CholinesterasesCholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Pseudocholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterases.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide: N,N',N'',N'''-Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide. A specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterases. It is commonly used experimentally to determine whether pseudo- or acetylcholinesterases are involved in an enzymatic process.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Methomyl: A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Edrophonium: A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Benzoylcholine: The benzoic acid ester of choline.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Phosphoramides: Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Echothiophate Iodide: A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Disulfoton: An organothiophosphate insecticide.Buxaceae: A plant family of the order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery. Fruits are one- or two-seeded capsules or drupes (stony-pitted fleshy fruits).Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Trimedoxime: Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Solanine: A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Methyl Parathion: The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Ambenonium Chloride: A quaternary ammonium compound that is an inhibitor of cholinesterase activity with actions similar to those of NEOSTIGMINE, but of longer duration. Ambenonium is given by mouth in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1112)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.BrazilMelastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Receptor, Muscarinic M1: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Automobile Driver Examination: Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Amyloidogenic Proteins: Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.ThiazolesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Juglandaceae: The walnut plant family of the order Juglandales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly temperate zone trees.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Melopsittacus: A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/576)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (2/576)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

Human-serum cholinesterase subunits and number of active sites of the major component. (3/576)

The major C4 component of human serum cholinesterase was highly purified by a two-step procedure involving chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and preparative disc electrophoresis. The final product was about 8 000-fold purified with a yield of 64%. The subunit structure was determined by 8M urea polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis and by the sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation method in 5M guanidine hydrochloride. It was found that the C4 enzyme has a tetrameric structure. The subunits are equal in size and charge and a molecular weight comparable to that of the C1 enzyme from native serum. The major C4 enzyme and the minor C1 enzyme were subjected to an 'active enzyme centrifugation'. It was found that the C4 enzyme was a tetramer and the C1 enzyme was a monomer in the presence of substrate. The number of diisopropylphosphofluoridate-binding sites was measured from the molar ratio of bound diisopropylphosphate to protein. A value close to two binding sites was found for the C4 enzyme.  (+info)

Atypical serum cholinesterase in a family with congenital distichiasis. (4/576)

This paper describes the coexistence of genetically determined reduced cholinesterase activity and congenital distichiasis in the same family. The pedigree suggests that these two autosomal dominant diseases are segregated independently and do not show evidence of linkage.  (+info)

Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: a human volunteer study. (5/576)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the kinetics of elimination of urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites after oral and dermally applied doses of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos to human volunteers and to determine whether these doses affected plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. METHOD: Five volunteers ingested 1 mg (2852 nmol) of chlorpyrifos. Blood samples were taken over 24 hours and total void volumes of urine were collected over 100 hours. Four weeks later 28.59 mg (81567 nmol) of chlorpyrifos was administered dermally to each volunteer for 8 hours. Unabsorbed chlorpyrifos was washed from the skin and retained for subsequent measurement. The same blood and urine sampling regime was followed as for the oral administration. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase concentrations were determined for each blood sample. The concentration of two urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos--diethylphosphate and diethyl-thiophosphate--was determined for each urine sample. RESULTS: The apparent elimination half life of urinary dialkylphosphates after the oral dose was 15.5 hours and after the dermal dose it was 30 hours. Most of the oral dose (mean (range) 93% (55-115%)) and 1% of the applied dermal dose was recovered as urinary metabolites. About half (53%) of the dermal dose was recovered from the skin surface. The absorption rate through the skin, as measured by urinary metabolites was 456 ng/cm2/h. Blood plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity did not fall significantly during either dosing regime. CONCLUSION: An oral dose of chlorpyrifos was readily absorbed through the skin and almost all of the dose was recovered as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites. Excretion was delayed compared with the oral dose. Only a small proportion of the applied dose was recovered during the course of the experiment. The best time to collect urine samples for biological monitoring after dermal exposure is before the shift the next day. The amounts of chlorpyrifos used did not depress acetyl cholinesterase activity but could be readily detected as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites indicating that the urinary assay is a more sensitive indicator of exposure.  (+info)

Impaired respiratory muscle function in chemical plant workers producing chlorfenvinphos. (6/576)

All employees of a chemical plant division producing chlorfenvinphos were studied, i.e. 35 males aged 25-57 years (mean 42.1); their employment period ranged from 1-15 years (mean 9.0). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 13 workers (37.1%). Mean air chlorfenvinphos concentrations in the work environment estimated with gas-liquid chromatography were from 0.0008-0.0018 mg/m3 (maximum allowable concentration according to Polish standards is 0. 01 mg/m3). The activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was similar to that observed in people who were not exposed to chemicals, however, a slightly lowered activity of plasma cholinesterase in the studied population was evidently the result of mild liver impairment. Spirometric investigations performed in the studied workers revealed slight alterations manifested by increased intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) (the value of the index was 138.6% of the mean value, 24 workers with an abnormally high index), as well as by decreased specific airway conductance (sGaw); its mean value in the studied group was 58.5% of the mean standard (11 people showed an abnormal index). Substantial functional changes were found in the respiratory muscles. Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP = 97. 2 +/- 28.3 cm H2O) as well as maximal expiratory pressures (MEP = 113.9 +/- 44.2 cm H2O) in the studied group were significantly lower (p < 0.01) as compared to those observed in the control group (MIP = 120.7 +/- 31.7; MEP = 154.4 +/- 40.2 cm H2O) of 22 males having similar cigarette smoking habit, without occupational exposure to chemicals. It was also found that the people who had worked for more than 10 years under conditions of exposure to chlorfenvinphos showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) values of maximal inspiratory pressure (87.2 +/- 28.06 cm H2O, n = 17) compared to the workers whose period of employment was shorter than 10 years (106.6 +/- 26.8 cm H2O, n = 18). The two groups were comparable with regard to age and smoking habits. The values of maximal expiratory pressures were similar in both groups. No essential disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission were observed; only in 3 workers (8.5%) the electrostimulating myasthenic test showed some disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission. It seems that respiratory muscles impairment in humans exposed to chlorfenvinphos results from changes in the metabolism and structure of muscles, and partly from lung hyperinflation.  (+info)

Hepatosplenic morbidity in schistosomiasis japonica: evaluation with Doppler sonography. (7/576)

In Southeast Asia, schistosomiasis japonica is an important cause of hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Reliable methods to investigate portal hypertension (PHT) clinically and epidemiologically on community level are lacking. Doppler sonography is an established tool for investigating PHT in hospital settings. In Leyte, The Philippines, 137 individuals underwent color Doppler sonography, stool examination, and serology for hepatitis B and C, liver cell injury and cholestasis. A total of 85% of the study population had been infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Sonographically, periportal liver fibrosis was seen in 25% and reticular echogenicities (network pattern) in 44%. Portal blood flow was decreased or portosystemic collaterals were present in 10% (adults throughout) and correlated with periportal fibrosis, but not with network lesions. Chronic viral hepatitis was rare. Thus, hepatic lesions are frequent in adults but not in children in areas endemic for S. japonicum. Periportal liver fibrosis indicates a risk of PHT, and network pattern fibrosis apparently does not. Doppler sonography is suitable for research under tropical field conditions.  (+info)

Influence of metoclopramide on plasma cholinesterase and duration of action of mivacurium. (8/576)

Mivacurium is metabolized by plasma cholinesterase (PCHE). Metoclopramide inhibits PCHE in vitro and in vivo. We have assessed the effect of metoclopramide on duration of action of mivacurium and measured PCHE at baseline and at the time of maximal block. In a randomized, double-blind study, 30 patients received metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1 i.v. or saline, followed by propofol anaesthesia and mivacurium 0.15 mg kg-1. Using a TOF-Guard accelerometer, times to recovery of TI to 25%, 75% and 90% were 13.4, 19.3 and 21.9 min in the saline group and 17.8, 25.3 and 28.8 min in the metoclopramide group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). There were no differences in onset time or recovery index between the groups. PCHE activity at the time of maximum block decreased within each group (P < 0.01) but there was no difference between groups. In a second biochemical study of eight patients, a small decrease in PCHE activity was detected after metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1, but before administration of mivacurium (P < 0.025). We conclude that metoclopramide prolongs the duration of action of mivacurium.  (+info)

*Alex Karczmar

Ontogenesis of cholinesterases. In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 129 - 186, Handbch. d ... In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 799 -832, Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Erganzungswk ... Contribution to the study of the mechanism of action of cholinesterase inhibitors. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 101: 327-343. ... These studies contributed to the understanding of the role of cholinesterases as morphogens and "transport" or "scavenger" ...

*Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease

Shen ZX (2004). "Brain cholinesterases: II. The molecular and cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease". Med. Hypotheses. 63 (2): ...

*Tetraethyl pyrophosphate

The cholinesterase forms a very stable complex with TEPP, in which TEPP is covalently bound to the cholinesterase. This is a ... Therefore, the acetyl group is hydrolysed to acetate and it will dissociate from the cholinesterase. Now the cholinesterase is ... The irreversible phosphorylation of the cholinesterase occurs in two steps. In the first step the cholinesterase gets ... This makes the inhibition of the cholinesterase permanent. The cholinesterase gets irreversible phosphorylated according to the ...

*Butyrylcholinesterase

The nomenclatural variations of BCHE and of cholinesterases generally are discussed at Cholinesterase § Types and nomenclature ... The term "serum cholinesterase" is generally used in reference to a clinical test that reflects levels of both of these enzymes ... Lockridge O, Adkins S, La Du BN (Sep 1987). "Location of disulfide bonds within the sequence of human serum cholinesterase". ... Cholinesterases Dibucaine number GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114200 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Organophosphate poisoning

Significant advances with cholinesterases (ChEs), specifically human serum BChE (HuBChE) have been made. HuBChe can offer a ... "Cholinesterase Inhibition". Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. "Pesticide Application and Safety Training for ... May 2008 USACEHR Technical Report 0801: An Evaluation of Blood Cholinesterase Testing Methods for Military Health Surveillance ... Specifically in the blood, metabolites of cholinesterases, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in plasma, neuropathy ...

*Acetylcholinesterase

The nomenclatural variations of ACHE and of cholinesterases generally are discussed at Cholinesterase § Types and nomenclature ... Massoulié J, Perrier N, Noureddine H, Liang D, Bon S (2008). "Old and new questions about cholinesterases". Chem Biol Interact ... Acetylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol ACHE), also known as AChE or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It ... Taylor P, Radić Z (1994). "The cholinesterases: from genes to proteins". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 34: 281- ...

*Turnover number

236 (8): 2292-5. Berry WK (Oct 1951). "The turnover number of cholinesterase" (PDF). Biochem. J. 49 (5): 615-20. PMC 1197565 . ... Rothenberg MA, Nachmansohn D (1947). "Studies on cholinesterase; purification of the enzyme from electric tissue by fractional ...

*Lars-Erik Tammelin

ISBN 91-87184-39-7. Tammelin, Lars-Erik (1958). Choline esters: substrate and inhibitors of cholinesterases. Stockholm. LIBRIS ... linked to their chemical similarity to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and their ability to block the enzyme cholinesterase ...

*Chlorpyrifos

Proceedings of the IX International Meeting on Cholinesterases. 175 (1-3): 355-364. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.04.008. ISSN 0009- ...

*Mefloquine

"Mefloquine inhibits cholinesterases at the mouse neuromuscular junction". Neuropharmacology. 49 (8): 1132-1139. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Mefloquine enhances nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid release via inhibition of cholinesterase". JPET. 317 (3): 1155-1160. doi: ...

*Methamidophos

It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Breakdown in soil is 6.1 days in sand, 309 days in water at pH 5.0, 27 days at pH 7.0, and 3 ...

*Malaoxon

It is a Cholinesterase inhibitor. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of sulfur oxides and phosphorus oxides. ( ... NTP, 1992) Symptoms of exposure to this type of compound include cholinesterase inhibition, miosis, frontal headache, increased ...

*Echothiophate

It covalently binds by its phosphate group to serine group at the active site of the cholinesterase. Once bound, the enzyme is ... Because of the very slow rate at which echothiophate is hydrolyzed by cholinesterase, its effects can last a week or more. ...

*Vascular dementia

The use of medications for treatment of Alzheimer's dementia, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, has shown small[ ... cholinesterase inhibitors galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine; and ginkgo biloba extract. The general management of dementia ...

*Dementia

Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder. Overall benefit ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are often used early in the disorder course; however, benefit is generally small. Cognitive and ... 2008). "Effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for treating dementia: evidence review for a clinical practice ... Rodda, J.; Morgan, S.; Walker, Z. (October 2009). "Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of the behavioral ...

*Pseudocholinesterase deficiency

If the total cholinesterase activity in the patient's blood is low, this may suggest an atypical form of the enzyme is present ... 2006). "Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency". eMedicine Retrieved June 16, 2008 "Cholinesterase Test". Lab Tests Online. Retrieved ...

*Galantamine

As with other cholinesterase inhibitors, galantamine may not be effective for treating mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's ... Birks, J (2006). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005593 ... Galantamine also works as a weak competitive and reversible cholinesterase inhibitor in all areas of the body. By inhibiting ... "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005593. doi:10.1002/14651858 ...

*Leucojum aestivum

Birks, J. (2006). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): ...

*Pralidoxime

Jokanović M, Prostran M (2009). "Pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators. Structure-activity relationship and efficacy ... "Current understanding of the application of pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators in treatment of organophosphate ...

*Obidoxime

Jokanović M, Prostran M (2009). "Pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators. Structure-activity relationship and efficacy ...

*Eseroline

Galli, A; Ranaudo, E; Giannini, L; Costagli, C (1996). "Reversible inhibition of cholinesterases by opioids: possible ...

*Leptophos

An example of a cholinesterase is the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This cholinesterase converts the neurotransmitter ... Leptophos is an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterases in vitro. The inhibitory activity of leptophos seems to be related to ...

*Muscarine

Pappano Achilles J, "Chapter 7. Cholinoceptor-Activating & Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs" (Chapter). Katzung BG: Basic & ...

*Soman

... can also bind to other esterases, e.g., AChE, cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterases (CarbE). In this binding, soman ... interfering with normal functioning of the mammalian nervous system by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase. It is an inhibitor ...

