Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An aspect of cholinesterases.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
N,N',N'',N'''-Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide. A specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterases. It is commonly used experimentally to determine whether pseudo- or acetylcholinesterases are involved in an enzymatic process.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The benzoic acid ester of choline.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A carbamate insecticide.
A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
A plant family of the order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery. Fruits are one- or two-seeded capsules or drupes (stony-pitted fleshy fruits).
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
A quaternary ammonium compound that is an inhibitor of cholinesterase activity with actions similar to those of NEOSTIGMINE, but of longer duration. Ambenonium is given by mouth in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1112)
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/576)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (2/576)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

Human-serum cholinesterase subunits and number of active sites of the major component. (3/576)

The major C4 component of human serum cholinesterase was highly purified by a two-step procedure involving chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and preparative disc electrophoresis. The final product was about 8 000-fold purified with a yield of 64%. The subunit structure was determined by 8M urea polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis and by the sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation method in 5M guanidine hydrochloride. It was found that the C4 enzyme has a tetrameric structure. The subunits are equal in size and charge and a molecular weight comparable to that of the C1 enzyme from native serum. The major C4 enzyme and the minor C1 enzyme were subjected to an 'active enzyme centrifugation'. It was found that the C4 enzyme was a tetramer and the C1 enzyme was a monomer in the presence of substrate. The number of diisopropylphosphofluoridate-binding sites was measured from the molar ratio of bound diisopropylphosphate to protein. A value close to two binding sites was found for the C4 enzyme.  (+info)

Atypical serum cholinesterase in a family with congenital distichiasis. (4/576)

This paper describes the coexistence of genetically determined reduced cholinesterase activity and congenital distichiasis in the same family. The pedigree suggests that these two autosomal dominant diseases are segregated independently and do not show evidence of linkage.  (+info)

Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: a human volunteer study. (5/576)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the kinetics of elimination of urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites after oral and dermally applied doses of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos to human volunteers and to determine whether these doses affected plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. METHOD: Five volunteers ingested 1 mg (2852 nmol) of chlorpyrifos. Blood samples were taken over 24 hours and total void volumes of urine were collected over 100 hours. Four weeks later 28.59 mg (81567 nmol) of chlorpyrifos was administered dermally to each volunteer for 8 hours. Unabsorbed chlorpyrifos was washed from the skin and retained for subsequent measurement. The same blood and urine sampling regime was followed as for the oral administration. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase concentrations were determined for each blood sample. The concentration of two urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos--diethylphosphate and diethyl-thiophosphate--was determined for each urine sample. RESULTS: The apparent elimination half life of urinary dialkylphosphates after the oral dose was 15.5 hours and after the dermal dose it was 30 hours. Most of the oral dose (mean (range) 93% (55-115%)) and 1% of the applied dermal dose was recovered as urinary metabolites. About half (53%) of the dermal dose was recovered from the skin surface. The absorption rate through the skin, as measured by urinary metabolites was 456 ng/cm2/h. Blood plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity did not fall significantly during either dosing regime. CONCLUSION: An oral dose of chlorpyrifos was readily absorbed through the skin and almost all of the dose was recovered as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites. Excretion was delayed compared with the oral dose. Only a small proportion of the applied dose was recovered during the course of the experiment. The best time to collect urine samples for biological monitoring after dermal exposure is before the shift the next day. The amounts of chlorpyrifos used did not depress acetyl cholinesterase activity but could be readily detected as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites indicating that the urinary assay is a more sensitive indicator of exposure.  (+info)

Impaired respiratory muscle function in chemical plant workers producing chlorfenvinphos. (6/576)

All employees of a chemical plant division producing chlorfenvinphos were studied, i.e. 35 males aged 25-57 years (mean 42.1); their employment period ranged from 1-15 years (mean 9.0). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 13 workers (37.1%). Mean air chlorfenvinphos concentrations in the work environment estimated with gas-liquid chromatography were from 0.0008-0.0018 mg/m3 (maximum allowable concentration according to Polish standards is 0. 01 mg/m3). The activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was similar to that observed in people who were not exposed to chemicals, however, a slightly lowered activity of plasma cholinesterase in the studied population was evidently the result of mild liver impairment. Spirometric investigations performed in the studied workers revealed slight alterations manifested by increased intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) (the value of the index was 138.6% of the mean value, 24 workers with an abnormally high index), as well as by decreased specific airway conductance (sGaw); its mean value in the studied group was 58.5% of the mean standard (11 people showed an abnormal index). Substantial functional changes were found in the respiratory muscles. Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP = 97. 2 +/- 28.3 cm H2O) as well as maximal expiratory pressures (MEP = 113.9 +/- 44.2 cm H2O) in the studied group were significantly lower (p < 0.01) as compared to those observed in the control group (MIP = 120.7 +/- 31.7; MEP = 154.4 +/- 40.2 cm H2O) of 22 males having similar cigarette smoking habit, without occupational exposure to chemicals. It was also found that the people who had worked for more than 10 years under conditions of exposure to chlorfenvinphos showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) values of maximal inspiratory pressure (87.2 +/- 28.06 cm H2O, n = 17) compared to the workers whose period of employment was shorter than 10 years (106.6 +/- 26.8 cm H2O, n = 18). The two groups were comparable with regard to age and smoking habits. The values of maximal expiratory pressures were similar in both groups. No essential disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission were observed; only in 3 workers (8.5%) the electrostimulating myasthenic test showed some disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission. It seems that respiratory muscles impairment in humans exposed to chlorfenvinphos results from changes in the metabolism and structure of muscles, and partly from lung hyperinflation.  (+info)

Hepatosplenic morbidity in schistosomiasis japonica: evaluation with Doppler sonography. (7/576)

In Southeast Asia, schistosomiasis japonica is an important cause of hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Reliable methods to investigate portal hypertension (PHT) clinically and epidemiologically on community level are lacking. Doppler sonography is an established tool for investigating PHT in hospital settings. In Leyte, The Philippines, 137 individuals underwent color Doppler sonography, stool examination, and serology for hepatitis B and C, liver cell injury and cholestasis. A total of 85% of the study population had been infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Sonographically, periportal liver fibrosis was seen in 25% and reticular echogenicities (network pattern) in 44%. Portal blood flow was decreased or portosystemic collaterals were present in 10% (adults throughout) and correlated with periportal fibrosis, but not with network lesions. Chronic viral hepatitis was rare. Thus, hepatic lesions are frequent in adults but not in children in areas endemic for S. japonicum. Periportal liver fibrosis indicates a risk of PHT, and network pattern fibrosis apparently does not. Doppler sonography is suitable for research under tropical field conditions.  (+info)

Influence of metoclopramide on plasma cholinesterase and duration of action of mivacurium. (8/576)

Mivacurium is metabolized by plasma cholinesterase (PCHE). Metoclopramide inhibits PCHE in vitro and in vivo. We have assessed the effect of metoclopramide on duration of action of mivacurium and measured PCHE at baseline and at the time of maximal block. In a randomized, double-blind study, 30 patients received metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1 i.v. or saline, followed by propofol anaesthesia and mivacurium 0.15 mg kg-1. Using a TOF-Guard accelerometer, times to recovery of TI to 25%, 75% and 90% were 13.4, 19.3 and 21.9 min in the saline group and 17.8, 25.3 and 28.8 min in the metoclopramide group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). There were no differences in onset time or recovery index between the groups. PCHE activity at the time of maximum block decreased within each group (P < 0.01) but there was no difference between groups. In a second biochemical study of eight patients, a small decrease in PCHE activity was detected after metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1, but before administration of mivacurium (P < 0.025). We conclude that metoclopramide prolongs the duration of action of mivacurium.  (+info)

Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 - 65 - 125 - 170 - 250 - 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed.
Pesticides are extensively used worldwide, which has been reported to influence health conditions and environmental contamination.Current studies are focusing on agriculture workers health, whereas there are little data regarding health-related problems of consumers of agricultural products. Thus, the objective of this study was to study serum cholinesterase levels and its relation to health issues in people who consume fresh fruits and vegetables. Eighty-one people of Mueang District, Chonburi Province completed a questionnaire for evaluating the level of consumption behaviors at risk of pesticides. Health checkups were performed and blood samples for diagnostic lab data were collected. Then, subjects were separated into two groups by level of serum cholinesterase greater or less than 2,000 U/ L. Data analysis was computed by using unpaired t-test at statistical significance of 0.05. ...
Inhibition of plasma cholinesterase by three methylfluorophosphonates (MFF), sarin, soman and cyclosin, and by the products of their hydrolysis and alcoholysis was examined. Inhibition by phosphonic acids and by methyl esters derived from MFF was purely competitive while that by MFF was irreversible. The rate of phosphorylation of cholinesterase by MFF differs, depending on the structure of the alkoxy group in the MFF and decreases in the sequence soman-sarin-cyclosin. The affinity values of MFF, phosphonic acids and methyl esters of phosphonic acid for cholinesterase are comparable. The ,i,in vitro,/i, kinetic parameters suggest that plasma cholinesterase might act as a natural detoxicating agent in cases of poisoning with the above inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. ...
