Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.SepharoseLectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.GlucosamineDinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.SOXD Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalMetalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.

Cloning of a novel gene specifically expressed in clonal mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. (1/3820)

We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding a novel mouse protein, A-C2, by differential display method using mouse embryonic fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells and mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. The deduced amino acid sequence of A-C2 consisted of 106 amino acids with no significant homology to the sequences previously reported. Northern blot analysis showed two major bands of 2.1 and 1.8 kb sizes. Expression of A-C2 mRNA was exclusive to ATDC5 cells at their undifferentiated stage. None of ATDC5 cells at their differentiated stage and adult mice tissues examined expressed A-C2 gene.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (2/3820)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (3/3820)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of mouse and bovine chondromodulin-II cDNAs and the growth-promoting actions of bovine recombinant protein. (4/3820)

We previously determined the complete primary sequence of a heparin-binding growth-promoting factor, chondromodulin-II (ChM-II), which stimulated the growth of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in culture. Bovine ChM-II was a 16-kDa basic protein with 133 amino acid residues and exhibited a significant sequence similarity to the repeats of the chicken mim-1 gene product. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of bovine and mouse ChM-II cDNAs. The cDNAs each contained an open-reading frame corresponding to the ChM-II precursor with 151 amino acid residues. The N-terminus of the precursor included a secretory signal sequence of 18 amino acids prior to the mature ChM-II sequence. Unlike MIM-1, there was no repeat structure in the precursor protein, indicating that ChM-II was encoded as a gene product distinct from MIM-1. We then expressed recombinant bovine ChM-II protein which was purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein stimulated the growth of rabbit growth plate chondrocytes, mouse MC3T3-E1 cells and rat UMR-106 osteoblastic cells in vitro.  (+info)

Gene transfer of cytokine inhibitors into human synovial fibroblasts in the SCID mouse model. (5/3820)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of retrovirus-based gene delivery of inhibitory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors into human synovial fibroblasts in the SCID mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The MFG vector was used for gene delivery of tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor (TNFalphaR) p55, viral interleukin-10 (IL-10), and murine IL-10 into RA synovial fibroblasts. The effect on invasion of these cells into human articular cartilage and on perichondrocytic cartilage degradation was examined after 60 days of coimplantation into the SCID mouse. RESULTS: TNFalphaR p55 gene transfer showed only a limited effect on inhibition of RA synovial fibroblast invasiveness and cartilage degradation. In contrast, invasion of the RA synovial fibroblasts into the coimplanted cartilage was strongly inhibited by both viral and murine IL-10. Perichondrocytic cartilage degradation was not affected by either form of IL-10. CONCLUSION: The data show that cytokines can be successfully inserted into the genome of human RA synovial fibroblasts using a retroviral vector delivery system, and that the SCID mouse model of human RA is a valuable tool for examining the effects of gene transfer. In addition, inhibition of more than one cytokine pathway may be required to inhibit both synovial- and chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction in RA.  (+info)

Transduction mechanisms of porcine chondrocyte inorganic pyrophosphate elaboration. (6/3820)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate cellular signaling mechanisms that influence chondrocyte production of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), which promotes calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition. METHODS: Articular chondrocyte and cartilage cultures were stimulated with protein kinase C (PKC) activator and adenyl cyclase activator. Generation of extracellular PPi was measured. RESULTS: Adenyl cyclase activation resulted in diminished pyrophosphate generation. PKC activation stimulated pyrophosphate elaboration. CONCLUSION: Two signaling pathways, cAMP and PKC, modulate generation of extracellular pyrophosphate by cartilage and chondrocytes. They are novel targets for potentially diminishing extracellular pyrophosphate elaboration that leads to CPPD crystal deposition.  (+info)

COL9A3: A third locus for multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (7/3820)

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mild short stature and early-onset osteoarthritis. The phenotypic spectrum includes the mild Ribbing type, the more severe Fairbank type, and some unclassified forms. Linkage studies have identified two loci for MED. One of these, EDM1, is on chromosome 19, in a region that contains the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) gene. Mutations have been identified in this gene in patients with the Ribbing type, the Fairbank type, and unclassified forms of MED. The second locus, EDM2, maps to chromosome 1, in a region spanning COL9A2. Recently, a splice-site mutation was found in COL9A2, causing skipping of exon 3 in one family with MED. Because of the exclusion of the EDM1 and EDM2 loci in some families, the existence of a third locus has been postulated. We report here one family with MED, evaluated clinically and radiologically and tested for linkage with candidate genes, including COMP, COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3. No linkage was found with COMP, COL9A1, or COL9A2, but an inheritance pattern consistent with linkage was observed with COL9A3. Mutation analysis of COL9A3 identified an A-->T transversion in the acceptor splice site of intron 2 in affected family members. The mutation led to skipping of exon 3 and an in-frame deletion of 12 amino acid residues in the COL3 domain of the alpha3(IX) chain and thus appeared to be similar to that reported for COL9A2. This is the first disease-causing mutation identified in COL9A3. Our results also show that COL9A3, located on chromosome 20, is a third locus for MED.  (+info)

Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. (8/3820)

Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.  (+info)

*Chondrocyte

Chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage Transmission electron micrograph of a chondrocyte, stained for calcium, showing its nucleus ( ... BMP4 and FGF2 have been experimentally shown to increase chondrocyte differentiation. Chondrocytes undergo terminal ... Chondrocyte Hypertrophic chondrocyte Mesenchymal (mesoderm origin) stem cells (MSC) are undifferentiated, meaning they can ... Chondrocytes (from Greek χόνδρος, chondros = cartilage + κύτος, kytos = cell) are the only cells found in healthy cartilage. ...

*Autologous chondrocyte implantation

During the implantation, chondrocytes are applied on the damaged area in combination with a membrane (tibial periosteum or ... Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI, ATC code M09AX02 (WHO)) is a biomedical treatment that repairs damages in articular ... The patient then undergoes a second treatment, in which the chondrocytes are applied on the damaged area during an open-knee ... The matrix is removed enzymatically and the chondrocytes isolated. These cells are grown in vitro in a specialised laboratory ...

*Autologous cultured chondrocytes on porcine collagen membrane

... (MACI) is a treatment to correct cartilage defects in the knee. ...

*Osteochondroprogenitor cell

Chondrocytes are only present in cartilage where they will produce cartilaginous matrix to maintain the structure. Sox9, L-Sox5 ... These factors also have a role in hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation. β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays ... Lefebvre, V; Behringer RR; de Crombrugghe B (2001). "L-Sox5, Sox6 and Sox9 control essential steps of the chondrocyte ... They have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts or chondrocytes depending on the signalling molecules they are exposed ...

*Ossification

The primary centre In long bones, bone tissue first appears in the diaphysis (middle of shaft). Chondrocytes multiply and form ...

*MMP8

1996). "Chondrocyte matrix metalloproteinase-8. Human articular chondrocytes express neutrophil collagenase". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*PTK2B

Loeser RF (2002). "Integrins and cell signaling in chondrocytes". Biorheology. 39 (1-2): 119-24. PMID 12082274. Molecular and ...

*Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3

Expression of ENaC, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and Na+/H+ exchangers in healthy and arthritic chondrocytes". Histol. Histopathol ... "Sodium transport systems in human chondrocytes. II. ...

*Elastic cartilage

The chondrocytes lie between the fibres. It is found in the epiglottis (part of the larynx), the pinnae (the external ear flaps ...

*Osteochondritis dissecans

The chondrocytes are grown and injected into the defect under a periosteal patch. ACI surgery has reported good to excellent ... In this surgery, chondrocytes are arthroscopically extracted from the intercondylar notch of the articular surface. ... One such technique is autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), which is useful for large, isolated femoral defects in younger ... Open growth plates are characterized by increased numbers of undifferentiated chondrocytes (stem cells) which are precursors to ...

*Knee

Microfracture (Ice-picking). Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation. Osteochondral Autograft and Allografts. PLC Reconstruction In ... Arthrofibrosis Articular cartilage repair Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Chondromalacia patellae Fibular collateral ...

*Cell potency

MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor ...

*Chondrocalcin

Some examples of chondrocytes include collagen and proteoglycans. The chondrocytes that produce chondrocalcin are typically ... This calcium-binding protein comes from chondrocytes, which are cells that produce and maintain cartilage. ... "Chondrocalcin is internalized by chondrocytes and triggers cartilage destruction via an interleukin-1β-dependent pathway, ...

*Collagen receptor

Functions include: Chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth; regulation of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and induction of ... It is expressed on chondrocytes and cardiac muscle. Involved in growth plate morphogenesis and function. Integrin α11β1 is ...

*Complement component 1r

"Synthesis of classical pathway complement components by chondrocytes". Immunology. 88 (4): 648-56. PMC 1456645 . PMID 8881771. ...

*Hyaline cartilage

Chondrocytes are cartilage cells that produce the matrix. When arranged in groups of two or more, chondrocytes have generally ... If a thin slice is examined under the microscope, it will be found to consist of cells (chondrocytes) of a rounded or bluntly ...

*Epiphyseal plate

Depletion of chondrocytes due to apoptosis leads to less ossification and growth slows down and later stops when the entire ... As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new bone. In puberty increasing levels of estrogen ... The plate's chondrocytes are under constant division by mitosis. These daughter cells stack facing the epiphysis while the ... "17β-Estradiol regulates rat growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway not involving nitric oxide or ...

*ALX1

... a homeoprotein selectively expressed in chondrocytes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...

*Pseudoachondroplasia

It is also found near chondrocytes (cartilage-forming cells). Chondrocytes play a vital role in osteogenesis (the formation of ... Though some chondrocytes do manage to survive, growth is significantly reduced, resulting in the characteristically short limbs ... It is observed at a high frequency in chondrocytes in developing bone and tendon. In pseudochondroplasia, COMP is not secreted ... The researchers found that IX collagen was amassed within the pseudoachondroplasia chondrocytes. This discovery suggests that ...

