Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
A group of nine islands and several islets belonging to Portugal in the north Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Portugal. The islands are named after the acores, the Portuguese for goshawks, living there in abundance. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p42)
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.

Pseudogout attack associated with chronic thyroiditis and Sjogren's syndrome. (1/143)

A 66-year-old woman, diagnosed with chronic thyroiditis at age 63, presented with anorexia and fatigue. Therapy for the chronic thyroiditis consisted of levothyroxine sodium (100 microg/day). Her symptoms were attributed to the insufficient supply of levothyroxine sodium. Following a dosage increase to 150 microg/day, she suffered from an acute attack of pseudogout. Clinical features were complicated by Sjogren's syndrome, which appeared after treatment onset. Pseudogout was effectively treated by colchicine after administration of diclofenac sodium failed to alleviate the symptoms. Pseudogout is a recognized complication of thyroid replacement therapy, but association with Sjogren's syndrome has not been previously reported.  (+info)

Chondrocalcinosis after parathyroidectomy. (2/143)

In this retrospective study of 57 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy, the overall incidence of chondrocalcinosis was 40%. Neither joint symptoms nor chondrocalcinosis regressed after the operation. In several patients the condition appeared to deteriorate both clinically and radiologically after the operation, while in a few both the chondrocalcinosis and the associated symptoms first appeared some time after the operation.  (+info)

Transduction mechanisms of porcine chondrocyte inorganic pyrophosphate elaboration. (3/143)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate cellular signaling mechanisms that influence chondrocyte production of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), which promotes calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition. METHODS: Articular chondrocyte and cartilage cultures were stimulated with protein kinase C (PKC) activator and adenyl cyclase activator. Generation of extracellular PPi was measured. RESULTS: Adenyl cyclase activation resulted in diminished pyrophosphate generation. PKC activation stimulated pyrophosphate elaboration. CONCLUSION: Two signaling pathways, cAMP and PKC, modulate generation of extracellular pyrophosphate by cartilage and chondrocytes. They are novel targets for potentially diminishing extracellular pyrophosphate elaboration that leads to CPPD crystal deposition.  (+info)

Elevated parathyroid hormone 44-68 and osteoarticular changes in patients with genetic hemochromatosis. (4/143)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the osteoarticular changes associated with genetic hemochromatosis could be explained by metabolic parathyroid hormone (PTH) disorders. METHODS: The study involved 210 patients with liver iron overload syndromes. Osteoarticular changes were numerically scored as the number of damaged joints. PTH 1-84 and 44-68 were assayed. RESULTS: An increase in serum PTH 44-68 levels was found in one-third of untreated patients who had no calcium or PTH 1-84 abnormalities. Serum PTH 44-68 levels correlated positively with serum ferritin levels. In multivariate analyses, the number of affected joints correlated positively with age, serum PTH 44-68 levels, and serum ferritin levels. CONCLUSION: Liver iron overload syndromes, especially genetic hemochromatosis, are associated with elevated circulating levels of PTH fragments containing the 44-68 region, which appears to play a role in osteoarticular changes. This increase seems to be a consequence of iron overload.  (+info)

Phosphocitrate blocks nitric oxide-induced calcification of cartilage and chondrocyte-derived apoptotic bodies. (5/143)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether phosphocitrate (PC) will block nitric oxide-induced calcification of cartilage or chondrocyte-derived apoptotic bodies. DESIGN: Articular cartilage vesicles (ACV) or apoptotic bodies (AB) were isolated from untreated or 1mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treated porcine cartilage slices. Mineralization of ACV, AB, control untreated and SNP-treated cartilage were done in the presence or absence of PC (1mM)+/-ATP (1mM). RESULTS: PC [1mM] blocked both the ATP-dependent and -independent mineralization in ACV and AB, untreated and SNP treated cartilage. Moreover, PC had no effect on NTPPPH activity in either ACV or AB fraction in the presence or absence of ATP suggesting that PC did not block the mineralization through the inhibition of NTPPPH activity. CONCLUSIONS: PC inhibits nitric oxide-induced calcification of cartilage and cartilage-derived apoptotic bodies.  (+info)