While the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic insecticides is well established in aquatic invertebrates of temperate areas, little is known about organisms from polar regions including Antarctica. Cholinesterase activity was investigated in specimens of the Antarctic scallop, Adamussium colbecki, collected in winter 2000 at Campo Icaro (Ross Sea, Antarctica) for preliminary characterization of a potentially new biomarker. Characterization of various ChE enzymes using specific substrates including an acetylthiocholine iodide (ASCh) and a butyrylthiocholine iodide (BSCh) was performed in gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle of the scallop. The effect of in vivo Zn2þ exposure in gills and digestive gland of A. colbecki was also studied. All the tissues expressed ChE activity (gill,adductor muscle,digestive gland) in accordance with data reported for marine mussels (Mytilus sp.) from temperate areas (1.1-13.8 nmol min1 mg protein1). Significant ...
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters. Thus, it is either of two enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of these cholinergic neurotransmitters, such as breaking acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid. These reactions are necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation. For example, in muscle contraction, acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction triggers a contraction; but for the muscle to relax afterward, rather than remaining locked in a tense state, the acetylcholine must be broken down by a choline esterase. The main type for that purpose is acetylcholinesterase (also called choline esterase I or erythrocyte cholinesterase); it is found mainly in chemical synapses and red blood cell membranes. The other type is butyrylcholinesterase (also called choline esterase II or plasma cholinesterase); it is found mainly in the blood plasma. The two ...
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The histomorphology and cholinesterase activity of the taste buds and the gustatory nerve fibre sin well-fed, in protein and protein-calorie deficient rats have been investigated. The nerve fibre arborisation in the taste buds is predominantly nonmyelinated and shows degenerative changes ranging from initial swelling to disintegration, fragmentation and finally complete disappearance with the increasing degree and duration of food deprivation. Coincident with these changes in the nerve fibre, the taste bud also shows various stages of degeneration. By contrast, the cholinesterase activity in the gustatory papillae shows an initial increase during the first week followed by a decline in the activity during the succeeding weeks; a second peak of cholinesterase activity appears during 4-6 weeks. The cholinesterase activity is barely detectable after the 8th week. In the more severely protein calorie restricted groups, the cholinesterase changes are more pronounced and abrupt in onset and show a ...
TY - CONF AU - Bosak, Anita AU - Opsenica, Dejan AU - Šinko, Goran AU - Zlatar, Matija AU - Kovarik, Zrinka PY - 2018 UR - https://mmsl.cz/artkey/mms-201888-0083.php UR - http://cer.ihtm.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3216 AB - We synthesised eight derivatives of 4-aminoquinolines differing in the substituents attached to the C(4)-amino group and C(7) carbon of 4-aminoquinoline, and tested their potency to inhibit human AChE and BChE. All of the compounds reversibly inhibited both enzymes with dissociation inhibition (Ki) constants from 0.50 to 50 µM exhibiting selectivity. In other words, for all compounds, AChE exhibited higher affinity than BChE. The most potent inhibitors of AChE were compounds with an octyl chain or adamantane, regardless of the group in position C(7). The shortening of the chain length caused the AChE inhibition decrease by 5-20 times. Docking studies made it clear that the high AChE affinity resulted from simultaneous interactions of the quinoline group with aromatic ...
Definition of cholinesterase. What is the meaning of cholinesterase in various languages. Translation of cholinesterase in the dictionary
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Other articles where Cholinesterase is discussed: dimethoate: …insecticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases, enzymes involved in transmitting nerve impulses. Chemically, it is an organophosphate. Like all organophosphates it is related to the nerve gases and is among the most toxic of all pesticides to vertebrates, including humans. As a systemic, dimethoate is taken up into the roots…
Now, about its overproduction: I dont really think it would make that much of a difference. The fact this(i think), there is already enough cholinesterase in the synaptic cleft to quickly degrade any molecules of acetylcholine that are not attached to the receptor. In an extreme cases, the cholinesterase would simply block the nerve impulse, having similar effects to those of specific inhibitors of the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ...
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PubMed journal article: Synthesis, Characterization and Cholinesterase Inhibition Studies of New Arylidene Aminothiazolylethanone Derivatives. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
1. DFP and TEPP produce readily reversible (by time) decreases in (a) the tension developed by directly stimulated, denervated skeletal muscle; (b) the amplitude of the spike potential of nerve; (c) the tension developed by skeletal muscle stimulated by slow (30/minute) excitation of its motor nerve; and (d) spinal and respiratory reflexes.. 2. Within the duration of our experiments (10 hours), DFP and TEPP produce irreversible decreases in (a) cholinesterase in the motor end-plate on skeletal muscle; (b) cholinesterase in the spinal cord; and (c) the ability of skeletal muscle to maintain a plateau of tension during excitation of its motor nerve at 50/second.. 3. Animals which had died after administration of DFP had complete or nearly complete removal of cholinesterase activity from the motor end-plates of skeletal muscle and from the spinal cord; TEPP can produce death despite the presence of considerable quantities of cholinesterase in the spinal cord and in the respiratory and other ...
ASTETE, Jonh et al. Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, peru 2006. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica [online]. 2010, vol.27, n.4, pp.512-519. ISSN 1726-4634.. Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (viral hepatitis B, C and delta, syphilis and HIV) were evaluated, as well as heavy metals (lead in blood, and cadmium, arsenic and mercury in urine samples) and serum cholinesterase levels. Results. Mean age was 29 ± 17.25 years, 59.2% ...
Cholinesterases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. There are two types of cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which differ in their distribution in the body. Currently, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) represent the treatment of choice for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In this paper, we report the synthesis and inhibitory effect on both enzymes of four new peptides structurally related to P1-Hp-1971 (amphibian skin peptide found in our previous work. Sequence: TKPTLLGLPLGAGPAAGPGKR-NH2). The bioassay data and cytotoxicity test show that some of the compounds possess a significant AChE and BChE inhibition and no toxic effect. The present work demonstrates that diminution of the size of the original peptide could potentially result in new compounds with significant cholinesterase inhibition activity, although it appears that there is an optimal size for the sequence. We also conducted an exhaustive ...
Background:The muscle-relaxing effects of succinylcholine are terminated via hydrolysis by plasma cholinesterase. There are multiple genetic variants of this enzyme and clinical circumstances that might influence the activity of plasma cholinesterase...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dominika Dingova, Jacqueline Leroy, Abel Check, Vladimir Garaj, Eric Krejci, Anna Hrabovska].
Acetyl)cholinesterase is an enzyme which is mostly regarded as important in the nervous system signaling. It is found in colinergic sinapses of the animals where it breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Doing that, it terminates singaling transmission between neurons. In the last decade, many other acetylcholinesterase roles have been discovered; for example roles in cell differentiation and communication and immune response. Considering that cholinesterases and/or acetylcholine have recently been discovered in plants, different microorganisms and mold Aspergillus niger and Physarum polycephalum, it is only fair to expect finding them in higher fungi. At present, there hasnt been any research that tackled this kind of subject. Within this thesis, cholinesterase activity was determined in water extracts of various Basidiomycota using colorimetric test (Ellmans method), denaturating and native electrophoresis. Ellmans method showed the strongest enzyme activity when substrate ...
The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel widely expressed in vertebrates and is associated with numerous physiological functions. As transmembrane ion channels, α7-nAChRs need to be expressed on the surface of the plasma membrane to function. The receptor has been reported to associate with proteins involved with receptor biogenesis, modulation of receptor properties, as well as intracellular signaling cascades and some of these associated proteins may affect surface expression of α7- nAChRs. The putative chaperone resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 (Ric-3) has been reported to interact with, and enhance the surface expression of, α7-nAChRs. In this study, we identified proteins that associate with α7-nAChRs when Ric-3 is expressed. Using α-bungarotoxin (α-bgtx), we isolated and compared α7-nAChR-associated proteins from two stably transfected, human tumor-derived cell lines: SH-EP1-hα7 expressing human α7-nAChRs and the
Comparative Cholinesterase, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, Antioxidant, Molecular Docking, and Kinetic Studies on Potent Succinimide Derivatives
Axamon® (ipidacrine) - cholinesterase inhibitor. Axamon stimulates neuromuscular transmission and conduction of excitation along the nerve and smooth muscles due to blockage of the potassium channels of the excitable membrane and inhibition of cholinesterase activity, enhances the effect on the smooth muscles of acetyl
There has been much interest in using drugs to treat Alzheimers disease since the 1970s. Thats when it was discovered that people with the disease have less of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains because of degeneration of the nerve cells that produce it. Acting as a messenger between nerve cells in the brain, acetylcholine is thought to be involved in memory, learning and reasoning.. Cholinesterase is an enzyme produced by the body that breaks down acetylcholine. It is believed that the cholinesterase inhibitors reduce the production of cholinesterase, which results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, and in turn may help reduce or stabilize the symptoms of Alzheimers disease. ...
