The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. The plants have a characteristic silvery or rusty-colored sheen, caused by tiny distinctive scales. Flowers have a tubular structure of four sepals. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing symbionts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/992)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

gas2 is a multifunctional gene involved in the regulation of apoptosis and chondrogenesis in the developing mouse limb. (2/992)

The growth-arrest-specific 2 (gas2) gene was initially identified on account of its high level of expression in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions, followed by downregulation upon reentry into the cell cycle (Schneider et al., Cell 54, 787-793, 1988). In this study, the expression patterns of the gas2 gene and the Gas2 peptide were established in the developing limbs of 11.5- to 14. 5-day mouse embryos. It was found that gas2 was expressed in the interdigital tissues, the chondrogenic regions, and the myogenic regions. Low-density limb culture and Brdu incorporation assays revealed that gas2 might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it might play a similar role during limb myogenesis. In addition to chondrogenesis and myogeneis, gas2 is involved in the execution of the apoptotic program in hindlimb interdigital tissues-by acting as a death substrate for caspase enzymes. TUNEL analysis demonstrated that the interdigital tissues underwent apoptosis between 13.5 and 15.5 days. Exactly at these time points, the C-terminal domain of the Gas2 peptide was cleaved as revealed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, pro-caspase-3 (an enzyme that can process Gas2) was cleaved into its active form in the interdigital tissues. The addition of zVAD-fmk, a caspase enzyme inhibitor, to 12.5-day-old hindlimbs maintained in organ culture revealed that the treatment inhibited interdigital cell death. This inhibition correlated with the absence of the Gas2 peptide and pro-caspase-3 cleavage. The data suggest that Gas2 might be involved in the execution of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Expression of tissue transglutaminase in the developing chicken limb is associated both with apoptosis and endochondral ossification. (3/992)

The cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) participates in a variety of cellular functions. To assess its contribution to extracellular and intracellular processes during development we cloned the cDNA for chicken heart tissue transglutaminase and localized the sites of transglutaminase expression by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the chicken red blood cell transglutaminase cDNA, the heart cDNA encodes a transglutaminase with an amino-terminal truncation. The truncated enzyme retains full catalytic activity and is GTP-inhibitable. Tissue transglutaminase expression was observed in developmentally transient structures in embryonic chicken limb at day 7.5 of incubation suggesting that its expression is dynamically regulated during limb morphogenesis. The major morphogenetic events of the limb associated with transglutaminase expression were cartilage maturation during skeletal development, interdigital apoptosis, and differentiation of skeletal muscle. Maturation of the cartilage during endochondral ossification was characterized by intra- and extracellular transglutaminase accumulation in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Only intracellular enzyme could be detected in mesenchymal cells of the prospective joints, in apoptotic cells of the interdigital web, and in skeletal muscle myoblasts. An apparently constitutive expression of tissue transglutaminase was found in vascular endothelial cells corresponding to the adult expression pattern. The dynamic pattern of transglutaminase expression during morphogenesis suggests that tissue remodeling is a major trigger for transglutaminase induction.  (+info)

Alcohol promotes in vitro chondrogenesis in embryonic facial mesenchyme. (4/992)

Ethanol is a well-recognized teratogen in vertebrates that can perturb the development of the facial primordia and various other embryonic structures. However,the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on embryogenesis are currently unclear. Recent evidence suggests that the cranial neural crest, which forms the entire facial skeleton, may be a particularly sensitive target of ethanol teratogenicity. In the present study we have examined the influence of in vitro ethanol exposure on cartilage differentiation in micromass cultures of mesenchymal cells isolated from the various facial primordia (maxillary, mandibular, frontonasal, and hyoid processes) of the stage 24 chick embryo. In all four populations of facial mesenchyme, exposure to 1-1.5% ethanol promoted marked increases in Alcian blue-positive cartilage matrix formation, a rise in 35SO4 accumulation into matrix glycosaminoglycans, and enhanced expression of cartilage-characteristic type II collagen and aggrecan gene transcripts. In frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cultures, which undergo extensive spontaneous cartilage formation, ethanol treatment quantitatively elevated both matrix production and cartilage-specific gene transcript expression. In cultures of maxillary process and hyoid arch mesenchyme, which form little or no cartilage spontaneously, ethanol exposure induced the formation of chondrogenic cell aggregates and the appearance of aggrecan and type II collagen mRNAs. These actions were not restricted to ethanol, since tertiary butanol treatment also enhanced cartilage differentiation in facial mesenchyme cultures. Our findings demonstrate a potent stimulatory effect of alcohol on the differentiation of prechondrogenic mesenchyme of the facial primordia. Further analysis of this phenomenon might yield insight into the developmental mechanisms underlying the facial dysmorphologies associated with embryonic ethanol exposure.  (+info)

Interaction of Ihh and BMP/Noggin signaling during cartilage differentiation. (5/992)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in regulating multiple stages of bone development. Recently it has been shown that constitutive activation of the BMP receptor-IA blocks chondrocyte differentiation in a similar manner as misexpression of Indian hedgehog. In this paper we analyze the role of BMPs as possible mediators of Indian hedgehog signaling and use Noggin misexpression to gain insight into additional roles of BMPs during cartilage differentiation. We show by comparative analysis of BMP and Ihh expression domains that the borders of Indian hedgehog expression in the chondrocytes are reflected in changes of the expression level of several BMP genes in the adjacent perichondrium. We further demonstrate that misexpression of Indian hedgehog appears to directly upregulate BMP2 and BMP4 expression, independent of the differentiation state of the flanking chondrocytes. In contrast, changes in BMP5 and BMP7 expression in the perichondrium correspond to altered differentiation states of the flanking chondrocytes. In addition, Noggin and Chordin, which are both expressed in the developing cartilage elements, also change their expression pattern after Ihh misexpression. Finally, we use retroviral misexpression of Noggin, a potent antagonist of BMP signaling, to gain insight into additional roles of BMP signaling during cartilage differentiation. We find that BMP signaling is necessary for the growth and differentiation of the cartilage elements. In addition, this analysis revealed that the members of the BMP/Noggin signaling pathway are linked in a complex autoregulatory network.  (+info)

N-CAM is not required for initiation of secondary chondrogenesis: the role of N-CAM in skeletal condensation and differentiation. (6/992)

Condensation precedes chondrogenic differentiation during development of primary cartilage. While neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) enhances condensation, it is unclear whether N-CAM is also required for initiation of chondrogenic differentiation. In this study, the role of N-CAM in secondary chondrogenesis from periosteal cells of the quadratojugal (QJ) from embryonic chicks was studied using several in vitro approaches. The QJ is a membrane bone and so is not preceded by cartilage formation during development. However, QJ periosteal cells can differentiate into chondrocytes to form secondary cartilage in vivo. When QJ periosteal cells were enzymatically released and plated in low density monolayer, clonal or agarose cultures, chondrogenesis was initiated in the absence of N-CAM expression. Furthermore, overexpression of the N-CAM gene in periosteal cells in monolayer culture significantly reduced the number of chondrocyte colonies, suggesting that N-CAM inhibits secondary chondrogenesis. In contrast, and consistent with expression in vivo, N-CAM is expressed during osteogenesis from QJ periosteal cells and mandibular mesenchyme in vitro. These results are discussed in relation to the role of N-CAM in osteogenesis and in primary and secondary condensation.  (+info)

Dual role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis in mesoderm formation and chondrogenesis during mouse embryogenesis. (7/992)

Scleraxis is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor shown previously to be expressed in developing chondrogenic cell lineages during embryogenesis. To investigate its function in embryonic development, we produced scleraxis-null mice by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant embryos developed normally until the early egg cylinder stage (embryonic day 6.0), when they became growth-arrested and failed to gastrulate. Consistent with this early embryonic phenotype, scleraxis was found to be expressed throughout the embryo at the time of gastrulation before becoming restricted to chondrogenic precursor cells at embryonic day 9.5. At the time of developmental arrest, scleraxis-null embryos consisted of ectodermal and primitive endodermal cell layers, but lacked a primitive streak or recognizable mesoderm. Analysis of molecular markers of the three embryonic germ layers confirmed that scleraxis mutant embryos were unable to form mesoderm. By generating chimeric embryos, using lacZ-marked scleraxis-null and wild-type embryonic stem cells, we examined the ability of mutant cells to contribute to regions of the embryo beyond the time of lethality of homozygous mutants. Scleraxis-null cells were specifically excluded from the sclerotomal compartment of somites, which gives rise to the axial skeleton, and from developing ribs, but were able to contribute to most other regions of the embryo, including mesoderm-derived tissues. These results reveal an essential early role for scleraxis in mesoderm formation, as well as a later role in formation of somite-derived chondrogenic lineages, and suggest that scleraxis target genes mediate these processes.  (+info)

The BMP antagonist Gremlin regulates outgrowth, chondrogenesis and programmed cell death in the developing limb. (8/992)

