METHODS: OA was subdivided into large joint OA (LJOA), nodal generalised OA (NGOA), and OA with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPA), with 25, 9, and 11 people in each subset respectively. The SF of 13 normal subjects was also volunteered for analysis along with 15 RA patients. Clinical assessment of inflammation (0-6) was undertaken on OA and RA knees. Concentrations of unsaturated CS disaccharides Deltadi6S and Deltadi4S were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis. RESULTS: Concentrations of Deltadi6S were lower in RA (5.90 ng/ml) and OA (13.24 ng/ml) fluids compared with normal (21.0 ng/ml) but no significant differences were seen between disease and normal fluids for Deltadi4S (about 4-6 ng/ml). The ratio of Deltadi6S:Deltadi4S were RA+info)

Combined effect of Interceed and 5-fluorouracil on delayed adjustable strabismus surgery. (4/460)

AIMS/BACKGROUND: To discover a more reliable method of performing delayed suture adjustment as a basis to investigate whether delayed adjustment actually provides more stable results. In order to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions and delay the time of adjustment, an animal study was performed to determine the combined effect of physical barriers, Viscoat and Interceed, and a pharmacological agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: 38 rabbit eyes were divided into three groups. After recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM), 5-FU was applied beneath and over the SRM in group 5-FU. Group I-f had Interceed and 5-FU and group I-fv, Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat. Delayed adjustment was performed once on each SRM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postoperatively. The possible length and the necessary force to adjust as well as the degree of adhesions were recorded. RESULTS: 5-FU delayed the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of four eyes. Combined use of Interceed and 5-FU could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of five eyes. Addition of Viscoat could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in four out of five eyes. Adjustment was possible on only one of four eyes thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat could delay the adjustment in rabbits until 1 week postoperatively.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of fetal bovine serum beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase and beta-D-glucuronyltransferase involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. (5/460)

beta-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II, involved in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, transfer an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue, respectively, through beta-linkages to an acceptor chondroitin oligosaccharide derived from the repeating disaccharide region of chondroitin sulfate. They were copurified from fetal bovine serum approximately 2500-fold and 850-fold, respectively, by sequential chromatographies on Red A-agarose, phenyl-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Identical and inseparable chromatographic profiles of both glycosyltransferase activities obtained through the above chromatographic steps and gel filtration suggest that the purified enzyme activities are tightly coupled, which could imply a single enzyme with dual transferase activities; beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase and beta-glucuronyltransferase, reminiscent of the heparan sulfate polymerase reaction. However, when a polymerization reaction was performed in vitro with the purified serum enzyme preparation under the polymerization conditions recently developed for the chondroitin-synthesizing system, derived from human melanoma cells, each monosaccharide transfer took place, but no polymerization occurred. These results may suggest that the purified serum enzyme preparation contains both beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II and beta-glucuronyltransferase II activities on a single polypeptide or on the respective polypeptides forming an enzyme complex, but is different from that obtained from melanoma cells in that it transfers a single GalNAc or GlcA residue but does not polymerize chondroitin.  (+info)

Demonstration of glycosaminoglycans in Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/460)

A considerable amount (approximately 1.6 microg from 1 mg of dried nematode) of non-sulfated chondroitin, two orders of magnitude less yet an appreciable amount of heparan sulfate, and no hyaluronate were found in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The chondroitin chains were heterogeneous in size, being shorter than that of whale cartilage chondroitin sulfate. The disaccharide composition analysis of heparan sulfate revealed diverse sulfation including glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and uronate 2-O-sulfation. These results imply that chondroitin and heparan sulfate are involved in fundamental biological processes.  (+info)

Microanalysis of enzyme digests of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). (7/460)

Hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate are glycosaminoglycans that play major roles in the biomechanical properties of a wide variety of tissues, including cartilage. A chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain can be divided into three regions: (1) a single linkage region oligosaccharide, through which the chain is attached to its proteoglycan core protein, (2) numerous internal repeat disaccharides, which comprise the bulk of the chain, and (3) a single nonreducing terminal saccharide structure. Each of these regions of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain has its own level of microheterogeneity of structure, which varies with proteoglycan class, tissue source, species, and pathology. We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive protocols for detection, characterization and quantitation of the saccharide structures from the internal disaccharide and nonreducing terminal regions of hyaluronan and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains. These protocols rely on the generation of saccharide structures with free reducing groups by specific enzymatic treatments (hyaluronidase/chondroitinase) which are then quantitatively tagged though their free reducing groups with the fluorescent reporter, 2-aminoacridone. These saccharide structures are further characterized by modification through additional enzymatic (sulfatase) or chemical (mercuric ion) treatments. After separation by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis, the relative fluorescence in each band is quantitated with a cooled, charge-coupled device camera for analysis. Specifically, the digestion products identified are (1) unsaturated internal Deltadisaccharides including DeltaDiHA, DeltaDi0S, DeltaDi2S, DeltaDi4S, DeltaDi6S, DeltaDi2,4S, DeltaDi2,6S, DeltaDi4,6S, and DeltaDi2,4,6S; (2) saturated nonreducing terminal disaccharides including DiHA, Di0S, Di4S and Di6S; and (3) nonreducing terminal hexosamines including glcNAc, galNAc, 4S-galNAc, 6S-galNAc, and 4, 6S-galNAc.  (+info)

Glycosaminoglycan conformation: do aqueous molecular dynamics simulations agree with x-ray fiber diffraction? (8/460)

Glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions are biologically important and require an appreciation of glycan molecular shape in solution, which is presently unavailable. In previous studies we found strong similarity between aqueous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and published x-ray diffraction refinements of hyaluronan. We have applied a similar approach here to chondroitin and dermatan, attempting to clarify some of the issues raised by the x-ray diffraction literature relating to chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. We predict that chondroitin has the same beta(1-->4) linkage conformation as hyaluronan, and that their average beta(1-->3) conformations differ. This is explained by changes in hydrogen-bonding across this linkage, resulting from its axial hydroxyl, causing a different sampling of left-handed helices in chondroitin (2.5- to 3.5-fold) as compared with hyaluronan (3.0- to 4.0-fold). Few right-handed helices, which lack intramolecular hydrogen-bonds, were sampled during our MD simulations. Thus, we propose that the 8-fold helix observed in chondroitin-6-sulfate, represented in the literature as an 8(3) helix (right-handed), though it has never been refined, is more likely to be 8(5) (left-handed) helix. Molecular dynamics simulations implied that (4)C(1) and (2)S(O), but not (1)C(4), forms of iduronate could be used in refinements of dermatan x-ray fiber diffraction patterns. Current models of 8-fold dermatan sulfate chains containing (4)C(1) iduronate refine to right-handed helices, which possess no intramolecular hydrogen-bonds. However, MD simulations predict that models containing (2)S(O) iduronate could provide better (8(5) helix) starting structures for refinement. Thus, the 8-fold dermatan sulfate refinement (8(3) helix) could be in error.  (+info)

A novel gene participating in the polymerization of chondroitin chain is found out. A gene product thereof, which forms a complex with chondroitin synthase |i|in vivo|/i| and thus promotes polymerization of chondroitin, is named chondroitin polymerization factor (ChPF). This chondroitin polymerization factor is usable in artificially synthesizing sugar chain skeletons of sulfated glycosaminoglycans having useful physiological activities such as chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which makes it industrially useful.
The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial
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Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis. Although chondroitin is used in dietary supplements as an alternative medicine to treat osteoarthritis and also approved and regulated as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for this disease (SYSADOA) in Europe and some other countries, it is technically neither a medicine nor a disease-modifying treatment. See Clinical effects below. It is commonly sold together with glucosamine. Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in ...
