Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and other choline esters, playing crucial roles in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses and neuro-muscular junctions, and in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxic substances.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An aspect of cholinesterases.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.
N,N',N'',N'''-Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide. A specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterases. It is commonly used experimentally to determine whether pseudo- or acetylcholinesterases are involved in an enzymatic process.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The benzoic acid ester of choline.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A carbamate insecticide.
A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
A plant family of the order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery. Fruits are one- or two-seeded capsules or drupes (stony-pitted fleshy fruits).
Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Cholinesterase reactivator used as an antidote in alkyl phosphate poisoning.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
A quaternary ammonium compound that is an inhibitor of cholinesterase activity with actions similar to those of NEOSTIGMINE, but of longer duration. Ambenonium is given by mouth in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1112)
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/576)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and cholinesterase activity of rats acutely treated with propoxur. (2/576)

Early assessment of neurological and behavioral effects is extremely valuable for early identification of intoxications because preventive measures can be taken against more severe or chronic toxic consequences. The time course of the effects of an oral dose of the anticholinesterase agent propoxur (8.3 mg/kg) was determined on behaviors displayed in the open-field and during an active avoidance task by rats and on blood and brain cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of blood cholinesterase was observed within 30 min after administration of propoxur. The half-life of enzyme-activity recovery was estimated to be 208.6 min. Peak brain cholinesterase inhibition was also detected between 5 and 30 min of the pesticide administration, but the half-life for enzyme activity recovery was much shorter, in the range of 85 min. Within this same time interval of the enzyme effects, diminished motor and exploratory activities and decreased performance of animals in the active avoidance task were observed. Likewise, behavioral normalization after propoxur followed a time frame similar to that of brain cholinesterase. These data indicate that behavioral changes that occur during intoxication with low oral doses of propoxur may be dissociated from signs characteristic of cholinergic over-stimulation but accompany brain cholinesterase activity inhibition.  (+info)

Human-serum cholinesterase subunits and number of active sites of the major component. (3/576)

The major C4 component of human serum cholinesterase was highly purified by a two-step procedure involving chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and preparative disc electrophoresis. The final product was about 8 000-fold purified with a yield of 64%. The subunit structure was determined by 8M urea polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis and by the sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation method in 5M guanidine hydrochloride. It was found that the C4 enzyme has a tetrameric structure. The subunits are equal in size and charge and a molecular weight comparable to that of the C1 enzyme from native serum. The major C4 enzyme and the minor C1 enzyme were subjected to an 'active enzyme centrifugation'. It was found that the C4 enzyme was a tetramer and the C1 enzyme was a monomer in the presence of substrate. The number of diisopropylphosphofluoridate-binding sites was measured from the molar ratio of bound diisopropylphosphate to protein. A value close to two binding sites was found for the C4 enzyme.  (+info)

Atypical serum cholinesterase in a family with congenital distichiasis. (4/576)

This paper describes the coexistence of genetically determined reduced cholinesterase activity and congenital distichiasis in the same family. The pedigree suggests that these two autosomal dominant diseases are segregated independently and do not show evidence of linkage.  (+info)

Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: a human volunteer study. (5/576)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the kinetics of elimination of urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites after oral and dermally applied doses of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos to human volunteers and to determine whether these doses affected plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. METHOD: Five volunteers ingested 1 mg (2852 nmol) of chlorpyrifos. Blood samples were taken over 24 hours and total void volumes of urine were collected over 100 hours. Four weeks later 28.59 mg (81567 nmol) of chlorpyrifos was administered dermally to each volunteer for 8 hours. Unabsorbed chlorpyrifos was washed from the skin and retained for subsequent measurement. The same blood and urine sampling regime was followed as for the oral administration. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase concentrations were determined for each blood sample. The concentration of two urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos--diethylphosphate and diethyl-thiophosphate--was determined for each urine sample. RESULTS: The apparent elimination half life of urinary dialkylphosphates after the oral dose was 15.5 hours and after the dermal dose it was 30 hours. Most of the oral dose (mean (range) 93% (55-115%)) and 1% of the applied dermal dose was recovered as urinary metabolites. About half (53%) of the dermal dose was recovered from the skin surface. The absorption rate through the skin, as measured by urinary metabolites was 456 ng/cm2/h. Blood plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity did not fall significantly during either dosing regime. CONCLUSION: An oral dose of chlorpyrifos was readily absorbed through the skin and almost all of the dose was recovered as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites. Excretion was delayed compared with the oral dose. Only a small proportion of the applied dose was recovered during the course of the experiment. The best time to collect urine samples for biological monitoring after dermal exposure is before the shift the next day. The amounts of chlorpyrifos used did not depress acetyl cholinesterase activity but could be readily detected as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites indicating that the urinary assay is a more sensitive indicator of exposure.  (+info)

Impaired respiratory muscle function in chemical plant workers producing chlorfenvinphos. (6/576)

All employees of a chemical plant division producing chlorfenvinphos were studied, i.e. 35 males aged 25-57 years (mean 42.1); their employment period ranged from 1-15 years (mean 9.0). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 13 workers (37.1%). Mean air chlorfenvinphos concentrations in the work environment estimated with gas-liquid chromatography were from 0.0008-0.0018 mg/m3 (maximum allowable concentration according to Polish standards is 0. 01 mg/m3). The activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was similar to that observed in people who were not exposed to chemicals, however, a slightly lowered activity of plasma cholinesterase in the studied population was evidently the result of mild liver impairment. Spirometric investigations performed in the studied workers revealed slight alterations manifested by increased intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) (the value of the index was 138.6% of the mean value, 24 workers with an abnormally high index), as well as by decreased specific airway conductance (sGaw); its mean value in the studied group was 58.5% of the mean standard (11 people showed an abnormal index). Substantial functional changes were found in the respiratory muscles. Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP = 97. 2 +/- 28.3 cm H2O) as well as maximal expiratory pressures (MEP = 113.9 +/- 44.2 cm H2O) in the studied group were significantly lower (p < 0.01) as compared to those observed in the control group (MIP = 120.7 +/- 31.7; MEP = 154.4 +/- 40.2 cm H2O) of 22 males having similar cigarette smoking habit, without occupational exposure to chemicals. It was also found that the people who had worked for more than 10 years under conditions of exposure to chlorfenvinphos showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) values of maximal inspiratory pressure (87.2 +/- 28.06 cm H2O, n = 17) compared to the workers whose period of employment was shorter than 10 years (106.6 +/- 26.8 cm H2O, n = 18). The two groups were comparable with regard to age and smoking habits. The values of maximal expiratory pressures were similar in both groups. No essential disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission were observed; only in 3 workers (8.5%) the electrostimulating myasthenic test showed some disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission. It seems that respiratory muscles impairment in humans exposed to chlorfenvinphos results from changes in the metabolism and structure of muscles, and partly from lung hyperinflation.  (+info)

Hepatosplenic morbidity in schistosomiasis japonica: evaluation with Doppler sonography. (7/576)

In Southeast Asia, schistosomiasis japonica is an important cause of hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Reliable methods to investigate portal hypertension (PHT) clinically and epidemiologically on community level are lacking. Doppler sonography is an established tool for investigating PHT in hospital settings. In Leyte, The Philippines, 137 individuals underwent color Doppler sonography, stool examination, and serology for hepatitis B and C, liver cell injury and cholestasis. A total of 85% of the study population had been infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Sonographically, periportal liver fibrosis was seen in 25% and reticular echogenicities (network pattern) in 44%. Portal blood flow was decreased or portosystemic collaterals were present in 10% (adults throughout) and correlated with periportal fibrosis, but not with network lesions. Chronic viral hepatitis was rare. Thus, hepatic lesions are frequent in adults but not in children in areas endemic for S. japonicum. Periportal liver fibrosis indicates a risk of PHT, and network pattern fibrosis apparently does not. Doppler sonography is suitable for research under tropical field conditions.  (+info)

Influence of metoclopramide on plasma cholinesterase and duration of action of mivacurium. (8/576)

Mivacurium is metabolized by plasma cholinesterase (PCHE). Metoclopramide inhibits PCHE in vitro and in vivo. We have assessed the effect of metoclopramide on duration of action of mivacurium and measured PCHE at baseline and at the time of maximal block. In a randomized, double-blind study, 30 patients received metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1 i.v. or saline, followed by propofol anaesthesia and mivacurium 0.15 mg kg-1. Using a TOF-Guard accelerometer, times to recovery of TI to 25%, 75% and 90% were 13.4, 19.3 and 21.9 min in the saline group and 17.8, 25.3 and 28.8 min in the metoclopramide group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). There were no differences in onset time or recovery index between the groups. PCHE activity at the time of maximum block decreased within each group (P < 0.01) but there was no difference between groups. In a second biochemical study of eight patients, a small decrease in PCHE activity was detected after metoclopramide 0.15 mg kg-1, but before administration of mivacurium (P < 0.025). We conclude that metoclopramide prolongs the duration of action of mivacurium.  (+info)

Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that play an essential role in the nervous system by regulating the transmission of nerve impulses. They work by breaking down a type of chemical messenger called acetylcholine, which is released by nerves to transmit signals to other nerves or muscles.