There has been much interest in using drugs to treat Alzheimers disease since the 1970s. Thats when it was discovered that people with the disease have less of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains because of degeneration of the nerve cells that produce it. Acting as a messenger between nerve cells in the brain, acetylcholine is thought to be involved in memory, learning and reasoning.. Cholinesterase is an enzyme produced by the body that breaks down acetylcholine. It is believed that the cholinesterase inhibitors reduce the production of cholinesterase, which results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine in the brain, and in turn may help reduce or stabilize the symptoms of Alzheimers disease. ...
One side of Ticket has a disc saturated with cholinesterase, an enyzme in most living organisms, except plants, which controls muscle performance. Pesticides can inhibit an organisms ability to produce cholinesterase, and therefore, kill the organism. If enough pesticide is present in the sample, it will inactivate the cholinesterase and turn the disc white. A blue color indicates a negative result for the presence of pesticides.. ...
CONICET Digital, el repositorio institucional del CONICET, un servicio gratuito para acceder a la producción científico-tecnológica de investigadores, becarios y demás personal del CONICET.
Inclusion of the immediate coupon free drugs pfizer viagra intravenous administration of hypertonic dextrose solutions can be administered to a viral infection or exacerbation of chronic toxicity have clinical evidence of risk. Imbalanced nutrition, less than their respective elemental forms, are reducing agents. As a result of abination of antiviral drugs is central nervous system from the irritant gases methylisocyanate is one of the blood-brain barrier and the presence of the, 58,59 provides the family in lifestyle adjustments are often impulsive and may thus reduce the pressure without moving your neck. Nurses need to experiment with these features occur in meningitis. Links that designate the relationships between toxic xenobiotics and products containing high concentrations of plasma cholinesterase inhibition is an unpleasant taste in mouth 5. Inability to put your hands in water. Provide experiences for the nurse provides positive cardiovascular fitness during pregnancy. 303) and a sense ...
FUNCTIONNAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CHOLINESTERASE HYSTERESIS. Most hysteretic enzymes are regulatory enzymes, and it has been suggested that hysteresis may play a physiological role in damping out cellular response to rapid change in substrate or effector concentration [88, 89]. However, the actual role of hysteretic enzymes in cellular regulations has not yet been demonstrated. There is no evidence that hysteresis plays a role in function(s) of BuChE and AChE in the body. Cholinesterases, at least AChE as a regulatory enzyme, play an important role in transmission of nerve influx in the cholinergic system. Otherwise, human plasma BuChE plays a role in detoxification of poisonous esters as an endogenous stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavenger [4]. Since detoxification enzymes are promiscuous, multifunctional enzymes, they are expected to exist as conformational ensembles [90]. Therefore, physiological and/or toxicological relevance for the hysteresis of ChEs cannot be ruled out.. Hysteresis as a ...
This test looks for toxic chemicals in your blood. These chemicals are most often found in insecticides, either those use in fields or those used in bug sprays.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, Joyce Izidoro da Silva, Lucas Campos Curcino Vieira, Gilberto C R Bernasconi, Arlene Gonçalves Corrêa, Quezia Bezerra Cass, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso].
Classification of Neuropsychiatric Medications Based On Their Principle Mechanisms Of Action Acetylcholine Cholinesterase Inhibition donepezil
Toward Optimized Practice (TOP) helps Alberta physicians implement clinical practice improvements into their clinics using measurement and evidence with the goal of improving both patient care and clinical management.
013 ] E così stando, essendo Rustico più che mai nel suo disidéro acceso per lo vederla così bella, venne la resurrezion della carne, la quale riguardando Alibech e maravigliatasi, disse: Rustico, quella che cosa è, che io ti veggio, che così si pigne in fuori, e non l ho io? [ 014 ] O figliuola mia, disse Rustico, questo è il Diavolo, di che io t ho parlato: e vedi tu? ora egli mi dà grandissima molestia, tanta che io appena la posso sofferire. [ 015 ] Allora disse la giovane: Oh lodato sia Iddio, chè io veggio che io sto meglio che non stai tu, chè io non ho cotesto Diavolo io. [ 016 ] Disse Rustico: Tu di vero, ma tu hai un altra cosa che non la ho io, et háila in iscambio di questo. [ 017 ] Disse Alibech: O che? [ 018 ] A cui Rustico disse: Hai il ninferno; e dicoti che io mi credo che Iddio t abbia qui mandata per la salute della anima mia, per ciò che se questo Diavolo pur mi darà questa noja, ove tu vogli aver di me tanta pietà, e sofferire che ...
013 ] E così stando, essendo Rustico più che mai nel suo disidéro acceso per lo vederla così bella, venne la resurrezion della carne, la quale riguardando Alibech e maravigliatasi, disse: Rustico, quella che cosa è, che io ti veggio, che così si pigne in fuori, e non l ho io? [ 014 ] O figliuola mia, disse Rustico, questo è il Diavolo, di che io t ho parlato: e vedi tu? ora egli mi dà grandissima molestia, tanta che io appena la posso sofferire. [ 015 ] Allora disse la giovane: Oh lodato sia Iddio, chè io veggio che io sto meglio che non stai tu, chè io non ho cotesto Diavolo io. [ 016 ] Disse Rustico: Tu di vero, ma tu hai un altra cosa che non la ho io, et háila in iscambio di questo. [ 017 ] Disse Alibech: O che? [ 018 ] A cui Rustico disse: Hai il ninferno; e dicoti che io mi credo che Iddio t abbia qui mandata per la salute della anima mia, per ciò che se questo Diavolo pur mi darà questa noja, ove tu vogli aver di me tanta pietà, e sofferire che ...
Dernières PublicationsHot spots for protein partnership at the surface of cholinesterases and related alpha/beta hydrolase fold proteins or (...)
Homo sapiens resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 homolog A (C. elegans), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:131931 IMAGE:6526180), complete cds ...
TeachMeFinance.com is an informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical, legal or financial advice. Information presented at TeachMeFinance.com is provided on an AS-IS basis. Please read the disclaimer for details. ...
<p>A simple colour-change test for detecting food contaminated with melamine could form the basis of a low-cost field kit.</p>
Dopo tutto questo e molto altro, è facile arrivare alla conclusione che noi donne, da che nasciamo a che moriamo, altro non siamo che EROINE. In un mondo che ci è ostile e che continua a non accettarci, noi, facciamo ogni giorno la scelta di esporci. E così, capita che subiamo. Non facile come scelta, soprattutto se pensiamo che noi donne, spesso siamo madri di altre donne, ragazze, bambine che ogni giorno fanno la coraggiosa scelta di voler vivere nella luce, anche quando questo significa affrontare il buio! Buona fortuna, a tutte noi ...
Clarix tous sèche sirop adulte est un traitement de courte durée des toux sèches et des toux dirritation chez ladulte (à partir de 15 ans).
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Un cappotto bellisimo Rosanna, cumplimenti per le meravigliose vacanze che hai fatto e per tutti i regali che hai ricevuto e anche tutto il amore che hai portato con te. Un bacio ...
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Forse ormai mi caccierete visto che il terzo thread che apro... Ma proprio non riesco a risolvere il mio problema con la Web Adult e spero che
In nulla di importante. con: intendevo dire che si potrebbe inciampare, non dicevo che non si ha la salvezza Mag. Per tutto il resto che hai scritto sono perfettamente daccordo.
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I virus possono causare molte malattie importanti che attraverso la storia hanno avute la potenza cambiare geograficamente ed economicamente gli interi paesi come conseguenza delle infezioni ampe che
20 Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors. *21 Eye preparations *21.1 Anti-infective agents ...
Ontogenesis of cholinesterases. In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 129 - 186, Handbch. d ... In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 799 -832, Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Erganzungswk ... Histochemical studies of cholinesterases in Ciona intestinalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17: 553-558. "ASPET , Obituary: ... Contribution to the study of the mechanism of action of cholinesterase inhibitors. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 101: 327-343. ...
Cholinesterase inhibitorsEdit. Main article: Cholinesterase inhibitors. Many ACh receptor agonists work indirectly by ... and rapid inactivation by cholinesterase. However, it is used in the form of eye drops to cause constriction of the pupil ... Many toxins and venoms produced by plants and animals also contain cholinesterase inhibitors. In clinical use, they are ...
Historical development of organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors." Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology.". Cholinesterases ... doi:10.1007/978-3-642-68441-8. ISBN 978-3-642-68443-2.The history of cholinesterase inhibitors: who was Moschnin(e)? "9: " ... Petroianu, Georg (2015). "History of organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors & reactivators". Military Medical Science ... TEPP was discovered to be an inhibitor of cholinesterases. Schrader referred to the studies by Eberhard Gross, who was the ...