*Chondroblast

Remaining chondrocytes divide in order to form more chondroblasts. HMGB-1, a growth factor which promotes chondrocyte division ... Chondroblasts are called Chondrocytes when they embed themselves in the cartilage matrix, consisting of proteoglycan and ... These cells are extremely important in Chondrogenesis due to their role in forming both the Chondrocytes and cartilage matrix ... Higher levels of Wnt14 prevented chondrocyte differentiation whereas lower levels appeared to allow it. If the Wnt/ β-Catenin ...

*ADAM15

... also has an antiapoptotic effect in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The precise role of ADAM15 in cancer is still unclear ... 1997). "Expression of members of a novel membrane linked metalloproteinase family (ADAM) in human articular chondrocytes". ... "ADAM15 exerts an antiapoptotic effect on osteoarthritic chondrocytes via up-regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis ...

*ZBTB7B

2000). "Regulation of human COL2A1 gene expression in chondrocytes. Identification of C-Krox-responsive elements and modulation ...

*Mechanotransduction

... where they are subsequently dissipated and transmitted to chondrocytes (cartilage cells). Chondrocytes sense and convert the ... there need to be mechanoreceptors on the surface of chondrocytes. Candidates for chondrocyte mechanoreceptors include stretch- ... Each chondrocyte has one cilium and it is hypothesized to transmit mechanical signals by way of bending in response to ECM ... Chondrocytes have been shown to secrete TGF-b, and upregulate TGF-b receptors in response to mechanical stimulation; this ...

*Calcific tendinitis

The mechanism involves regional hypoxia, which transforms tenocytes into chondrocytes. The third theory involves ectopic bone ...