There are two main types of cholinesterases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). AChE is found primarily in the nervous system, where it rapidly breaks down acetylcholine to terminate nerve impulses. BChE, on the other hand, is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver and plasma, and plays a less specific role in breaking down various substances, including some drugs and toxins.

Inhibition of cholinesterases can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, which can result in excessive stimulation of nerve impulses and muscle contractions. This effect is exploited by certain medications used to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma, but can also be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, into choline and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber.

Acetylcholinesterase is located in the synaptic cleft, the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. When ACh is released from the presynaptic membrane and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, it triggers a response in the target cell. Acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh, terminating its action and allowing for rapid cycling of neurotransmission.

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads to an accumulation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, prolonging its effects on the postsynaptic membrane. This can result in excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and overactivation of the cholinergic system, which may cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. However, they can also be used as chemical weapons, such as nerve agents, due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system and cause severe toxicity.

Cholinesterase reactivators are a type of medication used to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning, particularly organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, as well as nerve agents. These chemicals work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This can lead to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine and result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Cholinesterase reactivators, also known as oximes, work by reactivating the inhibited enzyme and allowing it to resume its normal function. The most commonly used cholinesterase reactivator is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is often administered in combination with atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of nerve agents or pesticides, and their use should be determined by a medical professional based on the specific type of poisoning involved. Additionally, these medications can have side effects and should only be administered under medical supervision.

Thiocholine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has applications in the medical and biological fields. Thiocholine is the reduced form of thiochrome, which is a derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamine). It is often used as a reagent in biochemical assays to measure the activity of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

In this context, thiocholine iodide (S-[2-(hydroxyethyl)thio]ethan-1-oniuim iodide) is commonly used as a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. When the enzyme hydrolyzes thiocholine iodide, it produces thiocholine, which can be detected and quantified through its reaction with ferric chloride to form a colored complex. This assay is useful in diagnosing certain neurological conditions or monitoring the effectiveness of treatments that target the cholinergic system.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Pseudocholinesterase, also known as butyrylcholinesterase or plasma cholinesterase, is an enzyme found in the blood plasma. It is responsible for breaking down certain types of drugs and muscle relaxants that are used during general anesthesia, such as succinylcholine and mivacurium.

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can lead to prolonged neuromuscular blockade and difficulty in reversing the effects of these muscle relaxants, which can result in respiratory complications and other adverse effects during or after surgery. This deficiency can be inherited or acquired due to various factors such as liver disease, malnutrition, or exposure to certain chemicals.

It is important to test the patient's pseudocholinesterase levels before administering succinylcholine or mivacurium to ensure that they have adequate enzyme activity to metabolize these drugs properly.

Phenylcarbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a functional group consisting of a six-carbon ring, with the formula -C6H5) bonded to a carbamate group (-NHCOO-). Carbamates are compounds that contain a carbonyl (>C=O) group bonded to a nitrogen atom that is also bonded to two organic substituents.

In the medical field, phenylcarbamates have been used as drugs for various purposes. For example, some phenylcarbamates have been used as anticonvulsants, while others have been investigated for their potential as anti-cancer agents. However, it is important to note that many phenylcarbamates also have toxic properties and must be used with caution.

One well-known example of a phenylcarbamate is phenytoin, an anticonvulsant medication used to treat seizures. Phenytoin works by slowing down the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, which can help prevent or reduce the severity of seizures.

It's worth noting that while phenylcarbamates have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, they are not a widely used class of drugs and further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

Chlorpyrifos is a type of pesticide that belongs to the class of organophosphates. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and causes toxic effects in insects. Chlorpyrifos is used to control a wide variety of pests, including insects that infest crops, homes, and gardens. It is also used to protect wood from termites and other wood-boring insects.

Chlorpyrifos can be harmful to humans if it is ingested, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Exposure to chlorpyrifos can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Chlorpyrifos has been linked to developmental problems in children, including reduced IQ and attention deficit disorder. As a result, the use of chlorpyrifos in residential settings has been restricted in many countries.

Neostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, leading to an increase in its levels at the neuromuscular junction. This helps to improve muscle strength and tone by enhancing the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.

Neostigmine is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neurological disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It can also be used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants administered during surgery. Additionally, neostigmine may be used to diagnose and manage certain conditions that cause decreased gut motility or urinary retention.

It is important to note that neostigmine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, which can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, it may also cause respiratory distress or cardiac arrhythmias.

"Indans" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in the field of medicine or pharmacology. It's possible that you may be referring to "indanes," which are chemical compounds that contain a indane ring structure, consisting of two benzene rings fused in an angular arrangement. Some indane derivatives have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, it's important to note that the medical use and efficacy of these compounds can vary widely and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Dibucaine is a local anesthetic drug that is used to numb the skin or mucous membranes before medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerve signals in the area where it is applied, preventing the sensation of pain. Dibucaine is available as a topical cream, ointment, or gel, and it may also be used as an ingredient in lozenges or throat sprays to relieve sore throats.

Dibucaine has been largely replaced by other local anesthetics due to its potential for causing allergic reactions and other side effects. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using dibucaine, and to inform them of any medical conditions or medications you are taking that may interact with the drug.

Tacrine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid, which was used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. It works by increasing the levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is important for memory and thinking. Tacrine was an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine.

However, due to its significant hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) and limited efficacy, tacrine is rarely used today. Other cholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, have largely replaced tacrine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Physostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is important for communication between nerves and muscles. This results in an increase in acetylcholine levels in the body, improving nerve impulse transmission and helping to restore normal muscle function.

Physostigmine is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions that are caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine, such as myasthenia gravis, which is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatigue of the muscles. It may also be used to reverse the effects of certain medications that block the action of acetylcholine, such as anticholinergics, which are sometimes used in anesthesia or to treat conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is important to note that physostigmine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Galantamine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called acetylcholine in the brain, which is important for memory and thinking skills.

Galantamine is primarily used to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, a type of dementia that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. By increasing the levels of acetylcholine, galantamine can help improve symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, and problems with speaking, writing, and understanding language.

Galantamine is available in immediate-release and extended-release tablets, as well as an oral solution. It is usually taken twice a day, typically in the morning and evening, with meals. Common side effects of galantamine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness.

It's important to note that while galantamine can help improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, it does not cure or slow down the progression of the condition. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Diazinon is a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and results in overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and respiratory failure, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Diazinon is used to control a wide range of insect pests in agriculture, horticulture, and residential settings. However, it is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans, and its use is regulated by environmental and public health agencies around the world. Exposure to diazinon can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause acute and chronic health effects depending on the level and duration of exposure.

In the medical field, diazinon poisoning is treated with atropine, which blocks the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and oximes, which reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and fluid replacement, may also be necessary in severe cases.

Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide (TIPP) is not typically considered a medical compound, but rather a chemical reagent used in laboratory settings for various research purposes. However, I can provide a general chemical definition for you:

Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide (C12H28N2O4P) is an organophosphorus compound with the molecular formula [(i-Pr)2P(O)]2. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, particularly for the preparation of phosphate esters and other organophosphorus compounds.

It's important to note that TIPP is highly toxic and should be handled with appropriate precautions in a laboratory setting. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and may be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Therefore, it is not used in medical treatments or therapies for patients.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Parathion is not a medical term, but a chemical one. It refers to a type of organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin or ingested. Parathion works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an overstimulation of the nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, convulsions, respiratory failure, and death. Although parathion is not used in medical treatments, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of its potential health effects, particularly in cases of accidental or intentional exposure.

Organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain carbon (organo-) and thiophosphorus bonds. Thiophosphorus refers to a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various applications, including use as plasticizers, flame retardants, insecticides (such as malathion and parathion), and nerve agents (such as sarin and VX). They can be synthesized through the reaction of organolithium or Grignard reagents with thiophosphoryl chloride. The general structure of these compounds is R-P(=S)Y, where R is an organic group, P is phosphorus, and Y is a group that determines the properties and reactivity of the compound.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

Pralidoxime compounds are a type of antidote used to treat poisoning from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. These compounds work by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by organophosphates. This helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system and can save lives in cases of severe poisoning.

Pralidoxime is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote that blocks the effects of excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Together, these compounds can help to manage the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent long-term neurological damage.

It is important to note that pralidoxime must be administered as soon as possible after exposure to organophosphates, as its effectiveness decreases over time. This makes rapid diagnosis and treatment crucial in cases of suspected nerve agent or pesticide poisoning.

Succinylcholine is a neuromuscular blocking agent, a type of muscle relaxant used in anesthesia during surgical procedures. It works by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction, leading to temporary paralysis of skeletal muscles. This facilitates endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation during surgery. Succinylcholine has a rapid onset of action and is metabolized quickly, making it useful for short surgical procedures. However, its use may be associated with certain adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, muscle fasciculations, and potentially life-threatening hyperkalemia in susceptible individuals.

Pyridostigmine Bromide is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. It is primarily used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue.

Pyridostigmine works by blocking the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter essential for muscle contraction. By preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, pyridostigmine helps to increase its levels at the neuromuscular junction, thereby improving muscle strength and function.

The bromide salt form of pyridostigmine is commonly used because it is more soluble in water, which makes it easier to administer orally as a liquid or tablet. The medication's effects typically last for several hours, and its dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response and any side effects experienced.

Common side effects of pyridostigmine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased salivation, sweating, and muscle cramps. In some cases, higher doses of the medication can lead to more severe side effects such as respiratory distress, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely while they are taking pyridostigmine and adjust the dosage as necessary to minimize side effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Fenitrothion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in nervous system dysfunction in insects.

Fenitrothion is used to control pests in agricultural settings, as well as in public health programs to combat vectors of diseases such as mosquitoes and lice. However, it can also have toxic effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and has been linked to a variety of health problems, including neurological damage and cancer. As a result, its use is regulated in many countries, and there are restrictions on the amount that can be applied and the circumstances under which it can be used.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects, including fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to paralysis and death of the pests. Carbaryl is also used in some veterinary products to treat parasitic infestations. It can be found in various forms, such as powders, granules, and solutions, and can be applied to plants, animals, and indoor/outdoor surfaces. However, it can be harmful to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow the label instructions carefully when using carbaryl products.

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve synapses. This results in an accumulation of acetylcholine, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disruption of normal nervous system function. Methomyl is used to control a wide range of pests in various crops, but its use is restricted due to its high toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, weakness, and difficulty breathing in cases of acute exposure. Chronic exposure to methomyl has been linked to neurological effects, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

Paraoxon is the active metabolite of the organophosphate insecticide parathion. It functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which means it prevents the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. This leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a variety of symptoms such as muscle weakness, increased salivation, sweating, lacrimation, nausea, vomiting, and potentially fatal respiratory failure.

Paraoxon is also used in research and diagnostic settings to measure acetylcholinesterase activity. It can be used to determine the degree of inhibition of this enzyme by various chemicals or toxins, including other organophosphate compounds.

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

Butyrylthiocholine is a synthetic chemical compound that is often used in scientific research, particularly in the study of enzymes and neurotransmitters. It is the substrate for the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase, which is found in the blood and helps to break down certain types of drugs and neurotransmitters.

In biochemical terms, butyrylthiocholine is a choline ester of butyric acid, with a thio (sulfur) group replacing one of the oxygen atoms in the ester linkage. This structural feature makes it an excellent substrate for butyrylcholinesterase, as the sulfur atom can form a covalent bond with the enzyme's active site, leading to rapid and specific catalysis.

It is important to note that butyrylthiocholine itself does not have any direct medical relevance, but rather serves as a tool for studying the mechanisms of enzymes and other biological processes.

Edrophonium is a type of medication called an anticholinesterase agent. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is important for muscle contraction. This results in an increase in the amount of acetylcholine available to stimulate muscle contraction.

Edrophonium is used as a diagnostic aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It is also used to reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, which are medications that are sometimes given during surgery to temporarily paralyze muscles.

Edrophonium is administered intravenously (through a vein) and its effects usually begin within 30 seconds to 1 minute after injection and last for about 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of edrophonium include sweating, increased salivation, and muscle twitching. More serious side effects, such as seizures or cardiac arrest, can occur but are rare.

It is important to note that edrophonium should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly.

Acetylthiocholine is a synthetic chemical compound that is widely used in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience. It is the acetylated form of thiocholine, which is a choline ester. Acetylthiocholine is often used as a substrate for enzymes called cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE).

When Acetylthiocholine is hydrolyzed by AChE, it produces choline and thioacetic acid. This reaction is important because it terminates the signal transduction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synapse between neurons. Inhibition of AChE can lead to an accumulation of Acetylthiocholine and acetylcholine, which can have various effects on the nervous system, depending on the dose and duration of inhibition.

Acetylthiocholine is also used as a reagent in the Ellman's assay, a colorimetric method for measuring AChE activity. In this assay, Acetylthiocholine is hydrolyzed by AChE, releasing thiocholine, which then reacts with dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) to produce a yellow color. The intensity of the color is proportional to the amount of thiocholine produced and can be used to quantify AChE activity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Isoflurophate" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or scientific literature. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or typo in the term you are looking for. If you meant "Isoflurane," which is a commonly used anesthetic in medical and surgical procedures, I can provide a definition for that.

Isoflurane: A volatile halogenated ether liquid used as an inhalational general anesthetic agent. It has a rapid onset and offset of action, making it useful for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Isoflurane is also known to have bronchodilatory properties, which can be beneficial in patients with reactive airway disease or asthma.

Benzoylcholine, also known as benzoylcholine or physostigmine salicylate, is not a medical term commonly used to define a specific medical condition or disease. Instead, it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical research and some therapeutic applications.

Benzoylcholine is a synthetic derivative of physostigmine, a natural alkaloid found in the Calabar bean. Physostigmine is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. Benzoylcholine also acts as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used in research to study the cholinergic system, which is involved in various physiological processes such as memory, attention, and muscle contraction.

In clinical settings, benzoylcholine has been used as a diagnostic tool to test for myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatigue of the skeletal muscles. The administration of benzoylcholine in patients with myasthenia gravis can cause a transient worsening of symptoms due to the accumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.

It is important to note that benzoylcholine should only be used under medical supervision and its use is generally limited to research or diagnostic settings.

Nootropic agents, also known as cognition enhancers or smart drugs, are substances that are believed to improve cognitive functions such as memory, motivation, creativity, and executive functions. The term "nootropic" is derived from the Greek words "nous," meaning mind, and "tropos," meaning a turn or bend.

Nootropics can be divided into several categories, including dietary supplements, prescription medications, and illicit substances. Some examples of nootropics include:

* Piracetam and other racetams
* Caffeine and other stimulants
* Nicotine and other cholinergic compounds
* Modafinil and other wakefulness-promoting agents
* Certain antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and bupropion
* Illicit substances, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamines (Adderall), which are sometimes used off-label for cognitive enhancement.

It is important to note that while some nootropic agents have been shown to have cognitive benefits in certain studies, their effectiveness and safety are not fully understood. Additionally, the long-term use of some nootropics can have potential risks and side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or medication regimen for cognitive enhancement.

Sarin is a potent and deadly nerve agent, a type of organic compound called a phosphoro-organic fluid. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid, which is also known as GB. Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent that is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.