She wrote a seminal text on the Biology of cholinesterases in 1974 and helped to lay the foundations of the cholinergic ... Silver's initial research was on organophosphorous compounds and their anti-cholinesterase effects. The Institute was to remain ... The biology of cholinesterases. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland Pub. Co. ; American Elsevier Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-444-10652-0 ... leading to the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Silver was born at a British ...
Ipecac was used in cough mixtures as an expectorant or an emetic from the 18th until the early 20th century.[citation needed] For instance, Ipecac and opium were used to produce Dover's powder, which was used in syrup form.[citation needed] In 1965, the FDA approved the sale of up to one ounce of syrup of ipecac without a prescription. At the time it was approved, its use was recommended by the AAP, AAPCC, AMA, and the FDA's medical advisory board as a method to induce vomiting "for quick first-aid use in the home, under medical supervision", for use in cases of accidental poisoning.[2][3] Current guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics, however, strongly advise against this and in fact recommend the disposal of any syrup of ipecac present in the home.[4] Many toxicological associations have also issued position papers recommending against its use as a first-line treatment for most ingested poisons,[5] because of a lack of evidence that syrup of ipecac actually helps improve the ...
... (trade name Nimelan), also known as N-allylnormorphine dinicotinate, dinicotinoylnalorphine, or niconalorphine, is a semisynthetic, mixed opioid agonist-antagonist which is described as a narcotic antagonist but may produce limited analgesia and sedation at higher doses in opioid naive patients (with limited euphoria and dependence liability).[1][2] It is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of nalorphine, and is therefore the nalorphine analogue of nicomorphine (which is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine). As nalorphine dinicotinate is only regulated at the Rx (prescription required) drug, it would be legal to possess with a valid prescription should a patient manage to acquire it.[citation needed] ...
In the translation of messenger RNA molecules to produce polypeptides, cysteine is coded for by the UGU and UGC codons. Cysteine has traditionally been considered to be a hydrophilic amino acid, based largely on the chemical parallel between its sulfhydryl group and the hydroxyl groups in the side chains of other polar amino acids. However, the cysteine side chain has been shown to stabilize hydrophobic interactions in micelles to a greater degree than the side chain in the nonpolar amino acid glycine and the polar amino acid serine.[19] In a statistical analysis of the frequency with which amino acids appear in different chemical environments in the structures of proteins, free cysteine residues were found to associate with hydrophobic regions of proteins. Their hydrophobic tendency was equivalent to that of known nonpolar amino acids such as methionine and tyrosine (tyrosine is polar aromatic but also hydrophobic[20]), those of which were much greater than that of known polar amino acids such ...
Intravenous and oral formulations of acetylcysteine are available for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.[13] When paracetamol is taken in large quantities, a minor metabolite called N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) accumulates within the body. It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to deactivate the toxic NAPQI. This metabolite is then free to react with key hepatic enzymes, thereby damaging liver cells. This may lead to severe liver damage and even death by acute liver failure. In the treatment of acetaminophen overdose, acetylcysteine acts to maintain or replenish depleted glutathione reserves in the liver and enhance non-toxic metabolism of acetaminophen.[14] These actions serve to protect liver cells from NAPQI toxicity. It is most effective in preventing or lessening hepatic injury when administered within 8-10 hours after overdose.[14] Research suggests that the rate of liver toxicity ...
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors. Naloxone and naltrexone are commonly used opioid antagonist drugs which are competitive antagonists that bind to the opioid receptors with higher affinity than agonists but do not activate the receptors. This effectively blocks the receptor, preventing the body from responding to opioids and endorphins. Some opioid antagonists are not pure antagonists but do produce some weak opioid partial agonist effects, and can produce analgesic effects when administered in high doses to opioid-naive individuals. Examples of such compounds include nalorphine and levallorphan. However, the analgesic effects from these specific drugs are limited and tend to be accompanied by dysphoria, most likely due to additional agonist action at the κ-opioid receptor. As they induce opioid withdrawal effects in people who are taking, or have recently used, opioid full agonists, these drugs are ...
In industry, EDTA is mainly used to sequester metal ions in aqueous solution. In the textile industry, it prevents metal ion impurities from modifying colors of dyed products. In the pulp and paper industry, EDTA inhibits the ability of metal ions, especially Mn2+, from catalyzing the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, which is used in chlorine-free bleaching. In a similar manner, EDTA is added to some food as a preservative or stabilizer to prevent catalytic oxidative decoloration, which is catalyzed by metal ions.[4] In soft drinks containing ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, EDTA mitigates formation of benzene (a carcinogen).[5] The reduction of water hardness in laundry applications and the dissolution of scale in boilers both rely on EDTA and related complexants to bind Ca2+, Mg2+, as well as other metal ions. Once bound to EDTA, these metal centers tend not to form precipitates or to interfere with the action of the soaps and detergents. For similar reasons, cleaning solutions often ...
If signs of cholinesterase inhibition are present, atropine and pralidoxime are antidotal and may be coadministered. The ... The adverse effect of phosmet are caused by the inhibition of cholinesterases. Acute poisoning leads to uncontrollable muscle ... The primary toxicological endpoint of concern to the EPA is cholinesterase inhibition; a common toxic effect of organophosphate ... "CHL Report For Phosmet" (PDF). "Cholinesterase Inhibition". pmep.cce.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-23. Stewart, P. A.; Fears, ...
Significant advances with cholinesterases (ChEs), specifically human serum BChE (HuBChE) have been made. HuBChe can offer a ... "Cholinesterase Inhibition". Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. "Pesticide Application and Safety Training for ... He was later transferred to Berlin, where poisoning by a cholinesterase inhibitor was diagnosed and confirmed by multiple tests ... May 2008 USACEHR Technical Report 0801: An Evaluation of Blood Cholinesterase Testing Methods for Military Health Surveillance ...
Exposure to TOCP has been characterized by a list of observations: Cholinesterase levels will remain unchanged or show no ... "Cholinesterase Inhibition". Extoxnet. Cornell University. September 1993. Oh, Shin J. (2010). Treatment and Management of ...
The nomenclatural variations of ACHE and of cholinesterases generally are discussed at Cholinesterase § Types and nomenclature ... Massoulié J, Perrier N, Noureddine H, Liang D, Bon S (2008). "Old and new questions about cholinesterases". Chem. Biol. ... Acetylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol ACHE; EC 3.1.1.7), also known as AChE or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase in ... Taylor P, Radić Z (1994). "The cholinesterases: from genes to proteins". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 34: 281- ...
BLASCHKO, H; BULBRING, E; CHOU, TC (March 1949). "Tubocurarine antagonism and inhibition of cholinesterases". British Journal ...
MYERS, DK (April 1956). "Studies on cholinesterase. 10. Return of cholinesterase activity in the rat after inhibition by ... Dimethylcarbamoyl fluoride is highly toxic because it's a potent cholinesterase inhibitor and is lethal even at low doses. ...
Tammelin, Lars-Erik (1958). Choline esters: substrate and inhibitors of cholinesterases. Stockholm. SELIBR 9470776. Vem är det ... Honorary Doctor of Medicine (1973) Tammelin, Lars-Erik (1958). Choline esters: substrate and inhibitors of cholinesterases. ... linked to their chemical similarity to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and their ability to block the enzyme cholinesterase ...
Raschetti R, Albanese E, Vanacore N, Maggini M (November 2007). "Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a ... Stahl SM (November 2000). "The new cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, Part 2: illustrating their mechanisms of ... Birks J (January 2006). Birks J (ed.). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Geula C, Mesulam MM (1995). "Cholinesterases and the pathology of Alzheimer disease". Alzheimer Disease and Associated ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors at AChR Immunosuppressive treatment[edit]. *Thymectomy. *Medical therapy: corticosteroids, non- ...
... (INN) (brand names Lethidrone, Nalline), also known as N-allylnormorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.[1] It was introduced in 1954[2] and was used as an antidote to reverse opioid overdose and in a challenge test to determine opioid dependence.[3] It acts at two opioid receptors - the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) where it has antagonistic effects, and at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) (Ki = 1.6 nM; EC50 = 483 nM; Emax = 95%) where it exerts high-efficacy partial agonist/near-full agonist characteristics.[4] Nalorphine was the second opioid antagonist to be introduced, preceded by nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) in 1915 and followed by naloxone in 1960 and naltrexone in 1963.[2] Due to potent activation of the KOR, nalorphine produces side effects such as dysphoria, anxiety, confusion, and hallucinations, and for this reason, is no longer used medically.[1][2][5] Nalorphine has a number of analogues including niconalorphine (the ...
Proceedings of the IX International Meeting on Cholinesterases. 175 (1-3): 355-364. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.04.008. ISSN 0009- ...
"Mefloquine inhibits cholinesterases at the mouse neuromuscular junction". Neuropharmacology. 49 (8): 1132-1139. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Mefloquine enhances nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid release via inhibition of cholinesterase". Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins. Springer US. p. 249. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-1540-5_74. ISBN ...
It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Breakdown in soil is 6.1 days in sand, 309 days in water at pH 5.0, 27 days at pH 7.0, and 3 ...