*HAPLN1

Dudhia J, Bayliss MT, Hardingham TE (1994). "Human link protein gene: structure and transcription pattern in chondrocytes". ...
In order to be able to use second-generation ACT techniques for the repair of cartilage defects in patients with OA, it is highly important to investigate whether OA chondrocytes have an irreversibly altered phenotype or if these cells can differentiate towards a hyaline cartilage phenotype after in vitro expansion. Today, there are conflicting data whether OA chondrocytes fulfill the prerequisites for ACT treatment or not [12, 13, 15, 21]. This encouraged us to investigate more thoroughly the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human OA chondrocytes using microarray technology in order to determine whether OA chondrocytes might possibly be used in second-generation ACT.. Microarray analysis of human OA and ND chondrocytes cultured in ML indicated that the OA chondrocytes were in a less differentiated state compared with the ND chondrocytes. This is thus in accordance with the differences detected in vivo between OA and ND cartilage [10, 22]. Re-differentiation in scaffold cultures ...
Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Background: Recent studies have provided evidence that integrins play roles in recognition of mechanical stimuli and its translation into a cellular response. Integrin signaling may be regulated by a number of mechanisms including accessory proteins such as CD98 (4F2 antigen). Objectives: To determine CD98 expression by human articular chondrocytes and its involvement in human articular mechanotransduction. Methods: CD98 expression was assessed by immunostaining of cryostat sections of snap frozen articular cartilage and in cultured cells by western blotting. Chondrocytes enzymatically isolated from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage were grown in short term, primary monolayer culture and used in a resting state or following mechanical stimulation at 0.33Hz. Results: Human articular chondrocytes express CD98 and immunoreactivity revealed a similar heterogeneous pattern of CD98 in both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular cartilage. No role of CD98 was detected
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 by IL-1β and fibronectin fragments in human articular chondrocytes. AU - Su, S. L.. AU - Tsai, C. D.. AU - Lee, C. H.. AU - Salter, D. M.. AU - Lee, Herng Sheng. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Objective: The objective of this study was to examine expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in human articular chondrocytes. Methods: Human articular chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from normal and osteoarthritic knee cartilage. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to assess the expression of toll-like receptors. Following stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by IL-1β and fibronectin proteolytic fragments, the relative levels of mRNA for TLR2 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. MyD88 activation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, ...
Background/Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting nearly 10% of the US population. With age and injury, chondrocytes have diminished mitochondrial content and mitochondrial production of ATP contributing to OA pathogenesis. We have previously reported that chondrocytes release ATP, which is converted extracellularly to adenosine and maintains chondrocyte homeostasis via endogenous stimulation of the A2AR. Injured/inflamed chondrocytes have lower ATP levels and release less ATP resulting in diminished extracellular adenosine and A2AR stimulation. Mice and humans lacking the capacity to convert extracellular ATP to adenosine (ecto-5nucleotidase deficient) develop spontaneous OA as do mice lacking A2AR (A2ARKO). We therefore studied the effect of A2AR stimulation on mitochondrial health and function in chondrocytes from WT and A2ARKO mice and in a human chondrocytic cell line. Methods: A human chondrocyte cell line, T/C28-a2, or neonatal chondrocytes isolated ...
The PI3K pathway has been shown to affect numerous cellular processes in a tissue-specific fashion; for example, it is required for survival in different cell types such as cardiomyocytes [34], cellular differentiation in the case of osteoclasts and keratinocytes [35, 36], and proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts [35]. It also stimulates differentiation of CD4+ T-cells [37] and development and proliferation of B cells [38, 39]. We hypothesized that the PI3K pathway has similar effects in the growth plate, promoting endochondral bone growth by increasing proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and by suppressing apoptosis.. We found that inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 results in decreased differentiation, in both primary chondrocytes (micromass cultures) and organ cultures. Markers of both early chondrocyte differentiation such as collagen II and glycosaminoglycans and of late hypertrophic differentiation such as collagen X, p57, Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium ...
Intercalation movement of proliferative chondrocytes is crucial for their columnar organization which is essential for proper function of growth plate cartilage. The conventional motor protein kinesin‐1 directionally transporting various cargos along microtubules might be involved in this polarized cell movement. Kinesin‐1 is suggested to transport unknown cargo(s) modulating focal adhesion (FA) turnover which is a key step in cell movement. To investigate kinesin‐1s role in chondrocytes intercalation, we generate kinesin‐1 heavy chain (Kif5b) knockout mouse. In the growth plate of KIF5B deficient mouse, we observed abnormal cell morphology and disrupted columnar structure. Isolated mutant chondrocytes show reduced motility and adhesion ability to ECM proteins. Vinculin, the key regulator of focal adhesions, is found as a potential protein associated with KIF5B in mouse chondrocytes. Further study will investigate whether KIF5B affects chondrocytes motility and adhesion via FAs ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage, marked by the breakdown of matrix proteins. Studies demonstrated the involvement of chemokines in this process, and some may potentially serve as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets; however, the underlying signal transductions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of the CC chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11) on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and secretion in the human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and primary chondrocytes. Eotaxin-1 significantly induced MMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were able to repress eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. On the contrary, Rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPs), a competitive cAMP antagonist for cAMP receptors, and H-89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, markedly enhanced eotaxin-1-induced MMP-3 expression. These results suggest that MMP-3 expression
15-Lipoxygenases and their metabolites have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, but little is known regarding their expression and function in chondrocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 in human articular chondrocytes, and to investigate the effects of their metabolites 13(S)-hydroxy octadecadienoic and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids on IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-13 expression. The expression levels of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting in chondrocytes, and by immunohistochemistry in cartilage. Chondrocytes or cartilage explants were stimulated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of 13(S)-hydroxy octadecadienoic and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 protein production and type II collagen cleavage were evaluated using immunoassays. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated
FILGUEIRAS, R.R et al. Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. [online]. 2011, vol.63, n.1, pp.46-55. ISSN 1678-4162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352011000100008.. This work evaluated the effect of freezing on chondrocytes maintained in culture, aiming the establishment of a cell bank for future application as heterologous implant. Chondrocytes extracted from joint cartilage of nine healthy New Zealand White rabbits were cultivated and frozen with the cryoprotector 5% dimethylsulfoxide for six months. Phenotypic and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to identify morphological and functional differences between fresh and thawed cells. After enzymatic digestion, a total of 4.8x105cells per rabbit were obtained. Fresh chondrocytes showed a high mitotic rate and abundant matrix was present up to 60 days of culture. Loss of phenotypic stability was notable in the thawed chondrocytes, with a low labeling of proteoglycans and weak ...
During longitudinal development of the long bone cartilage, periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, which adds cells to the columnar region, is followed by chondrocyte hypertrophy, which reduces cells in the columnar region. Therefore, the length of the columnar chondrocyte region is determined by three parameters: the pace of periarticular chondrocyte differentiation, the pace of chondrocyte hypertrophy and the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Fig. 7). As upregulated Ihh signaling promotes periarticular chondrocyte differentiation and increases the rate of columnar chondrocyte proliferation (Kobayashi et al., 2005b), the proliferating columnar chondrocyte region would be increased if chondrocyte hypertrophy were not altered. Our observation that the columnar chondrocyte region was shorter in the PTHrP-/-;Ptch1c/-; Col2a1-Cre double mutant than in the PTHrP-/- single mutant (Fig. 2B, Fig. 3A) demonstrates that Hh signaling also acts to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy in the absence ...
INTRODUCTION: Currently available treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are restricted to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective. Thus novel, safe and more efficacious anti-inflammatory agents are needed for OA. Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds, such as curcumin and resveratrol, are potent agents for modulating inflammation. Both compounds mediate their effects by targeting the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. METHODS: We have recently demonstrated that in chondrocytes resveratrol modulates the NF-kappaB pathway by inhibiting the proteasome, while curcumin modulates the activation of NF-kappaB by inhibiting upstream kinases (Akt). However, the combinational effects of these compounds in chondrocytes has not been studied and/or compared with their individual effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol on IL-1beta-stimulated human chondrocytes in vitro using ...
Chondrogenesis occurs via three steps: (a) commitment to chondrocyte differentiation by mesenchymal cells, seen as mesenchymal condensation; (b) chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate to facilitate longitudinal development; and (c) differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes to hypertrophic chondrocytes (for review see references 1, 2). During endochondral ossification, chondrocyte hypertrophy is critical, because cells alter the extracellular matrix and induce vascular invasion. Extrinsic factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Indian hedgehog, and modulators such as Sox9, Runx2, Smads, and histone deacetylase 4 are reportedly essential for chondrogenesis (1, 2). Loss of histone deacetylase 4 causes early onset of hypertrophy, followed by growth retardation (6). Overexpression of Runx2 under the control of a type II collagen promoter/enhancer induces dwarfism because of precocious endochondral ossification and accelerated chondrocyte differentiation (4, 5). Thus, regulation of ...
Mechanical forces can stimulate the production of extracellular matrix molecules. We tested the efficacy of ultrasound to increase proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes. The ultrasound-induced temperature rise was measured and its contribution to the synthesis was investigated using bare heat stimulus. Chondrocytes from five cellular isolations were exposed in triplicate to ultrasound (1 MHz, duty cycle 20%, pulse repetition frequency 1 kHz) at average intensity of 580 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes daily for 1-5 days. Temperature evolution was recorded during the sonication and corresponding temperature history was created using a controllable water bath. This exposure profile was used in 10-minute-long heat treatments of chondrocytes. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels after one-time treatment to ultrasound and heat was analyzed by Western blotting, and proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated by 35S-sulfate incorporation. Ultrasound treatment did not induce Hsp70, while heat treatment ...
Transformed chondrocyte cell lines and primary OA human articular chondrocytes (HAC) were grown in monolayer culture. Cells were exposed to cyclical mechanical stimulation (MS) using an apparatus that produces strain on the base of the culture dish, causing the deformation of attached cells. Chondrocytes were also incubated with a cytokine cocktail containing IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and IFNγ (CYT). The transformed chondrocyte cell lines C20A4 and C2812 did not express detectable levels of NOS protein or nitrite activity. However increased inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA following CYT stimulation suggested that the cells were able to sense the CYT stimulation. Primary OA HAC showed increased production of iNOS mRNA, protein and nitrite following CYT or IL-1β stimulation. The simultaneous application of CYT and MS also showed elevated iNOS mRNA, protein and nitrite levels, although these were significantly lower than following CYT alone. An IL-4 neutralising antibody and a β1 integrin function blocking ...
The mechanical environment of the chondrocyte is an important factor that influences the maintenance of the articular cartilage extracellular matrix. Previous studies have utilized theoretical models of chondrocytes within articular cartilage to predict the stress-strain and fluid flow environments around the cell, but little is currently known regarding the cellular properties which are required for implementation of these models. The objectives of this study were to characterize the mechanical behavior of primary human chondrocytes and to determine the Youngs modulus of chondrocytes from non-osteoarthritic (`normal) and osteoarthritic cartilage. A second goal was to quantify changes in the volume of isolated chondrocytes in response to mechanical deformation. The micropigette aspiration technique was used to measure the deformation of a single chondrocyte into a glass micropipette in response to a prescribed pressure. The results of this study indicate that the human chondrocyte behaves as a ...
An early event in skeletal joint development is the specification of articular chondrocytes at the joint surface. Articular chondrocytes are distinct in producing lower levels of cartilage matrix and not being replaced by bone, yet how they acquire these properties remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two members of the Iroquois transcriptional repressor family, Irx7 and Irx5a, function to block chondrocyte maturation at the developing hyoid joint of zebrafish. These Irx factors suppress the production of cartilage matrix at the joint in part by preventing the activation of a col2a1a enhancer by Sox9a. Further, both zebrafish Irx7 and mouse IRX1 are able to repress cartilage matrix production in a murine chondrogenic cell line. Iroquois proteins may therefore have a conserved role in keeping chondrocytes in an immature state, with the lower levels of cartilage matrix produced by these immature cells contributing to joint flexibility ...
... during extension, and age-related drop in chondrogenic activity present critical road blocks to the usage of autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage fix. neocartilage made by juvenile chondrocytes was 100-flip greater than WHI-P180 in neocartilage made by adult cells. Collagen type type and II IX mRNAs in clean juvenile chondrocytes had been 100- and 700-collapse higher, respectively, than in adult chondrocytes. The distributions of collagens II and IX had been similar in indigenous juvenile cartilage and in neocartilage created by juvenile cells. Juvenile cells grew considerably quicker in monolayer civilizations than adult cells (p = 0.002) and proteoglycan amounts stated in agarose lifestyle was significantly higher in juvenile cells than in adult cells after multiple passages (p < 0.001). Juvenile chondrocytes didnt stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusions These outcomes record a dramatic age group ...