In this study, we have analyzed the expression and function of Gremlin in the developing avian limb. Gremlin is a member of the DAN family of BMP antagonists highly conserved through evolution able to bind and block BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7. At early stages of development, gremlin is expressed in the dorsal and ventral mesoderm in a pattern complementary to that of bmp2, bmp4 and bmp7. The maintenance of gremlin expression at these stages is under the control of the AER, ZPA, and BMPs. Exogenous administration of recombinant Gremlin indicates that this protein is involved in the control of limb outgrowth. This function appears to be mediated by the neutralization of BMP function to maintain an active AER, to restrict the extension of the areas of programmed cell death and to confine chondrogenesis to the central core mesenchyme of the bud. At the stages of digit formation, gremlin is expressed in the proximal boundary of the interdigital mesoderm of the chick autopod. The anti-apoptotic influence of exogenous Gremlin, which results in the formation of soft tissue syndactyly in the chick, together with the expression of gremlin in the duck interdigital webs, indicates that Gremlin regulates the regression of the interdigital tissue. At later stages of limb development, gremlin is expressed in association with the differentiating skeletal pieces, muscles and the feather buds. The different expression of Gremlin in relation with other BMP antagonists present in the limb bud, such as Noggin, Chordin and Follistatin indicates that the functions of BMPs are regulated specifically by the different BMP antagonists, acting in a complementary fashion rather than being redundant signals.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of dynamic and three-dimensional environments on chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. AU - Jung, Youngmee. AU - Kim, Sang Heon. AU - Kim, Young Ha. AU - Kim, Soo Hyun. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Articular cartilage is subjected to complex loading, which plays a major role in its growth, development and maintenance. Previously, we found that mechanical stimuli enhanced the development and function of engineered cartilage tissues in elastic mechano-active poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds. In addition, it is well known that the three-dimensional spatial organization of cells and extracellular matrices in hydrogels is crucial to chondrogenesis. This study was conducted to enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in the hybrid scaffolds of fibrin gels and PLCL scaffolds in dynamic environments by compression. A highly elastic scaffold was fabricated from very elastic PLCL with 85% porosity and a ...
Yang, Z., Sui, L., Toh, W.S., Cao, T., Lee, E.H. (2009). Stage-dependent effect of TGF-1 on chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells and Development 18 (6) : 929-940. [email protected] Repository. ...
We have recently identified Dlkl/FA1 as a novel surface marker for chondroprogenitor cells during embryonic chondrogenesis and demonstrated the Akt pathway-dependent inhibition of insulin induced in vitro chondrogenesis by Dlk1/FA1 [21, 22]. However, the mechanisms by which Dlk1 is regulated and its interaction with other signaling pathways during chondrogenic differentiation are not well known. In this study, we have identified Dlk1 as a novel downstream target of the TGF-β signaling pathway that mediates its function by promoting early chondrogenesis. Additionally, we observed altered Smad2 phosphorylation with Dlk1/FA1 overexpression suggesting that Dlk1/FA1 inhibits activation of TGF-β signaling pathway.. We used mouse embryonic limb bud culture as an in vitro system that spontaneously differentiates in culture without any exogenous chondrogenic inducers and recapitulates the sequential stages of chondrogenesis from condensing mesenchyme to matrix mineralization [24, 39, 40]. The ...
The transcription factor Sox9 is necessary for early chondrogenesis but its subsequent roles in the cartilage growth plate a highly specialized structure that drives skeletal growth and endochondral ossification remain unclear. for early chondrocytes; (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) for columnar cells; (parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor) (Indian hedgehog) and (collagen 10) for prehypertrophic cells; and only for hypertrophic cells. Terminal chondrocytes express (matrix metalloproteinase 13) and (bone sialoprotein) and mineralize the extracellular matrix as do mature osteoblasts whereas early osteoblasts express (Osterix) and (collagen 1). Like other developmental processes skeletogenesis is usually spatially and temporally governed by intricate networks of regulatory molecules among which lineage-specific transcription factors have key fate-determining functions (Karsenty et al. 2009 The Sry-related transcription factor Sox9 is one of them (Akiyama 2008 Research on its functions ...
Yano et al show that TD-198946 strongly induced in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of progenitors, as evidenced by a marked increase in the chondrogenic markers type II collagen and aggrecan; it did this without promoting hypertrophy (type X collagen and metalloprotease 13).8. This interesting balance between chondrogenesis and hypertrophic differentiation may be because TD-198946 exerts its effect through regulating the expression of Runx1, a known inducer of chondrogenic differentiation and a suppressor of the subsequent hypertrophy.10 The mammalian Runx protein family comprises three transcription factors: Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. All Runx proteins are expressed during chondrogenesis; however, experimental results show a distinct role for Runx proteins in chondrogenesis and subsequent chondrocyte maturation.12 ,13 Runx1 is highly expressed during chondrogenesis in comparison with Runx2. Overall, the expression of Runx1 remained significantly higher than Runx2 expression during early limb ...
Results Mesodermal markers increased in EB while undifferentiated ES markers disappeared. After 21 days of chondrogenic culture in micromass pellets, GAG analysis showed that proteoglycan production was significantly greater in chondrogenic pellets than in undifferentiated hiPSCs and EBs. Safranin-O staining demonstrated that the cells in chondrogenic pellets took on the appearance of immature chondrocytes and secreted extracellular matrix. The chondrogenic marker gene and protein expression increased after 21days of pellet culture. The chondrogenic pellets derived from hiPS cells have very low expression of hypertrophic or osteogenic markers.. Also, hiPS cells underwent good chondrogenic differentiation in PLGA scaffold or alginate gel as well. When hiPS cells in either pellet state or in alginate hydrogel were implanted in the osteochondral defects created on the patellar groove of immunosuppressed rats, the defects implanted with chondro-induced hiPS cells showed a significantly better ...
Cartilage engineering is a new strategy for the treatment of cartilage damage due to osteoarthritis or trauma in humans. Racehorses are exposed to the same type of cartilage damage and the anatomical, cellular, and biochemical properties of their cartilage are comparable to those of human cartilage, making the horse an excellent model for the development of cartilage engineering. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into chondrocytes with chondrogenic factors in a biomaterial appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for direct implantation and cartilage repair. Here, we characterized equine umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (eUCB-MSCs) and evaluated their potential for chondrocyte differentiation for use in cartilage repair therapy. Our results show that isolated eUCB-MSCs had high proliferative capacity and differentiated easily into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but not into adipocytes. A three-dimensional (3D) culture approach with the chondrogenic factors BMP-2 and TGF-β1
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Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been used over the last two decades to treat focal cartilage lesions aiming to delay or prevent the onset of osteoarthritis; however, some patients do not respond adequately to the procedure. A number of biomarkers that can forecast the clinical potency of the cells have been proposed, but evidence for the relationship between in vitro chondrogenic potential and clinical outcomes is missing. In this study, we explored if the ability of cells to make cartilage in vitro correlates with ACI clinical outcomes. Additionally, we evaluated previously proposed chondrogenic biomarkers and searched for new biomarkers in the chondrocyte proteome capable of predicting clinical success or failure after ACI. The chondrogenic capacity of chondrocytes derived from 14 different donors was defined based on proteoglycans staining and visual histological grading of tissues generated using the pellet culture system. A Lysholm score of 65 two years post-ACI was used as a cut-off
Epigenetic changes (i.e., chromatin modifications) occur during chondrogenesis and in osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the effect of H3K27me3 demethylase inhibition on chondrogenesis and assessed its utility in cartilage tissue engineering and in understanding cartilage destruction in OA. We used a high-content screen to assess the effect of epigenetic modifying compounds on collagen output during chondrogenesis of monolayer human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The impact of GSK-J4 on gene expression, glycosaminoglycan output and collagen formation during differentiation of MSCs into cartilage discs was investigated. Expression of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (UTX) and Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3), the HEK27Me3 demethylases targeted by GSK-J4, was measured in damaged and undamaged cartilage from patients with OA. The impact of GSK-J4 on ex vivo cartilage destruction and expression of OA-related genes in human articular chondrocytes (HACs) was assessed. H3K27Me3 demethylase regulation of
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes (i.e., chromatin modifications) occur during chondrogenesis and in osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the effect of H3K27me3 demethylase inhibition on chondrogenesis and assessed its utility in cartilage tissue engineering and in understanding cartilage destruction in OA. METHODS: We used a high-content screen to assess the effect of epigenetic modifying compounds on collagen output during chondrogenesis of monolayer human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The impact of GSK-J4 on gene expression, glycosaminoglycan output and collagen formation during differentiation of MSCs into cartilage discs was investigated. Expression of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (UTX) and Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3), the HEK27Me3 demethylases targeted by GSK-J4, was measured in damaged and undamaged cartilage from patients with OA. The impact of GSK-J4 on ex vivo cartilage destruction and expression of OA-related genes in human articular chondrocytes (HACs) was assessed. H3K27Me3
Get this from a library! Effects of biochemical factors and mechanical loading on chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells. [Chun Hua Zheng; Marc Elliot Levenston; R Lane Smith; Fan Yang; Stanford University. Department of Mechanical Engineering.] -- Osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating musculoskeletal disease that is characterized by cartilage degeneration, is one of the leading causes of disability in older adults. In 2006, it was estimated to ...
Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone and cartilage tissue repair strategies. However, the functional heterogeneity of MSCs derived from different donors and manufacturing conditions has limited clinical translation, emphasizing the need for improved methods to assess MSC chondrogenic capacity. We used functionally relevant morphological profiling to dynamically monitor emergent morphological phenotypes of chondrogenically induced MSC aggregates to identify morphological features indicative of MSC chondrogenesis. Toward this goal, we characterized the morphology of chondrogenically stimulated MSC aggregates from eight different human cell-lines at multiple passages and demonstrated that MSC aggregates exhibited unique morphological dynamics that were both cell line- and passage-dependent. This variation in 3D morphology was shown to be informative of long term MSC chondrogenesis based on multiple quantitative functional assays. We found that the specific ...
To investigate underlying mechanism of chondrogenic hypertrophy, we need proper in vitro hypertrophic model of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This protocol describes our defined method for induction of in vitro chondrogenic hypertrophy of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs). By adding thyroid hormone (T3; triiodothyronine) and minimum osteogenic-inducing factors to culture medium, we could induce hypertrophy of hUCB-MSCs in vitro. Hypertrophic induction was validated using immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Abstract: A novel collagen sponge that can protect cell leakage during cell seeding was developed by wrapping all the surfaces except the upside of a collagen sponge with membrane that has pores smaller than cell. The collagen sponge was used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The cells adhered to the collagen, and proliferated to fill the spaces in the sponge. The cell seeding efficiency was higher than 95%. The MSCs cultured in the collagen sponge in the chondrogenic induction medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and BMP6 expressed genes encoding type II collagen, SOX9 and aggrecan. HE staining indicated the round morphology of differentiated cells and the extracelluler matrices were positively stained by safranin O and toluidine blue. Type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycan were detected by immunostaining with anti-type II collagen and anti-cartilage proteoglycan. These results suggest the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. The ...
Murine micromass versions have been extensively applied to study chondrogenesis and osteogenesis to elucidate pathways of endochondral bone formation. Apart from lineage-specific marker genes, pluripotency factors (and model systems have been AMD 070 established and validated to study chondrogenesis and early phases of matrix calcification. Since the initial condensation of mesenchymal cells is usually a prerequisite to their subsequent difference, by mimicking these circumstances was first described by co-workers and Ahrens [5]. In these high thickness cell civilizations (HDC), the natural capacity of poultry arm or leg bud-derived chondroprogenitor mesenchymal cells to automatically differentiate to chondroblasts and chondrocytes on times 2 and 3 AMD 070 of culturing is certainly used; a well-detectable quantity of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is certainly created by time 6. A significant benefit of this technique over others is certainly its cost-effectiveness and the ...
IntroductionTransplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovium is a promising therapy for cartilage regeneration. For clinical application, improvement of handling operation, enhancement of chondrogenic potential, and increase of MSCs adhesion efficiency are needed to achieve a more successful cartilage regeneration with a limited number of MSCs without scaffold. The use of aggregated MSCs may be one of the solutions. Here, we investigated the handling, properties and effectiveness of aggregated MSCs for cartilage regeneration.MethodsHuman and rabbit synovial MSCs were aggregated using the hanging drop technique. The gene expression changes after aggregation of synovial MSCs were analyzed by microarray and real time RT-PCR analyses. In vitro and in vivo chondrogenic potential of aggregates of synovial MSCs was examined.ResultsAggregates of MSCs cultured for three days became visible, approximately 1 mm in diameter and solid and durable by manipulation; most of the cells were viable.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. T2 - Challenges and unfulfilled expectations. AU - Somoza, Rodrigo A.. AU - Welter, Jean F.. AU - Correa, Diego. AU - Caplan, Arnold I.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Articular cartilage repair and regeneration provides a substantial challenge in Regenerative Medicine because of the high degree of morphological and mechanical complexity intrinsic to hyaline cartilage due, in part, to its extracellular matrix. Cartilage remains one of the most difficult tissues to heal; even state-of-The-Art regenerative medicine technology cannot yet provide authentic cartilage resurfacing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were once believed to be the panacea for cartilage repair and regeneration, but despite years of research, they have not fulfilled these expectations. It has been observed that MSCs have an intrinsic differentiation program reminiscent of endochondral bone formation, which they follow after exposure to specific ...
The maintenance and expansion of the cells required for formation of tissue-engineered cartilage has, to date, proven difficult. This is, in part, due to the initial solid phase extracellular matrix demanded by the cells inhabiting this avascular tissue. Herein, we engineer an innovative alginate-fibronectin microfluidic-based carrier construct (termed a chondrobag) equipped with solid phase presentation of growth factors that support skeletal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation while preserving human articular chondrocyte phenotype. Results demonstrate biocompatibility, cell viability, proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation for chondrogenic markers SOX9, COL2A1 and ACAN. Modulation of chondrogenic cell hypertrophy, following culture within chondrobags loaded with TGF-β1, was confirmed by down-regulation of hypertrophic genes COL10A1 and MMP13. MicroRNAs involved in the chondrogenesis process, including miR-140, miR-146b and miR-138 were observed. Results demonstrate the ...
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In this work, it was hypothesized that co-cultures of articular chondrocytes (ACs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would exhibit enhanced sensitivity to chondrogenic stimuli, such as TGF-β3, and would require a reduced concentration of TGF-β3 to achieve an equivalent level of chondrogenesis compared to monocultures of each cell type. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that compared to monocultures, the chondrogenic phenotype of AC/MSC co-cultures would be more stable upon the removal of TGF-β3 from the culture medium. These hypotheses were investigated by culturing ACs and MSCs alone and in a 1:3 ratio on electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds. All cell populations were cultured for two weeks with 0, 1, 3, or 10 ng/ml of TGF-β3. After two weeks growth factor supplementation was removed, and the constructs were cultured for two additional weeks. Cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and chondrogenic gene expression were evaluated after two and four weeks. The results ...
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Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease involving progressive and degenerative changes to articular cartilage that greatly affects the adult population. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been used to treat focal early OA defects, although there are negative long-term outcomes due to poor graft integration and the presence of inflammatory factors Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an alternative cell type for cell-based treatments due to their chondrogenic capacity. However, MSC chondrogenesis leads to bone formation upon in vivo implantation. In vivo, chondrocytes reside under an oxygen tension between 2-7% oxygen or physioxia. Previous studies have demonstrated that physioxia enhances MSC chondrogenesis with reduced hypertrophic marker (collagen X and MMP13) expression compared to hyperoxia (20% oxygen). The present investigation sought to observe whether implantation of physioxic preconditioned MSCs improves cartilage repair in an early OA defect model ...