Most calcium pyrophosphate crystals appear as non-birefringent. (6/143)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals that appear as non-birefringent when observed under the polarised light microscope. METHODS: Two observers examined independently 10 synovial fluid samples obtained during an episode of arthritis attributable to CPPD crystals. Ten synovial fluid samples from patients with acute gout were used as a reference. The examination was performed after placing a fluid sample in a Niebauer haemocytometric chamber; a crystal count was done first under ordinary light, then in the area corresponding to a 0.1 ml, under polarised light RESULTS: The percentages of birefringence appreciated for CPPD were 18% (confidence intervals (CI) 12, 24) for observer 1, and 17% (CI 10, 24) for observer 2 (difference NS). The percentages of birefringence for monosodium urate were 127% (CI 103, 151) for observer 1 and 107% (CI 100, 114) for observer 2 (difference NS). Percentages above 100% indicate that crystals missed under ordinary light became apparent under polarised light. CONCLUSION: Only about one fifth of all CPPD crystals identified by bright field microscopy show birefringence when the same synovial fluid sample is observed under polarised light. If a search for CPPD crystals is conducted under polarised light, the majority of the crystals will be missed. Ordinary light allows a better rate of CPPD crystal detection but observation under polarised light of crystals showing birefringence is required for definitive CPPD crystal identification.  (+info)

Exclusion of the gene for human cartilage intermediate layer protein in currently mapped calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition syndromes. (7/143)

OBJECTIVE: To map the gene for human cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP) in order to assess its involvement in some familial forms of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease. METHODS: A radiation hybrid panel was analyzed for chromosomal assignment of the CILP gene within a 1-cM limit of resolution. The location of the gene for CILP was confirmed to reside at the observed radiation hybrid locus by fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The human CILP gene resides at chromosome 15q21. CONCLUSION: This map location definitively excludes mutations in the CILP gene as the cause of certain familial forms of CPPD deposition disease that have been genetically mapped to chromosomes 8q and 5p.  (+info)

Seasonal variation in the onset of acute microcrystalline arthritis. (8/143)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acute attacks of uric acid and calcium pyrophosphate microcrystalline arthritis show a seasonal variation and, if so, to verify whether the distribution of single episodes shows a rhythmic circannual pattern. METHOD: All suspected cases of microcrystalline acute arthritis observed at the General Hospital of Ferrara during an 8 yr period (January 1990-December 1997) were considered. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical examination and analysis of synovial fluid by means of polarized light microscopy. Month and day of each event were categorized both into four 3-month periods (by seasons) and 12 monthly intervals. Two different statistical methods have been utilized: chi(2) test for goodness of fit and partial Fourier series. RESULTS: During the period considered, 210 episodes of acute gout were observed [196 in males (93.3%) and 14 in females (6.7%)] in 179 different subjects, and 179 episodes of acute pseudogout [58 in males (32.4%) and 121 in females (67.6%)] in 165 different subjects. Gout attacks showed a higher frequency peak in spring [76 cases (36. 2%), P<0.001]. Analysis of distribution of events by gender confirmed the clear spring pattern in males (36.2%), whereas the paucity of cases in females did not allow any valid statistical analysis. Pseudogout attacks showed a higher frequency peak in autumn [52 cases (29.1%)], without reaching a statistically significant level either for the total sample or for subgroups divided by gender. Analysis of the seasonal distribution of gout or pseudogout events was significantly different (chi(2) 15.7, P=0.001). Chronobiological evaluation by means of Fourier analysis showed a circannual pattern for gout attacks, both for the total sample (P=0.006) and the male subgroup (P=0.003), characterized by a peak in April and a trough in October. Again, as for pseudogout events, no seasonal variation was found, either for the total sample or subgroups by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The present study gives further confirmation that acute gout attacks exhibit a circannual distribution in their occurrence, being more frequent in April, whereas pseudogout attacks do not. Moreover, the seasonal distribution of gout and pseudogout acute events is significantly different.  (+info)

Chondrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the fibrous cartilage (also known as chondral or articular cartilage) and/or the joint cavity (synovial fluid). This cartilage is present in various parts of the body, including the ears, nose, respiratory tract, and connective tissues such as those found in joints.

