Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
Cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the paraterminal gyrus in the septal area with the hippocampus and lateral olfactory area.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Methods used to study CELLS.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.

Compensatory responses to age-related decline in odor quality acuity: cholinergic neuromodulation and olfactory enrichment. (1/184)

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Neuroinflammation not associated with cholinergic degeneration in aged-impaired brain. (2/184)

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GPR30 is positioned to mediate estrogen effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance. (3/184)

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Functional connectivity and cholinergic modulation in auditory cortex. (4/184)

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Gender differences in neurotrophin and glutamate receptor expression in cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. (5/184)

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The cholinergic system in rat testis is of non-neuronal origin. (6/184)

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Projections from the rat pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei to the anterior thalamus and ventral tegmental area arise from largely separate populations of neurons. (7/184)

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Overexpression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors enhances neuronal differentiation of fetal human neural progenitor cells in various ways. (8/184)

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A. Jouvenceau, J.M. Billard, R. Wiley, Y. Lamour, P. Dutar. Cholinergic denervation of the rat hippocampus by 192-lgG-saporin. NeuroReport, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, 5 (14), pp.1781-1784. ⟨10.1097/00001756-199409080-00024⟩. ⟨hal-02325730⟩ ...
Sevoflurane induced apoptosis of cells in the hippocampus of aged rats.Apoptosis was examined by the TUNEL method. Upper: Photomicrographs of TUNEL-positive cel
Acetylcholine acts on the whole nervous system, from learning and memory to digestion, movement, and even sex. Learn the science here.
The cholinergic system in the brain plays crucial roles in regulating sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive behaviors by modulating neuronal activity. Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon arborizations throughout the entire brain at the level of single neurons. Here, we report a comprehensive whole-brain atlas of the cholinergic system originating from various cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we obtained quantification of the number and soma volume of cholinergic neurons in 22 brain areas. Furthermore, by reconstructing the complete axonal arbors of fluorescently labeled single neurons from a subregion of the basal forebrain at 1-μm resolution, we found that their projections to the forebrain and midbrain showed neuronal subgroups with distinct projection ...
My Personal Scan Scanned from the green Zeus covered Sacred Saga book by Future Studio. Baian wears the Poseidon Scale of the Hippocamp, the Sea Horse.. ...
In what will be Toms last Papers We Love before taking a long overdue sabbatical and leaving the UK for a while he will explain how RAID works, why we need it and why existing strategies may become less useful at protecting us from data loss.. papers-we-love raid reed-solomon fault-tolerance ...
Moons have the coolest names, dont they? Proteus, Titan, and Callisto. Phobos, Deimos, and Encephalitis. But not Io. Thats a stupid name for a moon. Theres only two ways to pronounce it and we still get it wrong. Anyway, now we have another cool one: Hippocamp! Okay, maybe the new name isnt that cool. It sounds like a summer camp for overweight artiodactyls. But whatever. Its not every day our Solar System gets a new moon. Continue reading Say Hello to Hippocamp! The New Moon Discovered at Neptune, Which Could Have Broken off from the Larger Moon Proteus ...
Pharmacological treatments directed at increasing cortical acetylcholine activity in patients with Alzheimers disease have largely been disappointing, perhaps because denervated areas of brain may not be exposed to adequate amounts of drug. A new method has been developed to enable localized intracerebral delivery of neurotransmitter substances using a polymeric drug delivery system. Microspheres of a polyanhydride sebacic acid copolymer were impregnated with bethanechol, an acetylcholinesterase-resistant cholinomimetic. Twenty rats received bilateral fimbria-fornix lesions, producing cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus and marked impairment in spatial memory. The animals were trained for 2 weeks to run an eight-arm radial maze, after which they received bilateral intrahippocampal implants of saline (five rats), blank polymer (five rats), or bethanechol-impregnated polymer (10 rats). Following implantation, spatial memory was assessed by radial-maze performance testing for 40 days. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
Title: NGF-Cholinergic Dependency in Brain Aging, MCI and Alzheimers Disease. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):A. C. Cuello, A. Bruno and K.F. S. Bell. Affiliation:Room 1210, 3655 Sir William Osler Promenade, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada.. Keywords:basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, CNS, trophic support system, acetylcholinesterase, amyloid pathology. Abstract: Forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) for phenotype maintenance. We have established that in addition to target-derived NGF neurotrophic stimulation, cholinergic neurons also respond dose-dependently, to intra-parenchymal NGF administration in the somato-dendritic region of the nucleus Basalis [1], thus illustrating the potential of alternative reparative therapies which would by-pass the undesirable effects of diffuse neurotrophin application. Moreover, our lab has also observed that the steady-state number of cortical cholinergic synapses is dependent on continuous NGF supply, as anti-NGF ...