Objective. Mature articular cartilage is vulnerable to injuries and disease processes that cause irreversible tissue damage because of its limited capacity for self-repair. Umbilical cord blood is a source of mesenchymal stem cells, which can give rise to cells of different lineages, including cartilage, bone, and fat. Cellular condensation is a required step in the initiation of mesenchymal chondrogenesis. We attempted to differentiate cells from umbilical cord blood into chondrocytes with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3). Methods. Cells were grown in high density micromass and monolayer culture systems and then evaluated for expression of type 11 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9. Umbilical cord blood from 130 patients was harvested. Results. Expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 was detected after 14 days in TGF-beta 3- and IGF-1-stimulated cells in both types of culture (monolayer and micromass). On Day 21 in the micromass ...
Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mimicking embryonal endochondral ossification and become hypertrophic. BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor (BAMBI) is a pseudoreceptor that regulates the activity of transforming growth factor-|i|β|/i| (TGF-|i|β|/i|) and BMP signalling during chondrogenesis. Both TGF-|i|β|/i| and BMP signalling are regulators of chondrogenic cell differentiation. Human bone marrow derived MSCs were chondrogenically predifferentiated in aggregate culture for 14 days. Thereafter, one group was subjected to hypertrophy enhancing media conditions while controls were kept in chondrogenic medium until day 28. Histological evaluation, gene expression by PCR, and Western blot analysis were carried out at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28. A subset of cultures was treated with the BMP inhibitor Noggin to test for BMP dependent expression of BAMBI. Hypertrophic differentiated pellets showed larger cells with increased
Here, we elucidated molecular functions of ITGBL1 in cartilage formation and OA development. Itgbl1 is transiently and specifically expressed in developing chondrocytes and promotes chondrogenesis. Our data suggest that ITGBL1 inhibits integrin signaling in developing chondrocytes. Developing chondrocytes constantly contact and interact with the surrounding ECM, and the major receptors for the ECM are integrins. Integrin-ECM interaction was shown to be necessary and to positively regulate prechondrocyte condensation (12-15), whereas other studies reported conflicting data about the functions of integrins in chondrogenic differentiation (17-19). Integrin-ECM interactions promote osteogenic differentiation while inhibiting chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (17). Increased FAK activation prevents chondrogenesis (39), and intrinsic FAK expression is actively down-regulated in developing chondrocytes (59), which we also confirmed in chondrogenic hBMSCs (fig. S6A). Furthermore, increased ...
In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. These data confirm the impairment of chondrogenic differentiation by Hoxa2 overexpression. They also show a selective effect of Hoxa2 on endochondral ossification processes since Gdf5 and Gdf10, and Bmp4 or PthrP were up-regulated and unmodified, respectively. Since
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is one of the key chondrogenic growth factors involved in the cartilage regeneration. However, it also exhibits osteogenic abilities and triggers endochondral...
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Hanamura, H and Urist, M R., Osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in transplants of dunn and ridgway osteosarcoma cell cultures. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4164 ...
以人類疾病動物模式探討微環境對幹細胞命運之影響--探討玻尿酸與軟骨素在聚乳酸立體培養架構中之軟骨分化的影響The effects of hyaluronic acid and chondrotin on chondrogenesis in 3D-PLGA scaffold (國科會), 2011.8- ...
Fully tested and working Micromass GCT with EI source, Agilent 6890N GC with split/splitless, CTC HTS modified/Combi Pal with Liquid injection only(l
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes. T2 - An in vitro study. AU - ShaBan, Munirah. AU - Kim, Soon Hee. AU - Idrus, Ruszymah. AU - Khang, Gilson. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Background. Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. Methods. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in chondrocytes-fibrin suspension (1 × 106cells/ scaffold) and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl ...
We have used a disc-shaped self-gelling alginate hydrogel as a scaffold for in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The comparison of monolayer cells and alginate embedded cells with or without differentiation medium allowed us to perform a detailed kinetic study of the expression of a range of genes and proteins known to be involved in chondrogenesis, using real-time polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and glycosaminoglycan measurement in the supernatant. mRNA encoding type II collagen (COL2), COL10, aggrecan, and SOX5, 6, and 9 were greatly elevated already at day 7, whereas COL1 and versican mRNA were gradually reduced. COL2 and aggrecan were dispersed throughout the extracellular matrix at day 21, whereas COL10 distribution was mainly intra/pericellular. COL1 seemed to be produced by only some of the cells. SOX proteins were predominantly localized in the nuclei. Then, using microarray analysis, we identified a signature
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based-treatments of cartilage injury are promising but impaired by high levels of hypertrophy after chondrogenic induction with several bone morphogenetic protein superfamily members (BMPs). As an alternative, this study investigates the chondrogenic induction of MSCs via adenoviral gene-delivery of the transcription factor SOX9 alone or in combination with other inducers, and comparatively explores the levels of hypertrophy and end stage differentiation in a pellet culture system in vitro. First generation adenoviral vectors encoding SOX9, TGFB1 or IGF1 were used alone or in combination to transduce human bone marrow-derived MSCs at 5 × 102 infectious particles/cell. Thereafter cells were placed in aggregates and maintained for three weeks in chondrogenic medium. Transgene expression was determined at the protein level (ELISA/Western blot), and aggregates were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically, biochemically and by RT-PCR for chondrogenesis and hypertrophy.
Various miRNAs have been reported to regulate the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs); however, whether miR-134 plays a role in this biological process remains undetermined. In the present study, we first evaluated the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by Alcian blue staining, and examined the miR-134 expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) during this process. And miR-134 inhibitor was used to investigate the functions of miR-134 in chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by Alcian blue staining, qRT-PCR, and Western blot. Subsequently, the correlation between miR-134 and SMAD6 was assessed via bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Finally, the role of SMAD6 in chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was also determined through Alcian blue staining, qRT-PCR, and Western blot. As results showed that miR-134 expression was significantly down-regulated during chondrogenic differentiation, and inhibition of miR-134 obviously ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a photopolymerizing hydrogel. AU - Williams, Christopher G.. AU - Kim, Tae Kyun. AU - Taboas, Anya. AU - Malik, Athar. AU - Manson, Paul. AU - Elisseeff, Jennifer Hartt. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) from skeletally mature goats were encapsulated in a photopolymerizing poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel and cultured with or without transforming growth factor β1 (TGF) to study the potential for chondrogenesis in a hydrogel scaffold system amenable to minimally invasive implantation. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated by histological, biochemical, and RNA analyses for the expression of cartilage extracellular matrix components. The two control groups studied were MSCs cultured in monolayer and MSCs encapsulated in the hydrogel and cultured for 6 weeks in chondrogenic medium without TGF-β1 (6wk-TGF). The three experimental time points for encapsulated cells studied ...
There are a variety of exciting hydrogel technologies being explored for cartilage regenerative medicine. Our overall goal is to explore whether using stem cells in an aggregate form may be advantageous in these applications. 3D stem cell aggregates hold great promise as they may recapitulate the in vivo skeletal tissue condensation, a property that is not typically observed in 2D culture. We considered two different stem cell sources, human umbilical cord Whartons jelly cells (hWJCs, currently being used in clinical trials) and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). The objective of the current study was to compare the influence of cell phenotype, aggregate size, and aggregate number on chondrogenic differentiation in a generic hydrogel (agarose) platform. Despite being differing cell sources, both rBMSC and hWJC aggregates were consistent in outperforming cell suspension control groups in biosynthesis and chondrogenesis. Higher cell density impacted biosynthesis favorably, ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to offer a virtually unlimited source of chondrogenic cells for use in cartilage repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that expandable chondrogenic cells can be derived from hESCs under selective growth factor-responsive conditions. In this study, we explore the potential of these hESC-derived chondrogenic cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM)-enriched cartilaginous tissue construct when cultured in hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel, and further investigated the long-term reparative ability of the resulting hESC-derived chondrogenic cell-engineered cartilage (HCCEC) in an osteochondral defect model. We hypothesized that HCCEC can provide a functional template capable of undergoing orderly remodeling during the repair of critical-sized osteochondral defects (1.5 mm in diameter, 1 mm depth into the subchondral bone) in a rat model. In the process of repair, we observed an orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of HCCEC over 12 ...