It covalently binds by its phosphate group to serine group at the active site of the cholinesterase. Once bound, the enzyme is ... Because of the very slow rate at which echothiophate is hydrolyzed by cholinesterase, its effects can last a week or more. ...
The use of medications for treatment of Alzheimer's dementia, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, has shown small[ ... cholinesterase inhibitors galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine; Studies have shown that an extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 ...
Liddell, J.; Lehmann, H.; Silk, E. (1962). "A 'silent' pseudo-cholinesterase gene". Nature. 193 (4815): 561-562. Bibcode: ...
Rodda J, Morgan S, Walker Z (October 2009). "Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of the behavioral and ... Rolinski M, Fox C, Maidment I, McShane R (March 2012). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's ... Kavirajan H, Schneider LS (September 2007). "Efficacy and adverse effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in ... Birks J (January 2006). Birks JS (ed.). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of ...
When initially tested the first week, everyone's plasm cholinesterase and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase was above normal ... Two other people had levels of plasma cholinesterase below normal limit. The rest of the workers were disrobed, hosed down with ... This is believed to be due to organophosphates inhibiting the enzyme, cholinesterase, resulting in toxic effects by allowing an ... "Cholinesterase - blood: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-05. Preventing pesticide-related ...
The enzymes from brain and red cells are said to be specific cholinesterases, and in addition a non-specific cholinesterase ... This is also true for the cholinesterase of the nervous system, where the enzyme is bound to the cell structure. Hence, the red ... IT is known that the cholinesterases from various animal tissues are not identical, and it has been proposed that two types of ... The enzymes from brain and red cells are said to be specific cholinesterases, and in addition a non-specific cholinesterase ...
RBC cholinesterase, or erythrocyte cholinesterase, true cholinesterase, choline esterase I, or (most formally) acetylcholine ... Some benzodiazepines, e.g. temazepam have an inhibitory effect on cholinesterase. Cholinesterase levels can be used as an ... producing the second oddity that cholinesterase and true cholinesterase then do not mean the same thing. But such usage is now ... where she is told her cholinesterase level is low. In the film The I Inside, Simon Cable is poisoned with cholinesterase ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), also known as anti-cholinesterase, are chemicals that prevent the breakdown of the ... "Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Medical Use & WMD)". PharmWiki. Tulane University School of Medicine. Retrieved 24 August 2020. ... Meng, Yan‑Hong; Wang, Pan‑Pan; Song, Ya‑Xue; Wang, Jian‑Hua (2019-03-01). "Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Waiskopf, Nir; Soreq, Hermona (2015). "Cholinesterase Inhibitors". Handbook of ...
... insecticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases, enzymes involved in transmitting nerve impulses. Chemically, it is an ... drug is quickly inactivated by cholinesterase in the plasma. Succinylcholine often is used to produce paralysis quickly at the ... Cholinesterase inhibitors allow the accumulation of acetylcholine, causing symptoms related to parasympathetic overactivity, ... insecticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases, enzymes involved in transmitting nerve impulses. Chemically, it is an ...
Purpose Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase. ... Cholinesterase inhibitors Definition Cholinesterase inhibitors are a group of drugs prescribed to treat symptoms resulting from ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase. Cholinesterase ... Some cholinesterase inhibitors should be used with caution in persons with asthma or lung disease, as cholinesterase inhibitors ...
In general, acetylthiocholine was hydrolysed slightly more rapidly by insect cholinesterases. A unique cholinesterase was found ... Distribution of cholinesterases in insects.. Booth GM, Lee AH.. Abstract. The study of toxicology and other related fields has ... Ultrastructural evidence shows that cholinesterases that hydrolyse acetylthiocholine are membrane-bound. Phenyl thioacetate was ... methods is discussed.The substrates acetylthiocholine and phenyl thioacetate were utilized in demonstrating cholinesterase. ...
Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are ... Acetylcholinesterase; RBC (or erythrocyte) cholinesterase; Pseudocholinesterase; Plasma cholinesterase; Butyrylcholinesterase; ... Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are ...
Cholinesterases regulation in the absence of ColQ.. Sigoillot SM1, Bourgeois F, Legay C. ... Here, we investigated the effects of ColQ deficiency on cholinesterases mRNA levels and cluster formation. We show that ...
During a cholinesterase test, a needle is inserted into a vein and blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. The ... During a cholinesterase test, a needle is inserted into a vein and blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. The ...
Cholinesterase testing on workers may only be done by a laboratory that has been approved by the California Department of ... CDPH-Approved Cholinesterase Laboratories. Regulations relating to Pesticide Worker safety specify that certain loaders, mixers ... and applicators of pesticides must be monitored for exposure, as measured by depression of their cholinesterase enzyme activity ... Environmental Health Laboratory is responsible for maintaining the list of laboratories approved to perform Cholinesterase ...
Cholinesterase definition is - an enzyme that occurs chiefly at neuromuscular junctions and promotes the hydrolysis of ... Share cholinesterase Post the Definition of cholinesterase to Facebook Share the Definition of cholinesterase on Twitter ... Comments on cholinesterase What made you want to look up cholinesterase? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including ... Dictionary Entries near cholinesterase. cholic acid choline cholinergic cholinesterase cholla choller cholo ...
Definition of specific cholinesterase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
... when cholinesterase tests are ordered, and what the results of a cholinesterase test might mean ... Reduced cholinesterase levels can also be caused by chronic liver disease and malnutrition. Total cholinesterase activity can ... Cholinesterase testing has two main uses:. *It can be used to detect and diagnose organophosphate pesticide exposure and/or ... Cholinesterase testing can also be used to assess any acute exposure to these compounds, which can cause neuromuscular damage. ...
Reduced cholinesterase levels can also be caused by chronic liver disease and malnutrition. Total cholinesterase activity can ... Cholinesterase testing has two main uses:. *It can be used to detect and diagnose organophosphate pesticide exposure and/or ... Cholinesterase testing can also be used to assess any acute exposure to these compounds, which can cause neuromuscular damage. ... Cholinesterases are enzymes that are involved in helping the nervous system to function properly. There are two separate ...
Use with Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A synergistic effect may be expected when cholinesterase ... Overdosage with cholinesterase inhibitors can result in cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, salivation ... Use with Anticholinergics: Because of their mechanism of action, cholinesterase inhibitors have the potential to interfere with ... Anesthesia: ARICEPT®, as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate succinylcholine-type muscle relaxation during ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitors was found in Washington Manual. The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics helps you diagnose and ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitor? A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease. Usage, dosage, side-effects ... Use with Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A synergistic effect may be expected when cholinesterase ... Exelon is a cholinesterase Inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease. Usage, dosage, side-effects of Exelon. ... Exelon as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate succinylcholine-type muscle relaxation during anesthesia. ...
This Initial Check will help you assess your current knowledge and skill level about cholinesterase inhibitors. To take the ... While laboratory tests can be used to estimate the exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors (cholinesterase levels and direct ... and Serum Cholinesterase and Direct Measurement of Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Their Metabolic Byproducts. ... This Initial Check will help you assess your current knowledge and skill level about cholinesterase inhibitors. To take the ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of compounds that includes chemical warfare nerve agents and certain insecticides. ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of compounds that includes chemical warfare nerve agents and certain insecticides. ...
In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P., Quinn D.M., Rotundo R.L., Gentry M.K. (eds) Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related ... Maxwell D.M., Brecht K., Saxena A., Feaster S., Doctor B.P. (1998) Comparison of Cholinesterases and Carboxylesterase as ... Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins pp 387-392 , Cite as ...
... when cholinesterase tests are requested, and what the results of a cholinesterase test might mean ... As cholinesterase is synthesised by the liver the activity can also be lower in some liver diseases such as acute and chronic ... Cholinesterase activity and phenotype studies in a patient can be used to predict the degree of potential post-operative ... Cholinesterase activity can also be used to assess any acute exposure to these compounds which can cause neuromuscular damage. ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Cholinesterase Reactivator [Drug Class] (4 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
Katherine A. Hunt, Michael J. Hooper, and Edward E. Littrell "CARBOFURAN POISONING IN HERONS: DIAGNOSIS USING CHOLINESTERASE ... CARBOFURAN POISONING IN HERONS: DIAGNOSIS USING CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATION TECHNIQUES. Katherine A. Hunt, Michael J. Hooper, ... Katherine A. Hunt, Michael J. Hooper, Edward E. Littrell "CARBOFURAN POISONING IN HERONS: DIAGNOSIS USING CHOLINESTERASE ... Exposure to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran was detected using brain cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation techniques in heron ...
... Summary. Summary: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by ... cholinesterases*pyridostigmine bromide*isoflurophate*dimethoate*butanes*benactyzine*chlorpyrifos*electrophorus*parathion* ... Oximes are cholinesterase reactivators of use in poisoning with organophosphorus ester enzyme inhibitors. Pralidoxime (PRX) is ... PAM-2), trimedoxime (TMB-4), obidoxime (LüH-6, Toxogonin), HI-6 and HLö-7 which are used as cholinesterase reactivators in the ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitors answers are found in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics powered by Unbound Medicine. ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are chemical compounds that inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase. Blockade of AChE function leads to ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are chemical compounds that inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase. Blockade of AChE function leads to ... Cholinesterase Inhibitors. In: Bhat PP, Dretler AA, Gdowski MM, et al, eds. Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. Wolters ...