*Fenthion

Like most other organophosphates, its mode of action is via cholinesterase inhibition. Due to its relatively low toxicity ... Primarily, the effect is cholinesterase inhibition. Acute poisoning of fenthion results in miosis (pinpoint pupils), headache, ...
Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 - 65 - 125 - 170 - 250 - 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed.
Inhibition of plasma cholinesterase by three methylfluorophosphonates (MFF), sarin, soman and cyclosin, and by the products of their hydrolysis and alcoholysis was examined. Inhibition by phosphonic acids and by methyl esters derived from MFF was purely competitive while that by MFF was irreversible. The rate of phosphorylation of cholinesterase by MFF differs, depending on the structure of the alkoxy group in the MFF and decreases in the sequence soman-sarin-cyclosin. The affinity values of MFF, phosphonic acids and methyl esters of phosphonic acid for cholinesterase are comparable. The ,i,in vitro,/i, kinetic parameters suggest that plasma cholinesterase might act as a natural detoxicating agent in cases of poisoning with the above inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. ...
While the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic insecticides is well established in aquatic invertebrates of temperate areas, little is known about organisms from polar regions including Antarctica. Cholinesterase activity was investigated in specimens of the Antarctic scallop, Adamussium colbecki, collected in winter 2000 at Campo Icaro (Ross Sea, Antarctica) for preliminary characterization of a potentially new biomarker. Characterization of various ChE enzymes using specific substrates including an acetylthiocholine iodide (ASCh) and a butyrylthiocholine iodide (BSCh) was performed in gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle of the scallop. The effect of in vivo Zn2þ exposure in gills and digestive gland of A. colbecki was also studied. All the tissues expressed ChE activity (gill,adductor muscle,digestive gland) in accordance with data reported for marine mussels (Mytilus sp.) from temperate areas (1.1-13.8 nmol min1 mg protein1). Significant ...
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters. Thus, it is either of two enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of these cholinergic neurotransmitters, such as breaking acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid. These reactions are necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation. For example, in muscle contraction, acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction triggers a contraction; but for the muscle to relax afterward, rather than remaining locked in a tense state, the acetylcholine must be broken down by a choline esterase. The main type for that purpose is acetylcholinesterase (also called choline esterase I or erythrocyte cholinesterase); it is found mainly in chemical synapses and red blood cell membranes. The other type is butyrylcholinesterase (also called choline esterase II or plasma cholinesterase); it is found mainly in the blood plasma. The two ...
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Definition of cholinesterase. What is the meaning of cholinesterase in various languages. Translation of cholinesterase in the dictionary
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Now, about its overproduction: I dont really think it would make that much of a difference. The fact this(i think), there is already enough cholinesterase in the synaptic cleft to quickly degrade any molecules of acetylcholine that are not attached to the receptor. In an extreme cases, the cholinesterase would simply block the nerve impulse, having similar effects to those of specific inhibitors of the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ...
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1. DFP and TEPP produce readily reversible (by time) decreases in (a) the tension developed by directly stimulated, denervated skeletal muscle; (b) the amplitude of the spike potential of nerve; (c) the tension developed by skeletal muscle stimulated by slow (30/minute) excitation of its motor nerve; and (d) spinal and respiratory reflexes.. 2. Within the duration of our experiments (10 hours), DFP and TEPP produce irreversible decreases in (a) cholinesterase in the motor end-plate on skeletal muscle; (b) cholinesterase in the spinal cord; and (c) the ability of skeletal muscle to maintain a plateau of tension during excitation of its motor nerve at 50/second.. 3. Animals which had died after administration of DFP had complete or nearly complete removal of cholinesterase activity from the motor end-plates of skeletal muscle and from the spinal cord; TEPP can produce death despite the presence of considerable quantities of cholinesterase in the spinal cord and in the respiratory and other ...
ASTETE, Jonh et al. Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, peru 2006. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.4, pp.512-519. ISSN 1726-4634.. Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (viral hepatitis B, C and delta, syphilis and HIV) were evaluated, as well as heavy metals (lead in blood, and cadmium, arsenic and mercury in urine samples) and serum cholinesterase levels. Results. Mean age was 29 ± 17.25 years, 59.2% ...
Cholinesterases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. There are two types of cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which differ in their distribution in the body. Currently, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) represent the treatment of choice for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In this paper, we report the synthesis and inhibitory effect on both enzymes of four new peptides structurally related to P1-Hp-1971 (amphibian skin peptide found in our previous work. Sequence: TKPTLLGLPLGAGPAAGPGKR-NH2). The bioassay data and cytotoxicity test show that some of the compounds possess a significant AChE and BChE inhibition and no toxic effect. The present work demonstrates that diminution of the size of the original peptide could potentially result in new compounds with significant cholinesterase inhibition activity, although it appears that there is an optimal size for the sequence. We also conducted an exhaustive ...
Background:The muscle-relaxing effects of succinylcholine are terminated via hydrolysis by plasma cholinesterase. There are multiple genetic variants of this enzyme and clinical circumstances that might influence the activity of plasma cholinesterase...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dominika Dingova, Jacqueline Leroy, Abel Check, Vladimir Garaj, Eric Krejci, Anna Hrabovska].
The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel widely expressed in vertebrates and is associated with numerous physiological functions. As transmembrane ion channels, α7-nAChRs need to be expressed on the surface of the plasma membrane to function. The receptor has been reported to associate with proteins involved with receptor biogenesis, modulation of receptor properties, as well as intracellular signaling cascades and some of these associated proteins may affect surface expression of α7- nAChRs. The putative chaperone resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 (Ric-3) has been reported to interact with, and enhance the surface expression of, α7-nAChRs. In this study, we identified proteins that associate with α7-nAChRs when Ric-3 is expressed. Using α-bungarotoxin (α-bgtx), we isolated and compared α7-nAChR-associated proteins from two stably transfected, human tumor-derived cell lines: SH-EP1-hα7 expressing human α7-nAChRs and the
Axamon® (ipidacrine) - cholinesterase inhibitor. Axamon stimulates neuromuscular transmission and conduction of excitation along the nerve and smooth muscles due to blockage of the potassium channels of the excitable membrane and inhibition of cholinesterase activity, enhances the effect on the smooth muscles of acetyl
There has been much interest in using drugs to treat Alzheimers disease since the 1970s. Thats when it was discovered that people with the disease have less of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains because of degeneration of the nerve cells that produce it. Acting as a messenger between nerve cells in the brain, acetylcholine is thought to be involved in memory, learning and reasoning.. Cholinesterase is an enzyme produced by the body that breaks down acetylcholine. It is believed that the cholinesterase inhibitors reduce the production of cholinesterase, which results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, and in turn may help reduce or stabilize the symptoms of Alzheimers disease. ...
There has been much interest in using drugs to treat Alzheimers disease since the 1970s. Thats when it was discovered that people with the disease have less of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains because of degeneration of the nerve cells that produce it. Acting as a messenger between nerve cells in the brain, acetylcholine is thought to be involved in memory, learning and reasoning.. Cholinesterase is an enzyme produced by the body that breaks down acetylcholine. It is believed that the cholinesterase inhibitors reduce the production of cholinesterase, which results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, and in turn may help reduce or stabilize the symptoms of Alzheimers disease. ...
Inclusion of the immediate coupon free drugs pfizer viagra intravenous administration of hypertonic dextrose solutions can be administered to a viral infection or exacerbation of chronic toxicity have clinical evidence of risk. Imbalanced nutrition, less than their respective elemental forms, are reducing agents. As a result of abination of antiviral drugs is central nervous system from the irritant gases methylisocyanate is one of the blood-brain barrier and the presence of the, 58,59 provides the family in lifestyle adjustments are often impulsive and may thus reduce the pressure without moving your neck. Nurses need to experiment with these features occur in meningitis. Links that designate the relationships between toxic xenobiotics and products containing high concentrations of plasma cholinesterase inhibition is an unpleasant taste in mouth 5. Inability to put your hands in water. Provide experiences for the nurse provides positive cardiovascular fitness during pregnancy. 303) and a sense ...
This test looks for toxic chemicals in your blood. These chemicals are most often found in insecticides, either those use in fields or those used in bug sprays.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, Joyce Izidoro da Silva, Lucas Campos Curcino Vieira, Gilberto C R Bernasconi, Arlene Gonçalves Corrêa, Quezia Bezerra Cass, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso].
Classification of Neuropsychiatric Medications Based On Their Principle Mechanisms Of Action Acetylcholine Cholinesterase Inhibition donepezil
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013 ] E così stando, essendo Rustico più che mai nel suo disidéro acceso per lo vederla così bella, venne la resurrezion della carne, la quale riguardando Alibech e maravigliatasi, disse: " Rustico, quella che cosa è, che io ti veggio, che così si pigne in fuori, e non l ho io? " [ 014 ] " O figliuola mia, " disse Rustico, " questo è il Diavolo, di che io t ho parlato: e vedi tu? ora egli mi dà grandissima molestia, tanta che io appena la posso sofferire. " [ 015 ] Allora disse la giovane: " Oh lodato sia Iddio, chè io veggio che io sto meglio che non stai tu, chè io non ho cotesto Diavolo io. " [ 016 ] Disse Rustico: " Tu di vero, ma tu hai un altra cosa che non la ho io, et háila in iscambio di questo. " [ 017 ] Disse Alibech: " O che? " [ 018 ] A cui Rustico disse: " Hai il ninferno; e dicoti che io mi credo che Iddio t abbia qui mandata per la salute della anima mia, per ciò che se questo Diavolo pur mi darà questa noja, ove tu vogli aver di me tanta pietà, e sofferire che ...