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals are normally present in small amounts within the body; however, an overabundance of these crystals can lead to chondrocalcinosis. The condition is often associated with osteoarthritis and can affect people of all ages but is more common in older adults.

Chondrocalcinosis may not always cause symptoms, but when it does, they can include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and warmth. These symptoms are similar to those seen in other forms of arthritis, making chondrocalcinosis difficult to diagnose based on symptoms alone. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as X-rays or ultrasounds, as well as joint fluid analysis to identify the presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.

Treatment for chondrocalcinosis is generally focused on managing symptoms and addressing any underlying conditions that may contribute to the development or progression of the disease. This can include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation, joint aspiration to remove excess fluid and crystals from the affected area, and physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and strength. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Phosphate transport proteins are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the active transport of phosphate ions across cell membranes. They play a crucial role in maintaining appropriate phosphate concentrations within cells and between intracellular compartments, which is essential for various biological processes such as energy metabolism, signal transduction, and bone formation.

These proteins utilize the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis or other sources to move phosphate ions against their concentration gradient, thereby facilitating cellular uptake of phosphate even when extracellular concentrations are low. Phosphate transport proteins can be classified based on their structure, function, and localization into different types, including sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transporters, secondary active transporters, and channels.

Dysregulation of phosphate transport proteins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as renal Fanconi syndrome, tumoral calcinosis, and hypophosphatemic rickets. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate transport protein function is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

I'm not aware of any medical definitions for "Azores." The Azores is a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean, located about 850 miles west of Portugal. They are an autonomous region of Portugal and have a population of around 250,000 people. The islands are known for their beautiful landscapes, mild climate, and unique flora and fauna.

If you have any specific questions related to the Azores or if there is something specific you would like to know about the region in a medical context, please let me know and I will do my best to help!

Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound made up of calcium and pyrophosphate ions. In the body, it can form crystals that deposit in joints, causing a type of arthritis known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease or pseudogout. CPPD disease is characterized by sudden attacks of joint pain and swelling, often in the knee or wrist. The condition is more common in older adults and can also occur in people with underlying medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, and hypophosphatasia. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals may also be found in the fluid around the heart (pericardial fluid) or in other tissues, but they do not always cause symptoms.

Parenteral Nutrition, Home (HPN) is a medical definition referring to the specialized medical treatment in which nutrients are delivered directly into a patient's bloodstream through a vein outside of the gastrointestinal tract. This technique is used when a patient cannot receive adequate nutrition through enteral feeding or oral intake alone, often due to conditions such as severe malabsorption, intestinal failure, or chronic bowel disorders.

HPN specifically refers to the administration of parenteral nutrition in the home setting rather than in a hospital or healthcare facility. This approach allows patients to receive ongoing nutritional support while maintaining their quality of life and independence. HPN requires careful monitoring by healthcare professionals, including regular laboratory tests and clinical assessments, to ensure that the patient is receiving appropriate nutrition and to minimize potential complications such as infection, dehydration, or electrolyte imbalances.

Diffuse Idiopathic Hyperostosis (DIH), also known as Forestier's Disease, is a non-inflammatory skeletal disorder characterized by the abnormal thickening and hardening (hyperostosis) of the bony portions of the spine and/or other parts of the skeleton. In DIH, there is an excessive formation of new bone along the edges of these bones, particularly at the sites where ligaments attach to the bones.

The term "idiopathic" indicates that the cause of this condition is currently unknown, while "diffuse" refers to its widespread involvement of multiple skeletal areas. The exact pathogenesis of DIH remains unclear; however, it has been suggested that there might be a connection with abnormal bone metabolism and/or localized inflammation.

DIH primarily affects middle-aged and older adults, with men being more commonly affected than women. Common symptoms include stiffness, pain, and limited mobility in the spine and joints. In some cases, DIH may also lead to complications such as spinal stenosis or nerve compression due to the excessive bone growth.

It is important to note that while hyperostosis can be a feature of various medical conditions, the term "Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis" specifically refers to this distinct clinical entity characterized by the widespread involvement of the skeleton and the absence of inflammation or other underlying causes.