Sarin works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions and synapses, causing uncontrolled muscle contractions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

Exposure to Sarin can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Symptoms of exposure include runny nose, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blurred vision, and confusion. Immediate medical attention is required for anyone exposed to Sarin, as antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime can be administered to counteract its effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phosphoramides" is not a commonly used medical term or a specific medical condition. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of compounds containing a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more nitrogen atoms through amide linkages. These compounds have various uses in chemistry and biochemistry, including as potential therapeutic agents or research tools.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Soman is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2(C=O)N(CH2)4SH. It is a potent nerve agent, a type of organic compound that can cause death by interfering with the nervous system's ability to regulate muscle movement. Soman is an odorless, colorless liquid that evaporates slowly at room temperature and is therefore classified as a "v-type" or "volatile" nerve agent. It is considered to be one of the most toxic substances known. Exposure to soman can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it can cause a range of symptoms including nausea, seizures, respiratory failure, and death.

Memantine is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, which is a type of glutamate receptor found in nerve cells. It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, as it can help slow down cognitive decline and improve symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning. Memantine works by blocking the excessive activation of NMDA receptors, which can contribute to the damage and death of nerve cells in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease. It is available in oral formulations, including tablets, capsules, and oral solution.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including cockroaches, ants, fleas, and ticks. Propoxur works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. It can be found in various forms such as powders, granules, and liquids for use in residential and commercial settings. However, it is important to note that propoxur can also have toxic effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by environmental and health agencies worldwide.

Echothiophate iodide is a cholinesterase inhibitor drug. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is essential for proper nerve function. By preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine, echothiophate iodide can help to improve muscle strength and reduce muscle weakness in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders.

Echothiophate iodide is used as a diagnostic aid in ophthalmology to test for the presence and severity of glaucoma, as well as to treat certain types of glaucoma by reducing the pressure inside the eye. It is also used off-label to treat myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue.

The drug is administered via injection or ophthalmic solution, depending on its intended use. Common side effects of echothiophate iodide include blurred vision, eye pain, headache, and nausea. More serious side effects can include seizures, difficulty breathing, and irregular heartbeat.

It is important to note that echothiophate iodide can interact with other medications and should be used with caution in individuals with certain medical conditions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using this medication.

Piperidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a class of organic compounds that have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Medically relevant piperidines include various drugs such as some antihistamines, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants.

A piperidine is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The structure can be described as a cyclic secondary amine. Piperidines are found in some natural alkaloids, such as those derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), which gives piperidines their name.

In a medical context, it is more common to encounter specific drugs that belong to the class of piperidines rather than the term itself.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Disulfoton is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is used to control a variety of insects in agricultural settings. It functions as a cholinesterase inhibitor, disrupting the normal functioning of the nervous system in insects and leading to their death. However, disulfoton can also have toxic effects on humans and other mammals if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, it is important to use appropriate safety measures when handling this chemical.

The medical definition of Disulfoton is:

A colorless to light brown oily liquid organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used for control of soil-inhabiting pests on a wide variety of crops, including corn, soybeans, potatoes, and ornamentals. Disulfoton is also used as a termiticide and a molluscicide. It acts by inhibition of cholinesterase. Exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. Symptoms of exposure include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, and tightness in the chest. Severe exposure can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death. Disulfoton is considered a highly toxic compound.

Buxaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes the boxwoods and related genera. It is a small family with only about 120 species, mostly evergreen trees and shrubs. The plants in this family are characterized by their opposite, simple leaves and small, inconspicuous flowers.

The flowers of Buxaceae have both male and female reproductive structures (they are perfect flowers) and are typically arranged in dense clusters. The fruits of these plants are usually small, hard capsules that contain several seeds.

Buxaceae is a member of the order Buxales, which contains only one other family: Didymelaceae. Plants in this family have economic importance as ornamental plants and for their wood, which is used to make musical instruments and other items. Some species of Buxaceae also contain toxic alkaloids that can be harmful if ingested.

Organothiophosphates are a class of organophosphorus compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more organic groups and one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various uses, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, and insecticides. The most well-known member of this group is the insecticide parathion. Organothiophosphates are also used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals.

It's important to note that some organothiophosphates have been associated with health risks, including neurotoxicity and potential developmental effects. Therefore, their use is regulated by various government agencies around the world.

Agrochemicals are a broad range of chemical products used in agriculture to enhance crop production and protect plants from pests. They include fertilizers, which provide nutrients to plants, and pesticides, which include herbicides (weed killers), insecticides (insect killers), fungicides (fungus killers), and other substances used to control pests. Agrochemicals are used to improve crop yield, quality, and resistance to environmental stressors, but their use can also have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not managed properly.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Trimedoxime is an antidote drug that is used to treat poisoning by organophosphate chemicals, which are commonly found in pesticides and nerve agents. It works by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by these toxic compounds, thereby restoring the normal functioning of the nervous system.

Medically, trimedoxime is classified as an oxime, a type of compound that can reverse the effects of organophosphate poisoning. It is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that accumulates in the body due to organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that trimedoxime should only be administered under medical supervision and in accordance with established protocols for treating organophosphate poisoning. Improper use of this drug can lead to serious adverse effects.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

Solanine is a glycoalkaloid toxin found in plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae, which includes potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. It's primarily concentrated in the leaves, stems, and fruits (green potatoes and green, sprouted, or damaged potato areas), but it can also be found in lower concentrations in other parts of these plants. Solanine has a bitter taste and is produced by the plant as a defense mechanism against pests and diseases. When consumed in large amounts, solanine can cause symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and neurological problems like headaches, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it may lead to paralysis and even death. However, it's important to note that solanine concentrations in commonly consumed nightshade vegetables are generally low, and toxic effects are unlikely to occur from normal consumption unless the vegetables are spoiled or improperly prepared.

Neuromuscular non-depolarizing agents are a type of muscle relaxant medication used in anesthesia and critical care settings to facilitate endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and to prevent muscle contractions during surgery. These agents work by competitively binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, without activating them, thereby preventing the initiation of muscle contraction.

Examples of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents include:

* Vecuronium
* Rocuronium
* Pancuronium
* Atracurium
* Cisatracurium
* Mivacurium

These medications have a reversible effect and their duration of action can be prolonged in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, acid-base imbalances, electrolyte abnormalities, or in those who are taking other medications that interact with these agents. Therefore, it is important to monitor the patient's neuromuscular function during and after the administration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

An antidote is a substance that can counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. It works by neutralizing, reducing, or eliminating the harmful effects of the toxic substance. Antidotes can be administered in various forms such as medications, vaccines, or treatments. They are often used in emergency situations to save lives and prevent serious complications from poisoning.

The effectiveness of an antidote depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxin involved, the timing of administration, and the individual's response to treatment. In some cases, multiple antidotes may be required to treat a single poisoning incident. It is important to note that not all poisons have specific antidotes, and in such cases, supportive care and symptomatic treatment may be necessary.

Examples of common antidotes include:

* Naloxone for opioid overdose
* Activated charcoal for certain types of poisoning
* Digoxin-specific antibodies for digoxin toxicity
* Fomepizole for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
* Dimercaprol for heavy metal poisoning.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing nervous system excitation and ultimately damage or death in insects. However, it can also have toxic effects on mammals, including humans, if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as a highly hazardous pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its use is restricted or banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and environmental persistence.

Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide that acts as a systemic insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests in crops such as potatoes, corn, and soybeans. Aldicarb works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing paralysis and death in insects. However, it is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans, and can cause serious health effects such as nausea, dizziness, and even death if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, its use is heavily regulated and restricted in many countries.

Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that has been used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions, and eventually respiratory failure.

Chlorfenvinphos is highly toxic to both mammals and birds, and it can also have harmful effects on aquatic organisms. It has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental persistence and potential health risks to humans. Exposure to chlorfenvinphos can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and symptoms of poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, and respiratory distress. Chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects such as memory loss, decreased cognitive function, and peripheral neuropathy.

Choline is an essential nutrient that is vital for the normal functioning of all cells, particularly those in the brain and liver. It is a water-soluble compound that is neither a vitamin nor a mineral, but is often grouped with vitamins because it has many similar functions. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays an important role in memory, mood, and other cognitive processes. It also helps to maintain the structural integrity of cell membranes and is involved in the transport and metabolism of fats.