013 ] E così stando, essendo Rustico più che mai nel suo disidéro acceso per lo vederla così bella, venne la resurrezion della carne, la quale riguardando Alibech e maravigliatasi, disse: " Rustico, quella che cosa è, che io ti veggio, che così si pigne in fuori, e non l ho io? " [ 014 ] " O figliuola mia, " disse Rustico, " questo è il Diavolo, di che io t ho parlato: e vedi tu? ora egli mi dà grandissima molestia, tanta che io appena la posso sofferire. " [ 015 ] Allora disse la giovane: " Oh lodato sia Iddio, chè io veggio che io sto meglio che non stai tu, chè io non ho cotesto Diavolo io. " [ 016 ] Disse Rustico: " Tu di vero, ma tu hai un altra cosa che non la ho io, et háila in iscambio di questo. " [ 017 ] Disse Alibech: " O che? " [ 018 ] A cui Rustico disse: " Hai il ninferno; e dicoti che io mi credo che Iddio t abbia qui mandata per la salute della anima mia, per ciò che se questo Diavolo pur mi darà questa noja, ove tu vogli aver di me tanta pietà, e sofferire che ...
Dernières PublicationsHot spots for protein partnership at the surface of cholinesterases and related alpha/beta hydrolase fold proteins or (...)
Homo sapiens resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 homolog A (C. elegans), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:131931 IMAGE:6526180), complete cds ...
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<p>A simple colour-change test for detecting food contaminated with melamine could form the basis of a low-cost field kit.</p>
Dopo tutto questo e molto altro, è facile arrivare alla conclusione che noi donne, da che nasciamo a che moriamo, altro non siamo che EROINE. In un mondo che ci è ostile e che continua a non accettarci, noi, facciamo ogni giorno la scelta di esporci. E così, capita che subiamo. Non facile come scelta, soprattutto se pensiamo che noi donne, spesso siamo madri di altre donne, ragazze, bambine che ogni giorno fanno la coraggiosa scelta di voler vivere nella luce, anche quando questo significa affrontare il buio! Buona fortuna, a tutte noi ...
In nulla di importante. con: intendevo dire che si potrebbe inciampare, non dicevo che non si ha la salvezza Mag. Per tutto il resto che hai scritto sono perfettamente daccordo.
Forse ormai mi caccierete visto che il terzo thread che apro... Ma proprio non riesco a risolvere il mio problema con la Web Adult e spero che
Un cappotto bellisimo Rosanna, cumplimenti per le meravigliose vacanze che hai fatto e per tutti i regali che hai ricevuto e anche tutto il amore che hai portato con te. Un bacio ...
Se leggi questo post, vuol dire che hai saputo. Hai saputo che Patrizia, mia moglie, e io, ci siamo ripresi Esperya. O meglio, Esperya ci è ricascata addosso. Il problema ora è: che fare? ...
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Datemi tempo , non so se riuscirò a commentare tutti i vostri post ma siate certi che leggerò tutto quello che avete scritto ! ...
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SCUOLA DI BIOINFORMATICA 2014 Corsi teorico-pratici per l utilizzo di strumenti statistici e bioinformatici La Scuola di Bioinformatica, che vanta un esperienza più che decennale, si rivolge a ricercatori,
Pagina 1. _ I l momento Pagina 2. _ cultura politeosta _ che i futori _ dalle Sacre (d maiuscola) _ vivicarle in toto.
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: We investigated the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on all-cause discontinuation, efficacy and safety, and the effects of study design-, intervention-, and patient-related covariates on the risk-benefit of cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimers disease. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing cholinesterase inhibitors and placebo was performed. The effect of covariates on study outcomes was analysed by means of meta-regression using a Bayesian framework. Results: Forty-three randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving 16106 patients were included. All-cause discontinuation was higher with cholinesterase inhibitors (OR = 1.66), as was discontinuation due to adverse events (OR=1.75). Cholinesterase inhibitors improved cognitive function (standardized mean difference = 0.38), global symptomatology (standardized mean difference=0.28) and functional capacity (standardized mean
Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight...
Cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are applied throughout Australia to control agricultural pests. Blood plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity is a sensitive indicator of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides in vertebrates. To aid biomonitoring and provide reference data for wildlife pesticide-risk assessment, plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were characterised in nine species of native bird: King Quails (Excalfactoria chinensis), Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), White-plumed Honeyeaters (Lichenostomas penicillatus), Yellow-throated Miners (Manorina flavigula), Willie Wagtails (Rhipidura leucophrys), Australian Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus australis), Brown Songlarks (Cincloramphus cruralis), Double-barred Finches (Taeniopygia bichenovii) and Australasian Pipits (Anthus novaeseelandiae). Plasma ChE activities in all species were within the range of most other avian species and all but one contained AChE and BChE; no AChE was present in King Quail,
Careful inspection of the data suggests that although this is true, on average, not all patients are average. Functional residual capacity may be reduced and/or oxygen consumption increased and/or preoxygenation not optimal. 1 Also, succinylcholine does not have the same effect in all subjects, even if their plasma cholinesterase activity is within the normal range. Kopman et al. 3 found a 5-min range for all levels of recovery. In Hayes et al. s study, 8 manual ventilation had to be applied in 11% of cases to prevent hypoxia, and in Heier et al. s study, 7 one subject was apneic for 9 min! The safety of succinylcholine is limited by these relatively sensitive patients, and interestingly, a decrease in dose does not have a marked effect on the upper range of duration (10, 10.5, and 11 min in Kopman et al. s study 3 for 0.4, 0.6, and 1 mg/kg, respectively). This is not unexpected, because the half-life of succinylcholine is less than 1 min. 10 Doubling the dose of any drug should prolong its ...
CARMONA-FONSECA, Jaime. Correlation and interconversion between erythrocyte cholinesterase values obtained by the Michel and the EQM® techniques . Biomédica [online]. 2006, vol.26, n.4, pp.546-555. ISSN 0120-4157.. Introduction. Several techniques are available to measure red cell cholinesterase; therefore, evaluations with several methods provide a measure of concordance. Objective. An equation was formulated to transform native data of reference values to reference units of cholinesterase activity as measured by Michel and EQM® tests. Materials and methods. The experimental design was descriptive, transversal and prospective. The group sampled was a representative adult working population, aged 18-75, without previous exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors pesticides. The individuals were affiliated to the Social Security System and resided in Valle de Aburrá and Cercano Oriente Antioqueño (Antioquia Province, northwestern Colombia). Results. Of 827 individuals, quantitative erythrocytes ...
Patients. 81 302 community-dwelling persons ≥ 66 years of age (mean age 80 y, 62% women) who had been diagnosed with dementia and had not been hospitalized for syncope in the previous year. 19 803 patients (drug cohort) were new users of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine), and 61 499 patients (control cohort) had not received a prescription for a cholinesterase inhibitor in the previous year. The control cohort was matched to the drug cohort by year and quarter of cohort entry. ...
Australian farmers and their workers are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are a widely used class of pesticide used for animal husbandry practices (Naphthalophos for sheep dipping, jetting and drench), crop production for pest control (Dimethoate) and in public health (Maldison for head lice). Acute poisonings with this class of insecticide are reported among agricultural workers and children around the globe, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Less is known about chronic exposures. Regular monitoring of erythrocyte AChE will enable farmers to identify potential exposure to organophosphate insecticides and take action to reduce exposures and improve their health and safety practices. This study aims to assess and improve the integration of AChE monitoring into routine point of care health clinics, and provide farming and non-farming people with a link between their AChE activity and their household chemical and agrichemical use. The research
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the bodys production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired. People who have this abnormality may be sensitive to certain anesthetic drugs, including the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium as well as other ester local anesthetics. Multiple studies done both in and outside India have shown an increased prevalence of pseudocholinesterase deficiency amongst the Arya Vysya community. A study performed in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu in Coimbatore, on 22 men and women from this community showed that 9 of them had pseudocholinesterase deficiency, which translates to a prevalence that is 4000-fold higher than that in European and American populations. Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (anesthesia sensitivity) is an autosomal recessive condition common within the Persian and Iraqi Jewish populations. Approximately one in 10 Persian Jews are known to have a mutation in the ...
Abstract: A decrease in activities of isoenzymes of aryl-, carboxyl esterases and alkaline phosphatase was shown, by means of agar gel electrophoresis, in blood serum and in most the isoforms of perinephric adipose tissue of rats within 3 days after partial pancreatectomy. In subsequent periods (6, 11 and 14 days) a normalization in the enzymatic activity and an increase in content of blood serum cholinesterase activity occurred ...
The duration of action of Succinylcholine is determined by its metabolism by plasma cholinesterase. So if there is abnormal plasma cholinesterase (=psuedocholinesterase), it will lead to delayed metabolism of succinylcholine as well as mivacirum, heroin, and cocaine. ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors slow decline in function in Alzheimers Disease (AD): A 2-year observational study in the Sunnybrook dementia cohort Conference Paper ...
Symptoms of Chemical poisoning - Chlorfenvinphos including 52 medical symptoms and signs of Chemical poisoning - Chlorfenvinphos, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Chemical poisoning - Chlorfenvinphos signs or Chemical poisoning - Chlorfenvinphos symptoms.