Variation in plasma cholinesterase activity among greenhouse workers, fruitgrowers and slaughtermen. Bibliographic information ... The purpose of the study was to compare the plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities of 100 greenhouse workers and 43 ... cholinesterase monitoring; forestry; enzyme activity; horticulture; slaughtering; flower and perfume-plant growing; ...
The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are ... Cholinesterase inhibitors may be added to memantine for further beneficial effects on behavioral symptoms and other symptoms of ... Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract ...
TeachMeFinance.com - explain Cholinesterase Cholinesterase An enzyme found in animals that regulates nerve impulses by the ... Cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach ...
The primary outcome was to investigate the value of preoperative cholinesterases in predict postoperative adverse outcome after ... the Value of Preoperative Cholinesterases. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. 90 Years ...
Immobilized cholinesterases capillary reactors on-flow screening of selective inhibitors.. [Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, ... there is a growing interest in developing rapid and effective assays techniques for cholinesterases (ChE) enzymes ligand ...
  • The enzymes from brain and red cells are said to be 'specific' cholinesterases, and in addition a 'non-specific' cholinesterase is said to exist, for example, in human serum, whicji hydrolyses acetylcholine as well as aliphatic esters, for example, tributyrin. (nature.com)
  • Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate whether serum cholinesterase (ChE) levels were associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (hindawi.com)
  • Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum cholinesterase (ChE) (E.C. 3.1.1.8) is a glycoprotein which has 36 potential sites of asparagine- N -linked sugar chains. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hydrolysis of methylprednisolone acetate by human serum cholinesterase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum cholinesterase activity as a test of liver function. (annals.org)
  • Brauer and Root 1 and Ellis, Sanders, Shirley and Bodansky 2 showed that when rat livers were damaged by carbon tetrachloride the serum cholinesterase was lowered. (annals.org)
  • and pseudo-cholinesterase, also called serum or plasma cholinesterase. (lifelabs.com)
  • acetylcholinesterase The acetylcholine released by cholinergic fibers is rapidly decomposed by the action of cholinesterase . (merriam-webster.com)
  • The two types of cholinesterase are acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cholinesterase is sometimes used to refer specifically to butyrylcholinesterase, but this usage produces the oddity that cholinesterase and false cholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase) under that scheme mean the same thing (confusingly), and acetylcholinesterase is then called true cholinesterase in contrast, producing the second oddity that cholinesterase and true cholinesterase then do not mean the same thing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), erythrocyte cholinesterase, true cholinesterase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Succinylcholine, a short-acting muscle relaxant, is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and is hydrolyzed by cholinesterase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholinesterase (ChE) is a type of glycoprotein synthesized by the liver that can be divided into acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). (hindawi.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are hypothesised to work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (cochrane.org)
  • Acetylcholinesterase plays a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission in vertebrates, while in invertebrates pseudo cholinesterases are preeminently represented. (frontiersin.org)
  • All 4 currently approved ChEIs (ie, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the synapse (specific cholinesterase). (medscape.com)
  • Walujo B. Prijono and Frederick A. Leighton "Parallel Measurement of Brain Acetylcholinesterase and the Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptor in the Diagnosis of Acute, Lethal Poisoning by Anti-Cholinesterase Pesticides," Journal of Wildlife Diseases 27(1), 110-115, (1 January 1991). (bioone.org)
  • We also measured activities of plasma total cholinesterase (ChE) and acetylcholinesterase before and at 0, 2, 8, 24, 120, and 504 h after OP dosing. (edu.au)
  • drugs that prevent the degradation of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase (also known simply as cholinesterase). (brainscape.com)
  • IT is known that the cholinesterases from various animal tissues are not identical, and it has been proposed that two types of acetylcholine-splitting enzymes exist. (nature.com)
  • Cholinesterase breaks apart the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is vital for the transmission of nerve impulses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to reduce the action of cholinesterase, thereby making more acetylcholine available to nerve cells in the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The use of cholinesterase inhibitors impedes the normal enzymatic breakdown of the little acetylcholine that is present. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Beth Mole, Ars Technica , "Second Novichok poisoning in Britain raises alarm, questions over contamination," 5 July 2018 Agents like Novichok can enter the body by being eaten or inhaled, or through the skin, and block the action of cholinesterase , an enzyme that breaks down a nervous-system protein called acetylcholine. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Sean Gallagher, Ars Technica , "NATO leaders unite in blaming Russia for nerve agent attack on ex-spy," 15 Mar. 2018 These nerve poisons can inhibit an enzyme called cholinesterase , which breaks down a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. (merriam-webster.com)
  • This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by cholinesterase. (healthyplace.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), also known as anti-cholinesterase, are chemicals that prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or butyrylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. (drugbank.ca)
  • When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. (drugbank.ca)
  • Both two cows also exhibited muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms due to inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase , thereby accumulation of Acetylcholine (ACH), a neuro transmitter released at the parasympathetic, nicotinic cholinergic and some central nervous system nerve endings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cholinesterase that hydrolyzes acetylcholine to acetate and choline within the central nervous system and at peripheral neuroeffector junctions (for example, motor endplates and autonomic ganglia). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inhibition of cholinesterase with nerve agents, especially heavy metals, causes the accumulation of acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft and interrupting the nervous transmission, eventually leading to paralysis and death [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The fact this(i think), there is already enough cholinesterase in the synaptic cleft to quickly degrade any molecules of acetylcholine that are not attached to the receptor. (biology-online.org)
  • In an extreme cases, the cholinesterase would simply block the nerve impulse, having similar effects to those of specific inhibitors of the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (biology-online.org)
  • The mainstay of therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is the use of centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors to attempt to compensate for the depletion of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (medscape.com)
  • The possible role of nerve activity in triggering changes in the localization of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and cholinesterase (ChE) on nerve-contacted Xenopus muscle cells has been assessed. (jneurosci.org)
  • Anti-Acetyl Cholinesterase cancels signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction via hydrolysis of acetylcholine as it is released into the synaptic cleft by the motor neurons. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Any pesticides that can bind or inhibit cholinesterase, making it unable to breakdown acetylcholine, is called a "cholinesterase inhibitor" or "anticholinesterase agent" . (lifelabs.com)
  • The enzyme acetyl-cholinesterase in the blood is due to the degradation of acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid, and changes the environment PH, PH-induced changes in the amount of cholinesterase is equivalent. (civilica.com)
  • There are two types of human cholinesterases, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BuChE) (12). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finger stick erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) was measured with a portable colorimeter. (cdc.gov)
  • b) a temporal high sensitivity of zebrafish embryos towards serotonin administration correlated with AChE expression onset during their blastula period, and c) serotonin directly interacts with cholinesterases, demonstrated through a non-competitive inhibition of the AAA activity on purified recombinant human BChE. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Moreover, in late AD stages, levels of AChE have declined by up to 85% and BuChE represents the predominant cholinesterase in the brain. (scielo.br)
  • Parallel measurement of AChE and mCBR may assist in the post mortem diagnosis of death due to acute poisoning with anti-cholinesterase pesticides when control specimens are not available. (bioone.org)
  • and O. niloticus possesses an atypical cholinesterase or AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Dual inhibitors combining anti-acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and antimonoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in one molecular entity have been recently reported. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Agriculture is an important feature of the Karaj, so that fruit orchards constitute the bulk of the lands around it.MATERIALS AND METHODS:This study was done on 31 people in the city of Karaj, who introduced themselves as an active person in sprayed areas (after consent).Measuring acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity using the Bond Levy (Loviband): in this method Changes in blood PH is measured. (civilica.com)
  • insecticide that acts by inhibiting cholinesterases, enzymes involved in transmitting nerve impulses. (britannica.com)
  • Cholinesterases are enzymes that are involved in helping the nervous system to function properly. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Cholinesterase tests measure the activity of these enzymes. (labtestsonline.org)
  • For this reason, there is a growing interest in developing rapid and effective assays techniques for cholinesterases (ChE) enzymes ligand screening. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both succinimide derivatives exhibited considerable inhibitory activities against cholinesterases and α-glucosidase enzymes. (dovepress.com)
  • The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century. (frontiersin.org)
  • The non-specificity of cholinesterases to cholinergic innervated tissues, their early onset during embryogenesis of many organisms, and their non-cholinolytic aryl acylamidase activity, indicate that these enzymes are involved with physiological processes other than the termination of nervous impulse. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • The venom exhibited inhibitory activities against the cholinesterase enzymes. (bioinformation.net)
  • A radiometric method has been used on preparations of intact ocular tissue to dissociate the effects of surface cholinesterase from intracellular enzymes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cholinesterase (ko-li-nes-ter-ace) is one of many important enzymes needed for the proper functioning of the nervous system. (lifelabs.com)
  • Results: Over 18 000 people commenced cholinesterase inhibitors during 2004. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Jokanovic M, Stojiljkovic M. Current understanding of the application of pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators in treatment of organophosphate poisoning. (labome.org)