The global autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis market has five major regional segments that divide it in terms of geography. These regions are North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin America. Currently, the autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis market is globally dominated by the regional segment of North America. The region is expected to continue to be a leading contributor for the given period of forecast of 2018 to 2028. There are multiple factors that are responsible for the development of the global autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis market. Some of the important driving factors for market growth are growing geriatric population and increasing sports-related injuries in the region.. On the other hand, the regional segment of Asia Pacific is projected to be the fastest developing region of the global autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis market. One of the key reasons behind the growth of the regional segments is the fast development of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of chondrogenesis. T2 - Requirement for synergistic interaction of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta. AU - Frenz, Dorothy A.. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Williams, James D.. AU - Hatcher, Victor Bernard. AU - Galinovic-Schwartz, Vera. AU - Flanders, Kathleen C.. AU - Van De Water, Thomas R.. PY - 1994/2. Y1 - 1994/2. N2 - Interactions between the epithelial anlage of the developing mouse inner ear and its associated periotic mesenchyme control the differentiation of the cartilaginous otic capsule. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a naturally occurring signal peptide that is present in these tissues at times of active differentiation and morphogenesis. Previous studies have shown that TGF-β1 alone is not a sufficient stimulus to initiate chondrogenesis in cultured periotic mesenchyme. In this study, we provide evidence that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can elicit a specific but limited chondrogenic response in cultured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serine racemase suppresses chondrogenic differentiation in cartilage in a Sox9-dependent manner. AU - Takarada, Takeshi. AU - Hinoi, Eiichi. AU - Takahata, Yoshifumi. AU - Yoneda, Yukio. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - Serine racemase (SR) is responsible for the biosynthesis of D-serine (D-Ser), an endogenous co-agonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, from L-serine (L-Ser) in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the role of SR in the regulation of chondrogenic differentiation in cartilage. On in situ hybridization analysis of tibia from neonatal rats, SR mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all cell layers of proliferating to hypertrophic chondrocytes. In the pre-chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 cells, mRNA expression was seen with SR irrespective of the cellular maturity, with no mRNA expression of the NRI subunit essential for the heteromeric assembly of functional NMDA receptor channels. In ATDC5 cells stably overexpressing SR, significant ...
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) show promise for bone and cartilage regeneration. Our previous studies demonstrated that hMSCs with periodic mild heating had enhanced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation with significantly upregulated heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). However, the role of H …
Chondrogenic Differentiation of a Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Line (BMC9) and a Primary Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) onto Chitosan/Polyester Based ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HES factors regulate specific aspects of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development. AU - Rutkowski, Timothy P.. AU - Kohn, Anat. AU - Sharma, Deepika. AU - Ren, Yinshi. AU - Mirando, Anthony J.. AU - Hilton, Matthew J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the following United States National Institutes of Health grants (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases): R01 grants [grant numbers AR057022 and AR063071 to M.J.H.]; R21 grant [grant number AR059733 to M.J.H.]; a P30 Core Center grant [grant number AR061307]; a T32 training grant that supported both T.P.R. and A.K. [grant number AR053459]. The work was also supported by departmental funds from the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University School of Medicine. Deposited in PMC for release after 12 months.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - RBPjκ-dependent Notch signaling regulates multiple processes during cartilage development, ...
In chapter 1, we sought a proof of principle to confirm that the blocking of angiogenesis does indeed improve cartilage formation when using genetically-modified nasal chondrocytes (NCs) or antiangiogenic peptides associated with NCs. For this purpose, NCs were genetically-modified to express mouse soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sFlk-1) or were associated with an antiangiogenic peptide in order to have their chondrogenic capacity assessed in vitro and in vivo. Improved cartilage regeneration could be observed after in vivo implantation of NCs in an ectopic nude mouse model. Whereas the anti-angiogenic approaches did not improve chondrogenesis in vitro, frank chondrogenesis occured in vivo only in the constructs generated by NCs expressing sFlk-1 or treated with the peptide. Blood vessel ingrowth was significantly hampered in the anti-angiogenic experimental groups when compared with naïve NCs, which correlated with chondrogenis improvement. Strikingly, the anti-angiogenic effect was even more evident ...
Although BMSC-based therapy is one of the most front-line technologies for cartilage repair, it is still a big challenge to attain ideal niches for BMSC chondrogenic differentiation. In this study, we developed hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate derivatives to prepare covalently crosslinked polysaccharide h 2017 Journal of Materials Chemistry B HOT Papers
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of the Sry-related factor SOX6 contributes to bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondroblastic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. AU - Fernández-Lloris, R.. AU - Viñals, F.. AU - Harley, V.. AU - Ventura, Flaminia. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - Chondrogenesis leads to the formation of mature cartilage and generates initial skeletal elements that serve as templates for endochondral bone formation. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in several developmental and organogenetic processes and have been identified as key regulators in chondrogenesis. In the present study we sought to determine the transcriptional mechanisms contributing to the induction of chondrogenic markers by BMP-2. Time-course studies with BMP-2-stimulated C3H10T1/2 cells showed a dose-dependent appearance of Alcian-blue-positive material and up-regulated expression of type-II collagen mRNA. This last effect required new protein synthesis because addition of cycloheximide ...
TGF-β3 is enzymatically immobilized by transglutaminase-2 action to poly(L-lactic acid) microparticles coated with collagen II. Microparticles are then encapsulated with stem cells inside liquified spherical compartments enfolded with a permselective shell through layer-by-layer adsorption. Magnetic nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the multilayered shell, conferring magnetic-response ability. The goal of this study is to engineer a closed environment inside which encapsulated stem cells would undergo a self-regulated chondrogenesis. To test this hypothesis, capsules are cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium without TGF-β3. Their biological outcome is compared with capsules encapsulating microparticles without TGF-β3 immobilization and cultured in normal chondrogenic differentiation medium containing soluble TGF-β3. Glycosaminoglycans quantification demosntrates that similar chondrogenesis levels are achieved. Moreover, collagen fibrils resembling the native ...
The MRG Lab Meeting will be taking place on Friday 1st May 2015 at 9.00am in the Baddiley Clark Seminar Room. Please note that the venue has changed as it was originally booked for the Dental Lecture Theatre D ...
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Zhou C, Zheng H, Seol D, Yu Y, Martin JA.. Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, 1182 Medical Laboratory, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242.. Abstract. We showed previously that chondrogenic progenitor cells (CPCs) from the superficial zone of articular cartilage respond vigorously to cartilage wounding by responding chemotactically to cell debris, but the physiologic functions of CPCs remain unclear. To help bridge this knowledge gap we undertook a comparative analysis of gene expression in bovine CPCs, chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts (synoviocytes), and cells isolated from synovial fluid (SFCs). Analysis of microarrays parsed the four cell types into two distinct groups, one composed only of chondrocytes and the other of CPCs, synoviocytes, and SFCs. The groups differed with respect to metalloendopeptidase, collagen, and cytokine gene expression. Quantitative PCR showed ...
Cells constitute one of the fundamental components of any cartilage tissue engineering approach. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) have a promising futur
Randau TM, Schildberg FA, Alini M, Wimmer MD, Haddouti el-M, Gravius S, Ito K, Stoddart MJ; The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.; PLoS One, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia ...
One night, during the summer of 2012, I found myself sitting in a cottage in Woods Hole, trying to explain to my parents why Id spent much of my
Expresses markers specific to mesenchymal cells derived from neural crest and lateral plate mesoderm. Demonstrated in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation Demonstrate in vivo cartilage repair in a rat model.
Expresses markers specific to mesenchymal cells derived from neural crest and lateral plate mesoderm. Demonstrated in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation Demonstrate in vivo cartilage repair in a rat model.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Takako Hattori, Francoise Coustry, Shelley Stephens, Heidi Eberspaecher, Masaharu Takigawa, Hideyo Yasuda, Benoit de Crombrugghe].
In vitro effects of cetylated fatty acids mixture from celadrin on chondrogenesis and inflammation with impact on osteoarthritis.
2014). "The role of Nkx3.2 in chondrogenesis". Frontiers in Biology. 9 (5): 376-381. doi:10.1007/s11515-014-1321-3. PMC 4859764 ...
L. E. Freed; A. P. Hollander; I. Martin; J. R. Barry; R. Langer; G. Vunjak-Novakovic (1998). "Chondrogenesis in a cell-polymer- ...
Schipani E (2006). "Hypoxia and HIF-1 alpha in chondrogenesis". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 16 (4-5): 539-46. doi ...
"LNA043: Chondrogenesis inducer for cartilage repair" (PDF). Meet Novartis Management NIBR. Clinical trial number NCT02491281 ... May 2005). "Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 signals through FGF receptor 3 to promote chondrogenesis". The Journal of ... of the small compound TD-198946 on glycosaminoglycan synthesis and transforming growth factor β3-associated chondrogenesis of ...