Additional supportive treatment must be given, which could include light anaesthesia ordeep sedation and fluid therapy until the dog has eliminated the poison. References1. Aaron C K, Howland M A1994 Insecticides: Organophosphates and carbamates. In Goldfranks Toxicologic Emergencies 5th Edition Goldfrank L R, Florenbaum N E,Lewin N A, Weisman R S Howland M A, Hoffman R S (ed) Appleton & Lange,Norwalk 1105 - 1114 2. Adams H R 1988 Cholinergic pharmacology. Autonomic drugs. In Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Booth N H, McDonald L E (ed) Iowa StateUniversity Press, Iowa 117 - 123 3. Barret D S, Oehme F W, Kruckenberg S M 1985 A review of organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 27(1): 22 -37 4. Beasley V R, Dorman D C 1990 Management of toxicoses. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 20(2): 307 - 337 5. Blakley B R, Yole M J 2002 Species differences in normal brain cholinesterase activities of animals and birds. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cholinergic Toxicity, Cholinergic Overdose, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agent, Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic Agent.
Phencyclidine -- Physiological effect. : Possible long-term health effects of short-term exposure to chemical agents. Volume 2, Cholinesterase reactivators, psychochemicals, and irritants and vesicants / prepared by the Panel on Cholinesterase Reactivator Chemicals, Panel on Psychochemicals, Panel on Irritants and Vesicants, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council ...
Esmolol is rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis of the ester linkage, chiefly by the esterases in the cytosol of red blood cells and not by plasma cholinesterases or red cell membrane acetylcholinesterase. Total body clearance in man was found to be about 20 L/kg/hr, which is greater than cardiac output; thus the metabolism of esmolol is not limited by the rate of blood flow to metabolizing tissues such as the liver or affected by hepatic or renal blood flow. Esmolol has a rapid distribution half-life of about 2 minutes and an elimination half-life of about 9 minutes. Using an appropriate loading dose, steady-state blood levels of BREVIBLOC injection for dosages from 50-300 mcg/kg/min are obtained within five minutes. Steady-state is reached in about 30 minutes without the loading dose. Steady-state blood levels of esmolol increase linearly over this dosage range and elimination kinetics are dose-independent over this range. Steady-state blood levels are maintained during infusion but decrease ...
Esmolol is rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis of the ester linkage, chiefly by the esterases in the cytosol of red blood cells and not by plasma cholinesterases or red cell membrane acetylcholinesterase. Total body clearance in man was found to be about 20 L/kg/hr, which is greater than cardiac output; thus the metabolism of esmolol is not limited by the rate of blood flow to metabolizing tissues such as the liver or affected by hepatic or renal blood flow. Esmolol has a rapid distribution half-life of about 2 minutes and an elimination half-life of about 9 minutes.. Using an appropriate loading dose, steady-state blood levels of esmolol hydrochloride for dosages from 50 to 300 mcg/kg/min are obtained within five minutes. Steady-state is reached in about 30 minutes without the loading dose. Steady-state blood levels of esmolol increase linearly over this dosage range and elimination kinetics are dose-independent over this range. Steady-state blood levels are maintained during infusion but ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
3) fatigue, but also one of the symptoms of cirrhosis, the extent of feeling tired from mild to severe fatigue, consistent with the activity level of liver disease. Produced weak due to: symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver to eat less calories; carbohydrates, protein, fat and other intermediate metabolic disorder, caused by lack of energy production is also symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver; liver damage or poor when bile , blood cholinesterase decreased, affecting the nerves, muscles of the normal physiological function of these are symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver; into lactic acid that barriers to the process of glycogen, muscle activity, excessive lactic acid accumulation ...
Drugs with acetylcholine-like effects (cholinomimetics) consist of 2 major subgroups on the basis of their mode of action (ie, whether they act directly at the acetylcholine receptor or indirectly through inhibition of cholinesterase). Drugs in the direct-acting subgroup are further subdivided on the basis of their spectrum of action (ie, whether they act on muscarinic or nicotinic cholinoceptors).. Acetylcholine may be considered the prototype that acts directly at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Neostigmine is a prototype for the indirect-acting cholinesterase inhibitors.. ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a rare genetic condition where the affected individual has increased sensitivity to several anesthetic agents. The use of these drugs may leave some of the muscles paralyzed
K.M. KUTTY, V. ANNAPURNA, V. PRABHAKARAN; Pseudocholinesterase: a protein with functions unrelated to its name. Biochem Soc Trans 1 June 1989; 17 (3): 555-556. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0170555. Download citation file:. ...
Estimation of functional liver reserve in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis is of paramount importance to properly select candid
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
|p|One of the most popular kits in the SIRCHIE® line. It is designed to meet the high standards required by today’s police departments and contains all the necessary materials for conducting investigations at the crime scene. A cardholder is mou
4AXB: A Step Toward the Reactivation of Aged Cholinesterases -Crystal Structure of Ligands Binding to Aged Human Butyrylcholinesterase
4BC1: Inhibition Pathways of the Potent Organophosphate Cbdp with Cholinesterases Revealed by X-Ray Crystallographic Snapshots and Mass Spectrometry
Some Alzheimers drugs could reduce the risk of heart attacks and death, according to research. Scientists in Sweden studied over 7,000 people with the disease, looking at cholinesterase inhibitors (C...
Ophthalmoscopic photograph, and perhaps other tissues, are genetically regulated and appears to re Мect personality-type фGarpenstrand et al. Int Psychogeriatr 17 (4) 557в575 Birks J (2006) Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimerвs disease. 6, 11 Less commonly observed findings include retinal vas- culitis16 and retinal and optic disc neovascularization.
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Korean translations for Matrix package. # ./Matrix/po/R-ko.po # Maintainer: Martin Maechler ,[email protected], # # This file is distributed under the same license as the R Matrix package. # maintained by Chel Hee Lee ,[email protected],, 2013-2016. # Contact: Chel Hee Lee ,[email protected], # # Notes: # Under development (unstable) starting from 11-APR-2016 for R-3.3.1 - QC: in progress # Freezed on 10-APR-2016 for R-3.3.0 - QC: PASS # Freezing on 15-JUL-2015 for R-3.3.0, QC: PASS # Freezing on 30-MAR-2015 for R-3.2.0, QC: PASS # Freezing on 28-FEB-2015 for R-3.1.3, QC: PASS # msgid "" msgstr "" "Project-Id-Version: R-3.3.0\n" "POT-Creation-Date: 2015-07-16 21:44\n" "PO-Revision-Date: 2016-04-11 13:08-0600\n" "Last-Translator: Chel Hee Lee ,[email protected],\n" "Language-Team: Chel Hee Lee ,[email protected],\n" "Language: ko\n" "MIME-Version: 1.0\n" "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n" "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n" "Plural-Forms: nplurals=1; plural=0;\n" msgid ...
Synonyms for Eilean a' Cheò in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Eilean a' Cheò. 1 word related to Isle of Skye: Inner Hebrides. What are synonyms for Eilean a' Cheò?
Here is the best resource for homework help with CHE 101 : Programming and Computing for CHE at Rose-Hulman. Find CHE101 study guides, notes, and practice
J Dewey Manufacturing; maker of the famous J Dewey Rods for cleaning your guns, is giving away awesome goods all week long! Today, TWO lucky people will each win an AR-10 Field Kit, which will work great on any .308/7.62 caliber weapon.
J Dewey Manufacturing; maker of the famous J Dewey Rods for cleaning your guns, is giving away awesome goods all week long! Today, TWO lucky people will each win an AR-10 Field Kit, which will work great on any .308/7.62 caliber weapon.
E da sempre che cerco un oggettino che mi aggreghi, cioè che fornisca un rapido colpo docchio dei contenuti che segno come interessanti, o che disperdo in giro per la rete - link su Del.icio.us, eventi su Upcoming.org, etc. Be sì un po è per invidia nei confronti di Federico Fasce e la sua bellissima Web identity, e per gli script di Davide Folletto Casali che fanno effetto magia :). Un po è per lavorare in modo più focalizzato con gruppi diversi. Con alcuni amici scambio info sul mondo mobile, con altri su video e tv, altri ancora musica etc. Unidea (di alter) era usare tag di gruppo su Del.icio.us, in modo da sottoscrivere, i partecipanti del gruppo, lo specifico feed nellaggregatore. Unaltra, che stavo appunto cercando, era trovare un aggregatore al contrario, una pagina cioè che rendesse pubblico ciò che andavo sottoscrivendo.. Be, questa roba ci assomiglia. Chiamato pomposamente Ecosistema, è fatto con PageFlakes, un sistema di start-page, cioè home page con ...
IV onset in 30s to 1 minute, lasting 2-3 minutes, with offset typically within 10 minutes. Offset occurs due to dissociation of drug out of NMJ into plasma, as a concentration gradient is established by drug breakdown in plasma. Prolonged duration in patients with pseudocholinesterase deficiency. IM onset in 2-3 minues ...
Fu sei-sette anni fa, vivevo in un distretto del governatorato di T., nella tenuta del possidente Belokùrov, un giovane che si alzava molto presto, portava la poddëvka1, la sera beveva birra e continuava a lamentarsi con me di non riuscire a trovare comprensione da nessuna parte in nessuno. Lui viveva nella dépendance in giardino, e io nella vecchia casa padronale, nellenorme sala con colonne, che non aveva mobili a eccezione del divano largo su cui dormivo e del tavolo su cui facevo i solitari. Qui sempre, anche col bel tempo, cera qualcosa che fischiava nelle vecchie stufe Amosov2, e durante i temporali tutta la casa tremava e, sembrava, cadeva a pezzi, e faceva un po paura, soprattutto di notte, quando tutte e dieci le grandi finestre venivano allimprovviso illuminate da un lampo.. Condannato dalla sorte al continuo ozio, non facevo decisamente nulla. Per ore intere guardavo dalle mie finestre il cielo, gli uccelli, i vialetti, leggevo tutto quello che mi portavano dalla posta, ...
Wheezing nel bambino. Incidenza, pattern longitudinale e fattori che predicono la persistenza Luciana Indinnimeo Dipartimento di Pediatria e NPI Il bambino con wheezing La prevalenza di wheezing può raggiungere
Ho ritrovato una mia composizione che scrissi quasi quattro anni fa. Già allora il mio dolore era pesante, era costante. Questa poesia parla della sottoscritta che è avvolta dalla solitudine, ed ogni cosa che mi circonda nel bosco in cui mi trovo mi ricorda il mio ragazzo che maveva lasciata poco tempo prima e di…