Both mechanical load and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with the risk for developing osteoarthritis (OA), yet the potential interaction of these mechanical and biological factors is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of chondrocytes to the effects of dynamic unconfined compression, TNF-α, and the simultaneous effects of dynamic unconfined compression and TNF-α. The response to these three treatments was markedly different and, taken together, the response in the gene expression of chondrocytes to the different treatment conditions suggest a complex interaction between structure, biology, and mechanical loading.. ...
Cell-to-cell diffusion of second messengers across intercellular channels allows tissues to co-ordinate responses to extracellular stimuli. Intercellular diffusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, locally produced by focal stimulations, sustains the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves, by stimulating the release of intracellular Ca2+ in neighbouring cells. We previously demonstrated that in cultured articular chondrocytes and HIG-82 synovial cells, studied with digitial fluorescence video imaging, mechanical stimulation of a single cell induced intercellular Ca2+ waves dependent on the presence of gap junctions. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ the propagating distance of the wave decreased significantly in HIG-82 cells, but appeared unaffected in chondrocytes. We now show that both cells types express connexin 43 and a similar functional coupling, thus suggesting that the different Ca2+ sensitivity of intercellular waves is not due to major differences in gap junction constituent ...
The various forms of joint loading have been found to differentially influence anatomical and molecular responses, which together are aimed to maintain the joint homeostasis. To elucidate these mechanisms of mechanotransduction, we review the roles of the distinct joint components, as well as numerous in vitro studies that have been performed to ... read more unravel chondrocyte responses in changing environments. The main signalling pathways in transduction of load signals are initiated by integrins sensing matrix deformation and by altered interstitial pH, influencing ion fluxes through membrane channels. Downstream signalling after static compression occurs mainly via the MAPK pathways of ERK1/2, SAPK (Jnk) and p38, which directly influence transcription factors of genes involved in cartilage breakdown. In contrast, cyclic compression and mild shear forces lead to membrane hyperpolarisation and subsequently stimulates cartilage matrix synthesis. These findings add further comprehension with ...
Learn about Carticel (Autologous Cultured Chondrocytes for Implantation) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of runtB is modulated during chondrocyte differentiation. AU - Castagnola, Patrizio. AU - Gennari, Massimo. AU - Gaggero, Alessia. AU - Rossi, Fabio. AU - Daga, Antonio. AU - Corsetti, Maria Teresa. AU - Calabi, Franco. AU - Cancedda, Ranieri. PY - 1996/3/15. Y1 - 1996/3/15. N2 - The runt locus in Drosophila encodes a nuclear protein involved in embryo segmentation, sex determination/X dosage compensation, and neurogenesis. runt homologues have been identified in higher vertebrates. The encoded proteins share a domain of 128 amino acids called the runt domain. It has been reported that this domain mediates DNA binding and heterodimerization. Here, we analyze runtB expression during chondrocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We have first isolated, from a chondrocyte library, a cDNA clone coding for a runtB chicken homologue and containing a complete open reading frame. The predicted protein product is 84% identical to the mouse PEBP2αB2 isoform. By RT-PCR ...
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In the following sections, we primarily review our own work on the expression, tissue distribution and function of integrins in selected in vitro models of articular chondrocytes and limb bud mesenchymal cells. The expression pattern of α1-, α3-, αv- and α5β1-integrins and their specific ligand binding were investigated in monolayer cultures of chondrocytes from 17-day-old mouse embryos using morphological and immunomorphological methods. After a 3-h culture period of chondrocytes from 17-day-old mouse embryos, numerous cells had already adhered in the form of a monolayer. After a 1-day culture period αv-, α3- and α5β1-integrins were observed on the chondrocytes. During the first 4 days, the number of the cells had increased, a matrix became perceptible. After a 5-day culture period, the flat fibroblast-like cells, often of bipolar shape, increased in number at the expense of the chondrocytes. © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.. ...
Systems and methods for modifying the environment of target cell using genetically altered chondrocytes are provided. The genetically engineered chondrocytes can be used to express a therapeutic agent in a subject, including in an environment typically associated with chondrocytes and in an environment not typically associated with chondrocytes.
The first step in growing new cartilage is initiating chondrogenesis, or convincing the mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, which in turn generate the spongy matrix of collagen and sugars that cushions joints. One challenge in prompting this differentiation is that, despite the low density of adult chondrocytes in tissues, the actual formation of cartilage begins with cells in close proximity. "In typical hydrogels used in cartilage tissue engineering," Burdick said, "were spacing cells apart, so theyre losing that initial signal and interaction. Thats when we started thinking about cadherins, which are molecules that these cells use to interact with each other, particularly at the point they first become chondrocytes.". To simulate that environment, the researchers used a peptide sequence that mimics these cadherin interactions, which they bound to the hydrogels used to encapsulate the mesenchymal stem cells.. "While the direct link between cadherins and chondrogenesis ...
Osteoarthritis is a pain-associated progressive disease and pain mediators, such as opioid receptors, expressed in articular cartilage could represent novel therapeutic targets. Acute and chronic stages of OA indicate different metabolic abilities of the chondrocytes depending on inflammatory state. This study aimed to investigate the response of healthy and osteoarthritic chondrocytes and their expression and release of pain mediators in response to acute inflammation. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to induce an acute inflammatory response in cultured equine chondrocytes harvested from healthy joints (HC) and osteoarthritic joints (OAC), the latter representing acute exacerbation of a chronic inflammatory state. Intracellular Ca2+ release was determined after exposure to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glutamate or ATP. Protein expression levels of F- and G-actin, representing actin rearrangement, and opioid receptors were investigated. Glutamate ...
Genome editing is revolutionising biomedical research. It enables the introduction of targeted genomic sequence changes in isolated cells or whole organisms, and as such is an extremely powerful research tool with huge therapeutic potential. Cas9 is a nuclease guided by small RNAs (sgRNAs) to complementary sites in the genome. It induces double stranded breaks (DSBs) which repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), or in the presence of a suitable DNA template, by homology-directed repair (HDR). The CRISPR-Cas9 system thus enables highly specific gene editing giving it great potential for correction of genetic (particularly monogenic) diseases or for revolutionising current cell therapies, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation, where the cells could be edited in vitro before re-implantation back in the body. In the present proposal we will apply genome editing techniques recently developed with our collaborators (1) with the aim of creating modified populations of human chondrocytes ...
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Differentiation of bmMPCs into chondrocytes.bmMPCs, pretreated with 5 mmol/L (control glucose) or 25 mmol/L (high glucose; HG) glucose for 7 days, were cultured
The potent aggrecanase ADAMTS-5 is constitutively secreted by chondrocytes, but it is rapidly endocytosed in normal cartilage via the cell surface endocytic receptor LRP1. Therefore it is difficult to detect the total ADAMTS-5 activity produced. In this study, we isolated a monoclonal anti-ADAMTS-5 antibody 1B7 that blocks LRP1-mediated internalization without affecting the aggrecanolytic activity. Addition of 1B7 to cultured human chondrocytes revealed the full aggrecanolytic activity of ADAMTS-5 generated by the cells. 1B7 is a useful tool to estimate the ADAMTS-5 activity and to identify its potential roles in the tissues.
Université de Liège - ULg , Département des sciences de la motricité , Unité de recherche sur los et le cartillage (U.R.O.C.) ,] ...
Principal Investigator:ITO Akira, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:老化(加齢)
CKX-CCSW confluency checker software enables users to accurately estimate the proper timing for cell passage while minimizing human error.
You know how important cartilage is for healthy joints, right? Its the cartilage that acts as a cushion so your bones dont rub together every time you
Chondrocyte Medium-phenol red free https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-4651-prf https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
J:73529 Minina E, Wenzel HM, Kreschel C, Karp S, Gaffield W, McMahon AP, Vortkamp A, BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2001 Nov;128(22):4523-34 ...
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Herein, we review the regulation of differentiation of the growth plate chondrocytes by G-proteins. In connection with this, we summarize the current knowledge regarding each family of G-protein α subunit, specifically, Gα(s), Gα(q/11), Gα(12/13), and Gα(i/o). We discuss different mechanisms involved in chondrocyte differentiation downstream of G-proteins and different G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activating G-proteins in the epiphyseal chondrocytes. We conclude that among all G-proteins and GPCRs expressed by chondrocytes, Gα(s) has the most important role and prevents premature chondrocyte differentiation. Receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1) appears to be the major activator of Gα(s) in chondrocytes and ablation of either one leads to accelerated chondrocyte differentiation, premature fusion of the postnatal growth plate, and ultimately short stature.
7.1. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I & IGF-II). Of the growth factors, those with the most potent effects on growing skeletal tissue are the IGFs, previously known as somatomedins. IGFs are synthesised in the liver and circulate bound to carrier proteins (Froesch et al., 1985). The major factors regulating IGF concentrations in serum are growth hormone, nutritional intake and thyroid hormones, the latter being necessary for growth hormone secretion. The traditional view was that growth hormone acted indirectly on the growth plate via IGF-I, a potent mitogen for growth plate chondrocytes. However, there is increasing evidence that growth hormone has direct effects on the growth plate (Tripper et al., 1989). (This close relationship between circulating IGFs and growth hormone will be discussed in more detail in the chapter covering the hormonal regulation of growth.). In addition to having effects on the growth plate chondrocytes, locally synthesised and circulating IGFs retained in bone matrix ...
Whartons jelly stem cells (WJSCs) are a potential source of transplantable stem cells in cartilage-regenerative strategies, due to their highly proliferative and multilineage differentiation capacity. We hypothesized that a non-direct co-culture system with human articular chondrocytes (hACs) could enhance the potential chondrogenic phenotype of hWJSCs during the expansion phase compared to those expanded in monoculture conditions. Primary hWJSCs were cultured in the bottom of a multiwell plate separated by a porous transwell membrane insert seeded with hACs. No statistically significant differences in hWJSCs duplication number were observed under either of the culture conditions during the expansion phase. hWJSCs under co-culture conditions show upregulations of collagen type I and II, COMP, TGFβ1 and aggrecan, as well as of the main cartilage transcription factor, SOX9, when compared to those cultured in the absence of chondrocytes. Chondrogenic differentiation of hWJSCs, previously expanded ...
The goal of our investigation was to explore the mechanism by which hypoxia regulates growth plate chondrocyte survival. At low O2 tension, chondrocytes were refractory to a staurosporine (i.e., apoptosis-inducing) challenge. To determine whether hypoxic survival was due to the expression of HIF-1, we evaluated the response of HIF silenced cells to staurosporine. Both, silenced cells and control chondrocytes were equally sensitive to the apoptogen challenge. To learn if resistance was mediated by the proteins of the autophagic pathway, we examined the expression of Beclin 1 and LC3. Both proteins were present in the growth plate as well as in N1511 chondrocytes. Moreover, silencing of Beclin 1 resulted in enhanced chondrocyte death. Thus, this gene served to maintain chondrocyte survival activity. Besides serving a cytoprotective role, it is known that autophagy can function in cell death. Accordingly, to ascertain if autophagy might also sensitize cells to apoptosis, we activated autophagy and examined
AUTOLOGOUS CHONDROCYTE TRANSPLANTATION Melanie McNeal, PT, CSCS, CFT for patients of DAVID LINTNER, MD Articular cartilage (AC) provides a resilient surface for friction free movement of joints. It must bear ...
Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage ...
OBJECTIVE: During joint loading, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage are subjected to gradients of high compressive hydrostatic pressure (HP). In response to diverse chemical or physical stresses, heat shock genes are induced to express heat shock proteins (Hsps). This study sought to examine the role of Hsps in baroresistance in primary bovine chondrocytes and synovial cells, as well as in primary human fibroblasts.. METHODS: Northern blotting was used to analyze the steady-state levels of hsp70 mRNA in the primary cells exposed to HP or heat stress. Hsp70 protein accumulation was analyzed by Western blotting, and the DNA-binding activity was examined by gel mobility shift assay.. RESULTS: Primary bovine chondrocytes which have been adapted to live under pressurized conditions showed negligible Hsp70 response upon HP loading, whereas primary bovine synovial cells and human fibroblasts accumulated hsp70 mRNA and protein when subjected to HP. The response was initiated without activation of ...
Recent studies of OA cartilage have identified both messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein for specific MMPs as well as a collagenase mediated type II collagen degradation product, suggesting that MMPs contribute to the intrinsic chondrocyte mediated degenerative changes of the cartilage matrix in OA.8,12,13 As yet the factors responsible for their expression remain uncertain, although the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been implicated.1,8 The increased levels of histamine found in OA synovial fluids3 have suggested a role for this mediator in the pathophysiology of this disease. Evidence presented here shows that histamine up regulates both MMP-13 and MMP-3 production by chondrocytes. Both these MMPs are important in the degradation of articular cartilage; MMP-13 can degrade collagen type II, and MMP-3 can degrade proteoglycan and collagen types IX and XI, and activate procollagenase-1.14 Earlier studies have shown that chondrocytes ...
Objective: Oxidative stress occurs when the metabolic balance of a cell is disrupted through exposure to excess pro-oxidant. Whilst it is known that unregulated production or exposure to exogenous sources of pro-oxidants induces chondrocyte cell death and degrades matrix components in vitro, relatively little is known of the effects of pro-oxidants on articular cartilage in situ. The objective of this study was to determine if a single exposure to the pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces a degenerative phenotype. Methods: Articular cartilage explants were obtained from skeletally mature bovine steers and exposed to a single dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.1-1.0 mM) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell death, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan loss into the medium and gene expression were quantitatively determined. Adoption of an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed through the expression of 3B3(−), nitrotyrosine and procollagen type IIA epitopes in cartilage explants. Results: Cell ...
Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations (essays). Full text. Free. Dissertation: Production of neocartilage tissues using primary chondrocytes .
Fukai, A.; Kamekura, S.; Chikazu, D.; Nakagawa, T.; Hirata, M.; Saito, T.; Hosaka, Y.; Ikeda, T.; Nakamura, K.; Chung, U-il.; Kawaguchi, H., 2012: Lack of a chondroprotective effect of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition in a surgically induced model of osteoarthritis in mice