Schipani E (2006). "Hypoxia and HIF-1 alpha in chondrogenesis". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 16 (4-5): 539-46. doi ...
Liu C (2006). "Transcriptional mechanism of COMP gene expression and chondrogenesis". Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal ...
The encoded protein may play a role in chondrogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple ... Sox6 and Sox9 are coexpressed in chondrogenesis and cooperatively activate the type II collagen gene". The EMBO Journal. 17 (19 ...
Juhász T, Helgadottir SL, Tamás A, Reglődi D, Zákány R (April 2015). "PACAP and VIP signaling in chondrogenesis and ...
Additional studies emphasized the role of Sulfs in chondrogenesis. The role of QSulf1 was determined in quail cartilage ... 2008). Also, the zone of proliferating chondrocytes was reduced by 90%, indicating defects in chondrogenesis. The important ... Because Sulfs were important in normal chondrogenesis, they were investigated in cartilage diseases. Expression patterns of ... indicating QSulf1 is needed for early chondrogenesis. QSulf1 displayed perichondrial staining during early development but was ...
TGF-β will act as a stimulator of chondrogenesis, and an inhibitor of osteoblastic differentiation, by blocking the Runx2 ... "The role of TGFβs and Sox9 during limb chondrogenesis". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 18 (6): 723-729. doi:10.1016/ ... as the sites for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis are now known. Osteochondroprogenitor can be found between MSCs and the ... suggesting that they are important in chondrogenesis. Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, called osteons, ...
Rodrigo JJ, Steadman JR, Syftestad G, Benton H, Silliman J (1995). "Effects of human knee synovial fluid on chondrogenesis in ... supporting both osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. With disruption of the epiphyseal plate vessels, varying degrees and depth of ...
"The expression and function of microRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteoarthritis". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 64 (6): 1909-19. doi: ...
"MicroRNA-337 is associated with chondrogenesis through regulating TGFBR2 expression". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 20 (6): 593 ...
"Regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Endocrinology. 142 (1): 430-436. doi:10.1210/endo. ...
A study on chondrogenesis found that c4orf36 has an oscillatory expression pattern coupled to that of ATP, indicating a ... "Analysis of proteins showing differential changes during ATP oscillations in chondrogenesis". Cell Biochemistry and Function. ...
"Genetic deletion of Cyp26b1 negatively impacts limb skeletogenesis by inhibiting chondrogenesis". J. Cell Sci. 124 (16): 2723- ...
Androgen-induced myogenesis and chondrogenesis in the larynx of Xenopus laevis . Dev. Biol. 113, 135 -145. Tobias, M. and ... Sassoon, David; Segil, Neil; Kelley, Darcy (1986). "Androgen-induced myogenesis and chondrogenesis in the larynx of Xenopus ... that these hormones control myogenesis and chondrogenesis in the vocal organ, the larynx, and that the greater sensitivity of ...
"Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development". Development. 130 (12 ...
Gomes RR, Farach-Carson MC, Carson DD (2004). "Perlecan functions in chondrogenesis: insights from in vitro and in vivo models ...
"Supramolecular GAG-like Self-Assembled Glycopeptide Nanofibers Induce Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Regeneration". doi:10.1021/ ... site is used because stimulation of the cambium layer using transforming growth factor-beta resulted in enhanced chondrogenesis ...
"The Sry-related gene Sox9 is expressed during chondrogenesis in mouse embryos". Nature Genetics. 9 (1): 15-20. doi:10.1038/ ...
... signals through fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3 to promote chondrogenesis and has been shown to cause thickening ... "Fibroblast growth factor-18 stimulates chondrogenesis and cartilage repair in a rat model of injury-induced osteoarthritis". ... 18 Signals through FGF Receptor 3 to Promote Chondrogenesis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (21): 20509-20515. doi: ...
"Bmpr1a and Bmpr1b have overlapping functions and are essential for chondrogenesis in vivo". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 ( ...
May 2005). "Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 signals through FGF receptor 3 to promote chondrogenesis". The Journal of ...
"Bmpr1a and Bmpr1b have overlapping functions and are essential for chondrogenesis in vivo". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 ( ...
Gamer LW, Cox KA, Small C, Rosen V (January 2001). "Gdf11 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and myogenesis in the ...
Lewis CA, Pratt RM, Pennypacker JP, Hassell JR (May 1978). "Inhibition of limb chondrogenesis in vitro by vitamin A: ... which plays a key role in chondrogenesis, the process of cartilage formation from condensed mesenchyme tissues, which then ... of excess Vitamin A inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate by chondrocytes and causes the inhibition of chondrogenesis ...
"An aspartic acid repeat polymorphism in asporin inhibits chondrogenesis and increases susceptibility to osteoarthritis". Nature ...
Chondrocytes develop in the embryo from mesenchymal progenitor cells through a process known as chondrogenesis. A chondrocyte ...
Csaki C, Matis U, Mobasheri A, Ye H, Shakibaei M (December 2007). "Chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis of canine ...
During chondrogenesis, the extracellular matrix continuously evolves, adapting to the tissue adhesive requirements at each ... During chondrogenesis, SOX9 is co-expressed with COL2A1, the gene encoding type II collagen, the major cartilage ECM protein. ... For YAP and actin staining, hAMSCs at passage 3 were seeded in chondrogenesis-inducing medium on S0, S18, S90 and SFN ... hAMSCs at passage 3-4 were seeded in chondrogenesis-inducing medium on S0, S18, S90 and SFN substrates. Reverse transcription ...
Repression of chondrogenesis through binding of notch signaling proteins HES-1 and HEY-1 to N-box domains in the COL2A1 ... The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of this repression and how it is modulated to permit chondrogenesis. ... Results: High levels of NICD proteins were reduced during chondrogenesis of human MSCs, and this was mediated by transforming ... Overexpression of Notch signaling components and their effect on chondrogenesis was achieved by transfecting plasmids coding ...
Gene-induced chondrogenesis of primary mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Glyn D. Palmer, Andre Steinert, Arnulf Pascher, Elvire ... Dive into the research topics of Gene-induced chondrogenesis of primary mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Together they form a ...
Aggrecan and COMP Improve Periosteal Chondrogenesis by Delaying Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Maturation. Marjolein M. J. Caron, ... Aggrecan and COMP Improve Periosteal Chondrogenesis by Delaying Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Maturation. / Caron, Marjolein M. J.; ... Aggrecan and COMP Improve Periosteal Chondrogenesis by Delaying Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Maturation. In: Frontiers in ... Aggrecan and COMP Improve Periosteal Chondrogenesis by Delaying Chondrocyte Hypertrophic Maturation. Frontiers in ...
... chondrogenesis Remove constraint Subject: chondrogenesis Subject term calcitonin receptors Remove constraint Subject term: ... calcitonin receptors Subject term chondrogenesis Remove constraint Subject term: chondrogenesis Start Over ... calcitonin; calcitonin receptors; chondrogenesis; cyclic AMP; humans; phenotype; signal transduction; therapeutics. Abstract:. ... role of the ERK1/2 pathway as an alternative to the aging-diminished cyclic AMP pathway in calcitonin-mediated chondrogenesis ...
NFATp represses chondrogenesis. *Mark Bolton1 Arthritis Research & Therapy volume 3, Article number: 66788 (2000) Cite this ... The dysregulation of chondrogenesis in NFATp-deficient mice leads to abnormal deposition of cartilage and bone in the extra- ... Chondrocytes were isolated from the femoral head cartilage or from the extra-articular tissues, where chondrogenesis was ... p as the first transcription factor to be involved in the control of chondrogenesis from adult precursor cells but which has no ...
ESI BIO provides specialized research reagents and differentiation kits for stem cell research. A full line of products and services include primary human cells, hydrogels, progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells, cell culture media, small molecules, cytokines, antibodies and substrates.
BMP9 has been shown to play a role in the regulation of angiogenesis35, liver fibrosis36, osteogenesis37 and chondrogenesis38, ... c, d Immunofluorescence staining for the cartilage marker proteins Sox9 and Acan illustrate chondrogenesis contiguous with the ... Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) stimulates stump chondrogenesis and cavitation in adult digits. a Mallory trichrome ... The action of BMP9 on joint regeneration is likely indirect since two independent induction events, chondrogenesis and ...
Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can be induced to differentiate into chondrocytes using three- ...
Evaluation of Phosphate Treatment and Long-Term RUNX2 Suppression On Adult Human MSC Chondrogenesis and Neo-Cartilage Formation ...