Scopo di ogni livello è distruggere un determinato numero di generatori, per consentire laccesso allo stage successivo. Creati in maniera procedurale, pur mantenendo i tratti estetici di base, i livelli non sono mai troppo intricati. Piuttosto, a causa di sottopassaggi, paratie e altri elementi del fondale, capita che lazione risulti poco leggibile, e in un titolo di tale difficoltà non è proprio un difetto da poco. Per fortuna, una volta presa la mano con i controlli, i nostri poteri sono sempre capaci di trarci dimpaccio. Altro elemento interessante è il poter scegliere morfologicamente la natura di ogni stage, fra tre tipologie differenti. Gli elementi che li contraddistinguono sono grandezza, loot (la quantità di oggetti disponibili) ed elite, che corrisponde al numero di nemici speciali - e letali - in giro per quella sezione. ...
Explain why you are applying to the Chevening programme and explain the personal, mental and sociable qualities that will make you in a position to
Lepiglottide è infiammazione ed il gonfiamento dellepiglottide. Lepiglottide si trova appena dietro la root della linguetta alla parte posteriore della bocca
Utilizziamo i cookie per essere sicuri che tu possa avere la migliore esperienza sul nostro sito. Se continui ad utilizzare questo sito noi assumiamo che tu ne sia felice.Ok ...
Ed eccola di nuovo lì, pronta a saltarmi addosso, a violentarmi, a distruggere ancora di più il mio corpo e la mia anima. Sono di nuovo sua. Non posso resisterle.Lei, la depressione che in tutti questi anni mi è sempre rimasta nel profondo, senza chio riuscissi a scrollarmela di dosso.Ho vissuto troppe esperienze negative che…
Hello I am a new owner to a Leo. The pet store sold me ALL the wrong things and I had to repurchase everything. I am obsessively researching and so mu
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Chirurgo Ortopedico che riceve a carbonia al centro CEVA su prenotazione. Per appuntamento contattate me direttamente al numero +39 0256566433 o il centro CEVA ai numeri 3281035725 oppure 078164160
Le celle dentritiche sono celle immuni innate importanti che svolgono un ruolo chiave nella modellatura della risposta immunitaria dellorganismo
La Fondazione Bonotto nasce per promuovere la Collezione Luigi Bonotto che dai primi anni Settanta ad oggi ha raccolto numerosissime testimonianze tra opere, documentazioni audio, video, manifesti, libri, riviste ed edizioni di artisti Fluxus e...
Buonasera a tutti! sono un utente poco assiduo, e mi scuso se magari da qualche parte si gi parlato dellargomento che vado a descrivere. Un po di
More than 5000 passengers of Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas sarin. Most of the victims examined had marked miosis and decreased serum cholinesterase activity. To monitor the genetic aftereffects of sarin exposure, we measured sister chromatid exchanges SCEs of the victims using peripheral blood...
The review summarizes research into the highly relevant topics of cholinesterase and amyloid aggregation inhibitors connected to tacrine congeners, both of which are associated with neurogenerative diseases. Various opinions will be discussed regarding the dual binding site inhibitors which are characterized by increased inhibitor potency against acetylcholin/butyrylcholine esterase and amyloid formation. It is suggested that these compounds can both raise levels of acetylcholine by binding to the active site, and also prevent amyloid aggregation. In connection with this problem, the mono/dual binding of the multifunctional derivatives of tacrine, their mode of action and their neuroprotective activities are reported. The influence of low molecular compounds on protein amyloid aggregation, which might be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of Alzheimers disease is also reported. Finally, attention is paid to some physico-chemical factors, such as desolvation energies
Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after exposure; the miotic pupils dilated slowly over a 30-45 day-period. Eye pain and blurred vision did not occur; visual acuity and amplitude of accommodation were improved for several weeks. Other functions not affected significantly were intraocular pressure, visual fields, color vision, heterophorias, and vergences. ...
Malathion is an organophosphorous compound that inhibits cholinesterase enzyme activity. Malathion contains an interesting phosphinothioyl-thio ester as its active moiety where modification of acetylcholinesterase occurs. The action of Malathion on acetylcholinesterase has been correlated to prolonged modulation of the functioning of the cutaneous vasculature. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide of relatively low human toxicity.
BACKGROUND: Memantine is licensed for moderate-to-severe Alzheimers disease (AD). National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance does not recommend the use of memantine in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI)). The underpinning meta-analysis was disputed by the manufacturer. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of AChEI monotherapy with combination memantine and AChEI therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe AD and to examine the impact of including unpublished data on the results. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Dementia Group trial register, ALOIS, searched for the last time on 3 May 2011. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data from four domains (clinical global, cognition, function, behaviour and mood) were pooled. Sensitivity analyses examined the impact on the NICE-commissioned meta-analysis of restricting data to patients with moderate-to-severe AD and of including an unpublished
QSAR Models towards Cholinesterase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimers Disease: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8136-1.ch010: Alzheimers Disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological syndrome with the combination of aging, genetic, and environmental factors triggering the
Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - email [email protected] ANAESTHESIA IN PREGNANCY FOR NON-OBSTETRIC SURGERY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 185 28TH JUNE 2010 Dr. Alison Hool Central Manchester Foundation Trust Correspondence to [email protected] MCQ QUESTIONS (True / False) Before reading this tutorial, try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article. 1. a) b) c) d) e) Non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy:occurs in approximately 5% appendicectomy is the most common procedure performed is associated with increased congenital abnormalities is associated with increased spontaneous abortion laparoscopy is contraindicated 2. a) b) c) d) e) During pregnancy: MAC decreases by 10% plasma cholinesterase levels increase suxamethonium has a clinically prolonged duration of action platelet consumption decreases Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) may be less than alveoli closing volume 3. a) b) c) d) e) Concerning foetal safety during non-obstetric surgery: ...
The effect of fenitrothion exposure on birds was examined by measuring aerobic metabolism, blood hemoglobin content, plasma cholinesterases, and body weight for up to 21 d postdose. Peak metabolic rate was measured in a flight chamber in three-dose groups of house sparrows (Passer domesticus; 100 mg/kg = high, 60 mg/kg = medium, 30 mg/kg = low) and one-dose groups of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata; 3 mg/kg) and king quails (Coturnix chinensis; 26 mg/kg). Aerobic metabolism was measured during 1 h of exposure to subfreezing thermal conditions in low-dose house sparrows and king quails (26 mg/kg). Fenitrothion had no effect on metabolic rate during cold exposure or on blood hemoglobin at any time. By contrast, aerobic performance during exercise in sparrows was reduced by 58% (high), 18% (medium), and 20% (low), respectively, 2 d postdose. House sparrows (high) had the longest recovery period for peak metabolic rate (21 d) and plasma cholinesterase activity (14 d). House sparrows (high) and treated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Zephyrantes Carinata and Their Evaluation as Cholinesterases (AChE and BChE) Inhibitors. AU - Cortes, Natalie. AU - Sierra, Karina. AU - Tallini, Luciana. AU - Borges, Warley de S.. AU - de Andrade, Jean Paulo. AU - Bastida, Jaume. AU - Osorio, Edison. PY - 2019/8/12. Y1 - 2019/8/12. U2 - 10.3390/proceedings2019022066. DO - 10.3390/proceedings2019022066. M3 - Artículo. VL - 22. JO - Proceedings. JF - Proceedings. SN - 2504-3900. IS - 66. ER - ...
The results of 10 randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials demonstrate that treatment for 6 months, with donepezil, galantamine or rivastigmine at the recommended dose for people with mild, moderate or severe dementia due to Alzheimers disease produced improvements in cognitive function, on average -2.37 points (95%CI -2.73 to -2.02, p,0.00001), in the midrange of the 70 point ADAS-Cog Scale. Study clinicians rated global clinical state more positively in treated patients. Benefits of treatment were also seen on measures of activities of daily living and behaviour. None of these treatment effects are large.. The effects are similar for patients with severe dementia, although there is very little evidence, from only two trials.. More patients leave ChEI treatment groups, (29%), than leave the placebo groups (18%).. There is evidence of more adverse events in total in the patients treated with a ChEI than with placebo. Although many types of adverse event were reported, nausea, ...
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Evaluation of essential oils from Boswellia sacra and Teucrium mascatense against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme and urease enzyme
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity with Various RBC Indices. AU - Gupta, Shalvika. AU - Belle, Vijetha Shenoy. AU - Kumbarakeri Rajashekhar, Ramya. AU - Jogi, Sushma. AU - Prabhu, RV Krishnananda. PY - 2018/9/4. Y1 - 2018/9/4. N2 - Cholinesterases belongs to class hydrolases. There are two types acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase present in nerve endings and also in the RBC membrane. It helps to maintain the shape and size of RBCs. Any change in shape and size of RBCs may affect the activity of Acetylcholinesterase. Thus this study aimed to estimate RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in various types of anemias and correlate the RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity with various hematological indices such as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) etc. After ...
Butyrylcholinesterase [BuChE (acylcholine acyl hydrolase); EC 3.1.1.8] limits the access of drugs, including tacrine, to other proteins. The atypical BuChE variant, in which Asp70 at the rim of the active site gorge is substituted by glycine, displayed a more drastically weakened interaction with tacrine than with cocaine, dibucaine, succinylcholine, BW284c51 [1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide], or alpha-solanine. To delineate the protein domains that are responsible for this phenomenon, we mutated residues within the rim of the active site gorge, the region parallel to the peripheral site in the homologous enzyme acetylcholinesterase [AChE (acetylcholine acetyl hydrolase); EC 3.1.1.7], the oxyanion hole, and the choline-binding site. When expressed in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes, all mutant DNAs yielded comparable amounts of immunoreactive protein products. Most mutants retained catalytic activity close to that of wild-type BuChE and were capable of binding ligands