Abstract: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are believed to be one of the first cell types to be affected in all forms of AD, and their dysfunction is clinically correlated with impaired short-term memory formation and retrieval. We present an optimized in vitro protocol to generate human BFCNs from iPSCs, using cell lines from presenilin 2 (PSEN2) mutation carriers and controls. As expected, cell lines harboring the PSEN2N141I mutation displayed an increase in the Aβ42/40 in iPSC-derived BFCNs. Neurons derived from PSEN2N141I lines generated fewer maximum number of spikes in response to a square depolarizing current injection. The height of the first action potential at rheobase current injection was also significantly decreased in PSEN2N141I BFCNs. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the PSEN2 point mutation abolished the electrophysiological deficit, restoring both the maximal number of spikes and spike height to the levels recorded in controls. Increased Aβ42/40 was also normalized ...
I am super-jazzed that my essay, Future Perfect, will be published in the August 2017 edition of Hippocampus Magazine. I love Hippocampus, and I am honored to be a contributor.. In Future Perfect, during a chance encounter in the grocery store, I grapple with what the future will look like for my family. I started this essay years ago, and it needed a little time to germinate. I am glad it has found a home with Hippocampus.. Oh! And BTW, if you dont know about HippoCamp, you should check it out. Its a great CNF conference put on by Hippocampus that takes place in Lancaster, PA. I went last year, and Ill be back again for this one. Check out those keynotes! (And theyre not even the best part of the conference!) Heck, I just realized I even am wearing the shirt from last years conference as I write this.. ...
hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide: amino acid sequence given in first source; involved in development of specific cholinergic neurons in central nervous system
The distribution of cholinergic neurons was studied in painted and red-eared turtles using antisera against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The results showed that the organization of cholinergic systems in the central nervous system of turtles was remarkably similar to that previously described in diverse other species. For example, the present studies revealed the presence of cholinergic neurons in the striatum, the basal telencephalon, the isthmo-tectal system, and a region of cells near the cerebellar peduncle. The motoneurons of the III, IV, V, VI, VII, X and XII cranial nerves and the spinal ventral horn were also shown to be cholinergic. Additional cholinergic neurons were observed in the hypothalamus and rhombencephalic reticular formation. These results help to clarify the precise extent and location of the major cholinergic cell groups of the turtle brain, thereby adding to our understanding of the organization of the turtle nervous system. The results also reveal that the cholinergic
In Alzheimers Disease (AD), about one-third of the risk genes identified by GWAS encode proteins that function predominantly in the endocytic pathways. Among them, the Ras and Rab Interactor 3(RIN3) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rab5 small GTPase family and has been implicated to be a risk factor for both late onset AD (LOAD) and sporadic early onset AD (sEOAD). However, how RIN3 is linked to AD pathogenesis is currently undefined. Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting were used to measure the RIN3 expression level in mouse brain tissues and cultured basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCNs). Immunostaining was used to define subcellular localization of RIN3 and to visualize endosomal changes in cultured primary BFCNs and PC12 cells. Recombinant flag-tagged RIN3 protein was purified from HEK293T cells and was used to define RIN3-interactomes by mass spectrometry. RIN3-interacting partners were validated by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and yeast two hybrid assays.
UK: Glassworm PL: Wodzień CZ: Koretra DK: Glasmyg FR: Corèthre NL: Pluimmug larve DE: Büschelmückenlarve NO: Svevemygg RU: Коретра SK: Pakomár ...
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Basal forebrain neurons undergo somatal and dendritic remodeling during postnatal development. T2 - a single-section Golgi and choline acetyltransferase analysis. AU - Gould, Elizabeth. AU - Farris, Todd W.. AU - Butcher, Larry L.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by USPHS Grant NS-10928 to L.L.B.. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. N2 - In an attempt to determine whether or not morphologic changes occur in the cholinergic basal forebrain during postnatal development, Golgi-impregnated and choline acetyltransferase-positive cells were examined in adult and postnatal day (P) 10, 14, 18, and 27 rats. Light microscopic analyses revealed progressive increases in cross-sectional cell body area, number of primary dendrites, number of dendritic branch points, and length of the longest dendrite that peaked at P18 and thereafter decreased to smaller adult values with the exception of dendritic length which monotonically increased until adulthood. These findings suggest ...