Choline can be synthesized by the body in small amounts, but it is also found in a variety of foods such as eggs, meat, fish, nuts, and cruciferous vegetables. Some people may require additional choline through supplementation, particularly if they follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions that affect choline metabolism.

Deficiency in choline can lead to a variety of health problems, including liver disease, muscle damage, and neurological disorders. On the other hand, excessive intake of choline can cause fishy body odor, sweating, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. It is important to maintain adequate levels of choline through a balanced diet and, if necessary, supplementation under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Benzethonium is an antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in some pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The chemical name for benzethonium chloride is N'-(1-benzyl-4-phenoxypyridinio) decane methosulfate.

Benzethonium chloride is commonly used as a topical antiseptic in products such as skin cleansers, hand sanitizers, and first aid treatments. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. However, it may not be effective against some spores and highly resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that benzethonium chloride should be used according to the instructions on the product label and should not be ingested or used in the eyes or mucous membranes unless specifically directed by a healthcare professional.

Oximes are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group =N-O-, where two organic groups are attached to the nitrogen atom. In a clinical context, oximes are used as antidotes for nerve agent and pesticide poisoning. The most commonly used oxime in medicine is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is used to reactivate acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus compounds, such as nerve agents and certain pesticides. These compounds work by forming a bond with the phosphoryl group of the inhibited enzyme, allowing for its reactivation and restoration of normal neuromuscular function.

Malathion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for the control of various insect pests. It works by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which leads to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses, resulting in overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the insect.

In a medical context, malathion is also used as a topical treatment for head lice infestations. It is available in various forms, such as shampoos, lotions, and sprays, and works by killing the lice and their eggs on contact. However, it is important to follow the instructions carefully when using malathion products to avoid excessive exposure and potential health risks.

Ambenonium Chloride is a medication that belongs to the class of anticholinesterase agents. It works by blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is important for memory and thinking. This results in an increase in the level of acetylcholine in the brain, which can help to improve symptoms of certain types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Ambenonium Chloride is available in tablet form and is typically taken two to three times a day. The medication may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased saliva production, and muscle cramps. It should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as asthma, heart disease, or seizure disorders, and should not be taken by people who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

It is important to note that Ambenonium Chloride is not a cure for dementia, but rather a treatment that can help to manage symptoms. It is usually used in combination with other therapies, such as cognitive stimulation and behavioral interventions, to provide the best possible outcomes for people with dementia.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

Neurotoxicity syndromes refer to a group of conditions caused by exposure to neurotoxins, which are substances that can damage the structure or function of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity syndromes can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems and may cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type and severity of the exposure.

Symptoms of neurotoxicity syndromes may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness
* Tremors or shaking
* Difficulty with coordination or balance
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Vision problems
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Seizures or convulsions
* Mood changes, such as depression or anxiety

Neurotoxicity syndromes can be caused by exposure to a variety of substances, including heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and arsenic), pesticides, solvents, and certain medications. In some cases, neurotoxicity syndromes may be reversible with treatment, while in other cases, the damage may be permanent.

Prevention is key in avoiding neurotoxicity syndromes, and it is important to follow safety guidelines when working with or around potential neurotoxins. If exposure does occur, prompt medical attention is necessary to minimize the risk of long-term health effects.

Salivation is the process of producing and secreting saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. It is primarily a reflex response to various stimuli such as thinking about or tasting food, chewing, and speaking. Saliva plays a crucial role in digestion by moistening food and helping to create a food bolus that can be swallowed easily. Additionally, saliva contains enzymes like amylase which begin the process of digesting carbohydrates even before food enters the stomach. Excessive salivation is known as hypersalivation or ptyalism, while reduced salivation is called xerostomia.

I could not find a medical definition specifically for "Cocos." However, Cocos is a geographical name that may refer to:

* The Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian territory in the Indian Ocean.
* Cocos nucifera, the scientific name for the coconut palm tree.

There are some medical conditions related to the consumption of coconuts or exposure to the coconut palm tree, such as allergies to coconut products, but there is no specific medical term "Cocos."

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Parasympathomimetics are substances or drugs that mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological functions. It is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, and its neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.

Parasympathomimetic drugs work by either directly stimulating muscarinic receptors or increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. These drugs can have various effects on different organs, depending on the specific receptors they target. Some common effects include decreasing heart rate and contractility, reducing respiratory rate, constricting pupils, increasing glandular secretions (such as saliva and sweat), stimulating digestion, and promoting urination and defecation.

Examples of parasympathomimetic drugs include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma; bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention and neurogenic bladder; and neostigmine, which is used to treat myasthenia gravis and reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