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The improtant components of extracellular matrix(ECM) are collagen and chondroitin sulfate. The hydrophobic surface of collagen is one of the determining factors of diameter of collagen fiber and also is closely related to the aging phenomena. The controlling mechanism of the diameter of collagen fiber influenced by the interaction with chondroitin sulfate was evaluated using bis-ANS as a hydrophobic probe. Hydrophobic surface area of collagen molecule shielded by chondroitin sulfate was evaluated. Relative fluorescence intensity of collagen in thepresence of chondroitin sulfate was measured using bis-ANS as a hydrophobic probe. The fluorescence intensity decreased with the increase in chondroitin sulfate up to 3.8 chondroitin sulfate/collagen(mole/mole). Further increase in the ratio of chondroitin sulfate to collagen did not change the fluorescence intensity. Similar changes in the relative fluorescence intensity were observed
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate ...
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Previous studies have indicated that CD44 isoforms, spliced with variant exons, are heterogeneously glycanated with chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate chains. Because such alternative splicing may regulate divergent biological effects of the specific isoforms, we analysed the consequences of this process on the composition and structure of the chondroitin-sulphate chains. Recombinant chimaeras were engineered with and without exons V3-10 or V3,8-10 and expressed as Ig fusion proteins in COS cells. In addition, the chondroitin sulphates of wild-type isoforms were contrasted with those of isoforms mutated with serine-to-alanine codon substitutions at a putative Ser-Gly-Ser-Gly glycosaminoglycan acceptor site within exon V3. The chondroitin sulphates contained both 4- and 6-sulphated galactosamine residues, although there was a high content of non-sulphated galactosamine-containing repeat units. Splicing of exons V4-7, which contain no Ser-Gly consensus motifs, resulted in increased ...
1. A process for the preparation of a chondroitin sulphate sodium salt in which all N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) units in a polysaccharide chain are monosulphated randomly, at the 4-position, or at the 6-position, the process comprising: a) transforming a chondroitin sodium salt into its free acid or a salt thereof with a quaternary ammonium cation selected from the group consisting of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium, into a pyridinium salt, or into a methyl ester; b) reacting the compound obtained in step a) with an orthoester of formula RC(OR1)3, wherein R is selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl or phenyl and R1 is selected from methyl or ethyl, in the presence of acid catalysis, to give a compound in which a repeating disaccharide unit present in chondroitin has the formula I ##STR00010## wherein R and R1 are as defined above; c) protecting the hydroxy groups at the 2- and 3-positions of the glucuronic acid units of the compound obtained step b) by ...
Chondroitin Sulfate Chondroitin is most often used to treat joint issues and pain. Chondroitin sulfate promotes healthy development and maintenance for the cartilage and tissue that align along the joints. In addition to improved mobility, chondroitin can also provide protection for the stomach, eyes, and bladder. Dogs
Glucosamine and chondroitin have been the stepchildren of modern medicine for many years. While their use has skyrocketed due to a mass of supplements on the market, the average family doctor was much more likely to prescribe pharmaceutical concoctions such as Celebrex. In a study presented in November 2015 at a meeting of the American College of Rheumatology, chondroitin dramatically beat Celebrex in a head-to-head trial.. Chondroitin is a component of cartilage. The theory for taking it always has been simple-to provide the body with the building blocks of cartilage, and, just maybe, this would preserve or build cartilage. While the reality of how chondroitin works is a lot more complex, small studies using MRI have shown that chondoitin preserves cartilage. When given along with its cousin glucosamine, chondroitin is a potent anti-inflammatory. The two together even have been shown to lower cardiac risk factors.. The study presented to the American College of Rheumatology specifically looks ...
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Supports healthy cartilage and joints Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most vital of the compounds in connective tissue which are responsible for building and supporting the ground substance of cartilage. As a nutritional supplement, this naturally occurring compound provides support for strong, healthy cartilage and joints. each vegetable capsule contains: chondroitin sulfate (bovine) 400 mg. (from 444 mg. of chondroitin sulfate (bovine)) vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate) 5 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume requirement) Directions: 3-12 capsules per day, in divided doses, with meals.
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2) 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate + [chondroitin]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine = adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + [chondroitin]-4,6-di-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Glossary: 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate = PAPS. Other name(s): GalNAc4S-6ST; CHST15 (gene name). Systematic name: 3-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:[dermatan]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase. Comments: The enzyme is activated by divalent cations and reduced glutathione. The enzyme from human transfers sulfate to position 6 of both internal residues and non-reducing terminal GalNAc 4-sulfate residues of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Oligosaccharides derived from chondroitin sulfate also serve as acceptors but chondroitin sulfate E, keratan sulfate and heparan sulfate do not. Differs from EC, chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase, in being able to use both chondroitin and dermatan as effective substrates. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: ...
We are attempting to develop methods for the sequencing of glycosaminoglycans from their reducing end. Here we describe a procedure for the analysis of dermatan sulphate from pig skin. The glycosaminoglycan is released from its parent proteoglycan by exhaustive proteolysis by using both endo- and exo-peptidases. The amino group of the residual serine residue is conjugated with a p-hydroxyphenyl group, which in turn is iodinated with 125I (the Bolton-Hunter reagent, BHR). The ion-exchange-purified end-labelled dermatan sulphate is then degraded partially or completely by various enzymic or chemical means to yield fragments extending from the labelled serine residue to the point of cleavage. The various products are separated by gradient PAGE, detected by autoradiography and quantified by videodensitometry. Complete digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase affords the labelled fragment delta HexA-GalNAc(-SO4)-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser(-BHR). The structure was confirmed by sequential degradation from the ...
Today, chondroitin, especially when taken with glucosamine, is a popular alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Chondroitin combined with glucosamine helps lower symptoms associated with loss of collagen and cartilage, which are found in tendons, joints, ligaments, skin and the digestive tract. These conditions can include tendonitis, bursitis and other inflammation. In healthy people, when cartilage becomes damaged due to overuse, injury or inflammation, new cartilage is normally produced to take its place. Unfortunately, as we get older our ability to regenerate lost cartilage and repair damaged connective tissue becomes less efficient. Glucosamine and chondroitin stimulate the production of new cartilage and can also help reduce inflammation in the process. When taken together their benefits include reduced joint pain and improvement in functionality for patients with arthritis. Chondroitin and glucosamine are both considered to be very safe and effective. ...
Posted on Apr 7, 2015. To: Dr. Caesar DePaço, Summit Nutritionals International ®. Re: Droi-Kon ®. ________________. Dr. DePaço,. On behalf of myself and my K9 partner Uno, I would like to thank you for your assistance and guidance with your Droi-Kon ® Chondroitin.. This winter I noticed my K9 partner laying around a lot more and not being active, I figured it was just the winter blues. Then every day I noticed more signs, limping, frequent stretching, not wanting to go up or down the stairs in my house. I brought K9 Uno to the Vet, who stated he was very stiff and because of his age of 8, probably slightly arthritic. The Vet suggested a possible Chondroitin based product. Well, I knew exactly who to talk to about this.. In January, I contacted you and explained what was happening with K9 Uno, You said Dont worry Chris, I know exactly how to help Uno…well you did and I couldnt be more happy.. Due to your product, Droi-Kon ®, your instruction and help, by putting 1 tablespoon of ...
Chondroitin Sulfate plays a major role in the growth and repair of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of high viscosity mucopolysaccharides. These biological polymers act as the flexible connecting matrix between the tough protein filaments in cartilage to form a polymetric system similar to reinforced rubber. Cho
Each package contains 90 chondroitin capsules to support your daily diet. Our capsules contain 90 chondoitin sulphate which is naturally extracted from the purest bovine cartilage. Natural chondroitin With a chondroitin sulfate content of 90 From
Chondroitin sulfate is a class of glycosaminoglycans covalently linked to form proteoglycans on proteins. Chondroitin sulfate exists in all organisms from nematodes to humans except plants, and plays ...