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Chicken vertebral chondrocytes, which normally grow in suspension, synthesize large amounts of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, but little fibronectin. We have analyzed the effects of both substrate attachment and transformation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus on fibronectin gene expression in these cells. Our experiments show that viral transformation increases fibronectin synthesis to a greater extent than substrate attachment. Furthermore, transformed chondrocytes have lost the ability to decrease fibronectin synthesis in response to suspension culture, suggesting that transformation alters the normal attachment-responsive control of fibronectin gene expression. Finally, infected substrate-attached chondrocytes shifted to the nonpermissive temperature for transformation use fibronectin RNA more efficiently in protein synthesis than cells grown under the other conditions, suggesting for the first time a role for translational control of fibronectin gene ...
We initially identified BATF as an upregulated transcription factor in chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, the major proinflammatory cytokines in OA pathogenesis. IL-1β is associated with cartilage destruction and TNF-α with driving the inflammatory cascade.4 IL-6 has been shown to induce MMP3 and MMP13 protein expression, resulting in OA cartilage destruction in mice.15 In view of the finding that these cytokines enhance BATF expression in chondrocytes, we investigated the specific functions of BATF in OA pathogenesis. Our gain-of-function (IA injection of Ad-Batf and Batf TG mice) and loss-of-function (Batf KO mice and IA injection of AP-1 inhibitor) studies clearly indicate that BATF is a catabolic regulator of OA pathogenesis. We employed conventional Batf−/− rather than cartilage-specific KO mice for the experiments since OA is considered a whole-joint disease involving multiple pathological changes in different cells of joint tissue.1 Therefore, deletion of Batf in ...
GH has physiological functions in many tissues, but the cellular targets for direct effects of GH remain ill defined in complex tissues such as the growth plate in which the contribution of direct vs. indirect actions of GH remains controversial. The Janus kinase (Jak)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 pathway is activated by GH, so we developed a method to visualize nuclear Stat5b and phosphorylated Stat5 in single cells in response to a pulse of GH. Hep2 cells did not show a Stat5 phosphorylation (pY-Stat5) response to GH except in cells transfected to express GH receptors. ATDC5 cells express GH receptors and showed GH-induced pY-Stat5 responses, which varied with their state of chondrocyte differentiation. In vivo, Stat5b+ve nuclei were seen in the resting and prehypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate. After a single ip pulse of human GH or mouse GH, but not prolactin, pY-Stat5 responses were visible in cells in the resting zone and groove of Ranvier, 10-45 min ...
A multitude of signalling cascades are implicated in the homeostasis of articular chondrocytes. However, the identity of these signalling pathways is not fully established. The 3, 5-cyclic AMP-mediated signalling system is considered to be a prototype. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is an effector enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cAMP. There are 10 mammalian AC isoforms and some of these are differentially regulated by calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Ca2+ is known to play an important role in the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Ca2+/CaM-dependent AC isoforms and their temporal expression in articular chondrocytes in rats were identified using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry techniques. All Ca2+/CaM-dependent AC isoforms were expressed in chondrocytes from all age groups examined. Each isoform was differentially expressed in developing and adult articular chondrocytes. Generally, expression of AC isoforms was observed to increase with age, but the increase was not uniform for all Ca2+/CaM
Chondrocytes in articular cartilage normally exhibit high expression of collagen II and aggrecan but rapidly dedifferentiate to a fibroblastic phenotype if passaged in culture. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of chondrocyte phenotype is associated with changes in the structure of the F-actin cytoskeleton, which also controls cell mechanical properties. In this study, we examined how dedifferentiation in monolayer influences the mechanical properties of chondrocytes isolated from different zones of articular cartilage. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the mechanical properties of superficial and middle/deep zone chondrocytes as they underwent serial passaging and subsequent growth on fibronectin-coated, micropatterned self-assembled monolayers that restored a rounded cell shape in 2D culture. Chondrocytes exhibited significant increases in elastic and viscoelastic moduli with dedifferentiation in culture. These changes were only partially ameliorated by the restoration of ...
Much of the vertebrate skeleton arises from a cartilage template, which subsequently undergoes endochondral bone formation (Erlebacher et al., 1995; Hinchcliffe and Johnson, 1990). At the earliest stage of this process, mesenchymal cells condense to form a cartilage anlage. Initially, all chondrocytes within the anlage proliferate. Thereafter, cells in the center of this structure exit the cell cycle, undergo hypertrophy, which is a hallmark of terminal differentiation, and eventually die. Concomitantly, a bone collar is formed from the perichondrium surrounding the cartilaginous core. After apoptosis of the hypertrophic chondrocytes, blood vessels invade the cartilage and form the bone marrow cavity; blood vessels are also thought to bring in osteoblasts that produce the endochondral bone. Upon formation of the bone marrow cavity, immature chondrocytes are restricted to the ends of the cartilage that form the growth region, where cells undergo an orderly progression from proliferation to
Synergistic induction of matrix metalloproteinase 1 by interleukin-1 alpha and oncostatin M in human chondrocytes involves signal transducer and activator of transcription and activator protein 1 transcription factors via a novel ...
Staines, K A and Poulet, B and Farquharson, C and Pitsillides, A A (2013) STABILISING CARTILAGE TO INNATELY PROTECT AGAINST OSTEOARTHRITIS: LESSONS FROM LONG BONE DEVELOPMENT. In: UNSPECIFIED. Full text not available from this repository ...
INTRODUCTION. Cartilaginous tissue of the articular surface is not vascularized and its nutrition is carried out by diffusion of substances found in synovial fluid, reason why articular cartilage lesions are difficult to heal (Lombelo et al., 2003). Several surgical and clinical treatments have been proposed over the years to repair articular lesions, including surgical excision of damaged tissue (Denoncourt et al., 1986), electrotherapy (Sousa et al., 2001), use of nutraceuticals (Henrotin et al., 2005), and mosaycplasty (Huntley et al., 2005). Nevertheless, all these procedures have resulted in a tissue with fibrocartilaginous repair, which does not have the same biomechanical properties of hyaline articular cartilage. In this context, cellular therapy may be used as an alternative to obtain the best morphophysiological repair result.. The clinical use of cultivated autologous chondrocyte implants began in 1987 (Jones and Peterson, 2006). At present, this method is used in human patients who ...
Kerrigan, M.J.P., Walker, S., Gamble, M., Lindsay, S., Reader, K., Papaefthimiou, M.C., Newman-Ford, L., Saunders, G. and Clements, M.O. 2011. The Making Assessment Count (MAC) consortium-maximising assessment and feedback design by working together. in: Proceedings of ALT-C: Thriving in a colder and more challenging climate, 6-8 September 2011, University of Leeds Association for Learning Technology. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the proliferation of chondrocytes and the molecular mechanism(s) involved. Passage 2 chondrocytes were randomly divided into four groups and treated with EA or nocodazole. After treatment, cell proliferation was determined using an MTT assay and DNA staining followed by FACS. The mRNA expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4, CDK6, phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) and P16 were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6, pRb and P16 were detected by western blotting. EA treatment significantly increased cell viability in a time-dependent manner and decreased the number of G0/G1 and G2/M phase chondrocytes and increased the number of S phase cells. The mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6, (p)Rb and P16 consistently demonstrated a reverse trend with the levels in the chondrocytes treated with nocodazole. The expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, ...
In order to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes to synthesize collagen and proteoglycan, human medial meniscal cells were cultured in a monolayer. Meniscal cells were prepared from the two regio
Gene. 2013 Mar 15;517(1):12-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Jan 11. Comparative Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Interferon gamma (IFN gamma) is found to be elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, suggesting its implication in joint disease pathogenesis. In this s...
Vericel Corporation (formerly Aastrom Biosciences) is the leader in developing patient-specific expanded cellular therapies for use in the treatment of patients with severe diseases and conditions. The company markets two cell therapy products in the United States, Carticel® (autologous cultured chondrocytes), an autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and Epicel® (cultured epidermal autografts), a permanent skin replacement for the treatment of patients with deep dermal or full thickness burns comprising greater than or equal to 30% of total body surface area. Vericel is also developing MACI, a third-generation autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and ixmyelocel-T, a patient specific multicellular therapy for the treatment of advanced heart failure due to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ...
Vericel Corporation (formerly Aastrom Biosciences) is the leader in developing patient-specific expanded cellular therapies for use in the treatment of patients with severe diseases and conditions. The company markets two cell therapy products in the United States, Carticel® (autologous cultured chondrocytes), an autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and Epicel® (cultured epidermal autografts), a permanent skin replacement for the treatment of patients with deep dermal or full thickness burns comprising greater than or equal to 30% of total body surface area. Vericel is also developing MACI, a third-generation autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and ixmyelocel-T, a patient specific multicellular therapy for the treatment of advanced heart failure due to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ...
Schmidl, Martina, Adam, Nadia, Surmann-Schmitt, Cordula, Hattori, Takako, Stock, Michael, Dietz, Uwe, de Crombrugghe, Benoit, Poschl, Ernst and von der Mark, Klaus (2006) Twisted gastrulation modulates BMP- induced collagen II and X expression in chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281. pp. 31790-31800. ISSN 1083-351X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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Université de Liège - ULg , Département des sciences de la motricité , Unité de recherche sur los et le cartillage (U.R.O.C.) ,] ...
in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1999), 216(3), 233-43. To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal ... [more ▼]. To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal chondrocytes from chicken embryos with mRNA species modulated in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Chondrocyte-specific gene expression is downregulated by RA, and PCR-amplified cDNAs from both untreated and RA-modulated cells were differentially displayed. Amplification products only from RNA of untreated chondrocytes were further analyzed, and a cDNA-fragment of the chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) mRNA was isolated. After obtaining full length cDNA clones, we have analyzed the mRNA ...
The chondrocyte cell line, CHON-001, was derived from the long bones of an 18-week old female fetus. The primary cells were infected by the defective retrovirus containing hTERT gene under G418 selection. The defective retrovirus was collected from the supernatant of the packaging cell line, PT67 transfected with the pLXSN vector containing hTERT gene.
The growth plate is a very interesting tissue. It is made up of highly organised columns of cells (chondrocytes) which participate in causing the growth of our long bones. Long-bone growth is very important as it ultimately determines how tall we become. This process must be very tightly controlled so that our bones continue to grow in proportion to each other and so that we grow similarly to our peers.. My research aims to understand the fundamental aspects of long-bone growth at the cellular level and to unravel in more details what signaling pathways control our final height. By coupling clinical samples with basic research at the lab bench we endeavour to have a patient-oriented approach.. Selected publications:. Pharmacological inhibition of lysosomes activates the mTORC1 signaling pathway in chondrocytes in an autophagy-independent manner. Phillip T Newton, Karuna K Vuppalapati, Thibault Bouderlique, and Andrei S Chagin; Autophagy (2015).. Chondrogenic ATDC5 cells: An optimised model for ...
The epigenetic effect of glucosamine and a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitor on primary human chondrocytes - Implications for osteoarthritis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2011 ...
Loss of articular cartilage from ageing, injury or degenerative disease is commonly associated with inflammation, causing pain and accelerating degradation of the cartilage matrix. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ...
MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were expressed only in chondrocytes. The production of all MMPs was enhanced by contact coculture of chondrocytes with autologous T cells, whereas the production was not enhanced by separate coculture. Blockade of adhesion molecules had no influence on these responses. RANTES was expressed both in T cells and chondrocytes without stimulation. RANTES production was enhanced both in contact and in separate conditions only in OA samples, not in normal samples. ...
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Principal Investigator:IWAMOTO Motomi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Functional basic dentistry
The biopsy tube and monovettes with the patients chondrocytes and blood are placed in an insulated container for transportation. Together with the completed forms, the patients own biopsy and blood are sent to the laboratory within 96 hours of removal to begin the cultivation of chondrocytes.. ...
4882 C/EBPβ and RUNX2 cooperate to degrade cartilage with MMP-13 as the target and HIF-2α as the inducer in chondrocytes. Hirata M, Kugimiya F, Fukai A, Saito T, Yano F, Ikeda T, Mabuchi A, Sapkota BR, Akune T, Nishida N, Yoshimura N, Nakagawa T, Tokunaga K, Nakamura K, Chung UI, Kawaguchi H. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 21(5):1111-23 PubMed ID: 22095691 ...
The connective tissues proper is comprised of fibrocyte, ground substance of GAG, proteoglycan, glycoproteins, and primarily collagen fibers. Cartilages contain chondrocytes, which is a type of fibrocyte, and also includes GAG, proteoglycan, glycoproteins. And also of collegen fibers. What is the essential difference between them? I dont ...
This review focuses on the functions of NPP1 in the regulation of physiologic and pathologic calcification, principally via PPi generation from nucleoside triphosphates in tissues (and cells) including cartilage (and chondrocytes), bone (and osteoblasts), and large arteries (and smooth muscle cells (SMCs)). ...
Articular cartilage lesions occur commonly. Cartilage is relatively avascular and is unable to self-repair. A chondral lesion may become symptomatic. It may lead to osteoarthritis and increased morbidity. The aim of cartilage repair is to restore hyaline cartilage. There are many types of cartilage repair surgery, most of which result in fibrocartilage repair tissue that is suboptimal. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has been shown to produce hyaline-type repair tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is performed preoperatively to define the ulcer and postoperatively to evaluate the technical success of implantation and the state of cartilage healing and to identify potential complications. Features of the autologous chondrocyte implantation graft that are assessed include the degree of filling by repair tissue, its integration with native cartilage and subchondral bone, the character of the graft substance and surface, and the underlying bone. MR arthrography is superior to unenhanced MR ...