Cholinesterases | NatureCholinesterases | Nature

The enzymes from brain and red cells are said to be specific cholinesterases, and in addition a non-specific cholinesterase ... This is also true for the cholinesterase of the nervous system, where the enzyme is bound to the cell structure. Hence, the red ... IT is known that the cholinesterases from various animal tissues are not identical, and it has been proposed that two types of ... The enzymes from brain and red cells are said to be specific cholinesterases, and in addition a non-specific cholinesterase ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/162194a0?error=cookies_not_supported&code=498adbf7-3c62-408e-b86c-967783335b0b

Cholinesterase | Encyclopedia.comCholinesterase | Encyclopedia.com

Purpose Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase. ... Cholinesterase inhibitors Definition Cholinesterase inhibitors are a group of drugs prescribed to treat symptoms resulting from ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase. Cholinesterase ... Some cholinesterase inhibitors should be used with caution in persons with asthma or lung disease, as cholinesterase inhibitors ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/cholinesterase

Distribution of cholinesterases in insects.  - PubMed - NCBIDistribution of cholinesterases in insects. - PubMed - NCBI

In general, acetylthiocholine was hydrolysed slightly more rapidly by insect cholinesterases. A unique cholinesterase was found ... Distribution of cholinesterases in insects.. Booth GM, Lee AH.. Abstract. The study of toxicology and other related fields has ... Ultrastructural evidence shows that cholinesterases that hydrolyse acetylthiocholine are membrane-bound. Phenyl thioacetate was ... methods is discussed.The substrates acetylthiocholine and phenyl thioacetate were utilized in demonstrating cholinesterase. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5315359?dopt=Abstract

CDPH-Approved Cholinesterase LaboratoriesCDPH-Approved Cholinesterase Laboratories

Cholinesterase testing on workers may only be done by a laboratory that has been approved by the California Department of ... CDPH-Approved Cholinesterase Laboratories. Regulations relating to Pesticide Worker safety specify that certain loaders, mixers ... and applicators of pesticides must be monitored for exposure, as measured by depression of their cholinesterase enzyme activity ... Environmental Health Laboratory is responsible for maintaining the list of laboratories approved to perform Cholinesterase ...
more infohttps://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CCDPHP/DEODC/EHLB/Pages/CDPH-Approved-Cholinesterase-Laboratories.aspx

Cholinesterase - blood: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCholinesterase - blood: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are ... Acetylcholinesterase; RBC (or erythrocyte) cholinesterase; Pseudocholinesterase; Plasma cholinesterase; Butyrylcholinesterase; ... Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003358.htm

Specific cholinesterase definition | Drugs.comSpecific cholinesterase definition | Drugs.com

Definition of specific cholinesterase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/specific-cholinesterase.html

CholinesteraseCholinesterase

... when cholinesterase tests are requested, and what the results of a cholinesterase test might mean ... As cholinesterase is synthesised by the liver the activity can also be lower in some liver diseases such as acute and chronic ... Cholinesterase activity and phenotype studies in a patient can be used to predict the degree of potential post-operative ... Cholinesterase activity can also be used to assess any acute exposure to these compounds which can cause neuromuscular damage. ...
more infohttps://www.labtestsonline.org.uk/tests/cholinesterase-test

Cholinesterases regulation in the absence of ColQ.  - PubMed - NCBICholinesterases regulation in the absence of ColQ. - PubMed - NCBI

Cholinesterases regulation in the absence of ColQ.. Sigoillot SM1, Bourgeois F, Legay C. ... Here, we investigated the effects of ColQ deficiency on cholinesterases mRNA levels and cluster formation. We show that ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20153305

Exelon: Cholinesterase Inhibitor | HealthyPlaceExelon: Cholinesterase Inhibitor | HealthyPlace

Cholinesterase Inhibitor? A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease. Usage, dosage, side-effects ... Use with Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A synergistic effect may be expected when cholinesterase ... Exelon is a cholinesterase Inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease. Usage, dosage, side-effects of Exelon. ... Exelon as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate succinylcholine-type muscle relaxation during anesthesia. ...
more infohttps://www.healthyplace.com/alzheimers/medications/exelon-cholinesterase-inhibitor

Aricept: Cholinesterase Inhibitor | HealthyPlaceAricept: Cholinesterase Inhibitor | HealthyPlace

Use with Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A synergistic effect may be expected when cholinesterase ... Overdosage with cholinesterase inhibitors can result in cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, salivation ... Use with Anticholinergics: Because of their mechanism of action, cholinesterase inhibitors have the potential to interfere with ... Anesthesia: ARICEPT®, as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate succinylcholine-type muscle relaxation during ...
more infohttps://www.healthyplace.com/alzheimers/medications/aricept-cholinesterase-inhibitor

cholinesterase reactivatorscholinesterase reactivators

... Summary. Summary: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by ... cholinesterases*pyridostigmine bromide*isoflurophate*dimethoate*butanes*benactyzine*chlorpyrifos*electrophorus*parathion* ... Oximes are cholinesterase reactivators of use in poisoning with organophosphorus ester enzyme inhibitors. Pralidoxime (PRX) is ... PAM-2), trimedoxime (TMB-4), obidoxime (LüH-6, Toxogonin), HI-6 and HLö-7 which are used as cholinesterase reactivators in the ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/topics/chemical/pharmacologic/molecular/enzyme/cholinesterase-reactivators-15300.html