RBC cholinesterase, or erythrocyte cholinesterase, true cholinesterase, choline esterase I, or (most formally) acetylcholine ... Some benzodiazepines, e.g. temazepam have an inhibitory effect on cholinesterase. Cholinesterase levels can be used as an ... producing the second oddity that cholinesterase and true cholinesterase then do not mean the same thing. But such usage is now ... plasma cholinesterase (PChE), serum cholinesterase (SChE), butylcholinesterase, or (most formally) acylcholine acylhydrolase, ...
... s (ChEIs), also known as anti-cholinesterase, are chemicals that prevent the breakdown of the ... Cholinesterase inhibitors came to a public attention in 2020 when Russian opposition and dissent figure Alexei Navalny was ... "Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Medical Use & WMD)". PharmWiki. Tulane University School of Medicine. Retrieved 24 August 2020. ... Meng, Yan‑Hong; Wang, Pan‑Pan; Song, Ya‑Xue; Wang, Jian‑Hua (2019-03-01). "Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for ...
... s are drugs that reverse the inhibition of cholinesterase by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are ... v t e v t e (Cholinesterase reactivators, All stub articles, Pharmacology stubs, Toxicology stubs). ... Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Nerve agent "Cholinesterase Reactivators - MeSH - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Antonijevic, B.; ...
Ontogenesis of cholinesterases. In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 129 - 186, Handbch. d ... In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents, G. B. Koelle, Ed., pp. 799 -832, Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Erganzungswk ... Histochemical studies of cholinesterases in Ciona intestinalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17: 553-558. "ASPET , Obituary: ... Contribution to the study of the mechanism of action of cholinesterase inhibitors. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 101: 327-343. ...
Historical development of organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors"". Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents. Handbook ... doi:10.1007/978-3-642-68441-8. ISBN 978-3-642-68443-2. S2CID 33095322.The history of cholinesterase inhibitors: who was ... Petroianu, Georg (2015). "History of organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors & reactivators". Military Medical Science ... TEPP was discovered to be an inhibitor of cholinesterases. Schrader referred to the studies by Eberhard Gross, who was the ...
She wrote a seminal text on the Biology of cholinesterases in 1974 and helped to lay the foundations of the cholinergic ... Silver's initial research was on organophosphorous compounds and their anti-cholinesterase effects. The institute was to remain ... The biology of cholinesterases. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland Pub. Co. ; American Elsevier Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-444-10652-0 ... leading to the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Silver was born at a British ...
Hybrid/bitopic ligands The nomenclatural variations of BCHE and of cholinesterases generally are discussed at Cholinesterase § ... cholin)esterase, is a nonspecific cholinesterase enzyme that hydrolyses many different choline-based esters. In humans, it is ... The term "serum cholinesterase" is generally used in reference to a clinical test that reflects levels of both of these enzymes ... Cholinesterases Dibucaine number GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114200 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
If signs of cholinesterase inhibition are present, atropine and pralidoxime are antidotal and may be coadministered. The ... The adverse effect of phosmet are caused by the inhibition of cholinesterases. Acute poisoning leads to uncontrollable muscle ... The primary toxicological endpoint of concern to the EPA is cholinesterase inhibition; a common toxic effect of organophosphate ... "CHL Report For Phosmet" (PDF). "Cholinesterase Inhibition". pmep.cce.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-23. Stewart, P. A.; Fears, ...
Significant advances with cholinesterases (ChEs), specifically human serum BChE (HuBChE) have been made. HuBChe can offer a ... "Cholinesterase Inhibition". Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. "Pesticide Application and Safety Training for ... He was later transferred to Berlin, where poisoning by a cholinesterase inhibitor was diagnosed and confirmed by multiple tests ... May 2008 USACEHR Technical Report 0801: An Evaluation of Blood Cholinesterase Testing Methods for Military Health Surveillance ...
Exposure to TOCP has been characterized by a list of observations: Cholinesterase levels will remain unchanged or show no ... "Cholinesterase Inhibition". Extoxnet. Cornell University. September 1993. Oh, Shin J. (2010). Treatment and Management of ...
The nomenclatural variations of ACHE and of cholinesterases generally are discussed at Cholinesterase § Types and nomenclature ... Massoulié J, Perrier N, Noureddine H, Liang D, Bon S (2008). "Old and new questions about cholinesterases". Chem. Biol. ... Taylor P, Radić Z (1994). "The cholinesterases: from genes to proteins". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 34: 281- ... Massoulié J, Pezzementi L, Bon S, Krejci E, Vallette FM (July 1993). "Molecular and cellular biology of cholinesterases". ...
BLASCHKO, H; BULBRING, E; CHOU, TC (March 1949). "Tubocurarine antagonism and inhibition of cholinesterases". British Journal ...
Augustinsson KB (1948). "Cholinesterases: A study in comparative enzymology". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 15: Supp. 52. ... Eadie GS (1942). "The Inhibition of Cholinesterase by Physostigmine and Prostigmine". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 146: 85- ...
MYERS, DK (April 1956). "Studies on cholinesterase. 10. Return of cholinesterase activity in the rat after inhibition by ... Dimethylcarbamoyl fluoride is highly toxic because it's a potent cholinesterase inhibitor and is lethal even at low doses. ...
Honorary Doctor of Medicine (1973) Tammelin, Lars-Erik (1958). Choline esters: substrate and inhibitors of cholinesterases. ... Tammelin, Lars-Erik (1958). Choline esters: substrate and inhibitors of cholinesterases. Stockholm. SELIBR 9470776.{{cite book ... linked to their chemical similarity to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and their ability to block the enzyme cholinesterase ...
Ro 3-0419 HOBBIGER, F (June 1954). "The inhibition of cholinesterases by 3-(diethoxyphosphinyloxy)-N-methylquinolinium ... "Hydroxypyridine and hydroxyquinoline phosphates as anti-cholinesterases". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 1638. doi: ...
Raschetti R, Albanese E, Vanacore N, Maggini M (November 2007). "Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a ... Stahl SM (November 2000). "The new cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, Part 2: illustrating their mechanisms of ... Birks J (January 2006). Birks J (ed.). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Geula C, Mesulam MM (1995). "Cholinesterases and the pathology of Alzheimer disease". Alzheimer Disease and Associated ...
Proceedings of the IX International Meeting on Cholinesterases. 175 (1-3): 355-364. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.04.008. ISSN 0009- ...
December 2005). "Mefloquine inhibits cholinesterases at the mouse neuromuscular junction". Neuropharmacology. 49 (8): 1132-1139 ... "Mefloquine enhances nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid release via inhibition of cholinesterase". The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Structure and Function of Cholinesterases and Related Proteins. Springer US. p. 249. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-1540-5_74. ISBN ...
Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) BERRY, WK (October 1951). "The turnover number of cholinesterase". Biochemical Journal. ...
It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Breakdown in soil is 6.1 days in sand, 309 days in water at pH 5.0, 27 days at pH 7.0, and 3 ...
It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of sulfur oxides and phosphorus oxides. A ... Symptoms of exposure to this type of compound include cholinesterase inhibition, miosis, frontal headache, increased bronchial ...
Cholinesterase is an important enzyme of the nervous system, and these chemical groups kill pests and potentially injure or ... If one is regularly using carbamate and organophosphate pesticides, it is important to obtain a baseline cholinesterase test. ... Doss, Howard J. (March 1994). "Get Cholinesterase Test Now" (PDF). Safety News Series. Agricultural Engineering Department, ... "Rational Use of Cholinesterase Activity Testing in Pesticide Poisoning". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. ...
It covalently binds by its phosphate group to serine group at the active site of the cholinesterase. Once bound, the enzyme is ... Because of the very slow rate at which echothiophate is hydrolyzed by cholinesterase, its effects can last a week or more. ...
The use of medications for treatment of Alzheimer's dementia, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, has shown small[ ... cholinesterase inhibitors galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine; Studies have been proposed to evaluate whether an extract of ...
When initially tested the first week, everyone's plasm cholinesterase and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase was above normal ... Two other people had levels of plasma cholinesterase below normal limit. The rest of the workers were disrobed, hosed down with ... This is believed to be due to organophosphates inhibiting the enzyme, cholinesterase, resulting in toxic effects by allowing an ... "Cholinesterase - blood: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-05. Preventing pesticide-related ...
Liddell, J.; Lehmann, H.; Silk, E. (1962). "A 'silent' pseudo-cholinesterase gene". Nature. 193 (4815): 561-562. Bibcode: ...
Rodda J, Morgan S, Walker Z (October 2009). "Are cholinesterase inhibitors effective in the management of the behavioral and ... Birks J (January 2006). Birks JS (ed.). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of ... March 2008). "Effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for treating dementia: evidence review for a clinical ... "Syncope and its consequences in patients with dementia receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: a population-based cohort study". ...
Birks, J. (2006). Birks, Jacqueline S (ed.). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of ...
RBC cholinesterase, or erythrocyte cholinesterase, true cholinesterase, choline esterase I, or (most formally) acetylcholine ... Some benzodiazepines, e.g. temazepam have an inhibitory effect on cholinesterase. Cholinesterase levels can be used as an ... producing the second oddity that cholinesterase and true cholinesterase then do not mean the same thing. But such usage is now ... plasma cholinesterase (PChE), serum cholinesterase (SChE), butylcholinesterase, or (most formally) acylcholine acylhydrolase, ...
This Initial Check will help you assess your current knowledge and skill level about cholinesterase inhibitors. To take the ... While laboratory tests can be used to estimate the exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors (cholinesterase levels and direct ... and Serum Cholinesterase and Direct Measurement of Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Their Metabolic Byproducts. ... This Initial Check will help you assess your current knowledge and skill level about cholinesterase inhibitors. To take the ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Selected Halogenated Thiophene Chalcones.. Publication Type : Journal Article ... BACKGROUND: Dual-acting human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO-B) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are more effective than the ... Keywords : acetylcholinesterase, Animals, Chalcones, Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Crystallography, X-Ray, Horses, Humans, ... "Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Selected Halogenated Thiophene Chalcones.", Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem, vol. 19, no ...