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage repair in the knee is aimed at young patients with area(s) of cartilage loss and no deformity of the knee. These patients arent indicated for a knee replacement. Articular cartilage repair leads to improvement of symptoms of pain, locking and function. Traditionally, articular cartilage repair has always involved exposing the entire knee joint with an arthrotomy. This, though effective, would lead to a large scar, longer hospital stay, longer rehabilitation and its associated complications. Also, the use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Cells (BMAC) for the purpose of cartilage repair has long been debated with both sides having valid arguments and good surgical results.. RATIONALE: Both procedures in this study are performed in one stage, arthroscopically and as day case procedures, which offers minimal scarring and quicker recovery. This automatically confers a significant advantage over the traditional surgical techniques.. To correct the articular cartilage defect, ...
Chondral knee lesions are frequent and produce important functional limitations and arthrosis development. Arthrosis is one of the most important causes of disability and its treatment with prosthetic surgery is associated with a high cost, and is not free of other complications. Several studies of cell therapy with autologous chondrocytes have shown efficacy in the treatment of this type of lesions, and currently is a common technique for the treatment of focal lesions of articular cartilage. Autologous chondrocyte transplant is associated with morbidity of the cartilage sample removal, which needs intra-articular surgery, and the limited tissue sample for culture. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) have demonstrated chondrocytic differentiation and have been used in animal models for articular cartilage repair. Adipose tissue yields more ASC than chondrocytes are obtained from cartilage, and liposuction is simple and with less adverse events than arthroscopy. It is worth ...
Gelatin hydrogels can mimic the microenvironments of natural tissues and encapsulate cells homogeneously, which makes them attractive for cartilage tissue engineering. Both the mechanical and biochemical properties of hydrogels can affect the phenotype of chondrocytes. However, the influence of each property on chondrocyte phenotype is unclear due to the difficulty in separating the roles of these properties. In this study, we aimed to study the influence of hydrogel stiffness on chondrocyte phenotype while excluding the role of biochemical factors, such as adhesion site density in the hydrogels. By altering the degree of methacryloyl functionalization, gelatin hydrogels with different stiffnesses of 3.8, 17.1, and 29.9 kPa Youngs modulus were prepared from the same concentration of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) macromers. Bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cultured for 14 days. The influence of hydrogel stiffness on the cell behaviors including cell viability, cell
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growth factor gene transfer to articular chondrocytes may be capable of augmenting cell-based approaches to articular cartilage repair. Currently available data is insufficient to enable translation into clinical use. The purpose of this proposal is to help close the gap between present mechanistic knowledge and therapeutic application. We will focus on three related specific aims. Aim 1: Define a potentially therapeutic set of growth factor genes for articular cartilage repair by determining how interactions among selected growth factors regulate articular chondrocyte function. Hypothesis 1: IGF-I, FGF-2, BMP-2, and BMP-7, when employed for articular chondrcyte gene transfer, interact to differentially regulate the expression of genes that influence chondrocyte reparative functions. Aim 2: Determine whether genetic and tissue engineering methods, when applied to articular chondrocytes, are interdependent. Hypothesis 2: Chemically distinct biomaterials, ...
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) may help you avoid complex knee surgery. Learn more by booking a consultation at Silicon Valley Orthopaedics today.
MicroRNAs have been shown to function in cartilage development and homeostasis, as well as in progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the current study was to identify microRNAs involved in the onset or early progression of osteoarthritis and characterise their function in chondrocytes. MicroRNA expression in mouse knee joints post-DMM surgery was measured over 7 days. Expression of miR-29b-3p was increased at day 1 and regulated in the opposite direction to its potential targets. In a mouse model of cartilage injury and in end-stage human OA cartilage, the miR-29 family was also regulated. SOX9 repressed expression of miR-29a-3p and miR-29b-3p via the 29a/b1 promoter. TGFβ1 decreased expression of miR-29a, b, and c (3p) in primary chondrocytes, whilst IL-1β increased (but LPS decreased) their expression. The miR-29 family negatively regulated Smad, NFκB, and canonical WNT signalling pathways. Expression profiles revealed regulation of new WNT-related genes. Amongst these, FZD3, FZD5, DVL3,
It is currently a major scientific and medical goal to identify and characterize genetic defects and their impact in health and disease. For example, mutations in genes that encode collagen alpha chains can cause skeletal dysplasia and lead to premature degenerative joint disease. Collagen is the main structural protein in the ECM of connective tissues such as the cartilage, joints, ligaments and tendons. Therefore, the goal of this research is to define the impact of the alpha one chain of collagen type XI chain, encoded by the COL11A1 gene in humans, on chondrocyte behavior during development of the cartilage. We hypothesize that altered expression of COL11A1 dysregulates chondrocyte behavior during cartilage development by altering β-catenin dependent signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited the expression of the COL11A1 homolog col11a1a in transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescence protein in neural crest derived cells and osteoblast. Then, the col11a1a deficient zebrafish
During appendicular skeletal development, the bi-potential cartilage anlagen gives rise to transient cartilage, which is eventually replaced by bone, and to articular cartilage that caps the ends of individual skeletal elements. While the molecular mechanism that regulates transient cartilage differentiation is relatively well understood, the mechanism of articular cartilage differentiation has only begun to be unraveled. Furthermore, the molecules that coordinate the articular and transient cartilage differentiation processes are poorly understood. Here, we have characterized in chick the regulatory roles of two transcription factors, NFIA and GATA3, in articular cartilage differentiation, maintenance and the coordinated differentiation of articular and transient cartilage. Both NFIA and GATA3 block hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that NFIA is not sufficient but necessary for articular cartilage differentiation. Ectopic activation of GATA3 promotes articular cartilage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of midazolam on MMP-9, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in PMA-stimulated human chondrocytes via recovery of NF-κB signaling. AU - Wang, Jen Jui. AU - Huan, Steven Kuan Hua. AU - Hsieh, Kuo Hsien. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Hsiao, George. AU - Jayakumar, Thanasekaran. AU - Sheu, Joen Rong. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Introduction: Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, has a hypnotic effect and is widely used as an intravenous sedative. Past studies have clearly established that midazolam has beneficial effects in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury more than other currently used sedative drugs. However, the role of midazolam on chondroprotection via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of action of midazolam on MMP expression via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in activated chondrosarcoma cells maintained in vitro. Material and methods: Chondrocytes, SW1353 cells, were ...
LRP1 is known to be a receptor for signal transmission and endocytosis. We formerly reported that LRP1 regulates WNT/β-catenin and protein kinase C signaling in chondrocytes and represses the hypertrophy of chondrocytes during endochondral ossification, and that LRP1 is co-localized with a ligand, CCN2, which conducts endochondral ossification, on chondrocytes. However, the role of LRP1 in endocytotic transport of CCN2 in chondrocytes is not yet understood. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between LRP1 and CCN2 during endocytotic trafficking.. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LRP1 in chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells showed that the amount of exogenous CCN2 binding/incorporation was decreased in the LRP1 down-regulated cells. Importantly, we observed that CCN2 internalization in chondrocytes was dependent on clathrin and internalizated CCN2 was co-localized with an early or recycling endosome marker. Transcytosis of CCN2 through HCS-2/8 cells was confirmed by performing experiments with ...
Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins
In this work, it was hypothesized that co-cultures of articular chondrocytes (ACs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would exhibit enhanced sensitivity to chondrogenic stimuli, such as TGF-β3, and would require a reduced concentration of TGF-β3 to achieve an equivalent level of chondrogenesis compared to monocultures of each cell type. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that compared to monocultures, the chondrogenic phenotype of AC/MSC co-cultures would be more stable upon the removal of TGF-β3 from the culture medium. These hypotheses were investigated by culturing ACs and MSCs alone and in a 1:3 ratio on electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds. All cell populations were cultured for two weeks with 0, 1, 3, or 10 ng/ml of TGF-β3. After two weeks growth factor supplementation was removed, and the constructs were cultured for two additional weeks. Cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and chondrogenic gene expression were evaluated after two and four weeks. The results ...
Emerging medical technologies for effective and lasting repair of articular cartilage include delivery of cells or cell-seeded scaffolds to a defect site to initiate de novo tissue regeneration. Biocompatible scaffolds assist in providing a template for cell distribution and extracellular matrix accumulation in a three-dimensional geometry. In these studies, a self-assembling peptide hydrogel is evaluated as a potential scaffold for cartilage repair using a model bovine cell source. A seeding technique is developed for 3-D encapsulation of chondrocytes in a peptide hydrogel. The chondrocyte-seeded peptide hydrogel was then evaluated cellular activities in vitro under standard culture conditions and also when subjected to dynamic compression. During 4 weeks of culture in vitro, chondrocytes seeded within the peptide hydrogel retained their morphology and developed a cartilage-like ECM rich in proteoglycans and type II collagen, indicative of a stable chondrocyte phenotype. Time dependent ...
Articular cartilage does not heal spontaneously due to its limited healing capacity, and thus effective treatments for cartilage injuries has remained challenging. Since the first report by Brittberg et al. in 1994, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been introduced into the clinic. Recently, as an alternative for chondrocyte-based therapy, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has received considerable research attention because of the relative ease in handling for tissue harvest, and subsequent cell expansion and differentiation. In this review, we discuss the latest developments regarding stem cell-based therapies for cartilage repair, with special focus on recent scaffold-free approaches.
ACI or autologous chondrocyte implantation is one way to biologically restore more normal functioning acticular cartilage tissue. In the picture above, there is a full thickness, large osteochondral defect in this case of the lateral femoral condyle. You can see the defect hematoma that develops which will lead to the development of scar cartilage. This is the bodys normal attempt to heal this injury, but we know that scar cartilage doesnt function like normal hyaline cartilage and will not last. ACI procedure will attempt to replace this scar cartilage with the patients own articular cartilage cells that have been grown in the lab. The following sequence of pictures will show steps of the procedure. Click image for larger view.. #gallery-1 { margin: auto; } #gallery-1 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 50%; } #gallery-1 img { border: 2px solid #cfcfcf; } #gallery-1 .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0; } /* see gallery_shortcode() in wp-includes/media.php ...
Background: First-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation has limitations, and introducing new effective cell sources can improve cartilage repair. Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with first-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation to patients treated with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seventy-two matched (lesion site and age) patients underwent cartilage repair using chondrocytes (n = 36) or BMSCs (n = 36). Clinical outcomes were measured before operation and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after operation using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Cartilage Injury Evaluation Package, which included questions from the Short-Form Health Survey, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm knee scale, and Tegner activity level scale. Results: There was significant improvement in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the Ellis-van Creveld (Evc) gene in the rat tibial growth plate. AU - Tsuji, Takehito. AU - Nakamura, Hiroaki. AU - Hirata, Azumi. AU - Yamamoto, Toshio. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, natal teeth, and dysplastic nails. The Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) gene, which is mutated in patients with EvC syndrome, has been identified by positional cloning. However, the physiological roles of the EVC gene have not been elucidated. Histopathological analyses of EvC syndrome have shown disturbed chondrocytic phenotypes during cartilage development. We therefore postulated that the EVC gene is a critical factor for chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. The present study focuses on the relationship between the Evc gene and chondrocytes, and examines Evc gene expression in the rat tibial growth plate at the mRNA and protein levels. Evc mRNA in tibial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - C-type natriuretic peptide/guanylate cyclase B system in ATDC5 cells, a chondrogenic cell line. AU - Suda, Michio. AU - Tanaka, Kiyoshi. AU - Yasoda, Akihiro. AU - Komatsu, Yasato. AU - Chusho, Hideki. AU - Miura, Masako. AU - Tamura, Naohisa. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Natriuretic peptides constitute a family of three structurally related peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Particulate guanylate cyclases, GC-A, and GC-B, are the receptors for these peptides to mediate their action. ANP and BNP possess high affinities for GC-A, and CNP is the preferred ligand for GC-B. In this article, we report our study of the expression and possible role(s) of natriuretic peptides in ATDC5 cells, which represent a chondrogenic cell line. ATDC5 cells produced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in response to natriuretic peptides. CNP was far more potent than ANP ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two COL2A1 alleles in articular cartilage obtained from each patient. Three patients demonstrated differential allelic expression and produced | 12% of the normal level of mRNA from one of their COL2A1 alleles. The same allele shows reduced expression in all three patients, and this allele is more frequent in a well-defined OA population than in a control group, suggesting the possible existence of a rare COL2A1 allele that predisposes to OA.
Published: Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19594. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19594. eCollection 2015. Authors: Kazemi D, Fakhrjou A.. Summary: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. This study investigated the efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. The results of this study indicate that both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.. Key words: Articular Cartilage; Cartilage; Dogs; Knee Joint; Platelet-Rich Plasma. Read the full study here. ...
Production, means the output of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration Revenue, means the sales value of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration This report studies Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share