In Alzheimers disease and other degenerative brain diseases, some types of nerve cells are more vulnerable to degeneration than others. Nerve cells known as the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are especially vulnerable. These cells are known to be important for memory and attention, both of which decline in patients with Alzheimers disease. Calbindin is a protein found inside nerve cells that binds to calcium. It protects nerve cells from abnormal increases in calcium, which can cause degeneration of the cell. Changiz Geula, Ph.D., and colleagues have found that the levels of calbindin decline in BFCN cells during normal aging. They theorize that such declines may leave the cells vulnerable to degeneration caused by abnormally high calcium levels.. Dr. Geula and colleagues plan to study the role of calbinin in Alzheimers disease using two approaches. In the first approach, they will study the levels of calbindin in the BFCN cells that remain in individuals affected by Alzheimers ...
The body produces specialized proteins called growth factors that are essential to the growth and repair of tissue. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) prolongs the survival of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. As we age, our central nervous system experiences a decrease in the binding of NGF to neuron membranes. ALC has shown the ability to promote the maintenance of normal interactions between NGF and neuron membranes. 10 Given to aged rats, ALC demonstrated effectiveness in promoting normal levels of NGF, and it helped maintain utilization of the growth factor in the rats throughout the duration of the study. Maintaining ideal levels of NGF is essential for the health of cholinergic neurons (nerve cells stimulated by acetylcholine), as cholinergic neurons lose some functional capacity due to a lack of NGF. In aged rats, ALC is known to promote the health of cholinergic neurons.11 In sum, such results suggest that ALC positively influences the maintenance of healthy and normal ...
cerebr* OR cerebrum OR cerebell* OR neocerebell* OR paleocerebell* OR brainstem* OR (temporal OR frontal OR prefrontal OR posterior OR ophthalmic AND lob*) OR pons OR pontine OR medulla* OR glia* OR microglia* OR oligodendro* OR astrocyt* OR purkinje OR cortex OR cortical OR white matter OR gray matter OR grey matter OR myelin* OR neuropath* OR neurohist* OR pyramidal OR bundle* OR corticobulbar OR corticospinal OR spinocerebellar OR spinothalamic OR extrapyramidal OR internal capsule OR forebrain* OR hindbrain* OR midbrain* OR hypothalam* OR thalam* OR limbic OR limbus OR amygdala* OR epithalam* OR subthalam* OR metathalam* OR hippocamp* OR parahippocamp* OR entorhinal OR pituitary OR hypophys* OR adenohypophys* OR neurohypophys* OR callosum* OR periventricul* OR paraventricul* OR third ventricle OR fourth ventricle OR supratentorial OR infratentorial OR striatal OR auditory OR cranial OR hypogloss* OR trigeminal OR facial nerve OR vagal OR vagus OR trochlear OR vetibulocochlear ...
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Research in my laboratory focuses on mechanisms regulating chemical communication in the nervous system in health, normal aging and disease. Much of the research that we carry out involves studies of the function of cholinergic neurons. In brain, these neurons project from basal forebrain nuclei to neocortex and hippocampus playing important roles in cognitive processes such as learning and memory, while cholinergic neurons in striatum are involved in movement and motor functions.
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Gericke, CA, Lang, UE, Steckler, T, Schulze, G, Bajbouj, M and Hellweg, R (2003) Nerve growth factor response to excitotoxic lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain is slightly impaired in aged rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110 6: 627-639. doi:10.1007/s00702-002-0819-z ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances in the neurochemical pathology of Alzheimers disease. Studies of neuropeptides, cholinergic function and Alzheimers disease- associated protein. AU - Nemeroff, C. B.. AU - Bissette, G.. AU - Slotkin, T. A.. AU - Seidler, F. J.. AU - Miller, B. E.. AU - Ghanbari, H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Our findings from three postmortem tissue studies in Alzheimers disease (AD) are presented. We investigated (1) alterations in somatostatin (SRIF) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in AD; (2) regulatory changes in presynaptic cholinergic function in AD; and (3) use of Alzheimers disease- associated protein (ADAP) as a diagnostic test for AD in postmortem tissue. Taken together, these findings reveal marked reductions in SRIF and CRF concentrations in many cerebrocortical areas in AD, a marked up-regulation of cholinergic neuronal activity in surviving cholinergic neurons in AD, and excellent ...