Webster GR Cholinesterase inhibition by lysergic acid diethylamide. Biochem. J. 1954 58:XIX ... 60% by 5x10-M). True cholinesterase in the brain is unaffected by these concentrations. The pseudo-cholinesterase of human ... LSD (10-6M) causes 50 0nhibition of human plasma cholinesterase, the inhibition of the plasma cholinesterase being competitive ... The true cholinesterase in human erythrocytes is not significantly affected by ten times the concentration required to produce ...
Cholinesterase inhibition as a possible therapy for delirium in vascular dementia: a controlled, open 24-month study of 246 ...
... Hasselberg, S.; Mauck, L.; Nealon, D.. ... Hasselberg, S.; Bodman, V.; Nealon, D.; Kane, M.; Schwarz, K. 1991: Development of a thin film assay for serum cholinesterase ... Novros, J.; Bodman, V.; Connelly, L.; Armstrong, D. 1992: Evaluation of albumin cholinesterase lactate and lipase on the kodak ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are used to palliate cholinergic deficiency. All 4 ... Cholinesterase inhibitor treatment and urinary incontinence in Alzheimers disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May. 55(5):800-1. [ ... The mainstay of therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is the use of centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors to ... Syncope and its consequences in patients with dementia receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: a population-based cohort study. ...
These Cholinesterase (ChE) clinical tools provide a concise and simple format to guide clinicians in monitoring the ChE levels ... These Cholinesterase (ChE) clinical tools provide a concise and simple format to guide clinicians in monitoring the ChE levels ...
Occupational use of agrochemicals results in inhibited cholinesterase activity and altered reproductive hormone levels in male ... Occupational use of agrochemicals results in inhibited cholinesterase activity and altered reproductive hormone levels in male ... Occupational use of agrochemicals results in inhibited cholinesterase activity and altered reproductive hormone levels in male ... Thereafter, serum cholinesterase [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)] activities, total antioxidant ...
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to blood cholinesterase level among tobacco farmers in Northern Thailand ... The study found a strongly significant association between level of knowledge and blood cholinesterase level (P < 0.001). ... Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to blood cholinesterase level among tobacco farmers in Northern Thailand ... Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to blood cholinesterase level among tobacco farmers in Northern Thailand ...
Edrophonium is a short and rapid-acting anticholinesterase drug. Its effect is manifest within 30 to 60 seconds after injection and lasts an average of 10 minutes. Edrophoniums pharmacologic action is due primarily to the inhibition or inactivation of acetylcholinesterase at sites of cholinergic transmission. Muscarinic receptors are found throughout the body, especially on muscle. Stimulation of these receptors causes to muscle contraction. In myasthenia gravis the bodys immune system destroys many of the muscarinic receptors, so that the muscle becomes less responsive to nervous stimulation. Edrophonium chloride increases the amount of acetylcholine at the nerve endings. Increased levels of acetyl choline allow the remaining receptors to function more efficiently ...
F. M. Red OLaughlin, III, is a researcher, author, and public speaker. He speaks on health and wellness, aging, personal growth, and motivation. Red states often that, "If you treat symptoms, you will always treat symptoms. You must treat the cause of a problem to correct it." I research what happens at the cellular level in the human body, biochemically speaking. I look for cause and effect relationships. I identify the causes of health problems. I write and speak about those causes and the potential options for correcting those problems.. ...
... Book Posting July 21, 2023. ... Features of Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents (1963) PDF free download:. Although the anticholinesterase (anti-ChE ... In this blog post, you can download Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents (1963) for free in PDF format download with ... Before we share the free PDF download of Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents (1963) pdf Free download with you, here ...
Cholinesterase assay kit, manufactured by AffiGEN. Cat# AFG-EK-115 & Size: 50 Tests/48S. ... AffiASSAY® Cholinesterase assay kit. https://www.affiassay.com/shop/afg-ek-115-affiassay-r-cholinesterase-assay-kit-838585 ...
Health Dangers of Glycoalkaloids One of the Health Dangers of a Plant-Based Diet are neurotoxins called glycoalkaloids. They are enzyme inhibitors. The health dangers of glycoalkaloids are numerous. The potato is a good example of glycoalkaloids and their hazards. One of the enzyme inhibitors is called an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This blocks the breakdown of acetylcholine…. Read More Read More. ...
Book Cholinesterase RBC test online at best price in mahuva. Free home blood sample collection. Accurate, reliable & fast ... RBC Cholinesterase Test in Mahuva x Sterling Accuris Diagnostics offers an RBC cholinesterase Test in Mahuva to measure the ... Overview of RBC Cholinesterase Test. The RBC cholinesterase test is a type of blood test used to measure the activity of the ... How to Interpret the RBC cholinesterase Test Report. Normal levels of Cholinesterase RBC in adult male and female is 1700 to ...
Maidment, Ian D., Fox, Christopher, Boustani, Malaz (2005) A review of studies describing the use of acetyl cholinesterase ... Conclusion: Cholinesterase inhibitors have a moderate effect against cognitive symptoms. There is no clear evidence of a ... A review of studies describing the use of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinsons disease dementia ... Objective: To review the literature relating to the use of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinsons disease dementia ( ...
Peripheral cholinesterase inhibition by occupational chlorpyrifos exposure in Australian termiticide applicators. Lookup NU ... and serum cholinesterase (SChE). Lymphocyte neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is thought to have potential as a predictor of ... may be monitored by the measurement of the activity of peripheral cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes, including erythrocyte ...
The inhibitory effect of the compounds on cholinesterases (ChEs; AChE and BChE) and carbonic anhydrases (hCAs; hCA I and hCA II ... Design and Synthesis of Pyrazole Carboxamide Derivatives as Selective Cholinesterase and Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: ... The inhibitory effect of the compounds on cholinesterases (ChEs; AChE and BChE) and carbonic anhydrases (hCAs; hCA I and hCA II ...
Cholinesterase inhibitors. These medicines work by boosting levels of cell-to-cell communication. The medicines preserve a ... Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve symptoms related to behavior, such as agitation or depression. The medicines are taken ... Commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept, Adlarity), galantamine (Razadyne) and rivastigmine ... Its sometimes used in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Relatively rare side effects include dizziness and ...
Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Class Summary. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are used to palliate cholinergic deficiency. All 4 ... Cholinesterase inhibitor treatment and urinary incontinence in Alzheimers disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May. 55(5):800-1. [ ... The mainstay of therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is the use of centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors to ... Syncope and its consequences in patients with dementia receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: a population-based cohort study. ...
Of these, some of the most commonly used in dementia are cholinesterase inhibitors, which prevent the breakdown of ...
From these analyses compound 4c resulted equipotent regarding the inhibition of cholinesterases; inhibitors 6k, 9a, 9b were ... From these analyses compound 4c resulted equipotent regarding the inhibition of cholinesterases; inhibitors 6k, 9a, 9b were ... From these analyses compound 4c resulted equipotent regarding the inhibition of cholinesterases; inhibitors 6k, 9a, 9b were ... From these analyses compound 4c resulted equipotent regarding the inhibition of cholinesterases; inhibitors 6k, 9a, 9b were ...
Cholinesterase II deficiency, see Pseudocholinesterase deficiency. *Chondrodysplasia punctata 1, X-linked, see X-linked ...
Direct visualization of cholinesterase activity on polyacrylamide gels is routinely practiced using acetylthiocholine as a ... Secondly, the hemolysate cholinesterase activity, as well as its inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides is understandable ... Moreover, the enzyme activity bands formed using 1-NA proves the specificity of the substrate for hemolysate cholinesterase as ... Our results prove that 1-NA is an alternative substrate of hemolysate cholinesterase which specifically detects the enzyme ...
Assessment of Cholinesterase inhibition activity of birds inhabiting pesticide exposed cro Assessment of Cholinesterase ... We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed ... The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest ...
Cholinesterase inhibition by lysergic acid diethylamide. Biochem. J.. 1954. Abramson HA, Evans LT. Lysergic Acid diethylamide ( ...
  • This Initial Check will help you assess your current knowledge and skill level about cholinesterase inhibitors. (cdc.gov)
  • Dual-acting human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO-B) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are more effective than the classic one-drug one-target therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (amrita.edu)
  • The mainstay of therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is the use of centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors to attempt to compensate for the depletion of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (medscape.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are used to palliate cholinergic deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Objective: To review the literature relating to the use of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). (kent.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: Cholinesterase inhibitors have a moderate effect against cognitive symptoms. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Tolerability including exacerbation of motor symptoms - in particular tremor - may limit the utility of cholinesterase inhibitors. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Of these, some of the most commonly used in dementia are cholinesterase inhibitors, which prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine , a neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory. (healthline.com)
  • Moreover, the enzyme activity bands formed using 1-NA proves the specificity of the substrate for hemolysate cholinesterase as in the presence of specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitors the band formation disappears. (who.int)
  • Four cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine were eventually approved to treat Alzheimer's disease, but their effects were limited to a small advantage over placebo that did not alter the long-term trajectory of cognitive decline. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The different cholinesterase inhibitors have similar efficacy and similar side effects primarily related to cholinergic mechanisms. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors can sometimes temporarily improve cognitive function. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 1528 : Cholinesterase inhibition by lysergic acid diethylamide. (erowid.org)
  • Cholinesterase inhibition by lysergic acid diethylamide. (erowid.org)
  • LSD (10-6M) causes 50 0nhibition of human plasma cholinesterase, the inhibition of the plasma cholinesterase being competitive and readily reversible. (erowid.org)