Xylosyl transfer to the core protein precursor of the rat chondrosarcoma proteoglycanXylosyl transfer to the core protein precursor of the rat chondrosarcoma proteoglycan

Rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were labeled with [3H]serine or [3H]mannose as a precursor. Intracellular proteoglycan core ... Rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were labeled with [3H]serine or [3H]mannose as a precursor. Intracellular proteoglycan core ... article{52f6a2c0-7074-42f4-ae84-0c0dbf6711b3, abstract = {,p,Rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes were labeled with [,sup,3,/sup,H] ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/52f6a2c0-7074-42f4-ae84-0c0dbf6711b3

Chondrocyte - WikipediaChondrocyte - Wikipedia

"Cartilage and Chondrocytes", in Gary Feinstein et al. Kelley and Firesteins Textbook of Rheumatology, 10th edition (2017) ... Chondrocytes (from Greek χόνδρος, chondros = cartilage + κύτος, kytos = cell) are the only cells found in healthy cartilage. ... The chondrocyte in cartilage matrix has rounded or polygonal structure. The exception occurs at tissue boundaries, for example ... Although the word chondroblast is commonly used to describe an immature chondrocyte, the term is imprecise, since the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondrocyte

Human chondrocytes, reactive oxygen species production and Nox | SpringerLinkHuman chondrocytes, reactive oxygen species production and Nox | SpringerLink

The cytochrome b558 content in chondrocytes was about 10 pmol/mg of proteins: this amount is lower than in neutrophils (200 ... The O2- produced by chondrocyte NADPH oxidase is about 0.1% of the respiratory burst measured in phagocytic cells such as ... The low level of superoxide anions O2- produced by chondrocytes in comparison with neutrophils may be involved in signal ... This work shows that three different human immortalized chondrocyte (HIC) cell lines (a gift from M Goldring) and native ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/ar730

Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytesEffect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes

After 15 days of culture, the fresh chondrocytes of one flask and the thawed chondrocytes of another were fixed in 4% ... The chondrocytes were then post-fixed for four hours in 1% OsO4 diluted in PBS, pH 7.4, at 4ºC. Dehydration with ethanol and ... Chondrocyte death associated with human femoral osteochondral harvest as performed for mosaycplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg., v.87-A ... The thawed chondrocytes showed a slow confluence rate with a mean of 50% three days after thawing. A 75% confluence rate was ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352011000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytesEffect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes

FILGUEIRAS, R.R et al. Effect of freezing on rabbit cultured chondrocytes. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. [online]. 2011, vol.63 ... Fresh chondrocytes showed a high mitotic rate and abundant matrix was present up to 60 days of culture. Loss of phenotypic ... Chondrocytes extracted from joint cartilage of nine healthy New Zealand White rabbits were cultivated and frozen with the ... Furthermore, the chondrocytes should be implanted after two weeks of culture, when the highest viability rate is found ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0102-09352011000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

The ECM-Cell Interaction of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix on ChondrocytesThe ECM-Cell Interaction of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix on Chondrocytes

... and signaling proteins to maintain the chondrocyte phenotype, prevent chondrocyte apoptosis, and regulate chondrocyte-specific ... Chondrocytes express several members of the integrin family, including α5β1, the primary chondrocyte receptor for fibronectin. ... These chondrocyte integrins have a potential role in the initial adhesion and retention of chondrocytes at a cartilage defect ... TNF and IL-1 or anti-Fas antibody growth-regulated oncogene α in ECM can induce chondrocyte apoptosis. Chondrocyte apoptosis ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/648459/

Production of neocartilage tissues using primary chondrocytesProduction of neocartilage tissues using primary chondrocytes

Bovine primary chondrocytes isolated from the femoral condyles were used in all the experiments for neocartilage production. ... 2. Hypertonic conditions enhance cartilage formation in scaffold-free primary chondrocyte cultures. Open this publication in ... Primary chondrocyte, Tissue engineering, Oxygen tension, Glucosamine sulphate, Cell culture, Neocartilage National Category ... Production of neocartilage tissues using primary chondrocytes. Ylärinne, Janne Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A891299&dswid=5554

Chondrocyte protocol | StemBookChondrocyte protocol | StemBook

A chemically-defined protocol for generating chondrocytes from human embryonic stem cells ... We have developed for hESc a new 3-Stage directed differentiation protocol (DDP) to generate chondrocytes, the specialized ... Chondrocyte protocol (June 10, 2012), StemBook, ed. The Stem Cell Research Community, StemBook, doi/10.3824/stembook.1.56.1, ... and then chondrocytes (Stage 3) (Figure 1). This unique protocol is highly efficient, scalable and completely chemically- ...
more infohttps://www.stembook.org/node/726

Applications of Chondrocyte-Based Cartilage Engineering: An OverviewApplications of Chondrocyte-Based Cartilage Engineering: An Overview

... Abdul-Rehman Phull,1 Seong-Hui Eo,1 Qamar Abbas,1 Madiha ... C. W. Archer and P. Francis-West, "The chondrocyte," International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp ... M. Brittberg, "Autologous chondrocyte transplantation," Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 367, pp. S147-S155, ... M. Brittberg, "Autologous chondrocyte implantation-technique and long-term follow-up," Injury, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 40-49, 2008. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1879837/ref/

Electroacupuncture promotes chondrocyte proliferation via acceler...: Ingenta ConnectElectroacupuncture promotes chondrocyte proliferation via acceler...: Ingenta Connect

Passage 2 chondrocytes were randomly divided into four groups and treated with EA or nocodazole. After treatment, cell ... The expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and Rb were higher in chondrocytes receiving EA treatment when compared to ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the proliferation of chondrocytes and ... Electroacupuncture promotes chondrocyte proliferation via accelerated G1/S transition in the cell cycle ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sp/ijmm/2013/00000031/00000006/art00021

chick embryo chondrocytes Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - USchick embryo chondrocytes Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and reproducible research results. To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No matter how you are using your cells, you can count on these products to help keep them healthy.. ...
more infohttp://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/technical-resources/cell-lines/c/cell-lines-detail-188.html

DNA methylation of the RUNX2 P1 promoter mediates MMP13 transcription in chondrocytes | Scientific ReportsDNA methylation of the RUNX2 P1 promoter mediates MMP13 transcription in chondrocytes | Scientific Reports

We observed a significant correlation between MMP13 mRNA levels and RUNX2 gene expression in human OA chondrocytes. RUNX2 ... A significant negative correlation was observed between RUNX2 mRNA levels in OA chondrocytes and the percentage methylation of ... We and others have shown that the abnormal MMP13 gene expression in OA chondrocytes is controlled by changes in the DNA ... of the methylation status of specific CpG sites in the RUNX2 promoter on RUNX2-driven MMP13 gene expression in OA chondrocytes ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-08418-8?error=cookies_not_supported&code=77ab8c54-0b0b-46b6-8766-69e7719b7d17

Ultrasound stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes.Ultrasound stimulates proteoglycan synthesis in bovine primary chondrocytes.