Definition of 

CholinesteraseDefinition of Cholinesterase

TeachMeFinance.com - explain Cholinesterase Cholinesterase An enzyme found in animals that regulates nerve impulses by the ... Cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach ...
more infohttp://www.teachmefinance.com/Scientific_Terms/Cholinesterase.html

Cholinesterase Inhibitors - DrugBankCholinesterase Inhibitors - DrugBank

The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are ... Cholinesterase inhibitors may be added to memantine for further beneficial effects on behavioral symptoms and other symptoms of ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000815

DailyMed - Search Results for Cholinesterase ReactivatorDailyMed - Search Results for Cholinesterase Reactivator

SEARCH RESULTS for: Cholinesterase Reactivator [Drug Class] (4 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=Cholinesterase%20Reactivator&searchdb=class

Estimation of Functional Liver Reserve Using CholinesterasesEstimation of Functional Liver Reserve Using Cholinesterases

The primary outcome was to investigate the value of preoperative cholinesterases in predict postoperative adverse outcome after ... the Value of Preoperative Cholinesterases. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. 90 Years ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00883454/

Comparison of Cholinesterases and Carboxylesterase as Bioscavengers for Organophosphorus Compounds | SpringerLinkComparison of Cholinesterases and Carboxylesterase as Bioscavengers for Organophosphorus Compounds | SpringerLink

In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P., Quinn D.M., Rotundo R.L., Gentry M.K. (eds) Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related ... Maxwell D.M., Brecht K., Saxena A., Feaster S., Doctor B.P. (1998) Comparison of Cholinesterases and Carboxylesterase as ... Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins pp 387-392 , Cite as ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1540-5_109

cholinesterase - translation and definition - dictionarist.comcholinesterase - translation and definition - dictionarist.com

What is the meaning of cholinesterase in various languages. Translation of cholinesterase in the dictionary ...
more infohttp://www.dictionarist.com/cholinesterase

Immobilized cholinesterases capillary reactors on-flow screening of selective inhibitors. | Sigma-AldrichImmobilized cholinesterases capillary reactors on-flow screening of selective inhibitors. | Sigma-Aldrich

Immobilized cholinesterases capillary reactors on-flow screening of selective inhibitors.. [Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, ... there is a growing interest in developing rapid and effective assays techniques for cholinesterases (ChE) enzymes ligand ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24321276

Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Posttest | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEMCholinesterase Inhibitors - Posttest | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEM

The rapid availability of RBC cholinesterase levels, compared to serum cholinesterase levels makes them a useful tool for the ... Cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity leads to (Choose ALL correct answers) *Excessive cholinesterase activity ... Normal ranges of serum cholinesterase vary widely among individuals, but RBC cholinesterase level normals vary little among ... It works by attaching to the cholinesterase inhibitor bound to cholinesterase, attaching to and removing the inhibitor ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=11&po=32

Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Cover Page | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEMCholinesterase Inhibitors - Cover Page | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEM

This CSEM focuses on cholinesterase inhibitors, including pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. The goal of Case ... Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents. Cover Page. Course: WB 1098. CE Original ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of compounds that includes chemical warfare nerve agents and certain insecticides. ...
more infohttp://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/cholinesterase/cover_page.html

Cholinesterase Inhibitors Not What Theyre Cracked Up To Be? | ALZFORUMCholinesterase Inhibitors Not What They're Cracked Up To Be? | ALZFORUM

The use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) has exploded in just a few years, producing golden eggs for several pharmaceutical ... Cholinesterase inhibitor treatment alters the natural history of Alzheimers disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 Mar; ... Cholinesterase inhibitor treatment alters the natural history of Alzheimers disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 Mar; ... Cholinesterase Inhibitors Not What Theyre Cracked Up To Be?. Quick Links. *Article ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/cholinesterase-inhibitors-not-what-theyre-cracked-be

Acetyl cholinesterase | definition of acetyl cholinesterase by Medical dictionaryAcetyl cholinesterase | definition of acetyl cholinesterase by Medical dictionary

What is acetyl cholinesterase? Meaning of acetyl cholinesterase medical term. What does acetyl cholinesterase mean? ... Looking for online definition of acetyl cholinesterase in the Medical Dictionary? acetyl cholinesterase explanation free. ... acetyl cholinesterase. acetyl cholinesterase (a·sēˑ·t. l kōˈ·l. ·neˑ·st. ·rās),. n enzyme found at both voluntary and ... Acetyl cholinesterase is found in skeletal muscles, nervous system and erythrocytes.. Role of serum cholinesterase in acute ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acetyl+cholinesterase

True cholinesterase | definition of true cholinesterase by Medical dictionaryTrue cholinesterase | definition of true cholinesterase by Medical dictionary

What is true cholinesterase? Meaning of true cholinesterase medical term. What does true cholinesterase mean? ... Looking for online definition of true cholinesterase in the Medical Dictionary? true cholinesterase explanation free. ... specific cholinesterase, true cholinesterase. true cholinesterase. Cholinesterase, see there. Red Blood Cell Cholinesterase. ... true cholinesterase. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. cholinesterase. [ko″lin-es´ter-ās] an enzyme that ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/true+cholinesterase

Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human CholinesterasesEnantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases

The compounds were tested as substrates and inhibitors of cholinesterases. Both cholinesterases hydrolyze the derivatives of ... "Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases." Croatica Chemica Acta, ... "Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases." Croatica Chemica Acta 78 ... 2005). Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases, Croatica Chemica ...
more infohttps://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=4671&lang=en

Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophosAcute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos

In rats, a maximal inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase was found after two hours, of plasma cholinesterase after four and ... Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos. G. Muačević ; C. H. Boehringer Sohn, Abt. Pharmakologie ... Muačević, G.. "Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos." Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, ... Muačević, G.. "Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos." Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju ...
more infohttps://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=245222
  • For this reason, there is a growing interest in developing rapid and effective assays techniques for cholinesterases (ChE) enzymes ligand screening. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cholinesterase (ko-li-nes-ter-ace) is one of many important enzymes needed for the proper functioning of the nervous system. (lifelabs.com)
  • Regulations relating to Pesticide Worker safety specify that certain loaders, mixers and applicators of pesticides must be monitored for exposure, as measured by depression of their cholinesterase enzyme activity ( California Code of Regulations, Title 3, Division 6, Chapter 3, Subchapter 3, Article 2, Section 6728 ). (ca.gov)
  • Kuca K, Jun D, Bajgar J. Currently used cholinesterase reactivators against nerve agent intoxication: comparison of their effectivity in vitro. (labome.org)
  • Both cholinesterases hydrolyze the derivatives of quinuclidin-3-yl acetate with a preference for the (R)- over (S)-enantiomers. (srce.hr)
  • This can cause problems if the symptoms of lowered cholinesterase levels are either ignored or misdiagnosed as something more or less harmful than they really are. (lifelabs.com)
  • The utility of histochemistry in conjunction with in vitro methods is discussed.The substrates acetylthiocholine and phenyl thioacetate were utilized in demonstrating cholinesterase. (nih.gov)
  • The CDPH's Environmental Health Laboratory is responsible for maintaining the list of laboratories approved to perform Cholinesterase Testing for Occupational Health Surveillance. (ca.gov)
  • Since cholinesterase levels can vary considerably between individuals, a "baseline" must be established for each person. (lifelabs.com)
  • The primary outcome was to investigate the value of preoperative cholinesterases in predict postoperative adverse outcome after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. (knowcancer.com)
  • 2005). 'Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases', Croatica Chemica Acta , 78(1), pp. 121-128. (srce.hr)
  • Bosak A, Primožić I, Oršulić M, Tomić S, Simeon-Rudolf V. Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases. (srce.hr)
  • While there is no set formula for deciding the frequency of cholinesterase testing, in general, the initial baseline test should be followed by subsequent cholinesterase testing on a regular (usually monthly) basis. (lifelabs.com)