  • The pseudo-cholinesterase of human brain appears to be more sensitive to inhibition by LSD than the corresponding enzyme in the brains of the other animal species studied (rat, guinea pig, chicken, rabbit, and monkey). (erowid.org)
  • This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by cholinesterase. (medscape.com)
  • Secondly, the hemolysate cholinesterase activity, as well as its inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides is understandable within 10 min using Fast Blue RR dye for the detection of 1-NA. (who.int)
  • The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Over-exposure to these chemicals results in the inhibition of the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) which is utilized in the body's conducting tissue, such as nerve and muscle motor sensory fibers. (agrisafe.org)
  • Thereafter, serum cholinesterase [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)] activities, total antioxidant capacity and reproductive hormones [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone and testosterone] were assessed. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Occupational exposure to organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), such as chlorpyrifos, may be monitored by the measurement of the activity of peripheral cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes, including erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (EAChE) and serum cholinesterase (SChE). (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The two types of cholinesterase are acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE). (wikipedia.org)
  • All 4 currently approved ChEIs (ie, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the synapse (specific cholinesterase). (medscape.com)
  • The concept of neurohumoral transmission was originally established largely from experiments in which physostigmine, or eserine, was employed to protect acetylcholine (ACh), the transmitter of the cholinergic nerves, from rapid hydrolytic destruction by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and other cholinesterases (ChE's). (booksofmedical.com)
  • We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase ( AChE ) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. (bvsalud.org)
  • What aspects of this situation suggest toxic exposure to a cholinesterase inhibitor? (cdc.gov)
  • What are the major classifications of signs and symptoms characteristic of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning? (cdc.gov)
  • What is the pathophysiology underlying the clinical findings in cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning? (cdc.gov)
  • What laboratory tests are most helpful in guiding the emergency treatment of acute cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity? (cdc.gov)
  • What are the major treatment strategies recommended in acute cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning? (cdc.gov)
  • What is the usual cause of death from acute cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning? (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical findings of eye pain, blurred or dim vision, respiratory distress, diaphoresis and seizures are all consistent with cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • Roughly half are taking a cholinesterase inhibitor. (medscape.com)
  • The response of the autonomic nervous system to the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil. (nel.edu)
  • We previously demonstrated that the direct microinjection of cholinesterase inhibitor (neostigmine) into the hippocampus in ra. (nel.edu)
  • The term cholinesterase is sometimes used to refer specifically to butyrylcholinesterase, but this usage produces the oddity that cholinesterase and false cholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase) under that scheme mean the same thing (confusingly), and acetylcholinesterase is then called true cholinesterase in contrast, producing the second oddity that cholinesterase and true cholinesterase then do not mean the same thing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The true cholinesterase in human erythrocytes is not significantly affected by ten times the concentration required to produce 90 0nhibition of plasma cholinesterase. (erowid.org)
  • 60% by 5x10-M). True cholinesterase in the brain is unaffected by these concentrations. (erowid.org)
  • Toxicity Category I and II organophosphates (OPs) and N-methyl carbamates are cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides commonly used in agriculture to kill insects or prevent them from damaging or destroying crops. (agrisafe.org)
  • Includes Cholinesterase Testing Protocol Algorithm. (agrisafe.org)
  • Plasma or RBC cholinesterase may be disproportionately inhibited depending on the particular nerve agent, amount of exposure and time interval since exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • These Cholinesterase (ChE) clinical tools provide a concise and simple format to guide clinicians in monitoring the ChE levels for patients working with Class I and Class II organophosphates (OP) or OP and N-methyl-carbamates. (migrantclinician.org)
  • Our results prove that 1-NA is an alternative substrate of hemolysate cholinesterase which specifically detects the enzyme activity on gel rapidly. (who.int)
  • What are the three major delayed adverse effects that can follow recovery from the acute cholinesterase toxicity? (cdc.gov)
  • Hemolysate cholinesterase is currently recognized as the most preferred biomarker to detect acute organophosphorus poisoning. (who.int)
  • Pseudo-cholinesterase activity in a number of different areas of the human brain is also inhibited (approx. (erowid.org)
  • Occupational use of agrochemicals results in inhibited cholinesterase activity and altered reproductive hormone levels in male farmers from Buea, Cameroon. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Direct visualization of cholinesterase activity on polyacrylamide gels is routinely practiced using acetylthiocholine as a substrate. (who.int)
  • Here, we have explored alternative substrates, such as 1-NA and 2-NA which might have the potential to behave as specific substrates for the detection of hemolysate cholinesterase activity on the gels. (who.int)
  • The organophosphorus inhibited activity is regained in the presence of cholinesterase reactivator. (who.int)
  • We recommend 1-NA for rapid detection of hemolysate cholinesterase activity on the gels. (who.int)
  • Decreased plasma or red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholinesterase activity correlates poorly with severity of local effects after vapor exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Two of the workers were hospitalized because of low plasma cholinesterase (ChE) values and respiration problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Although a plasma cholinesterase level was not detectable on admission, the patient's red blood cell cholinesterase level was normal when measured after completion of pralidoxime therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and Practices (KAP) related to blood cholinesterase levels related to pesticide use among tobacco farmers. (who.int)
  • The prevalence of risky levels of blood cholinesterase among tobacco farmers in the study area was high. (who.int)
  • The study found a strongly significant association between level of knowledge and blood cholinesterase level (P (who.int)
  • Currently, there is no practice standard or national medical surveillance program for cholinesterase monitoring. (agrisafe.org)
  • It is extremely convenient to book an RBC cholinesterase Test with us that would give you accurate and precise results at a great price. (sterlingaccuris.com)
  • I n this blog post, you can download Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents (1963) for free in PDF format download with one click. (booksofmedical.com)
  • Before we share the free PDF download of Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents (1963) pdf Free download with you, here are a few important details about this book in case you're interested. (booksofmedical.com)
  • Therefore, the need arises to explore rapid detection methods, which can specifically detect hemolysate cholinesterase on polyacrylamide gels. (who.int)
  • Cholinesterase inhibition. (inchem.org)
  • This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by cholinesterase. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, in order to validate the cholinesterase inhibition data, we measured the brain and plasma concentrations of these drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Oral administration of donepezil, tacrine, ENA-713 or TAK-147, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activities. (nih.gov)
  • The degree of physiological effect of parathion is reflected by cholinesterase inhibition. (epa.gov)
  • Inhibition pathways of the potent organophosphate CBDP with cholinesterases revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots and mass spectrometry. (ibs.fr)
  • Donepezil is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and belongs to the drug class cholinesterase inhibitors . (drugs.com)
  • Galantamine, rivastigmine, and donepezil are cholinesterase inhibitors that are prescribed for mild to moderate Alzheimer's symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Because cholinesterase inhibitors work in a similar way, switching from one to another may not produce significantly different results, but a person living with Alzheimer's may respond better to one drug versus another. (nih.gov)
  • All 4 currently approved ChEIs (ie, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the synapse (specific cholinesterase). (medscape.com)
  • The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn. (phcog.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are used to palliate cholinergic deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with blood cholinesterase activity in the families of horticultural farmers spraying organophosphate insecticides in Kelurahan Pattapang, Kecamatan Tinggimoncong- Malino. (unair.ac.id)
  • Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A case study is presented in which blood cholinesterase activities, urinary paranitrophenol values, and measurement of parathion in skin washes were obtained following the administration of 2-PAM for treatment. (epa.gov)
  • Because NMDA antagonists work differently from cholinesterase inhibitors, the two types of drugs can be prescribed in combination. (nih.gov)
  • Decreased plasma or red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-cholinesterase drugs to restore normal muscle function. (rxmed.com)
  • The mainstay of therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is the use of centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors to attempt to compensate for the depletion of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. (medscape.com)
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, a brain chemical believed to be important for memory and thinking . (nih.gov)
  • Cholinesterases in neural development: new findings and toxicologic implications. (nih.gov)
  • Results of the examination of blood cholinesterase activity in the families of farmers spraying organophosphates showed an average value of 11400 U/L with a minimum value of 7304 U/L and maximum value of 16882 U/L. Based on these values, the blood cholinesterase activity of the respondents remained above the minimum reference value. (unair.ac.id)
  • To control blood cholinesterase activity, the respondents are expected to conduct periodic checks, always equip themselves with the PPE and maintain their hygiene after contact with pesticides. (unair.ac.id)
  • Mean red blood cell cholinesterase levels at the start of the study were 0.754+/-0.113 pH units for the controls, and 0.800+/- 0.110 pH units for the cotton workers. (cdc.gov)
  • For each of the following time periods, comment on NTP's synthesis of the scientific evidence for changes in cholinesterase levels across studies and identify any information that should be added or deleted. (nih.gov)
  • In all, 36% of the controls and 63% of the cotton workers experienced a drop in their cholinesterase levels of more than 15% which is considered the limit of normal variation. (cdc.gov)