Diphosphates, also known as pyrophosphates, are chemical compounds that contain two phosphate groups joined together by an oxygen atom. The general formula for a diphosphate is P~PO3~2-, where ~ represents a bond. Diphosphates play important roles in various biological processes, such as energy metabolism and cell signaling. In the context of nutrition, diphosphates can be found in some foods, including milk and certain vegetables.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is the joint that connects the bones of the hand (metacarpals) to the bones of the fingers and thumb (phalanges). It's also commonly referred to as the "knuckle" joint. The MCP joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the fingers and thumb. It is a synovial joint, which means it contains a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid that helps reduce friction during movement.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

Arthrography is a medical imaging technique used to diagnose problems within joints. It involves the injection of a contrast agent, such as a radiopaque dye or air, into the joint space, followed by the use of fluoroscopy or X-ray imaging to visualize the internal structures of the joint. This can help to identify injuries, tears, or other abnormalities in the cartilage, ligaments, tendons, or bones within the joint.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and may be used to diagnose conditions such as shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, meniscal tears in the knee, or hip labral injuries. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive procedure, although there may be some temporary discomfort or swelling at the injection site. Patients are usually advised to avoid strenuous activity for a day or two following the procedure to allow the contrast agent to fully dissipate from the joint.

Gout is a type of inflammatory arthritis that occurs when urate crystals accumulate in and around the joints, causing sudden attacks of severe pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness. Urate crystals can form when there are high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down purines, substances that are found naturally in certain foods, such as steak, organ meats, and seafood. Other foods also promote higher levels of uric acid, such as alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and drinks sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose).

Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood and passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes either the body produces too much uric acid or the kidneys excrete too little uric acid. When this happens, uric acid can build up, forming sharp, needle-like urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling.

Gout most commonly affects the big toe but can also occur in any joint in the body. The symptoms of gout are often acute, occurring suddenly without warning and frequently at night. The attacks are characterized by a rapid onset of pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected joint. An attack of gout can be so painful that it wakes you up from sleep.

Over time, gout can cause permanent damage to the joints and surrounding tissue, resulting in chronic arthritis. If left untreated, gout also can lead to an accumulation of uric acid crystals in the kidneys, which can result in kidney stones.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

Parathyroidectomy is a surgical procedure for the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands. These glands are located in the neck and are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Parathyroidectomy is typically performed to treat conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, where one or more of the parathyroid glands become overactive and produce too much PTH. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, bone pain, kidney stones, and mental confusion.

There are different types of parathyroidectomy procedures, including:

* Partial parathyroidectomy: removal of one or more, but not all, of the parathyroid glands.
* Total parathyroidectomy: removal of all four parathyroid glands.
* Subtotal parathyroidectomy: removal of three and a half of the four parathyroid glands, leaving a small portion of one gland to prevent hypoparathyroidism (a condition where the body produces too little PTH).

The choice of procedure depends on the underlying condition and its severity. After the surgery, patients may need to have their calcium levels monitored and may require calcium and vitamin D supplements to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that attach to the shoulder blade (scapula) and help stabilize and move the shoulder joint. These muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. The rotator cuff helps to keep the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) centered in the glenoid fossa (shoulder socket), providing stability during shoulder movements. It also allows for rotation and elevation of the arm. Rotator cuff injuries or conditions, such as tears or tendinitis, can cause pain and limit shoulder function.

In medical terms, "tears" are a clear, salty liquid that is produced by the tear glands (lacrimal glands) in our eyes. They serve to keep the eyes moist, protect against dust and other foreign particles, and help to provide clear vision by maintaining a smooth surface on the front of the eye. Tears consist of water, oil, and mucus, which help to prevent evaporation and ensure that the tears spread evenly across the surface of the eye. Emotional or reflexive responses, such as crying or yawning, can also stimulate the production of tears.

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

A cartilage fracture is not a common injury because cartilage itself does not have bones, and it is difficult to fracture something that is not hard. However, there are situations where the term "cartilage fracture" can be used. One such situation is when the articular cartilage, which covers the ends of bones in joints, gets damaged or injured. This type of injury is also known as a chondral fracture or osteochondral fracture (if the bone beneath the cartilage is also involved). These injuries can occur due to trauma, such as a fall or a direct blow to the joint, and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected joint.