Introduction. Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It represents more than half the prevalence of dementia in the Brazilian elderly population1. The main characteristic of this type of neurodegenerative process is cognitive impairment that can lead to the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms2. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. The reduction on cholinergic activity could affects and impairs cognitive function and behavior. A reduction in signal intensity in the area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis has been significantly correlated with a reduced concentration of grey matter in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cingulate gyrus3.. Most studies ...
To test the molecular nature of the NGF receptor responsible for the ability of NGF to rescue septal cholinergic neurons following axotomy, we infused polyclonal antibodies that act as specific agonists of trkA (RTA) into the lateral ventricle of fimbria-fornix lesioned animals. Rats receiving chron …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small molecules enable neurogenin 2 to efficiently convert human fibroblasts into cholinergic neurons. AU - Liu, Meng Lu. AU - Zang, Tong. AU - Zou, Yuhua. AU - Chang, Joshua C.. AU - Gibson, Jay R.. AU - Huber, Kimberly M.. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the members of the Zhang lab for discussions and reagents. We also thank Eric Olson, Jane Johnson and Derek Smith for critical reading of the manuscript. C.-L.Z. is a W. W. Caruth Jr. Scholar in Biomedical Research. This work was supported by the Whitehall Foundation Award (2009-12-05), the Welch Foundation Award (I-1724), The Ellison Medical Foundation Award (AG-NS-0753-11) and NIH Grants (1DP2OD006484 and R01NS070981; to C.-L.Z.). Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Cell fate can be reprogrammed by modifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Here we show that two small molecules (forskolin and dorsomorphin) enable the transcription factor Neurogenin 2 ...
Samples of brain tissue from CADASIL and controls were obtained from various sources including the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource Centre, the Institute of Psychiatry, London (courtesy of Dr Safar Al Sarraj), Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (Prof David Graham), University of Helsinki (Drs Marc Baumann, Raimo Sulkava, and Tuomo Polvikoski) and Frenchay Hospital, Bristol (Dr Tim Moss). Available case notes indicated that the CADASIL subjects met the minimum criteria for cognitive impairment per our poststroke study.8 None of the controls had clear neurological or pathological evidence for cerebrovascular or neurodegenerative disease.. Frozen samples from frontal (Brodmann 9 and 10) and temporal (Brodmann 20 to 21) cortices were collected from a total of 9 CADASIL cases with mean (±SEM) age of 58±3 years (range 52 to 74 years; 7 males [m], 2 females [f]), 14 age-matched with mean age 57±3 years (53 to 74 years; 7 m, 7 f) and 9 older controls with mean age 87±3 years (79 to 102 years; 4 m, 5 ...
Kratsios P., Kerk SY., Catela C., Liang J., Vidal B., Bayer EA., Feng W., De La Cruz ED., Croci L., Consalez GG., Mizumoto K., Hobert O. 2017. An intersectional gene regulatory strategy defines subclass diversity of C. elegans motor neurons. eLife 6:e25751 Link ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective induction of c-Jun and NGF in reactive astrocytes after cholinergic degenerations in rat basal forebrain. AU - Roßner, Steffen. AU - Schliebs, Reinhard. AU - Härtig, Wolfgang. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. AU - Bigl, Volker. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons are the major source of cortical cholinergic innervation. The number of these neurons is regulated by the availability of nerve growth factor (NGF) during development while in adulthood their cholinergic activity is modulated by NGF. In previous studies we have shown that cholinergic immunolesions of basal forebrain neurons increase local immediate early gene expression and NGF synthesis in the regions of degeneration. In this study we identify the cellular source of c- Jun and NGF expression using dual immunolabeling of c-Jun and NGF in combination with neuronal and glial markers. We demonstrate that both c-Jun and NGF are exclusively expressed in reactive astrocytes but not in ...
Alzheimers disease is characterized by the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, degeneration of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus (the septohippocampal pathway), and progressive impairment of cognitive function, particularly memory. Aβ is a ligand for the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which is best known for mediating neuronal death and has been consistently linked to the pathology of Alzheimers disease. Here we examined whether p75NTR is required for Aβ-mediated effects. Treatment of wild-type but not p75NTR-deficient embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons with human Aβ1-42 peptide induced significant cell death. Furthermore, injection of Aβ1-42 into the hippocampus of adult mice resulted in significant degeneration of wild-type but not p75NTR-deficient cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, indicating that the latter are resistant to Aβ-induced toxicity. We also found that neuronal death correlated with Aβ1-42 peptide-stimulated accumulation of the ...