  • RBC cholinesterase is used to assist in the diagnosis of chronic carbamate or organophosphate insecticide (e.g., parathion, malathion) toxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organophosphate pesticides bind irreversibly with cholinesterase, inhibiting normal enzyme activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Which conditions with depressed levels of plasma (pseudo) cholinesterase should be considered in the differential diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity? (medscape.com)
  • Blood cholinesterase tests measure the effect of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. (lifelabs.com)
  • All irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors contain an atom of phosphorus, because of the phosphorus they are called Organophosphate Cholinesterase Inhibitor. (brainscape.com)
  • Treatment includes early resuscitation with oxygen, airway protection, intravenous fluids, muscarinic antagonist such as atropine, and acetyl cholinesterase activator such as PAM. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acetyl cholinesterase is found in skeletal muscles, nervous system and erythrocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first chemical change is the conversion of sulfur to oxygen, producing a more potent acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rapeseed oil is an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Galanthamine was used as standard and it showed inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase with an [IC. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A similar acetyl cholinesterase interaction with competitive neuromuscular blockers has been reported. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nice had decided back in 2004 that the drugs, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, were not a cost-effective way of treating the early stages of Alzheimer's. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He received one of the acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) - Aricept (donepezil), Exelon (rivastigmine) and Reminyl (galantamine) - now the focus of the legal challenge by the Alzheimer's Society. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many studies have shown that the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase contributes to the onset of Alzheimer's disease, and thus the ability to inhibit the enzyme's activity has become accepted as a means of possible prevention of further deterioration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Background : Acetyl Cholinesterase is abundantly expressed in erythrocytes and is part of the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Anti-Acetyl Cholinesterase antibody is ideal for investigators involved in Neuroscience and Neurotransmitter research. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Application Note : Anti-Acetyl Cholinesterase Biotin Conjugated Antibody has been assayed against 1.0 µg of Acetyl Cholinesterase in a standard capture ELISA using Peroxidase Conjugated Streptavidin #S000-03 and ABTS (2,2? (tebu-bio.com)
  • Since the introduction of the first cholinesterase inhibitor in 1997, most clinicians, and probably most patients, would consider the cholinergic drugs donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne [previously Reminyl]), and rivastigmine (Exelon) to be first-line pharmacotherapy for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. (aafp.org)
  • Of patients who started cholinesterase inhibitors, 58% were prescribed donepezil, 41% rivastigmine, and 1% galantamine. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • 19 803 patients (drug cohort) were new users of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine), and 61 499 patients (control cohort) had not received a prescription for a cholinesterase inhibitor in the previous year. (annals.org)
  • Exelon (rivastigmine tartrate) is an Cholinesterase Inhibitor used in treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. (healthyplace.com)
  • Exelon® (rivastigmine tartrate) is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor and is known chemically as (S)-N-Ethyl-N-methyl-3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-phenyl carbamate hydrogen-(2R,3R)-tartrate. (healthyplace.com)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that the inhibition of cholinesterase by rivastigmine is not affected by the concomitant administration of memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. (healthyplace.com)
  • Cholinesterase antibody LS-C717742 is an APC-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Cholinesterase (BCHE). (lsbio.com)
  • Quinine (3) was the only alkaloid which possessed weak inhibitory potential against butyryl cholinesterase enzyme with IC50 value of 61. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As of mid-2004, there are four types of cholinesterase inhibitors that are available. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this review, we will follow the history of cholinergic-related molecules in non-nervous and pre-nervous structures, and will outline the possible relationships between the exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors and developmental anomalies. (frontiersin.org)
  • It also writes further history on the little investigated side activity of cholinesterases, the aryl acylamidase, and supports a link between cholinergic and serotonergic systems. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are used to palliate cholinergic deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • De Sarno P, Pomponi M, Giacobini E, Tang XC, Williams E (1989) The effect of heptyl-physostigmine, a new cholinesterase inhibitor, on the central cholinergic system of the rat. (springer.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors enhance the cholinergic system and there have been reports that they might be beneficial in treating delirium. (cochrane.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity can cause a life-threatening cholinergic crisis. (brainscape.com)
  • The use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) has exploded in just a few years, producing golden eggs for several pharmaceutical companies. (alzforum.org)
  • We evaluated whether the use of Gb is associated with additional cognitive and functional benefit in AD patients already in treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs). (nih.gov)
  • CHICAGO - Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) plus memantine (MEM) may provide a significant benefit for psychosis and neurovegetative behavioral syndromes in patients with Alzheimer disease, according to results of a post-hoc analysis presented at the 2018 Alzheimer's Association International Conference , July 22-26, 2018, in Chicago, Illinois. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Cholinesterase antibody LS-C780656 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Cholinesterase. (lsbio.com)
  • There is evidence of more adverse events in total in the patients treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor than with placebo. (aafp.org)
  • This corresponds to a number needed to harm of 21 over 1 year, meaning only 21 patients need to be treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor over the course of a year for one patient to experience a 10-lb weight loss. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Insecticides containing organophosphates can inhibit cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase activity. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of compounds that includes chemical warfare nerve agents and certain insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the study was to compare the plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities of 100 greenhouse workers and 43 fruitgrowers engaged in spraying insecticides with those of 113 slaughtermen who served as controls. (ilo.org)
  • Blood plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity is a sensitive indicator of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides in vertebrates. (edu.au)
  • In rats, a maximal inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase was found after two hours, of plasma cholinesterase after four and of brain cholinesterase after six hours, with a reversal to normal in the blood observed after four days and in brain after eight days. (srce.hr)
  • This test, along with the pseudocholinesterase test, is also used to identify individuals with atypical forms of the enzyme cholinesterase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although improved nerve function results with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors, the damage to brain cells caused in Alzheimer disease cannot be halted or reversed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web The Novichok nerve agents cause harm by crippling the action of cholinesterase , an enzyme involved in the normal and essential breakdown of some neurotransmitters. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Suppression of cholinesterase can cause nerve impulses to be continuously transmitted, preventing muscle contractions from stopping-causing muscle spasms and, eventually, death. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of cholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death (examples are some snake venoms, and the nerve gases sarin and VX). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kuca K, Jun D, Bajgar J. Currently used cholinesterase reactivators against nerve agent intoxication: comparison of their effectivity in vitro. (labome.org)
  • Sensory ganglia, ganglia separated from muscle by a Millipore filter, spinal cord, liver, and nerve homogenates produced greater activity of muscle cholinesterase than occurred in untreated muscle cultured for the same period of time. (sciencemag.org)
  • During World War II, huge quantities of irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors were produced for possible use as nerve agents, but were never deployed. (brainscape.com)
  • Do cholinesterase inhibitors improve function in persons with mild, moderate, or severe dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease, and is one cholinesterase inhibitor better tolerated or more effective than the others? (aafp.org)
  • All unconfounded, blinded, randomized trials in which treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor at the usual recommended dose was compared with placebo or another cholinesterase inhibitor for patients with mild, moderate, or severe dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. (aafp.org)
  • Do cholinesterase inhibitors lead to weight loss in older adults with dementia? (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are commonly prescribed for dementia because they are one of the few available treatments, even though they have only modest effects on cognition and function in most patients. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • To understand whether cholinesterase inhibitors lead to weight loss in older adults with dementia, we studied a very large sample of patients in a real-world setting who had newly started these medications. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Included in the trial were 3377 patients with dementia in the VA Healthcare system: 1188 patients who had started cholinesterase inhibitors were matched with 2189 similar patients who had started other new long-term medications. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Patients with dementia who started cholinesterase inhibitors had a substantially higher risk of clinically significant weight loss over a 12-month period compared with matched controls. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are prescribed often in part because there are no good treatments for dementia, and they are seen as a treatment that may or may not help but will probably not hurt. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Becker RE, Giacobini E (1988) Mechanisms of cholinesterase inhibition in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: clinical, pharmacological and therapeutic aspects. (springer.com)
  • A human case series demonstrated a reduced cognitive decline in Dementia with Lewy Bodies with higher than usually tolerated doses of cholinesterase inhibitors. (open.ac.uk)
  • Exelon is a cholinesterase Inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. (healthyplace.com)