In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause chondrocalcinosis. Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include: Hypercalcaemia, ... At ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage. As ... Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in hyaline cartilage and/or ... "Chondrocalcinosis". Radiopedia. Retrieved 2017-08-11. Ann K. Rosenthal. "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of calcium ...
LIPA Chondrocalcinosis 2; 118600; ANKH Chondrodysplasia punctata, rhizomelic, type 2; 222765; GNPAT Chondrodysplasia punctata, ...
"ATP-induced chondrocalcinosis". Arthritis Rheum. 35 (12): 1520-5. doi:10.1002/art.1780351216. PMID 1472129. Heptad Repeat 2 in ...
1996). "Localisation of a gene for chondrocalcinosis to chromosome 5p". Hum. Mol. Genet. 4 (7): 1225-8. doi:10.1093/hmg/4.7. ... 2002). "Mutations in ANKH cause chondrocalcinosis". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71 (4): 933-40. doi:10.1086/343054. PMC 378546. PMID ... 2000). "Physical map and characterization of transcripts in the candidate interval for familial chondrocalcinosis at chromosome ...
Haemochromatosis arthropathy includes degenerative osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis. The distribution of the arthropathy is ...
Using ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage or ... X-ray, CT, or other imaging usually shows accumulation of calcium within the joint cartilage, known as chondrocalcinosis. There ... Previous studies have overestimated the prevalence by simply estimating the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis, which is found in ... Free chapter on acromioclavicular chondrocalcinosis is available at ShoulderUS.com Hosler G. "calcinosis_cutis_2_060122". Derm ...
December 1999). "Physical map and characterization of transcripts in the candidate interval for familial chondrocalcinosis at ...
... chondrocalcinosis). Infrequent ADRs include: dyslipidemia, increased serum creatinine concentration, hypocalcemia, rash. ...
This is used to assess any problems in the surrounding structures such as bone fractures, chondrocalcinosis, and inflammatory ...
... chondrocalcinosis, features of pyrophosphate arthropathy, and calcific periarthritis. Odontohypophosphatasia is present when ...
In the absence of gout, chondrocalcinosis, rheumatoid arthritis, or prior distal radius fracture, a person with gradual onset ...
... storage disease Cholesterol esterification disorder Cholesterol pneumonia Chondroblastoma Chondrocalcinosis Chondrocalcinosis ...
... chondrocalcinosis MeSH C05.550.114.423 - gout MeSH C05.550.114.423.410 - arthritis, gouty MeSH C05.550.114.606 - osteoarthritis ...
... chondrocalcinosis, or weakness expressed as extreme fatigue or irritability. Though cravings for salt are most common and ...
711 Arthropathy associated with infections 712 Crystal arthropathies 712.1 Chondrocalcinosis due to dicalcium phosphate ... crystals 712.2 Chondrocalcinosis due to pyrophosphate crystals 712.3 Chondrocalcinosis, cause unspecified pseudogout 712.8 ...
... chondrocalcinosis and arthropathy due to amyloidosis. RS3PE has been documented in patients with cancers (Non-Hodgkin's ...
Chondrocalcinosis (pseudogout) Mirgh, S. P.; Venkatesh, M. P. (2017). "Lumps All over: A Case of Chronic Tophaceous Gout ( ...
... chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and ...
X-rays will also show bone features of renal osteodystrophy (subperiostic bone resorption, chondrocalcinosis at the knees and ...
In pseudogout/chondrocalcinosis/calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, the crystal is calcium pyrophosphate. Diabetic ... Felty's syndrome Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Adult-onset Still's disease Crystal arthropathy Gout Chondrocalcinosis ...
In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause chondrocalcinosis. Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include: Hypercalcaemia, ... At ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage. As ... Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in hyaline cartilage and/or ... "Chondrocalcinosis". Radiopedia. Retrieved 2017-08-11. Ann K. Rosenthal. "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of calcium ...
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Learn about diagnosis and specialist referrals for Chondrocalcinosis 1. ...
Chondrocalcinosis. Chondrocalcinosis is calcification of the menisci, synovium, and/or articular cartilage due to the ... Effect of chondrocalcinosis on the MR imaging of knee menisci. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Oct. 177(4):905-9. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... Chondrocalcinosis mimicking a meniscal tear on MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998 Jan. 170(1):69-70. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... The presence of chondrocalcinosis can result in a false-positive diagnosis of a meniscal tear. View Media Gallery ...