A post-mortem reduction in the density of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral striatum or nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.) has been reported in schizophrenic brains.[1,2] In this region the cholinergic interneurons interact anatomically and functionally with the dopaminergic nerve terminals notably to dampen the effects of excessive dopamine activity. We hypothesized that the lower level of cholinergic neurons and subsequently the acetylcholine release in the N.Acc may be relevant to the enhanced (ventral) striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission, well-described in schizophrenia, and may contribute to the emergence of schizophrenic symptoms.. The purpose of our work is to reproduce in rats the selective reduction of cholinergic interneurons in the N.Acc. and study the physiological and behavioral consequences of such lesions with relevance to schizophrenia. We employed the saporin immunotoxin targeting choline acetyltransferase (anti-ChAT-SAP; Cat. #IT-42), microinjected bilaterally (250-ng/side) ...
Moons have the coolest names, dont they? Proteus, Titan, and Callisto. Phobos, Deimos, and Encephalitis. But not Io. Thats a stupid name for a moon. Theres only two ways to pronounce it and we still get it wrong. Anyway, now we have another cool one: Hippocamp! Okay, maybe the new name isnt that cool. It sounds like a summer camp for overweight artiodactyls. But whatever. Its not every day our Solar System gets a new moon. Continue reading Say Hello to Hippocamp! The New Moon Discovered at Neptune, Which Could Have Broken off from the Larger Moon Proteus ...
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The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
Authors: Ferreira, Daniel , Westman, Eric , Eyjolfsdottir, Helga , Almqvist, Per , Lind, Göran , Linderoth, Bengt , Seiger, Åke , Blennow, Kaj , Karami, Azadeh , Darreh-Shori, Taher , Wiberg, Maria , Simmons, Andrew , Wahlund, Lars-Olof , Wahlberg, Lars , Eriksdotter, Maria , for the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Article Type: Research Article Abstract: New therapies with disease-modifying effects are urgently needed for treating Alzheimers disease (AD). Nerve growth factor (NGF) protein has demonstrated regenerative and neuroprotective effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in animal studies. In addition, AD patients treated with NGF have previously shown improved cognition, EEG activity, nicotinic binding, and glucose metabolism. However, no study to date has analyzed brain atrophy in patients treated with NGF producing cells. In this study we present MRI results of the first clinical trial in patients with AD using encapsulated NGF biodelivery to the basal forebrain. ...
The small GTPase RHO-1 is an important regulator of neurotransmission. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing activated RHO-1 (G14V) in their cholinergic motor neurons (nRHO-1*) become hypersensitive to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, demonstrating increased acetylcholine release, and acquire a highly loopy, uncoordinated locomotion. RHO-1 inhibits diacylglycerol kinase (DGK-1), and so increases the availability of diacylglycerol (DAG), a key second messenger for release at the presynaptic membrane. Inhibiting RHO-1 in a dgk-1 mutant causes a decrease in neurotransmitter release, demonstrating the presence of additional targets downstream of RHO-1. During a forward genetic screen for suppressors of the loopy locomotion of nRHO-1* animals we obtained a mutant, nz94, which carried an additional fainter phenotype, helping us identify it as an allele of unc-80, a large, conserved protein, important in the localization of NCA-1 and NCA-2, C. elegans homologues of the novel ...
article{58bdbf8b-cb0c-4890-80c3-1b810f44ac8c, abstract = {,p,The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinsons disease. Here we show that selective and reversible activation of ChIs using chemogenetic (DREADD) receptors increases locomotor function in intact rats and potentiate the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA in the rats with lesions of the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Principal Investigator:NISHIMURA Akira, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2005, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Pediatrics
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Blusztajn, J.; Wurtman, R. (1983). "Choline and cholinergic neurons". Science. 221 (4611): 614-20. Bibcode:1983Sci...221..614B ... Therefore, mechanisms involved in the transfer of energy from foods to neurons are likely to be fundamental to the control of ... Vitamin A affects spatial memory most of the time because the size of the nuclei in hippocampal neurons are reduced by ... Choline has been shown to increase the synthesis and release of acetylcholine from neurons, which in turn increases memory. A ...
The region contains cholinergic neurons. Tegmentum "mesopontine".. ...
"Entrez Gene: CHRND cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta". Kreienkamp HJ, Maeda RK, Sine SM, Taylor P (March 1995). " ... Neuron. 14 (3): 635-44. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90320-8. PMID 7695910. Pasteris NG, Trask BJ, Sheldon S, Gorski JL (1993). " ... CHRND has been shown to interact with Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor GRCh38: ... "Intersubunit contacts governing assembly of the mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptor". Neuron. 14 (3): 635-44. doi: ...