Chondroitin Sulfate 600 mg - 120 Capsules- Supports Healthy Joint Function* Supports Elasticity of Joint Tissues* Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroiti
Chondroitin Sulfate is a naturally-occurring compound found in the cartilage, bone, skin, cornea, and arterial walls, as well as tissues throughout the body. It plays an important role in the health, function, and mobility of joints, as well as the comfort and elasticity of joint tissues.** It also works with hyaluronic acid to support the shock-absorbing properties of aggrecan.**. Piping Rocks Chondroitin Sulfate supplements deliver 600 mg of this joint-nourishing nutrient in each serving. Adults take one (1) quick release capsule two to three times daily with meals for optimal nutritional support. It is important to note that, like glucosamine, it may take several weeks of supplementation before any noticeable difference is seen.. ...
Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market Research Deep Analysis 2019-2023 : The Global Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Market report 2019 deeply analyses significant…. Read More » ...
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Roo & Chondroitin Sprinkle No additives. No Fillers. No enhancers. No preservatives Made in Australia with 100% Aussie proteins Great for fussy pets Multiple health benefits Roo & Chondroitin sprinkle is a combination of chondroitin for the joints and low fat kangaroo meat. Great for those aching joints. This c
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Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan and is a normal component of many body tissues including articular cartilage.* Our Chondroitin is high potency and is derived from bovine cartilage.
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Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT.
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Comparative clinical and economic analysis of using SYSADOA drugs containing chondroitin sulphate or influencing its biosynthesis in the treatment of patients with stage II knee osteoarthritis
Liquid D-Flex gives your horse a chance to prevent and overcome DJD and arthritis. Chondroitin Sulphate is essential for horses that suffer from stiff joints, often older horses. It is the best quality raw material available on the market as it is human grade.
Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
Clean Chondroitin Sulphate 1,500mg per serving in Vegetarian capsules Please note we can not write what this product does or even what it may do due to UK law so please do your own research on google so you know what your looking for. We sell
Chondroitin sulfate is one of the major constituents of cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate consists of repeating chains of molecules called mucopolysaccharides
Chondroitin sulfate     Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine
Current USP standards for heparin limit levels of contamination with dermatan, chondroitin, and over-sulfated chondroitin ... Chondroitin sulfate shows slightly less biological activity than dermatan sulfate, and is composed of O-sulfated N-acetyl-D- ... USP Safety Data Sheet: Heparin Sodium with Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate. ...
Within infected tissues, this yeast produces several enzymes such as proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase and chondroitin- ... Coutinho, S.D.; Paula, C.R. (2000). "Proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase and chondroitin-sulphatase production by ...
ARSB breaks down dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Because people with MPS-VI lack the ability to break down these GAGs ... A NEW DYSOSTOSIS WITH URINARY ELIMINATION OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE B.]". Presse Med (in French). 71: 1849-52. PMID 14091597. Cary ...
Chondroitin fragments are odorants that trigger fear behavior in fish. Current Biology 22: 538-544. Naish, K.-A., G. R. ... Schreckstoff is a mixture, and fragments of a glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, are able to trigger fear responses. The ... Like schreckstoff obtained from skin extract, chondroitin sulfate activates a subset of olfactory sensory neurons. Production ...
Kang HG, Evers MR, Xia G, Baenziger JU, Schachner M (Sep 2002). "Molecular cloning and characterization of chondroitin-4-O- ...
Chondroitin sulfate is a sugar made up primarily of oxygen and carbon. Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which ... However, bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up ...
Fried M, Duffy PE (June 1996). "Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta". Science. ... Gamain B, Trimnell AR, Scheidig C, Scherf A, Miller LH, Smith JD (March 2005). "Identification of multiple chondroitin sulfate ... "Chondroitin sulphate A (CSA)-binding of single recombinant Duffy-binding-like domains is not restricted to Plasmodium ... helping them bind to an unusually low-sulfated form of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placental intervillous space. By this ...
These can include glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and other mucopolysaccharides. This protein- ...
There are 3 consensus sequences for N-glycosylation and 1 chondroitin sulfate substitution site. The full blood count, ...
"Myosin II activity regulates neurite outgrowth and guidance in response to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans". Journal of ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) have been shown to be up regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following ... Like the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) production is up regulated in reactive ... In response to scar-inducing factors, astrocytes up regulate the production of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Astrocytes ...
Important GAGs found in ground substance include hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate. ...
Chondroitin sulfates contribute to the tensile strength of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and walls of the aorta. They have ...
Other ligands include chondroitin sulfates A and B, as well as sulphated Lewisx and Lewisa structures. The mannose receptor is ...
1991). "Chondroitin 4-sulfate covalently cross-links the chains of the human blood protein pre-alpha-inhibitor". J. Biol. Chem ...
Granule contents of basophils are abundant with histamine, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, peroxidase, platelet-activating factor ...
They attach themselves to up to 100 Chondroitin sulfate molecules and up to 50 keratan sulfate glycoaminoglycan chains. These ...
In corneas we can find two different types of proteoglycans: Chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CD/DS) and keratan ...
This natural primer acts as a template for the assembly of heparin sulfate, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate ... Beta-D-xylosides prime chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate whereas priming of heparin sulfate poorly, except with the ...
Chondroitin_and_keratin_sulfate at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Keratan+sulfate at the US National ... of an O-glycosidic mannose-linked sialylated tetrasaccharide and keratan sulfate oligosaccharides in the chondroitin sulfate ...
When activated, basophils degranulate to release histamine, proteoglycans (e.g. heparin and chondroitin), and proteolytic ...
... chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. Sulfation is also a possible posttranslational modification of proteins. Sulfation ...
It contains TRH122(R) chondroitin sulfate, FCHG49(R) glucosamine, and manganese ascorbate. Cosequin comes in formulas specific ...
Chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine sulfate supplements, have been claimed to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, but there ... with mucopolysaccharides immunoreactive against chondroitin sulfate antibodies. There are homologous tissues to the ...
... chondroitin sulfate, with an additional sulfate residue per GAG saccharide dimer, is an effective metachromatic substrate, ...
2001). "Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of human chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase, whose expression ... pattern in human tissues is different from that of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase". J. Biochem. 128 (5): 763-70. doi:10.1093/ ...
... occurred due to heparin contaminated during the manufacturing process with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. Longterm ...
K-sol contained chondroitin sulfate, which was a free radical scavenger to extend the usable life of the tissue in eye bank ...
The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are ... Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to ...
... and thus promotes polymerization of chondroitin, is named chondroitin polymerization factor (ChPF). This chondroitin ... A gene product thereof, which forms a complex with chondroitin synthase ,i,in vivo,/i, ... synthesizing sugar chain skeletons of sulfated glycosaminoglycans having useful physiological activities such as chondroitin ... A novel gene participating in the polymerization of chondroitin chain is found out. ...
Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ...
Chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase may refer to: Chondroitin ABC lyase, an enzyme Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC exolyase, an enzyme ... Chondroitin-sulfate-ABC endolyase, an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Chondroitin ...
"Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)". 2012-01-03. "Questions and Answers: NIH Glucosamine/Chondroitin ... chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine/chondroitin; and those taking an inactive placebo or the positive control, the prescription ... to study the effect of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin/glucosamine in combination, and celecoxib as ... Glucosamine Chondroitin Supplements to get Relief from Joint Pain Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B, Nüesch E, Villiger PM, Welton NJ ...
as a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoa ... chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. ... What is chondroitin?. ANSWER Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. ... As a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoarthritis. ...
Chondroitin Sulfate: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Chondroitin Sulfate A, Chondroitin Sulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate B, Chondroitin Sulfate C, Chondroitin Sulphates, Chondroitin ... Calcium Chondroitin Sulfate, CDS, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Polysulfate, Chondroitin Polysulphate, ... When taken by mouth: Chondroitin sulfate is LIKELY SAFE. Chondroitin sulfate has been taken by mouth safely for up to 6 years. ...
Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular supplements used to treat ... What Are Glucosamine and Chondroitin? Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural compounds found in healthy cartilage -- the ... Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis Pain Research is mixed on whether these supplements help with arthritis pain and ... Some find chondroitin to be superior, others favor glucosamine, while still others prefer a combination of the two. "Evidence ...
I dont really know if its done much for my dog, a mutt, but a review of 10 studies of glucosamine and chondroitin in humans ... I have two bottles of glucosamine and chondroitin on top of my refrigerator for my dog, who has terrible arthritis in her hind ... Glucosamine, chondroitin dont benefit arthritis Updated: September 20, 2010 - 8:42 AM EDT * ... I have two bottles of glucosamine and chondroitin on top of my refrigerator for my dog, who has terrible arthritis in her hind ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Chondroitin is available on the website. ... Chondroitin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Chondroitin. Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium. Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium is reported as an ingredient of ... Chondroitin. In the US, Chondroitin (chondroitin systemic) is a member of the drug class nutraceutical products and is used to ...
A European meta-analysis found that chondroitin, a dietary supplement used to treat osteoarthritis, is ineffective but not ... Twenty studies that compared chondroitin to placebo or no treatment were examined, and the researchers found that chondroitin ... If patients say that they benefit from chondroitin, I see no harm in encouraging them to continue taking it as long as they ... BERN, Switzerland, April 17 (UPI) -- A European meta-analysis found that chondroitin, a dietary supplement used to treat ...
... chondroitin supplements online at CVS. Read reviews & find great deals now! ... Glucosamine Chondroitin Benefits. In the body, glucosamine and chondroitin are needed for healthy joints. Both materials play a ... Most chondroitin supplements contain chondroitin sulfate derived from shark or cow cartilage. Glucosamine supplements may ... What Is Glucosamine Chondroitin?. Glucosamine is a substance that is naturally found in the fluid surrounding the joints. ...
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Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Natrol Glucosamine Chondroitin MSM ... Chondroitin helps maintain the structural integrity of this tissue and promotes lubricating fluids for the joints. ...
Chondroitin sulphate player Synutra pledged to clean up the ingredients reputation​ by raising awareness of simple ... Commodity glucosamine and chondroitin supplements generally dominate the joint health marketplace, though according to ... Some have suggested that glucosamines coupling with chondroitin sulfate - extracted from animal cartilage - has been ... Glucosamine & chondroitin sulphate. By Annie Harrison-Dunn ...
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Uses of Glucosamine and Chondroitin in Dogs. Glucosamine and chondroitin are good for digestive problems, skin wounds and joint ... How Glucosamine and Chondroitin Work to Rebuild Joints. Throughout your dogs life, the cartilage in his joints is wearing down ... Glucosamine chondroitin for dogs can provide relief from the symptoms of arthritis and even reverse the progress of the disease ... Glucosamine and chondroitin supplements can help your dogs body rebuild and regenerate lost cartilage, relieving the symptoms ...
... chondroitin sulfate has been more successful than celecoxib in reducing the long-term progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), ... Chondroitin sulfate, more commonly called chondroitin, has long been the subject of debate when it comes to its usefulness in ... However, only chondroitin sulfate was found to be capable of slowing down the progression of the disease by reducing the loss ... Pelletier would like to point out that the study only used pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin, and results may not be similar for ...
Ask questions and get answers about Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane. Our support group helps people share their ... Home › Q & A › Support Groups › Chondroitin / Glucosamine / Methylsulfonylmethane. Join the Chondroitin / Glucosamine / ... Chondroitin / Glucosamine / Methylsulfonylmethane Information for Consumers. *Side Effects of Chondroitin / Glucosamine / ... Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane - I have a known allergy to sulfa. Will it be safe?. Posted 11 Mar 2015 • 1 ...
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CYCLOSPORINE/CHONDROITIN PF (cyclosporine/chondroitin sulfate pf) emulsion. NDC Code(s): 71384-514-05 *Packager: Imprimis NJOF ... CYCLOSPORINE/CHONDROITIN SULFATE PF emulsion. NDC Code(s): 70261-514-05 *Packager: ImprimisRx NJ ... SYNOQUIN EFA (glucosomine, chondroitin sulphate, dexahan, ascorbic acid, zinc sulfate) tablet. *This is an animal drug. ... THERAFLEX GLUCOSAMINE PLUS MAX (d-glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate sodium1) capsule. NDC Code(s): 61841-055-12, ...
Chondroitin retains moisture in the joints, which allows for greater flexibility and resilience. ... Chondroitin (60 Caps). Chondroitin (60 Caps). Stock No. 1811 Looking for a way to keep joints healthy? Chondroitin retains ... The body produces chondroitin, but that production decreases as we age. Chondroitin is found in foods, but usually only in ... Chondroitin helps bond connective tissue to maintain strength and inhibits enzymes that can deplete cartilage nutrition. It ...
glucosamine chondroitin synonyms, glucosamine chondroitin pronunciation, glucosamine chondroitin translation, English ... n. A combination of glucosamine and chondroitin used as an over-the-counter dietary supplement to treat joint pain in ... Related to glucosamine chondroitin: Glucosamine sulfate. glucosamine chondroitin. n.. A combination of glucosamine and ... I have been taking a glucosamine chondroitin combination for a long time, so naturally I was concerned.. Glucosamine coming out ...
Researchers publishing in the medical journal Molecular Cell are raising concerns that chondroitin sulfate may encourage the ... Can chondroitin increase melanoma risk?. Researchers publishing in the medical journal Molecular Cell are raising concerns that ... Chondroitin sulfate is among the most popular supplements in the world. Its often taken in combination with glucosamine for ... But if chondroitin sulfate may promote melanoma growth - and its not clear that this supplement is particularly helpful anyway ...
Chondroitin with MSM. Is Your Dog in Constant Pain ?. Glucosamine Hydrochloride (bovine). Joint Health for Dogs. Dogs Love the ... Glucosamine Chondroitin for Dogs Indiana Dog Vitamins & Supplements,. *Solgar Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm Indiana Vitamin & ... Glucosamine Chondroitin Msm Capsules Indiana Vitamin & Mineral Health Supplements,. *Kirkland Glucosamine Chondroitin Indiana ... Glucosamine Chondroitin Triple Strength Indiana Vitamin & Mineral Health Supplements,. *Dog Glucosamine Indiana Dog Vitamins & ...
Several studies conducted in Europe found that people taking chondroitin sulfate reported less joint pain. Chondroitin sulfate ... Does Chondroitin Really Help?. As there is not a governing body that has evaluated the claims made by supplements the way the ... Some people take chondroitin with the hope that it will relieve joint pain and potentially reverse the damage already caused by ... Glucosamine and chondroitin are two substances that occur naturally in the body. While glucosamine stimulates the repair and ... © Copyright 1997-2021 iHerb, LLC. All rights reserved. iHerb® is a registered trademark of iHerb, LLC. Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. and the Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. Logo are trademarks of iHerb, LLC. *Disclaimer: Statements made, or products sold through this website, have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Read More » ...
Joint health nutrient chondroitin varies greatly in safety and efficacy depending on its source and therefore needs greater ... chondroitin-4-sulfate (26%-70%); chondroitin-6-sulfate (23%-63%); chondroitin-2,6-disulfate (0%-13%) and chondroitin-4,6- ... Related tags: Chondroitin sulfate, Dietary supplement, European union Joint health nutrient chondroitin varies greatly in ... In a review backed by Spanish chondroitin sulfate supplier Bioiberica, Johanne Martel-Pelletier and colleagues said chondroitin ...
Find treatment reviews for Chondroitin sulfate from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side ...