At a cost per test of pound1 for each subject, screening all patients with chondrocalcinosis using the above ascertainment ... 128 patients were recruited because of either radiographic chondrocalcinosis (at least bicompartmental knee disease or joints ... Routine screening for haemochromatosis in patients with appreciable chondrocalcinosis is recommended. ... Genetic testing for haemochromatosis in patients with chondrocalcinosis. Timms AE., Sathananthan R., Bradbury L., Athanasou NA ...
Among the pathologies we treat are osteoarticular diseases of non-traumatic origin, inflammatory arthropathies, endocrine-metabolic diseases of the locomotive system and painful syndromes, etc.
Can Diabetes Cause Chondrocalcinosis ?. How To Prevent Diabetes type 1 diabetes age of onset Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar, stem ...
Chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate. Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera). Serious herpes infection. *. Pegfilgrastim, CHS- 1701 (Udeynca) ...
Chondrocalcinosis. *Chondromalacia. *Chronic Neck Pain. *Clavicle Fracture. *Coccygeal Pain. *Complex Regional Pain Syndrome ( ...
Chondrocalcinosis. *Chondromalacia. *Chronic Neck Pain. *Clavicle Fracture. *Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) ...
Hemochromatosis stands alone in clearly associating not only with chondrocalcinosis but also with structural change and chronic ... and hyperparathyroidism with chondrocalcinosis and acute attacks of "pseudogout." Meta-analysis also suggests a small but ... are made concerning appropriate screening for metabolic and endocrine disease in patients with chondrocalcinosis. ...
Associated conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypothyroidism, and chondro calcinosis were not associated with more ...
Although CPDD is often asymptomatic, with only radiographic changes seen (ie, chondrocalcinosis), various clinical ... Saffar P. Chondrocalcinosis of the wrist. J Hand Surg [Br]. 2004 Oct. 29(5):486-93. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis of the symphysis pubis on CT scan and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate ... Genetics of chondrocalcinosis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005 Sep. 13(9):745-50. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Other chondrocalcinosis [pseudogout flares]. ICD-10 codes not covered for indications listed in the CPB (not all inclusive):. ...
GAIN OF FUNCTION ANKH VARIANTS CAUSE BOTH FAMILIAL AND SPORADIC CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE DIHYDRATE CHONDROCALCINOSIS ... GAIN OF FUNCTION ANKH VARIANTS CAUSE BOTH FAMILIAL AND SPORADIC CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE DIHYDRATE CHONDROCALCINOSIS ...
Chondrocalcinosis (symphysis) , 580 , 616 , 651 Chondrocalcinosis (left) , 581 , 617 , 652 Head deformity (primary/secondary ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 503 Chondrocalcinosis - Left Data from X-Ray 0 - Normal 6678 Readings 1 - ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 524 Chondrocalcinosis - Right Data from X-Ray 0 - Normal 6670 Readings 1 - ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 581 Chondrocalcinosis - Left 0 - Normal 4691 Data From X-Ray 1 - ...
Chondrocalcinosis - CPPD as seen on Knee X-Ray. radRounds Team - April 5, 2021. 0 ...
M11.20 - other chondrocalcinosis, unspecified site * M11.249 - other chondrocalcinosis, unspecified hand * ICD-11: FA26.0 - ... Polyarticular chondrocalcinosis in fibro and hyaline cartilage (Curr Opin Rheumatol 2020;32:140) * Joint space narrowing and ... Chondrocalcinosis: * Asymptomatic incidental finding in articular tissues * Commonly involves knee menisci and intervertebral ... 77 year old woman with severe chondrocalcinosis of metacarpophalangeal joints (BMJ Case Rep 2018;2018:bcr2018226132) * 80 year ...
Chondrocalcinosis. • DISH - diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. • Elevated muscle enzymes. • Fibromyalgia. • Gout/ ...
Asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis becomes more common with age, particularly in the knee, hip, wrist, annulus fibrosus of the ... The incidental detection of chondrocalcinosis on plain x-rays or other imaging does not mean that the patient should be treated ... Asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis is common in the knee, metacarpophalangeal joints, hip, wrist, annulus fibrosus of the ... CPPD crystal deposition (chondrocalcinosis, pyrophosphate arthropathy), whether symptomatic and asymptomatic, becomes more ...
Chondrocalcinosis (Pseudogout). Chondrocalcinosis (pseudogout syndrome) is a disease in which a certain type of calcium crystal ... Chondrocalcinosis is also called pseudogout or pseudo-osteoarthritis, particularly the latter when it affects the knees. A ... doctor can usually differentiate between the 2 disorders because chondrocalcinosis usually damages other joints (wrists, elbows ...