  • Cochrane reviews of each cholinesterase inhibitor for Alzheimer's disease have been completed. (aafp.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors (CI) remain the only drugs with a recognized efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in spite of enormous research efforts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Adherence, persistence and continuation with cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aim: To determine adherence, persistence and continuation beyond 6 months with cholinesterase inhibitors in Australians with Alzheimer's disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In chicken, the pineal organ was investigated taking into consideration: a) its similarity to the eye, as earlier studies suggested a relevance of cholinesterases to retina embryogenesis, b) its relevance on controlling physiological functions following a circadian rhythm, and c) its disfunction in pathological states, which also present altered cholinesterases expression, like Alzheimer's disease. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • QSAR Models towards Cholinesterase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. (igi-global.com)
  • Method: This was a cohort study of 160 consecutive outpatients with probable Alzheimer's disease who commenced cholinesterase inhibitor treatment over a 3 year period in a semi-rural area of Scotland. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sustained treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) is used in the management of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (rti.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out if atovastatin, when taken with a cholinesterase inhibitor, is effective for treating Alzheimer's disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gillette-Guyonnet S, Andrieu S, Nourhashemi F, Reynish E & Vellas B (2007) Response to letter from Garcia and colleagues on cholinesterase inhibitors and Alzheimer's disease outcomes. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Human Studies show that cholinesterase inhibition results in functional improvements in a dose dependent manner, including postponing the need for institutionalization in Alzheimer's Disease. (open.ac.uk)
  • Thus, in this study, cholinesterase was isolated from the liver of local freshwater fish, P. javanicus , in order to evaluate the inhibitory effect of metal ions toward the enzyme activity and ascertain its capability as a new local source of biomarker of those toxicants. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulations relating to Pesticide Worker safety specify that certain loaders, mixers and applicators of pesticides must be monitored for exposure, as measured by depression of their cholinesterase enzyme activity ( California Code of Regulations, Title 3, Division 6, Chapter 3, Subchapter 3, Article 2, Section 6728 ). (ca.gov)
  • Exposure to certain substances such as pesticides can inhibit the natural production of cholinesterase. (lifelabs.com)
  • Human exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting chemicals can result from inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact during the manufacture, mixing, or application of many pesticides. (lifelabs.com)
  • Cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are applied throughout Australia to control agricultural pests. (edu.au)
  • This chapter focuses on different Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies carried out for a variety of cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of AD. (igi-global.com)
  • Further trials using cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of delirium are needed. (cochrane.org)
  • The problems arise from 5,5-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), which is unstable, interacts with free sulfhydryl groups in the sample, and may affect cholinesterase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hemolysis can lead to apparent increases in plasma cholinesterase activity, and could mask an enzyme deficiency. (specialtylabs.com)
  • 2005). 'Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases', Croatica Chemica Acta , 78(1), pp. 121-128. (srce.hr)
  • Bosak A, Primožić I, Oršulić M, Tomić S, Simeon-Rudolf V. Enantiomers of Quinuclidin-3-ol Derivatives: Resolution and Interactions with Human Cholinesterases. (srce.hr)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are drugs that block the activity of an enzyme in the brain called cholinesterase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • John W. Hole , Human Anatomy & Physiology , 1981 As a cholinesterase inhibitor, it increases parasympathetic nervous system activity. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The laboratory measures the total activity of cholinesterase in the patient's blood. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Symptoms and cholinesterase activity among rural residents living near cotton fields in Nicaragua. (cdc.gov)
  • Optimal detection of cholinesterase activity in biological samples: modifications to the standard Ellman's assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ellman's assay is the most commonly used method to measure cholinesterase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to enrich tissue homogenates for cholinesterase while depleting the sample of sulfhydryl groups eliminates unwanted interactions with DTNB, making it possible to measure low cholinesterase activity in biological samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Surface cholinesterase activity was found to be highest in ciliary body, lower in retina, and least in cornea and crystalline lens. (arvojournals.org)
  • Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. (usgs.gov)
  • The authors demonstrated that neostigmine, an indirect parasympathomimetic, antagonized the effect of gallamine by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzyme activity in the synaptic cleft. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hydrolysis by cholinesterase was started by adding 20 μl buffer solution containing 15 kBq N -[ 14 C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate or (R)- N -[ 14 C]methylpiperidin-3-yl butyrate (specific activity, 2.04 GBq/mm). (asahq.org)
  • The biochemical characterization of cholinesterases (ChE) from different teleost species has been a critical step ensuring proper use of ChE activity levels as biomarkers on environmental monitoring programs. (environmental-expert.com)
  • PURPOSE: The plasmatic activity of the cholinesterase (CHE) and the liver mitochondrial function, expressed by the ratio of respiratory control (RCR), were studied during normothermic ischemia. (scielo.br)
  • Jiri Binder, Martin Paar, Daniel Jun, Miroslav Pohanka, Martina Hrabinova, Veronika Opletalova and Kamil Kuca, " New Bisquaternary Isoquinolinium Inhibitors of Brain Cholinesterases - Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity", Letters in Drug Design & Discovery (2010) 7: 1. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The mode of recovery of cholinesterase activity in vivo after organophosphorus poisoning. (biochemj.org)
  • Cummings JL, Grossberg GT, Porsteinsson AP, Hendrix S, Ellison N, Kerolous M. The effects of memantine added to cholinesterase inhibitors on NPI behavioral domains: pooled post hoc analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials in patients with moderate to severe AD. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • The beneficial effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on cognitive function was only observed on a few cognitive function tests for patients with HD, CADASIL or MS. Cholinesterase inhibitors had no significant impact on improving cognitive level, activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with these conditions. (cochrane.org)
  • Exposure to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran was detected using brain cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation techniques in heron carcasses collected from a potential pesticide exposure incident. (bioone.org)
  • Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. (drugbank.ca)
  • Does Xenon Anesthesia Inhibit Cholinesterases? (asahq.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are typically used to treat the early and middle stage symptoms of diseases such as Alzheimer's. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The benefits of cholinesterase inhibitors are judged by three patterns of the symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the early stages of Alzheimer disease, cholinesterase inhibitors may improve a person's condition, resulting in improvement of symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the disease progresses, cholinesterase inhibitors may act to stabilize the symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are the major classifications of signs and symptoms characteristic of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning? (cdc.gov)
  • Cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate. (teachmefinance.com)
  • Acute symptoms were grouped according to their previously known associations with cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors into four ordinal categories (asymptomatic, non-specific, possible, probable). (cdc.gov)
  • This can cause problems if the symptoms of lowered cholinesterase levels are either ignored or misdiagnosed as something more or less harmful than they really are. (lifelabs.com)
  • A cholinesterase inhibitor (or "anticholinesterase") suppresses the action of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • One symptom that benefits from the use of cholinesterase inhibitors is called cognition. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What laboratory tests are most helpful in guiding the emergency treatment of acute cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity? (cdc.gov)
  • What are the three major delayed adverse effects that can follow recovery from the acute cholinesterase toxicity? (cdc.gov)
  • Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju , 27(1), str. (srce.hr)
  • To assess for pesticide toxicity and screen for cholinesterase deficiency, which may contribute to unrecoverable apnea after surgical induction with succinylcholine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PAM-2), trimedoxime (TMB-4), obidoxime (LüH-6, Toxogonin), HI-6 and HLö-7 which are used as cholinesterase reactivators in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds. (labome.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors are chemical compounds that inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The compounds were tested as substrates and inhibitors of cholinesterases. (srce.hr)
  • Therefore, it is of interest to study cholinesterases inhibiting compounds from the Cassiopea andromeda venom. (bioinformation.net)
  • Johnson CD, Russel RL (1975) A rapid, simple radiometric assay for cholinesterase, suitable for multiple determination. (springer.com)
  • As cholinesterase enzyme is produced in liver, its assay may be of importance in liver diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Matilde Yanez and Dolores Vina, "Dual Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase for the Treatment of Alzheimer Disease", Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2013) 13: 1692. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This is also true for the cholinesterase of the nervous system, where the enzyme is bound to the cell structure. (nature.com)
  • Cholinesterase is an important enzyme needed in the human nervous system. (lifelabs.com)
  • More patients leave cholinesterase inhibitor treatment groups (29 percent) on account of adverse events than leave the placebo groups (18 percent). (aafp.org)
  • Jellyfish venoms are the most promising sources of potent cholinesterase inhibitors. (bioinformation.net)
  • Studies that have charted the time course of cognitive changes after taking the various cholinesterase inhibitors have demonstrated that improvements tend to peak about three months after the particular drug is first taken. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors produce a small benefit on several cognitive and noncognitive function scales. (aafp.org)
  • The benefits bestowed by cholinesterase inhibitors last only as long as effective levels of the drugs are present. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. (labome.org)
  • Evidence supports the trial of cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, such as edrophonium or neostigmine, as a temporizing measure in a situation of severe cobra venom poisoning with significant neurologic abnormalities until antivenom can be obtained. (medscape.com)
  • Drugs and substances that may increase RBC cholinesterase levels include echothiophate, parathion, and antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Evaluation of the Test-mate ChE (cholinesterase) field kit in acute organophosphorus poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • The utility of histochemistry in conjunction with in vitro methods is discussed.The substrates acetylthiocholine and phenyl thioacetate were utilized in demonstrating cholinesterase. (nih.gov)