However, chondrocytes from one donor cell isolation out of five remained non-responsive. Heat treatment alone did not increase ... Chondrocytes from five cellular isolations were exposed in triplicate to ultrasound (1 MHz, duty cycle 20%, pulse repetition ... Articular cartilage, chondrocyte, proteoglycan, ultrasound therapy National Category Cell and Molecular Biology Orthopedics ... This exposure profile was used in 10-minute-long heat treatments of chondrocytes. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels after ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:843205

Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation | Southern California Orthopedic InstituteAutologous Chondrocyte Transplantation | Southern California Orthopedic Institute

This surgical procedure replaces damaged cartilage in the knee joint with healthy cartilage cells. These cells are harvested from healthy portions of the knee and are grown in a lab for implantation. This procedure is usually performed in two stages, with two separate surgeries.
more infohttps://www.scoi.com/patient-resources/education/autologous-chondrocyte-transplantation

Carticel (Autologous Cultured Chondrocytes for Implantation): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & UsesCarticel (Autologous Cultured Chondrocytes for Implantation): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Autologous Cultured Chondrocytes for Implantation) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient ... Autologous cultured chondrocytes, the Carticel product, are derived from in vitro expansion of chondrocytes harvested from the ... Chondrocyte labeling in one of the rabbit studies8 and in an independent study in goats by DellAccio et al10 demonstrated that ... Bioactivity of autologous chondrocytes implanted under a periosteal patch was reported in the BLA for three rabbit studies6,7,8 ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/carticel-drug.htm

Chondrocyte | definition of chondrocyte by Medical dictionaryChondrocyte | definition of chondrocyte by Medical dictionary

... chondrocyte explanation free. What is chondrocyte? Meaning of chondrocyte medical term. What does chondrocyte mean? ... Looking for online definition of chondrocyte in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to chondrocyte: chondroblast, Eosinophils, Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation. chondrocyte. [kon´dro-sīt] one of the ... Chondrocyte , definition of chondrocyte by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chondrocyte ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chondrocyte

The Little-Known KEY to Strong, Pain-Free Joints: Healthy ChondrocytesThe Little-Known KEY to Strong, Pain-Free Joints: Healthy Chondrocytes

Chondrocytes are essential for healthy joint function as they are the only cells that produce cartilage tissue. However, your ... How to Stimulate Your Body to Produce More Chondrocytes - Hydrolyzed Type II Collagen. ACI surgery is not the only way to get ... The Little-Known KEY to Strong, Pain-Free Joints: Healthy Chondrocytes. Share4 ... Theres a good chance, however, that you havent heard about chondrocytes, which are the cells that form the cartilage in your ...
more infohttps://losethebackpain.com/chondrocytes/

abnormal chondrocyte morphology Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0000166)abnormal chondrocyte morphology Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0000166)

The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/mp_ontology/MP:0000166

abnormal chondrocyte proliferation Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0014099)abnormal chondrocyte proliferation Mammalian Phenotype Term (MP:0014099)

The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/mp_ontology/MP:0014099

Rat maf related genes: specific expression in chondrocytes, lens and spinal cord.  - PubMed - NCBIRat maf related genes: specific expression in chondrocytes, lens and spinal cord. - PubMed - NCBI

Rat maf related genes: specific expression in chondrocytes, lens and spinal cord.. Sakai M1, Imaki J, Yoshida K, Ogata A, ... studies and in situ hybridization analyses show that maf-1 and maf-2 are strongly expressed in the late stages of chondrocyte ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9038383?dopt=Abstract

Motile chondrocytes from newborn calf: migration properties and synthesis of collagen II.  - PubMed - NCBIMotile chondrocytes from newborn calf: migration properties and synthesis of collagen II. - PubMed - NCBI

To determine whether differentiated chondrocytes are motile.. DESIGN: Calf articular chondrocytes isolated from six animals ... Motile chondrocytes from newborn calf: migration properties and synthesis of collagen II.. Chang C1, Lauffenburger DA, Morales ... In Boyden chambers, locomotion of day 3 chondrocytes on fibronectin-coated membranes was approximately 3-fold higher than on ... A population of well-differentiated chondrocytes capable of matrix (COL II) synthesis are motile in vitro. This original ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12880583?dopt=Abstract

Leptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes. - Wellness ResourcesLeptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes. - Wellness Resources

Leptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes.. Study Abstract. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex ... The unbalanced production of catabolic and anabolic mediators by chondrocytes, the only cell type present in cartilage, ... knowledge on the role of leptin in OA with particular emphasis on the effects of this adipokine in cartilage and chondrocyte ...
more infohttps://www.wellnessresources.com/studies/leptin-in-osteoarthritis-focus-on-articular-cartilage-and-chondrocytes
  • The low level of superoxide anions O 2- produced by chondrocytes in comparison with neutrophils may be involved in signal transduction and may be implicated in the structural and functional alterations of cartilage matrix observed in arthritis and osteoarthritis. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, EA treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation via promotion of G1/S checkpoint transition in the cell cycle dependent on the activity of the P16-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-pRb pathway and this may, in part, explain its clinical effect in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • As possible outputs for this antioxidant deficiency, we found an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in OA chondrocytes and also verified an OA-dependent increase in the mitochondrial tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a chaperone with a reported reactive oxygen species antagonist role. (mcponline.org)
  • Together, these results define a regulatory mechanism that links chondrocyte BMAL1 to the maintenance and repair of cartilage and suggest that circadian rhythm disruption is a risk factor for joint diseases such as OA. (jci.org)
  • This work shows that three different human immortalized chondrocyte (HIC) cell lines (a gift from M Goldring) and native chondrocytes can generate superoxide anions (O 2- ) constitutively and after activation with PMA or ionomycin. (springer.com)
  • The present study showed important loss of chondrocyte viability under the freezing conditions. (scielo.br)
  • Furthermore, the chondrocytes should be implanted after two weeks of culture, when the highest viability rate is found. (scielo.br)
  • EA treatment significantly increased cell viability in a time-dependent manner and decreased the number of G0/G1 and G2/M phase chondrocytes and increased the number of S phase cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • From least- to terminally-differentiated, the chondrocytic lineage is: Colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) Mesenchymal stem cell / marrow stromal cell (MSC) Chondrocyte Hypertrophic chondrocyte Mesenchymal (mesoderm origin) stem cells (MSC) are undifferentiated, meaning they can differentiate into a variety of generative cells commonly known as osteochondrogenic (or osteogenic, chondrogenic, osteoprogenitor, etc.) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in OA chondrocytes showed decreases in complexes I, II, and III compared with normal chondrocytes that caused a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and in ATP synthesis. (mcponline.org)
  • Using a proteomics approach based on two-dimensional DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric identification of mitochondria- enriched protein fractions from human articular chondrocytes, we analyzed mitochondrial protein changes that are characteristic of OA chondrocytes. (mcponline.org)
  • We and others have shown that the abnormal MMP13 gene expression in OA chondrocytes is controlled by changes in the DNA methylation status of specific CpG sites of the proximal promoter, as well as by the actions of different transactivators, including RUNX2. (nature.com)
  • The unbalanced production of catabolic and anabolic mediators by chondrocytes, the only cell type present in cartilage, determines cartilage degradation, which is the central pathological feature of OA. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The patient then undergoes a second treatment, in which the chondrocytes are applied on the damaged area during an open-knee surgery (also called arthrotomy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission electron micrograph of a chondrocyte, stained for calcium, showing its nucleus (N) and mitochondria (M). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage Transmission electron micrograph of a chondrocyte, stained for calcium, showing its nucleus (N) and mitochondria (M). Endochondral ossification Intramembranous ossification Lee, T. J. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passage 2 chondrocytes were randomly divided into four groups and treated with EA or nocodazole. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The O 2- produced by chondrocyte NADPH oxidase is about 0.1% of the respiratory burst measured in phagocytic cells such as neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • This exposure profile was used in 10-minute-long heat treatments of chondrocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is critical for bone formation as well as chondrocyte maturation. (nature.com)
  • This study evaluated chondrogenesis within a nanofiber polymeric scaffold seeded with isolated untreated chondrocytes, isolated chondrocytes genetically engineered with adenoviral (Ad) bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, or isolated chondrocytes genetically engineered with green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP). (scirp.org)
  • The present study aimed to determine the influence of the methylation status of specific CpG sites in the RUNX2 promoter on RUNX2-driven MMP13 gene expression in OA chondrocytes. (nature.com)
  • This study demons- trated that chondrocytes can be driven to seed a polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold by serum gradient and a polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold containing Ad-BMP2 transduced chondrocytes resulted in grea- ter and accelerated chondrogenesis than controls. (scirp.org)
  • The expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and Rb were higher in chondrocytes receiving EA treatment when compared to levels in the untreated cells while expression of P16 was lower. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Rat maf related genes: specific expression in chondrocytes, lens and spinal cord. (nih.gov)