Cholinergic neurons are capable of producing ACh. An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in ... as PDF Yu AJ, Dayan P (May 2005). "Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention". Neuron. 46 (4): 681-92. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... Neuron. 43 (1): 133-43. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.012. PMID 15233923. Crow TJ, Grove-White IG (October 1973). "An analysis ... preganglionic neurons in the central nervous system send projections to neurons located in autonomic ganglia, which send output ...
... substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, locus ceruleus adrenergic neurons, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus cholinergic neurons ... expression in cholinergic neurons, culminating in increased cholinergic tone. Following dopamine depletion leading to increase ... "Thalamic Gating of Corticostriatal Signaling by Cholinergic Interneurons". Neuron. 67 (2): 294-307. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... "Cholinergic modulation of Kir2 channels selectively elevates dendritic excitability in striatopallidal neurons". Nature ...
Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the ... "Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease". Lancet. 2 (8000): 1403. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(76)91936- ... Certainly, Alzheimer's disease involves a substantial loss of the elements of the cholinergic system and it is generally ... Kása P, Rakonczay Z, Gulya K (August 1997). "The cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease". Progress in Neurobiology. 52 (6): ...
"Entrez Gene: CHRNA1 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1 (muscle)". Kreienkamp HJ, Maeda RK, Sine SM, Taylor P (March 1995 ... Neuron. 14 (3): 635-44. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90320-8. PMID 7695910. Gattenlöhner S, Brabletz T, Schultz A, Marx A, Müller- ... Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with CHRND. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor GRCh38: ... Neuron. 15 (1): 229-39. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90080-2. PMID 7619526. S2CID 1959504. Kreienkamp HJ, Maeda RK, Sine SM, Taylor ...
Cholinergic neurons are neurons that use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Through different studies, these types of neurons ... triggering neurons and transfer neurons. All of these neurons are located in the peribrachial area, which is a group of neurons ... These neurons are theorized to be inhibitory to aminergic neurons, and thus inhibitory to PGO wave propagation. The neurons ... Within this network, there are two types of neuronal groups: executive neurons and modulatory neurons. These neurons are the ...
The cholinergic system consists of projection neurons from the pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and ... As with dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, neurons in the locus coeruleus tend to be melanin-pigmented. ... Neuron. 76 (1): 116-29. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.036. PMC 3466476. PMID 23040810. Hasselmo ME, Sarter M (January 2011). " ... primarily the melanin-pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra but secondarily the noradrenergic neurons of the locus ...
ISBN 0-387-18613-1. Whittaker, V. P. (1992). The Cholinergic Neuron and Its Target. The Electromotor Innervation of the ... Whittaker, V. P.; Essman, W. B. T.; Dowe, G. H. (1972). "The isolation of pure cholinergic synaptic vesicles from the electric ... 1988). The Cholinergic Synapse. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 86. New York: Springer. ... Zimmermann, H.; Whittaker, V. P. (1977). "Morphological and biochemical heterogeneity of cholinergic synaptic vesicles". Nature ...
Neuron. 54 (5): 813-29. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.05.017. PMC 2590749. PMID 17553428. Vo N, Klein ME, Varlamova O, Keller DM, ... Shaked I, Meerson A, Wolf Y, Avni R, Greenberg D, Gilboa-Geffen A, Soreq H (2009). "MicroRNA-132 potentiates cholinergic anti- ... Neuron. 65 (3): 373-84. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.005. PMC 5018398. PMID 20159450. ...
Varija Raghu, S; Reiff DF; Borst A. (2011-01-01). "Neurons with cholinergic phenotype in the visual system of Drosophila". The ... The development, lineages, and characterizations of secondary axon tracts, anatomical maps of cholinergic neurons in the visual ... Neuron. 65 (5): 670-81. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.032. PMC 2862355. PMID 20223202. Reuter, JE; Nardine TM; Penton A; ... "Diverse functions of N-cadherin in dendritic and axonal terminal arborization of olfactory projection neurons". Neuron. 42 (1 ...
α-neurotoxins attack the Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of cholinergic neurons. They mimic the shape of the acetylcholine ... Fasciculins These toxins attack cholinergic neurons (those that use ACh as a transmitter) by destroying acetylcholinesterase ( ...