  • Many different products containing chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate have been reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use during cataract surgery. (
  • Some early studies suggest that a specific eye solution containing chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronate (Viscoat, Alcon Laboratories) can decrease pressure in the eye and improve overall eye health after a cataract is removed. (
  • Some research shows that taking specific products containing chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine helps reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. (
  • There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor can reduce osteoarthritis symptoms. (
  • Other research shows that using eye drops containing chondroitin sulfate and xanthan gum can improve dry eyes about as well as using artificial tears. (
  • Early research shows that drinking a specific liquid containing chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid can decrease abdominal pain in people with gastritis. (
  • Applying an ointment containing chondroitin sulfate may speed healing of skin wounds. (
  • More recently, other reviews found little evidence that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements were any better than a placebo or at most only slightly better. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular supplements used to treat osteoarthritis (OA). (
  • The most comprehensive long-term study-the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)-compared the combination of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin, both supplements individually, celecoxib (Celebrex) and a placebo (inactive pill) in nearly 1,600 people with knee osteoarthritis. (
  • I don't really know if it's done much for my dog, a mutt, but a review of 10 studies of glucosamine and chondroitin in humans suggests the supplements don't have any benefit on arthritic knees and hips . (
  • In this product selection, you'll find a diverse assortment of standalone and combination glucosamine or chondroitin supplements to meet your needs. (
  • Most chondroitin supplements contain chondroitin sulfate derived from shark or cow cartilage. (
  • Medical providers may recommend glucosamine and chondroitin supplements for general joint health. (
  • Standalone supplements are one way to add glucosamine and chondroitin to your diet. (
  • Combination supplements supply both glucosamine and chondroitin. (
  • Commodity glucosamine and chondroitin supplements generally dominate the joint health marketplace, though according to Euromonitor International the glucosamine market has flagged in recent years - with a global value of $1.823 billion (€1.33 billion) in 2013, down from its $1.895 (€1.38 billion) value back in 2009. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin supplements can help your dog's body rebuild and regenerate lost cartilage, relieving the symptoms of arthritis and even reversing the progress of the disease. (
  • Your dog will need to take glucosamine and chondroitin supplements for the rest of his life, because if he stops taking them, he'll begin to experience a recurrence of arthritis symptoms in four to six months. (
  • While these results are promising, Dr. Pelletier would like to point out that the study only used pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin, and results may not be similar for all chondroitin products such as food supplements. (
  • Some studies indicate that dietary supplements, such as those containing glucosamine chondroitin MSM and turmeric, may help people with RA manage their symptoms and may serve as beneficial additions to conventional RA treatments," says Michelle O'Sullivan, spokesperson at VitaBreeze supplement company. (
  • Weight loss products, relaxation aids and protein bars are now as often associated with dietary supplements as vitamin C, glucosamine chondroitin and ginseng. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is among the most popular supplements in the world. (
  • If you are currently taking a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug and feel that the side effects are too much for you, you may want to consider trying chondroitin supplements. (
  • Results of the 1,583-patient Glucosamine-chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) suggested that treatment with Celebrex (celecoxib) was associated with a "much faster time to response" than treatment with the popular alternative supplements either alone or in combination, found Daniel O. Clegg, M.D., of the University of Utah School of Medicine and colleagues. (
  • He concluded that patients who want to take supplements should be advised to take glucosamine sulfate and "for those with severe pain, that taking chondroitin sulfate with glucosamine sulfate may have an additive effect. (
  • Patients seeking relief from arthritis may also benefit from taking supplements containing glucosamine or chondroitin. (
  • Likewise, if you do not feel any relief within six to eight weeks, you will likely not experience any relief from glucosamine chondroitin supplements, and should explore other pain relief remedies with your doctor. (
  • Consumer Reports tests to see which glucosamine and chondroitin supplements deliver what they promise. (
  • Fitnessfire sells V3S Glucosamine and Chondroitin supplements at discount prices. (
  • Glucosamine Chondroitin complex from solgar with or thousands of other natural and organic supplements at (
  • Although scientists speculate they have a stimulatory effect on cartilage formation, the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Study found the supplements to have no effect on joint pain. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are available in tablet, capsule, powder, or liquid form and are often taken in combination with each other or in combination with other dietary supplements. (
  • But an analysis of studies looking at glucosamine or chondroitin for osteoarthritis in the hip or knee did not show that these supplements slow joint destruction or relieve pain. (
  • Only patients who have been diagnosed with osteoarthritis by a health professional and have had other possible causes for their back pain ruled out are candidates for glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplements. (
  • In general, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate nutritional supplements appear to be quite safe. (
  • To date, no significant side effects have been reported, although long-term studies on the safety of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplements still need to be completed. (
  • There is currently not enough research available to determine whether or not taking glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplements has negative effects on young children or fetuses. (
  • Patients who have any adverse reactions or unusual side effects to glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate supplements should discontinue use immediately and consult their physician. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate dietary supplements are often sold in combination formulas, and some patients find this easier to take. (
  • Finally, it is important to reiterate that both glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate nutritional supplements are not subject to the same strict regulations and FDA oversight as are other types of medications, so both the quality and the content/ingredients of the supplement capsule may vary between brands. (
  • However, the lack of more effective traditional medical treatments for osteoarthritis and the low incidence of side effects from glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate present the nutritional supplements as a viable treatment alternative for some patients with osteoarthritis. (
  • Combined with other osteoarthritis treatments (as deemed appropriate by a physician), taking glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate dietary supplements may help some patients attain optimal levels of relief from osteoarthritis-related joint pain. (
  • As more information becomes available, it is important for all patients to follow the recommended guidelines for taking glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate nutritional supplements (as well as other types of dietary supplements) and to remain under supervision of a physician throughout the duration of treatment. (
  • Chondroitin supplements appear to increase the hyaluronic acid, an important part of the synovial fluid which is what lubricates joints. (
  • Oral preparations of chondroitin, by itself or in combination with glucosamine, are available in the United States as over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplements. (
  • Like glucosamine, with which it is often combined in supplements, chondroitin may also inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators that are destructive to the joint. (
  • This seems particularly true of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements, where several products were identified in one study as not containing the same amounts as stated on the label. (
  • Two natural supplements glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are at the core of this program. (
  • FlexMax Glucosamine Chondroitin Sulfate combines the two most popular supplements for joint health in a low sodium supplement enhanced with proprietary StomachGuard technology, which regulates and cushions the release of Glucosamine, and shields against potential stomach irritation. (
  • Despite support from a prestigious Cochrane Review, many manufacturers to re-emphasize chondroitin and to use efficacious amounts in their supplements, says the President and CEO, Synutra Pure. (
  • Published last year ​, the Cochrane Review pooled data from 43 clinical trials including 9,110 people receiving chondroitin sulfate (CS) supplements indicated that, not only did the supplement produce 'small to moderate' benefits for people with osteoarthritis, but the risk of adverse events was also lower than in the control groups. (
  • "Although it is well established all qualified clinical studies on chondroitin efficacy have been performed on preparations containing 800mg or more per serving of chondroitin mass delivered, there remains a lack of interest on the part of many manufacturers to re-emphasize chondroitin and to use efficacious amounts in their supplements," ​ said Weiguo Zhang, President and CEO, Synutra Pure, Ltd. (