1. Chondrogenesis. We used a modification of the micropellet assay of Johnstone, et al17. Briefly, synovial membrane-derived ... In vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells. Exp Cell Res 1998;238:265-72. ... Chondrogenesis was observed in all cell preparations analyzed (Figure 6A, 6B). Micromass cultures were tested for the presence ... In vitro chondrogenesis of human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Optimal condition and comparison with bone marrow- ...
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is a growth factor that is critical for chondrogenesis and binds to both biglycan and ... Using an explant culture system, we found that overactive TGF-beta1 signals induced chondrogenesis and ECM turnover in this ... Biglycan and fibromodulin have essential roles in regulating chondrogenesis and extracellular matrix turnover in ... we discovered the early basis for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis arises from abnormal and accelerated chondrogenesis. ...
GLI3 constrains digit number by controlling both progenitor proliferation and BMP-dependent exit to chondrogenesis. ... GLI3 constrains digit number by controlling both progenitor proliferation and BMP-dependent exit to chondrogenesis. ... Animals, Biomarkers, Blotting, Western, Body Patterning, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Cell Proliferation, Chondrogenesis, Flow ...
Fibroblast-mediated delivery of growth factor complementary DNA into mouse joints induces chondrogenesis but avoids the ... Fibroblast-mediated delivery of growth factor complementary DNA into mouse joints induces chondrogenesis but avoids the ...
β-Catenin functions as a negative regulator of chondrogenesis. Chondrogenesis from mesenchymal cells during wing bud ... Expression pattern of Jun during chondrogenesis in vivo and in vitro. (A)Type II collagen and Jun in wing buds of day 5 and 6 ... Expression pattern of Jun during chondrogenesis in vivo and in vitro. (A)Type II collagen and Jun in wing buds of day 5 and 6 ... 8) is essentially same during chondrogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Expression level of Jun, as determined by western blot ...
Caveolin expression during chondrogenesis in the avian limb. Developmental Dynamics 225(2), pp. 205-211. (10.1002/dvdy.10143) ... Caveolin expression during chondrogenesis in the avian limb. Developmental Dynamics 225(2), pp. 205-211. (10.1002/dvdy.10143) ...
Limb chondrogenesis in Graptemys nigrinoda (Emydidae), with comments on the primary axis and the digital arch in turtles. *M. ...
chondrogenesis & osteoarthritis, knee joint distraction, canine models (NWO Perspectief; William Hunter Revisited project).. ...
After spontaneous chondrogenesis, CPC spheroids were entirely positive for N-cadherin, collagen type II and type VI, and ... Biomechanical assay revealed that the maximum forces applied to spheroids after chondrogenesis were 2.6 times higher than for ... and spontaneous chondrogenesis (21-day culture) using cartilage progenitors cells (CPCs) from human nasal septum without ... spontaneous chondrogenesis) and to monolayer (. , ). TGF-beta: transforming growth factor-beta. ...
Keywords: Chondrogenesis, stem cells, bone marrow, mechanobiology, cartilage Citation: Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, ... Using an in vitro aggregate culture system enhanced chondrogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells, detected by an increased ... few studies that examine the influence of mechanobiological stress on mesenchymal progenitor cells undergoing chondrogenesis. ...
The Sec Domain Protein Scfd1 Facilitates Trafficking of ECM Components during Chondrogenesis. Dev. Biol. 421 (1), 8-15. doi: ...
Sun X, Wei Y (2009) The role of hypoxia-inducible factor in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Cytotherapy 11:261-267 ...
Miljkovic ND, , Cooper GM, & Marra KG: Chondrogenesis, bone morphogenetic protein-4 and mesenchymal stem cells. Osteoarthritis ... Chondrogenesis, bone morphogenetic protein-4 and mesenchymal stem cells. . Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 16. :. 1121. -. 1130. , ...
... evaluation of chondrogenesis." Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 2(5), 055016. (2016). ...
Chondrogenesis in injectable enzymatically crosslinked heparin/dextran hydrogels. R Jin, LSM Teixeira, PJ Dijkstra, CA van ...
We investigated whether calreticulin controls a switch between osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in mouse ESCs through NFATC1. ...
  • Histological analysis of the hip joint from 3 months revealed proliferation of chondrocytes, disruption of the articular cartilage and initiation of chondrogenesis in extra-articular regions arising from cells distinct from the articular chondrocytes and reminiscent of the process of endochondral ossification. (
  • The dysregulation of chondrogenesis in NFATp-deficient mice leads to abnormal deposition of cartilage and bone in the extra-articular tissues. (
  • Chondrocytes were isolated from the femoral head cartilage or from the extra-articular tissues, where chondrogenesis was initiated spontaneously, and grown to passage 2. (
  • We demonstrated for the first time a comprehensive study revealing the importance of the ECM in maintaining the mandibular condylar cartilage integrity and identified biglycan and fibromodulin as novel key players in regulating chondrogenesis and ECM turnover during temoporomandibular joint osteoarthritis pathology. (
  • In this study, we aimed to evaluate the micromolded nonadhesive hydrogel (MicroTissues®) for spheroid compaction (2-day culture) and spontaneous chondrogenesis (21-day culture) using cartilage progenitors cells (CPCs) from human nasal septum without chondrogenic stimulus. (
  • This bone formation process was accompanied by an increase in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis factors at the injury site which promoted cartilage repair. (
  • Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone [1-34] Augments Chondrogenesis of the Mandibular Condylar Cartilage of the Temporomandibular Joint. (
  • Previous work has shown that chondrogenesis of the ventrolateral part of the vertebra takes place under the influence of the notochord: a supernumerary notochord grafted dorsomedially to the somite extends the Pax1 -expressing somitic domain dorsally, and subsequently its differentiation into cartilage takes place to the point that the development of the dorsal somitic derivatives (i.e. the dermomyotome) can be totally suppressed. (
  • Supplementation of articular cartilage-derived chondroprogenitors with bone morphogenic protein-9 enhances chondrogenesis without affecting hypertrophy. (
  • In a mouse model of osteochondral repair, HA-g-CS implant and moderate-intensity exercise may have a synergistic effect on improving osteochondral repair potentially through promotion of subchondral bone remodeling and generation of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis factors. (
  • Since MSC functions as osteogenesis and chondrogenesis were induced in case of bone damages or bone fractures ( 10 - 12 ), the therapeutic application of synovial MSCs would have a potent for the repairment of bone erosion in RA. (
  • Developmentally inspired programming of adult human mesenchymal stromal cells toward stable chondrogenesis," PNAS (2018). (
  • From the mesenchymal condensation of chondroprogenitors to the hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes, chondrogenesis is sequentially regulated by cross-talk among transcription factors, growth factors, and chromatin structure{altering chromatin structure can alter chondrogenesis} . (
  • Chondrogenesis was assessed by staining for proteoglycans and collagen type II, adipogenesis by using a stain for lipids, and osteogenesis by detecting calcium deposits. (
  • After spontaneous chondrogenesis, CPC spheroids were entirely positive for N-cadherin, collagen type II and type VI, and aggrecan and chondroitin sulfate. (
  • Using Bgn(-/0) Fmod(-/-) MCCs, we discovered the early basis for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis arises from abnormal and accelerated chondrogenesis. (
  • An aspartic acid repeat polymorphism in asporin inhibits chondrogenesis and increases susceptibility to osteoarthritis. (
  • The differentiation potentials of osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis were evaluated with histological staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of differentiation marker genes. (
  • Data from comparative studies of MSC derived from various mesenchymal tissues suggest that the MSC from synovial membranes have superior capacity for chondrogenesis 9 , 10 . (
  • El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar estado del arte de la terapia regenerativa articular en el caballo. (
  • This paper is of particular interest as it describes The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)p as the first transcription factor to be involved in the control of chondrogenesis from adult precursor cells but which has no effect on embryonic skeletal development. (
  • In the ventral limb bud, the transcription factor engrailed-1 (En-1) is produced. (
  • The ventrolateral part of the vertebra (i.e. vertebral body and neural arches) develops from the ventral sclerotomal cells that express the transcription factor Pax1 before the onset of chondrogenesis. (
  • In chondrogenesis, p300 stimulates transcription factor-mediated chromatin disruption. (
  • This supports the contention that bone formation in the subcutaneous site, where the spinous process is formed, is under the control of BMP4, and that Msx genes are involved in the pathway leading to chondrogenesis. (
  • Binding of L-Sox5/Sox6 to Ine and Nfib to SI modulates Sox9 transactivation in a protein dosedependent manner, possibly to enhance Sox9 activity in early stages of chondrogenesis and repress it at later stages. (
  • Overexpression of Notch signaling components and their effect on chondrogenesis was achieved by transfecting plasmids coding for NICD, HES-1, and HERP-2/HEY-1. (
  • Chondrogenesis was strongly inhibited by the graft of BMP2/4-producing cells in a ventrolateral position, with respect to the neural tube (Watanabe, 1998 and references). (