"Androgen affects cholinergic enzymes in syringeal motor neurons and muscle". Brain Research. 192 (1): 89-107. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
It has been discovered that the cholinergic neurons are actually nicotinic. These receptors are meant to monitor the amount of ... Neurons in the CTZ, and area postrema in general, actually have two types of receptors: those at the surface of the neuron and ... Most of the neurons located in the CTZ express hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (H-channels). Since the neurons in ... Recently, evidence of this notion that H-channels in CTZ neurons play a role in emesis has come to light. It has been found ...
Because cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis are significantly altered during Alzheimer's progression, cholinergic agents ... Cholinergic interneurons and dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain are largely unaffected. Treatment for Huntington's disease is ... Additionally, damage to neurons in nociceptive pathways leads to neuropathic pain. Three families in northern Pakistan were ... Neuron, 2006. pp. 33-38 Dawson, TM; Dawson, VL.Molecular pathways of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease. Science, 2003. ...
"A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons". The Journal of Neuroscience. 22 ( ... Neuron. 57 (2): 263-75. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.11.032. PMC 2293283. PMID 18215623. Kim AH, Kerchner GA, Choi DW (2002). " ... Neuron. 83 (2): 404-16. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.043. PMC 4159050. PMID 25033183. The dependence of EAAT3 internalization ... Neurons are able to express VGluT3 when they use a neurotransmitter different to Glutamate, for example in the specific case of ...
Micrograph of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of a rhesus monkey; Bar = 50 microns (0.05 millimeters). This article ... The nucleus basalis in humans is a somewhat diffuse collection of large cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The main ... Rostrally, the nucleus basalis is continuous with the cholinergic neurons of the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. The ... Yu AJ, Dayan P (May 2005). "Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention". Neuron. 46 (4): 681-92. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.04. ...
The presence of non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the cortex have been found to act with the cholinergic neurons to ... Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. This results in hyperpolarization of cholinergic ... of non-cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain structures has been shown in working together with the cholinergic neurons in ... The basal forebrain is considered to be the major cholinergic output of the central nervous system (CNS) centred on the output ...
In insects, the cholinergic system is limited to the central nervous system. The nicotinic receptors are considered cholinergic ... Neuron. 76 (1): 116-29. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.036. PMC 3466476. PMID 23040810. Wonnacott S (February 1997). "Presynaptic ... The activation of receptors by nicotine modifies the state of neurons through two main mechanisms. On one hand, the movement of ... These α-neurotoxins antagonistically bind tightly and noncovalently to nAChRs of skeletal muscles and in neurons, thereby ...
... hyper-innervation acts to promote the death of these neurons and that the inhibitory effect of galanin on cholinergic neurons ... toxicity in rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons". Neurobiol. Dis. 21 (2): 413-20. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2005.08.016. PMID ... Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus may govern parental behaviour. Galanin is linked to a number of ... Sensory neurons increasingly release galanin when they are damaged. An increase in the concentrations of galanin are also ...
... has a role in inducing and maintaining the ability of embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) to respond to a ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proceedings of the National ... "Induction and maintenance of the neuronal cholinergic phenotype in the central nervous system by BMP-9". Science. 289 (5477): ...
"A small number of cholinergic neurons mediate hyperaggression in female Drosophila" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy ... "A small number of cholinergic neurons mediate hyperaggression in female Drosophila" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy ... responsible for driving this behavior and they found 2-4 pairs of neurons in the female brain pC1 region that were cholinergic ... The fascinating finding that such a small populations of neurons can drive specific and intense behavioral outputs will serve ...
GDF2 (also known as BMP9) induces and maintains the response embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have to a ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (19 ... Neuron. 37 (2): 197-207. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(02)01172-8. PMID 12546816. S2CID 15399794. Kim J, Wu H, Lander A, Lyons K, ... and regulates the number of olfactory receptor neurons occurring in the olfactory epithelium, and numbers of retinal ganglionic ...
This alters the activation of cholinergic neurons, 5-HT, and beta-adrenolin. Another effect is to increase proteins such as ... Environmental enrichment can also lead to the formation of neurons (at least in rats) and reverse both the loss of neurons in ... Stimulation affects not only synapses upon pyramidal neurons (the main projecting neurons in the cerebral cortex) but also ... Neuron. 62 (4): 510-25. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.04.022. PMID 19477153. S2CID 17085834. During MJ, Cao L (February 2006). " ...