  • "It is my understanding most of larger brand-owners of joint health supplements are aware of the importance of running CAME alongside CPC titration in qualifying chondroitin sulfate materials," ​ said Zhang. (
  • While the theory is that chondroitin supplements can help slow the breakdown of cartilage there is lack of evidence to support this claim. (
  • The specific review by the COT on glucosamine and chondroitin causing liver damage has indicated that it is unlikely a cause and effect and more likely the result of either other drugs or supplements taken by those few patients or an idiosyncratic development that cannot be explained. (
  • Chondroitin sulphate is been widely used in combination with Glucosamine as nutraceutical supplements for joint disorders. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate supplements have become popular as natural treatment of osteoarthritis because combined with glucosamine it has been shown to be very effective. (
  • However, no research has investigated the value of oral supplements of glucosamine or chondroitin for wound healing in humans. (
  • However, further research is needed to determine the value of chondroitin sulfate supplements for preventing or treating atherosclerosis. (
  • Troo Health Care provide a high grade selection of glucosamine supplements, including a glucosamine chondroitin complex and glucosamine patches. (
  • Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: the ChONdroitin v. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with the European Medicines Agency guideline. (
  • In 2006, the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded a 24-week, 12.5 million-dollar multicenter clinical trial (the GAIT trial) to study the effect of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin/glucosamine in combination, and celecoxib as a treatment for knee-pain in two groups of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: Patients with mild pain (n=1229), and patients with moderate to severe pain (n=354). (
  • As a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoarthritis. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis and cataracts. (
  • Clinical research shows that taking chondroitin sulfate by mouth modestly improves pain and function in some people with osteoarthritis when used for up to 6 months. (
  • Other research shows that taking chondroitin sulfate for up to 2 years might slow the progression of osteoarthritis. (
  • Taking chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine long-term appears to slow the progression of osteoarthritis. (
  • If you look at the totality of the evidence for glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee, it's very strong. (
  • In the US, Chondroitin (chondroitin systemic) is a member of the drug class nutraceutical products and is used to treat Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis . (
  • BERN, Switzerland, April 17 (UPI) -- A European meta-analysis found that chondroitin, a dietary supplement used to treat osteoarthritis, is ineffective but not harmful. (
  • Newswise - SAN FRANCISCO- For the first time, chondroitin sulfate has been more successful than celecoxib in reducing the long-term progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to new research findings presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco. (
  • A combination of glucosamine and chondroitin used as an over-the-counter dietary supplement to treat joint pain in osteoarthritis. (
  • Some people take chondroitin with the hope that it will relieve joint pain and potentially reverse the damage already caused by osteoarthritis. (
  • Chondroitin and glucosamine is a combination product that has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in treating osteoarthritis pain. (
  • Explain to patients who ask that in contrast to those with mild pain those who have severe-to-moderate knee pain from osteoarthritis may get some relief from a three-month trial of glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate, but this finding should be confirmed by another study. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY, Feb. 22 - Daily doses of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, either alone or in combination, did not significantly reduce mild knee pain from osteoarthritis, compared with placebo, according to researchers here. (
  • Along with glucosamine , chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis . (
  • New research shows that chondroitin sulfate significantly decreased pain and improved hand function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand compared with those in the placebo group. (
  • Although hand OA is highly prevalent among adults and can significantly impact the quality of life for suffers, therapeutic options are still limited," said Cem Gabay, M.D., with University Hospitals of Geneva in Switzerland and lead investigation of the Finger osteoArthritis Chondroitin Treatment Study (FACTS). (
  • Rising utilization of pharmaceutical grade sodium chondroitin sulfate to cure osteoarthritis is projected to drive industry growth. (
  • Based on the evidence of preliminary double-blind studies , chondroitin is widely used as a treatment for osteoarthritis , the typical arthritis that many people suffer as they get older. (
  • 1-5 Chondroitin (along with glucosamine ) may take the treatment of osteoarthritis to a new level. (
  • Numerous double-blind studies have found evidence that chondroitin can relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis and possibly also slow the progression of the disease. (
  • Many but not all double-blind, placebo-controlled studies indicate that chondroitin can relieve symptoms of osteoarthritis. (
  • Many people take glucosamine and chondroitin, alone or together, for osteoarthritis. (
  • 2010). Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: Network meta-analysis. (
  • A combination of glucosamine, chondroitin and quercetin significantly improve the symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate has therapeutic activity in dogs with osteoarthritis. (
  • Chondroitin is best known to the general public as a remedy for osteoarthritis, which is a form of arthritis caused by wearing away or degeneration of the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones. (
  • Several randomized double-blind studies of chondroitin in osteoarthritis patients were conducted in France and Italy in 1998. (
  • When chondroitin is used together with glucosamine as a treatment for osteoarthritis, the daily dosage is based on the patient's weight. (
  • A recent study at the University of Montreal, however, failed to demonstrate a significant benefit of a chondroitin nutraceutical on gait in 71 dogs with osteoarthritis over 60 days. (
  • Relieve joint pain associated with osteoarthritis and protect against cartilage deterioration, courtesy of Natural Factors' Glucosamine & Chondroitin Sulfate. (
  • 2006). Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. (
  • 2011). Symptomatic effects of chondroitin 4 and chondroitin 6 sulfate on hand osteoarthritis. (
  • Chondroitin sulphate player Synutra pledged to clean up the ingredient's reputation ​ by raising awareness of simple adulteration tests - something it says it does already. (
  • 99% purity pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulphate is readily available, as are inferior quality products with just 80% purity. (
  • Chondroitin is actually chondroitin sulphate and is one of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (
  • Molecules of chondroitin sulphate blend with proteins to make proteoglycans. (
  • Bladder-injected chondroitin sulphate was shown to have a clinically significant positive effect in the treatment interstitial cystitis. (
  • Chondroitin Sulphate - it is highly hygroscopic and thus promotes joint lubrication by attracting fluids to the joints. (
  • Commercially available forms of chondroitin sulphate include bovine cartilage and shark cartilage. (
  • All Verified chondroitin sulphate chicken suppliers & chondroitin sulphate chicken manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality chondroitin sulphate chicken products. (
  • Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium, chicken cartilage source Introduction CAS No. 9007-28-7 EINECS No. 232-696-9 Molecular Formula: (C14H21NO14S)n Assay: 90%,95% Chondroitin sulfate Appearance: White to off white powder Grade: Pharmaceutical and food Chondroitin . (
  • Chondroitin sulphate is rich in sulphur and is related to Glucosamine. (
  • Chondroitin Sulphate is produced. (
  • Sulphate Bovine Chondroitin Sulphate Porcine Chondroitin Sulphate Chicken Chondroitin Sulphate Shark Calcium Chondroitin Sulphate ChPS LMChS ChS Organic Acid Ester Chondroitin Sulfate(HALAL) Chondroitin sulphate sodium (from Shark, Bovine, Porcine, Chicken . (
  • 90% by HPLC Low Molecular weight Chondroitin Sulphate . (
  • Chondroitin Sulphate /9007-28-7 CAS:9007-28-7 Chondroitin Sulphate is a glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine, porcine, chicken cartilage. (
  • chondroitin sulfate is composed of chondroitin sulphate A, C and various chondroitin sulfate. (
  • Usually, shark cartilage contains mainly chondroitin -6- sulphate . (
  • Each package contains 90 chondroitin capsules to support your daily diet. (
  • Chondroitin Sulfate & Glucosamine Sulfate Capsules are a combination of chondroitin and glucosamine, two powerful nutrients that help to promote optimum support for joints and cartilage function, strength and mobility. (
  • EP Pharma Grade Bovine Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium with 95% Purity for Oral Pharmaceutical Tablet or Capsules Our company produce and supply EP grade Bovine Chondroitin sulfate sodium for pharmaceutical companies to produce oral pharma. (
  • Jarrow FORMULAS Glucosamine + Chondroitin Combination provide 1500mg Glucosamine to 1200mg Chondroitin and come in 120 or 240 capsules. (
  • Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are natural compounds found in healthy cartilage -- the connective tissue that cushions joints. (
  • Chondroitin helps bond connective tissue to maintain strength and inhibits enzymes that can deplete cartilage nutrition. (
  • Chondroitin is a component of the tough connective tissue that give them their durability. (