Investigating ANKH and ENPP1 in Slovakian families with chondrocalcinosis. Rheumatology International, 32(9), 2745 - 2751.* ...
Asymptomatic chondrocalcinosis is found in 7% of the general population. Dietary modifications including reducing red meat and ... Figure 6: Knee radiograph demonstrating chondrocalcinosis of the menisci. (https://radiopaedia.org/articles/chondrocalcinosis) ... Pseudogout can be diagnosed with the radiographic findings of chondrocalcinosis, namely calcification of cartilaginous ...
... chondrocalcinosis. ...
... dependency and difficulty in ruling out differentials such as late-onset rheumatoid arthritis and chondrocalcinosis. ...
Chondrocalcinosis mutations retain apparently wild-type transport activity and can rescue the joint-fusion phenotype of Ank ... In humans, some dominant mutations cause chondrocalcinosis, an adult-onset disease characterized by the deposition of ectopic ...
  • Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include: Hypercalcaemia, especially when caused by hyperparathyroidism Arthritis Pseudogout Wilson disease Hemochromatosis Ochronosis Hypophosphatasia Hypothyroidism Hyperoxalemia Acromegaly Gitelman syndrome Chondrocalcinosis can be visualized on projectional radiography, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 128 patients were recruited because of either radiographic chondrocalcinosis (at least bicompartmental knee disease or joints other than the knee involved) or CPPD pseudogout. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is concluded that there is good evidence to associate hypophosphatasia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperparathyroidism with chondrocalcinosis and acute attacks of "pseudogout. (nih.gov)
  • Another common cause of chondrocalcinosis is calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD). (wikipedia.org)
  • At a cost per test of pound1 for each subject, screening all patients with chondrocalcinosis using the above ascertainment criteria costs only pound64 for each case of haemochromatosis identified, clearly a highly cost effective test given the early mortality associated with untreated haemochromatosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This is usually associated with radiographic findings of chondrocalcinosis in the absence of clinical manifestations and may be the most common form of CPPD. (medscape.com)
  • CPPD crystal deposition (chondrocalcinosis, pyrophosphate arthropathy), whether symptomatic and asymptomatic, becomes more common with age. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis is a disease characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate crystals (Pyrophosphate) in the joints. (healthquestionsmatters.com)
  • Hemochromatosis stands alone in clearly associating not only with chondrocalcinosis but also with structural change and chronic arthropathy. (nih.gov)
  • The arthritis is characterised by chondrocalcinosis, however, not like idiopathic chondrocalcinosis, the palms are normally involved first fungus gnats molasses [url=https://sanmiguel-bohol.gov.ph/wp-content/papers/buy-online-nizoral-no-rx/]buy 200 mg nizoral[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in hyaline cartilage and/or fibrocartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • At ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic radiologic findings include chondrocalcinosis of the hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage of the knees, the fibrocartilage of the triangular ligament of the wrist, the fibrocartilage of the symphysis pubis, and the acetabulum labrum of the hips. (medscape.com)
  • In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause chondrocalcinosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidental detection of chondrocalcinosis on plain x-rays or other imaging does not mean that the patient should be treated for CPP arthritis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As with most conditions, chondrocalcinosis can present with similarity to other diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of chondrocalcinosis can aid in making the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Recommendations are made concerning appropriate screening for metabolic and endocrine disease in patients with chondrocalcinosis. (nih.gov)
  • 2012). Investigating ANKH and ENPP1 in Slovakian families with chondrocalcinosis . (up.pt)
  • Previous studies have overestimated the prevalence by simply estimating the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis regardless of cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence of chondrocalcinosis varies from 7-10% in people aged 60 years, and shows equal sex distribution. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis is strongly associated with age the prevalence is low below 50 years old, and increasing from 10%-15% in those aged 65-75, and 30%-60% in those older than 85. (goutinfoclub.com)