  • GLI3 constrains digit number by controlling both progenitor proliferation and BMP-dependent exit to chondrogenesis. (
  • High levels of NICD proteins were reduced during chondrogenesis of human MSCs, and this was mediated by transforming growth factor beta3 (TGFbeta3). (
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is a growth factor that is critical for chondrogenesis and binds to both biglycan and fibromodulin. (
  • It also influences chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and joint formation (Krause et al. (
  • These observations raised the question of the nature of the factor of notochord/floor plate origin that is responsible for chondrogenesis in the ventrolateral domain of the vertebra. (
  • Duality in vertebral chondrogenesis was further underlined by the opposite effect of BMPs on the development of the ventrolateral part of the vertebra. (
  • Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications. (
  • Osteocrin, a peptide secreted from the heart and other tissues, contributes to cranial osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in zebrafish. (
  • This scaffold should induce in vitro, in its separate layers, the osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis of the tissue spheroids of mesenchymal stem pulp cells (SHED). (
  • EMF has been reported to be effective in the enhancement of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis of hSSCs/BMSCs with no documented negative effects. (
  • Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus and Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis: Is Age a Negative Predictor Outcome? (
  • Purpose To assess and evaluate healing and functional outcomes after arthroscopic talus autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AT-AMIC) in 2 age groups: patients older than 33 years versus patients 33 years or younger. (
  • Osteochondral lesions associated with subchondral cyst formation have less favorable results with standard arthroscopic techniques.4,5 Additional surgical techniques include retrograde drilling, trans-malleolar drilling, filling of the bony defect with autogenous cancellous bone graft, autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation, osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS), and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the success rate of treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee joint using the modified AMIC (Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis) technique, combining microfractures of the base and the implantation of the type I collagen-based cell-free implant over a two-year period. (
  • In order to improve the efficacy of cell-free implants, a new therapeutic technique was developed, combining the microfractures of the base with the use of cell-free scaffold AMIC (Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis). (
  • In vitro chondrogenesis with lysozyme susceptible bacterial cellulose as a scaffold. (
  • 2016, H3K27me3 demethylases regulate in vitro chondrogenesis and chondrocyte activity in osteoarthritis, Arthritis Res. (
  • 1. THRAP3 interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional activity of SOX9 during chondrogenesis. (
  • The authors conclude that gamma irradiation inhibits chondrogenesis in chick limb bud cell cultures. (
  • An aspartic acid repeat polymorphism in asporin inhibits chondrogenesis and increases susceptibility to osteoarthritis. (
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein - 1 inhibits chondrogenesis of synovial mesenchymal progenitor cells: an in vitro study. (
  • Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures. (
  • Chondrogenesis in the growth plate is controlled by multiple interacting regulatory systems, involving endocrine, paracrine, extracellular matrix, and intracellular pathways. (
  • Collectively, these quantitative and qualitative results establish that the incorporation of RGDS sequences in PEG gels provide the beginning stages of an extracellular matrix native to differentiating hMSCs and aid in initiating chondrogenesis. (
  • Chondrogenesis was evaluated by determinations of gene expression of transcription factor Sox-9 and extracellular matrix proteins collagen type II and XI, aggrecan, and COMP by Real-Time PCR and completed with histological analysis. (
  • Chondrosarcomas express S-100, estrogen receptors and SOX9, a regulator of chondrogenesis. (
  • About gMSC ® gMSC ® 1 is a tissue-engineered medical product currently developed by TWOCELLS and was prepared for the regenerative chondrogenesis using synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) in collaboration with Osaka University and Hiroshima University. (
  • Chondrogenesis of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells in gene-transferred co-culture system. (
  • Both BaP and CSE strongly inhibited chondrogenesis in mesenchymal cells generated from E11 limb buds, with BaP also accelerating chondrocyte hypertrophy in cultures generated from E12 limb buds. (
  • Activation of Ihh signaling synchronizes chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification by promoting chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation, and specification of bone-forming osteoblasts [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Identification of differentiation potential of iMSCs The differentiation KN-93 potential of iMSCs was identified by Osteogenesis, Adipogenesis and Chondrogenesis Differentiation Kit (STEMPRO, Gibco). (
  • 2. Smad3 induces chondrogenesis through the activation of SOX9 via CREB-binding protein/p300 recruitment. (
  • 5. Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha regulates chondrogenesis via association with Sox9. (
  • This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Stiffness memory of indirectly 3D-printed elastomer nanohybrid regulates chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells" [1] (Wu et al. (
  • Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold. (
  • Overexpression of Ihh enhances chondrogenesis and osteogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Thus, data suggest that HA of any tested molecular weight does not significantly modulate chondrogenesis of MSCs in pellet system. (
  • The effect of gamma irradiation on chick embryo limb bud chondrogenesis was studied in-vitro. (
  • Schematic diagram of the preparation of DI-NPs to induce chondrogenesis of hMSCs. (
  • In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the roles of these two metalloproteinases, with a special focus on their involvement in chondrogenesis, endochondral ossification, and the pathogenesis of arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. (
  • Since cigarette smoke (CS) contains numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and since dioxins impair bone formation in vivo via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR), we investigated the impact of PAH/AHR signaling on chondrogenesis and on healing in a mouse tibial fracture model. (
  • to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. (
  • For in vitro studies, we employed the mouse limb bud micromass chondrogenesis model. (
  • The aim was to evaluate modulation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) early chondrogenesis by HA of molecular weights 100, 600 and 1 500 kDa. (
  • PITX1 promotes chondrogenesis and myogenesis in mouse hindlimbs through conserved regulatory targets. (
  • Many of the identified genes regulate growth plate chondrogenesis locally. (
  • Toward this end, we have constructed fusion proteins that combine paracrine or endocrine proteins that stimulate growth plate chondrogenesis with antibody fragments that target these molecules to the growth plate. (
  • IGF-1 is directly responsible for chondrogenesis, skeletal growth, and the growth of soft tissue. (
  • In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. (
  • Conversely, KIF26B loss-of-function increased chondrogenesis as demonstrated by enhanced Safranin-O staining and by the elevated expression of chondrogenic marker genes. (
  • When either Smad2/3 or Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation was blocked in BMSC culture by addition of SB-505124 or dorsomorphin throughout culture, no collagen II expression was observed, indicating that both pathways are involved in early chondrogenesis. (
  • Distinct functions for these pathways were demonstrated when Smad signaling was blocked after the onset of chondrogenesis. (
  • However, neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia significantly altered chondrogenesis or osteogenesis during early stages of fracture healing, and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils was not affected by environmental oxygen after bone injury. (
  • In summary, these observations highlight that KIF26B plays a crucial role in ectopic bone formation by repressing osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis, potentially via modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. (
  • hereafter, TWOCELLS) announced completion of target enrollment into a Phase III comparative study for an investigational regenerative cellular medicine for chondrogenesis in the knee (development number "gMSC ® 1"), with surgery on the 70th patient. (
  • Conversely, macrophages are also key regulators of joint homeostasis and chondrogenesis ( 4 , 17 ). (
  • Further studies determined the extent of chondrogenesis seen in those viable cells. (
  • Overall, BaP is identified as a potent inhibitor of chondrogenesis in vitro with correlated effects on fracture healing similar to those of CS itself, suggesting a basis for PAHs as key compounds in the influence of CS on fracture repair. (
  • Retinoic acid is a potent regulator of growth plate chondrogenesis. (
  • In her current research, Ms. Dranse is examining the distribution of RA in the Cyp26b1-deficient mouse limb, and how this relates to the expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis and the newly identified and other potential RAR target genes. (
  • The encoded protein may play a role in chondrogenesis. (
  • Moreover, they suggest a role of RA in pelvic girdle patterning and chondrogenesis. (
  • In isolation, this chondrogenesis would cause the cartilaginous growth plate to become progressively wider with age. (