  • Glucosamine chondroitin MSM is a nutritive option which may provide support to joints and connective tissues. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan contained in antler connective tissue and has been isolated from cartilaginous antler by 4 M GuHCl extraction, gradient ultracentrifugation and chromatography techniques. (
  • According to the manufacturers, CVS Glucosamine Chondroitin supplies joints and connective tissue with necessary nutrients needed to recover from the damaged caused by aging. (
  • n D3 per servingProvides nutritional support for cartilage and connective tissuePromotes joint and comfort healthContains no gluten, yeast, wheat, milk, or milk derivatives or lactoseNo sugar, soy, preservatives or artificial flavorsRecommended for adults onlyContains crustacean shellfish (shrimp, crayfish, lobster and crab)Glucosamine chondroitin supplement is suitable for daily intakeCoated capletsCompare to Osteo Bi-flex Triple Strength + DThis statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Liquid Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM Joint Support Supplement is a potent formula loaded with nutrients that help to provide nutritional support for joints and connective tissue. (
  • Both glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate provide an additional source of sulfur, a mineral that is important for healthy connective tissue. (
  • Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate may both play a role in wound healing by providing the raw material needed by the body to manufacture connective tissue found in skin, tendons, ligaments, and joints. (
  • Biochem ® Glucosamine Chondroitin Formula 60 caps is a dietary supplement containing regulated levels of Glucosamine and Chondroitin to nourish the connective tissues of the joints, tendons, ligaments, skin, blood vessels and the mucous membrane. (
  • Source Naturals GLUCOSAMINE CHONDROITIN COMPLEX WITH MSM Provides four important building blocks for healthy joints and connective tissues: glucosamine, chondroitin, bioavailable sulfur (MSM) and vitamin C. (
  • Another study analysing chondroitin sulfate content found levels were to reference for bovine, porcine and chicken but above for fish (skate and shark). (
  • Chondroitin can come from natural sources, such as shark or bovine cartilage, or it can be made in a lab. (
  • This chondroitin is manufactured using fish cartilage (shark) vs bovine cartilage. (
  • grade Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium 90% Purity Extracted From Bovine Cartilages​GMP Manufacturer Jiaxing Hengjie Biopharmaceutical Co.,ltd. is a GMP Manufacturer of chondroitin sulfate sodium extracted from Bovine cartilages. (
  • We supply food grade Chondroitin sulfate sodium salt, bovine porcine chicken source. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is an glycosaminoglycan extracted from porcine, bovine, chicken and shark cartilage. (
  • You can buy glucosamine and chondroitin individually, but most often they're sold together in a single supplement. (
  • If your doctor has recommended that you add a glucosamine or chondroitin supplement to your diet, CVS is here to help. (
  • Before adding a glucosamine or chondroitin supplement to your diet, be sure to talk to your medical provider. (
  • Chondroitin/Glucosamine/Methylsulfonylmethane - I am new to this supplement. (
  • One review of the evidence suggested that of the few studies of chondroitin that were positive, nearly all were funded by makers of the supplement. (
  • But if chondroitin sulfate may promote melanoma growth - and it's not clear that this supplement is particularly helpful anyway - I'd advise against its use, at least until we know more. (
  • One US study found chondroitin content varied by between 10% and 110% from stated label content in food supplement products. (
  • Chondroitin and glucosamine is often sold as an herbal supplement. (
  • Calcium/mineral supplement with glucosamine and chondroitin. (
  • in the U.S. chondroitin sulfate is sold as a supplement and often paired with glucosamine. (
  • Chondroitin has also been proposed as a treatment for other conditions, such as atherosclerosis , interstitial cystitis , and high cholesterol , but as yet the evidence that the supplement might help is far too weak to rely upon at all. (
  • Now you can get two of our most popular supplement ingredients together in this 60-caplet bottle of Maximum Strength Glucosamine & Chondroitin. (
  • Do you ever give a glucosamine/chondroitin supplement to geese? (
  • I am wondering if you can give a goose a glucosamine/chondroitin supplement, because if you can safely do that it would probably help him. (
  • Chondroitin is a natural powder supplement for arthritic help and joint inflammation. (
  • CVS Glucosamine Chondroitin is a dietary joint supplement that combines three of the most sort after joint and cartilage ingredients. (
  • CVS Glucosamine Chondroitin is a dietary supplement made using three of the most sort after ingredients in the market. (
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Powder Nutriebnt Supplement Powder Product Name Chondroitin Sulfate Molecular Formula (C14H21NO14S)n CAS No 9007-28-7 Appearance White to off white powder Specification 85%-98% Applications of Chondroitin Sulfate powder: 1. (
  • Glucosamine chondroitin is a popular combination supplement for joint pain, but its effect remains controversial. (
  • Glucosamine chondroitin is a popular supplement for joint pain. (
  • If you are suffering from joint pain and prefer to try a supplement, glucosamine and chondroitin may work for you. (
  • If you want to start supplementing your diet with joint support products, Chondroitin should be part of your supplement protocol. (
  • Chondroitin is a superstar supplement for joint support. (
  • Since Chondroitin promotes the movement of nutrients and water across cartilage tissue, this supplement is a perfect choice for joint support. (
  • If you participate in high intensity activity with stress placed on your joints, Chondroitin is a good addition to your supplement stack. (
  • Biochem Glucosamine Chondroitin Formula 60 caps is the ultimate dietary supplement that uses the premium blend of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate. (
  • Move Free Advanced is a Glucosamine Chondroitin joint supplement that supports 5 signs of joint health: mobility, flexibility, strength, lubrication and comfort so you can do the things you love. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion scar and in perineuronal nets around deafferented neurons. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Following spinal cord injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulate and potently inhibit axon regeneration and functional recovery. (
  • The structure of this matrix is unusual and uniquely enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, particularly those of the lectican family. (
  • We found that a developmental increase in the 4-sulfation/6-sulfation (4S/6S) ratio of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are components of the brain extracellular matrix, leads to the termination of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity in the mouse visual cortex. (
  • Proteoglycans in bladder tumors are modified with a distinct oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan that is normally restricted to placental trophoblast cells. (
  • Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) linked to specific proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the cell membranes, or secreted into the extracellular matrix and bodily fluids 6 . (
  • Best Glucosamine/Chondroitin/MSM is a potent combination of three proven, purified ingredients that help the body manufacture proteoglycans in healthy joints. (
  • The authors of the study analyzed the moderate-to-severe pain group and found that in this group, the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin was more effective at providing pain relief than the positive control with 79% of the glucosamine group reporting at least a 20% reduction in pain compared to 70% for celecoxib and only 54% reporting a similar reduction in the placebo group. (
  • European researchers compared studies looking at glucosamine and chondroitin alone and in combination with placebo pills and found that there was no discernable difference or changes in the joints. (
  • Twenty studies that compared chondroitin to placebo or no treatment were examined, and the researchers found that chondroitin had little effect on knee or hip pain caused by arthritis, according to the meta-analysis published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (
  • Patients were randomized to 1,500 mg of glucosamine hydrocholoride, 1,200 mg of chondroitin sulfate, both glucosamine and chondroitin, 200 mg of Celebrex, or placebo for 24 weeks. (
  • Participants received either 800 mg of chondroitin sulfate (80 patients) or placebo (82 patients) once daily for 6 months. (
  • Results showed that patients in the chondroitin sulfate group had significant decrease in global hand pain compared with the placebo group, reflecting an 8.7 decrease on the VAS. (
  • Researchers also reported significantly improved hand function and reduction in morning stiffness for participants taking chondroitin sulfate versus placebo. (
  • 9 Participants received either 400 mg of chondroitin sulfate twice daily or placebo. (
  • At the end of the trial, doctors rated the improvement as good or very good in 69% of those taking chondroitin sulfate, but in only 32% of those taking placebo. (
  • Research: Researchers performed an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 622 patients with knee OA were randomly assigned to receive either 800 mg of chondroitin sulfate (n = 309 patients) or placebo (n = 313 patients) once daily for 2 years. (
  • Several double blind placebo-controlled studies in humans demonstrate a beneficial effect of chondroitin in the management of pain associated with arthritis. (
  • Research: The Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention (GAIT) study involved nearly 1600 OA patients, who were given a placebo or daily doses of 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride and/or 1200 mg of chondroitin sulfate or 200 mg of the common prescription pain medication celecoxib (Celebrex). (