  • Genetic testing for haemochromatosis in patients with chondrocalcinosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in hyaline cartilage and/or fibrocartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrocalcinosis, or cartilage calcification, is a common condition that usually results from deposition of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) in articular hyaline and fibro-cartilage. (mendelian.co)
  • Chondrocalcinosis (CC) defines cartilage calcification, most commonly due to CPPD and detected by imaging or histological examination. (bmj.com)
  • Association between low cortical bone mineral density, soft-tissue calcification, vascular calcification and chondrocalcinosis: a case-control study. (librepathology.org)
  • Some adults suffer from relapsing pancreatitis, chondrocalcinosis and premature vascular calcification. (orpha.net)
  • Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include: Hypercalcaemia, especially when caused by hyperparathyroidism Arthritis Pseudogout Wilson disease Hemochromatosis Ochronosis Hypophosphatasia Hypothyroidism Hyperoxalemia Acromegaly Gitelman syndrome Chondrocalcinosis can be visualized on projectional radiography, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There can be reabsorption of the edges of the distal phalanges, proximal muscle weakness, fatigue, atrophy, chondrocalcinosis and pseudogout. (fundacionmapfre.org)
  • Check out below for a few pearls related to chondrocalcinosis & pseudogout. (cooperhealth.org)
  • As with most conditions, chondrocalcinosis can present with similarity to other diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrocalcinosis (CC) is a common cause of joint pain and arthritis that is caused by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals within articular cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • Doherty M, Hamilton E, Henderson J. Familial chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in English families. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis of the symphysis pubis on CT scan and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. (medscape.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis is a disease characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate crystals (Pyrophosphate) in the joints. (healthquestionsmatters.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis is the term used to describe the calcium-containing deposits that are found in cartilage and which are usually visible on joint x-rays. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • To evaluate the relationship between chondrocalcinosis and pain or synovitis in knee joints by examining data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). (nih.gov)
  • A gain of function mutation in TNFRSF11B encoding osteoprotegerin causes osteoarthritis with chondrocalcinosis. (medscape.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis has been described in up to 30% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Affected individuals are usually asymptomatic, but may present chondrocalcinosis and pancreatitis. (renaltube.com)
  • The relationship between chondrocalcinosis on baseline knee radiograph and pain at baseline and at 4 years was examined. (nih.gov)
  • We present the case of a 50 years old man with alkaptonuria and discuss the ultrasonographic findings and the relationship of the disease with chondrocalcinosis. (medultrason.ro)
  • A magnesium deficiency may cause chondrocalcinosis, and there is anecdotal evidence that magnesium supplementation may reduce or alleviate symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions This report highlights the importance of brain CT-scan in ambiguous cases of suspected cerebral siderosis, and suggests that HH patients with a severe phenotype, and likely associated with chondrocalcinosis, may display also brain calcifications. (unimore.it)
  • Hypercalcemia can cause pancreatitis and chondrocalcinosis. (renaltube.com)
  • Chondrocalcinosis occurs in 3 forms: a primary hereditary form (e.g. (mendelian.co)
  • The relationship between chondrocalcinosis and synovitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was examined by comparing knees with chondrocalcinosis at baseline and age, sex, and K/L grade-matched knees with no chondrocalcinosis. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this supplement is to examine the association between the constituents of two common food supplements, omega-3 fatty acids and Mg++ on new onset radiographic and symptomatic OA in the knees and on chondrocalcinosis there. (nih.gov)
  • The patient had a history of metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis and severe chondrocalcinosis. (unimore.it)
  • Ever read a radiology report that indicated chondrocalcinosis? (cooperhealth.org)
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of ChondrocalcinosisAnother form of chondrocalcinosis ( CCAL1 ) has been mapped to chromosome 8q. (mendelian.co)