  • The Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial concluded that overall patients did not experience significant pain relief with either glucosamine, chondroitin or the combination over placebo. (
  • Numerous double-blind, placebo- controlled studies have examined the positive effects of oral administration of 1,500 mg of glucosamine sulfate- the amount in one daily use of GLUCOSAMINE CHONDROITIN COMPLEX WITH MSM. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid ). (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAGS - see separate article found in this series) found in cartilage. (
  • High Assay 95% Chondroitin Sulfate With Best Quality From Shark Chondroitin Sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan extracted from shark cartilage. (
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium is the sodium salt of the sulfated linear glycosaminoglycan. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is an glycosaminoglycan extracted from porcine. (
  • The antibody has been reported to be specific for the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) portion of native chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). (
  • However, only chondroitin sulfate was found to be capable of slowing down the progression of the disease by reducing the loss of cartilage," Dr. Pelletier remarks, while also noting further studies to establish the effect of chondroitin in other joints could be of interest. (
  • 203 of 317 patients in the glucosamine group reduced WOMAC pain score by 20% (P=0.30) and 208 of 318 patients in the chondroitin sulfate arm posted 20% reductions in pain scores (P=0.17). (
  • Early research suggests that taking a combination of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in two or three divided doses daily for 24 weeks improves joint pain and symptoms caused by drugs used to treat breast cancer. (
  • The first phase of GAIT, published in 2006, found that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate didn't offer significant relief to participants in general, but it did help a small subgroup of those with moderate-to-severe knee pain. (
  • A 2016 multinational study called the MOVES trial found the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin as effective at relieving knee OA pain and swelling as celecoxib, without the side effects. (
  • I have been taking a glucosamine chondroitin combination for a long time, so naturally I was concerned. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a combination of chondroitin and mineral salt. (
  • It is the combination of three compounds, glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulphonyl methane (MSM). (
  • A combination of glucosamine sulfate, sodium hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin and rutin improve symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. (
  • The combination of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, curcumin and quercetin was effective in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections. (
  • Results: The combination of glucosamine and chondroitin significantly decreased knee pain in OA patients experiencing moderate-to-severe pain. (
  • However, glucosamine and chondroitin alone or in combination failed to provide relief to those suffering from mild OA. (
  • 2003). Axonal regeneration through regions of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. (
  • Monoclonal Anti-Chondroitin Sulfate can be used to study chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) distribution and its relationships to specific cell-substrate contacts. (
  • Your search returned 79 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 ELISA ELISA Kit across 13 suppliers. (
  • In a review backed by Spanish chondroitin sulfate supplier Bioiberica, Johanne Martel-Pelletier and colleagues said chondroitin intended for nutraceutical applications required pharma-style market control measures to assure quality. (
  • The U.S., Germany , the U.K., Japan , and Brazil , among other countries, are the major potential markets for pharmaceutical as well as nutraceutical grade sodium chondroitin sulfate. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. (
  • Bladder cancer, like most other solid tumors, expresses a distinct form of chondroitin sulfate (CS), normally restricted to the placenta 8 . (
  • Challenges faced by the industry include adulteration of sodium chondroitin sulfate and the introduction of new joint health ingredients. (
  • This move to alternate ingredients and using lower than efficacious doses in products is producing a shrinking chondroitin market, and Zhang feels that levels in 2015-16 are lower than in previous years. (
  • The chondroitin helps to attract and hold fluid within cartilage tissue. (
  • Studies have shown that chondroitin sulfate is a compound that appears to block the enzymes that can destroy essential cartilage tissue. (
  • Given Chondroitin properties, this drug is indispensable in treatment of any problems associated with damage or joints inflammation, cartilage tissue or ligaments. (
  • Chondroitin is part of cartilage tissue. (
  • In the body, glucosamine and chondroitin are needed for healthy joints. (
  • Glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonylmethane (MSM) is used to maintain healthy joints, while stimulating cartilage production, according to (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is one of the most abundant components of articular cartilage, a key component for healthy joints. (
  • GLUCOSAMINE CHONDROITIN COMPLEX WITH MSM provides the same amounts of chondroitin and glucosamine shown in recent research to support healthy joints, along with MSM, vitamin C, and molybdenum- for a more powerful product. (
  • Another theory is that chondroitin blocks the formation of certain enzymes that tumors produce to invade surrounding tissue. (
  • In many cases, however, dogs who take glucosamine and chondroitin experience significant reductions in their arthritis symptoms and some may experience a complete reversal of the disease. (
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: "Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT). (
  • The GAIT team will also continue its research with a smaller study to see whether glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate can alter the progression of OA, such as delaying the narrowing of the joint spaces. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. (
  • Studies have been conducted in the United States since 1990 to determine whether chondroitin from shark cartilage can speed up wound healing in psoriasis and related conditions. (
  • Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate is a derivative of a natural mucopolysaccharide. (
  • Show all 129 recent products that contain SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE. (
  • Jarrow Formulas Glucosamine + Chondroitin provide effective doses of two important compounds for joint lubrication and joint health. (
  • "It is noteworthy that this declining trend of CS supply continued despite the joint health market has been on an upswing and as compelling research continue to support chondroitin efficacy and safety," ​he said. (
  • Chondroitin helps maintain the structural integrity of this tissue and promotes lubricating fluids for the joints. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of extracellular matrix, and is important in maintaining the structural integrity of the tissue. (
  • Both chondroitin and glucosamine are components of cartilage and are used by the body to lay down healthy tissue inside joints, according to WebMD. (
  • Chondroitin serves as a catalyst for processes in cartilaginous tissue, improves sulfur absorption, thereby improving joints recovery and regeneration. (
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are two substances that occur naturally in the body. (
  • Chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance formed of sugar chains. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally occurring molecule and a main component of joint cartilage. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally occurring substance in the body. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is also a naturally occurring chemical found in the joint cartilage in our bodies. (
  • It's possible that these results aren't relevant to actual people - for example, the doses or metabolism of chondroitin sulfate may be so different in humans (vs. mice) that these results do not apply to humans. (
  • The first group took 1200mg (pharmacological preparation) of chondroitin daily, and the second group took 200mg of celecoxib daily. (
  • At both one and two years, the researchers found a better reduction of cartilage loss in the whole knee, and more particularly in the inner half, of the participants on chondroitin when compared to those on celecoxib. (
  • These findings are most important as they demonstrate that chondroitin, in contrast to celecoxib, can reduce the loss of cartilage, at least in part, by reducing synovial inflammation (thickness)," Dr. Pelletier says. (
  • This study demonstrates that both chondroitin sulfate and celecoxib are equally effective at reducing the symptoms of knee OA patients. (
  • Source Naturals is proud to offer one of the first products in the health food market to combine today's most popular joint support nutrients: glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and MSM. (
  • By taking Chondroitin regularly you can ensure that you've got a good foundation for joint support. (
  • Mythocondro ® (Lower MW: 5,000-12,000 daltons) showed 43% higher oral bioavailability compared to animal source CS (High MW: 20,000-64,000 daltons) in a clinical study that demonstrated the effectiveness of 600 mg of Mythocondro ® compared to 1,500 mg of animal source Chondroitin Sulfate. (
  • In some cases, the amount of chondroitin has varied from none to more than 100% of the amount stated on the product's label. (
  • If patients say that they benefit from chondroitin, I see no harm in encouraging them to continue taking it as long as they perceive a benefit. (
  • some dogs and cats may appreciably benefit from chondroitin administration and others not at all. (
  • How can my pet benefit from chondroitin? (
  • Commercial preparations of chondroitin sulfate typically are the sodium salt. (
  • have suggested that all such preparations of chondroitin sulfate be referred to as "sodium chondroitin" regardless of their sulfation status. (