NRTN promotes survival of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and spinal motor neurons. Therefore, NRTN has a potential in the ... PSPN promotes the survival of mouse embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in vitro. Hence, PSPN may be used for the ... "Neurturin and persephin promote the survival of embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in vitro". Exp Neurol. 184 (1): ... In particular signalling by GDNF promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons. At the cell surface of target cells, a ...
Cholinergic system[edit]. The cholinergic system consists of projection neurons from the pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal ... "Neuron. 76 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.010. ISSN 0896-6273. PMC 3482119. PMID 23040802.. ... "Neuron. 76 (1): 116-29. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.036. PMC 3466476. PMID 23040810.. ... As with dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, neurons in the locus coeruleus tend to be melanin-pigmented. ...
There is no model to account for the specific neurons and brain regions that are affected. Autopsy studies and amyloid imaging ... Neuronal loss in DLB leads to profound dopamine dysfunction and marked cholinergic pathology; other neurotransmitters might be ... The exact cause is unknown, but involves widespread deposits of abnormal clumps of protein that form in neurons of the diseased ... Loss of acetylcholine-producing neurons is thought to account for degeneration in memory and learning, while the death of ...
Mander BA, Winer JR, Walker MP (April 2017). "Sleep and Human Aging". Neuron. 94 (1): 19-36. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2017.02.004. ... "Odor cueing during slow-wave sleep benefits memory independently of low cholinergic tone". Psychopharmacology. 235 (1): 291-299 ... Neuron. 78 (3): 545-53. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.03.006. PMID 23583623. Klinzing JG, Kugler S, Soekadar SR, Rasch B, Born J, ... John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley propose that dreams are caused by the random firing of neurons in the cerebral cortex ...
Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the Egyptian ... Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of Schreiber's long- ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system). ... and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the ... "Cytokine regulation of substance P expression in sympathetic neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Immunohistochemical localization of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide and substance P in primary sensory neurons". The ...
August 1992). "Aluminum-induced acute cholinergic neurotoxicity in rat". Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. 17 (1): 79-89. doi:10.1007/ ... He BP, Strong MJ (January 2000). "A morphological analysis of the motor neuron degeneration and microglial reaction in acute ... Zubenko GS, Hanin I (October 1989). "Cholinergic and noradrenergic toxicity of intraventricular aluminum chloride in the rat ...
... dopamine neurons), ventral tegmental area (dopamine neurons), cortex (with bidirectional connections with the prefrontal cortex ... The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) sends cholinergic (acetylcholine) projections to many subcortical and cortical ...
... does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ... When core temperature rises are detected by thermoreceptors, the sweat glands in the skin are stimulated via cholinergic ... Inhibitory neurons using GABA, make compensating changes in the neuronal networks preventing runaway levels of excitation.[61] ... Inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system play a homeostatic role in the balance of neuronal activity between excitation ...
At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the ... Stanley, EF (1992). "The calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion as a model of fast cholinergic transmission". ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.007. PMID 16364893.. *^ a b Kimata, Tsubasa; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Can, Yoko; et al. (June 1, 2012 ... the connection between the two neurons is strengthened when both neurons are active at the same time, as a result of the ...
Noradrenergic neurons are located in two major regions in the brain. These regions are locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental. ... Antidepressants affect variable neuronal receptors like muscarinic-cholinergic, α1- and α2-adrenergic, and H1-histaminergic ... Overall, inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake induced by TCAs, leads to decreased rates of neuron firing (mediated through α2 ... The α2 receptors include presynaptic autoreceptors which limit the neurophysiological activity of noradrenergic neurons in the ...
Entrez Gene: CHRM3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3".. *^ Keith Parker; Laurence Brunton; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Lazo, John ... Neuron. 1 (5): 403-10. PMID 3272174. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(88)90190-0.. ...
neuron projection. • intermediate filament. • axon cytoplasm. • neuromuscular junction. • Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse. • ... cholinergic synapse. • postsynaptic intermediate-filament cytoskeleton. • presynaptic intermediate filament cytoskeleton. ... negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • retrograde axonal transport. • intermediate filament organization. • ... neuron projection morphogenesis. • protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process ...
They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. They are ... Orexin neurons project to and activate monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons involved in the maintenance of a long "awake" ... Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes REM sleep. During waking, REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ... CB1 is present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons in the ...
The Cholinergic Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: a Review of Progress. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. ... a b Nikolaev A. APP Binds DR6 to Cause Axon Pruning and Neuron Death via Distinct Caspases. Nature. 19. februar 2009;457(7232): ... Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 variants elevate βA1-42/1-40 ratio in vitro and in vivo [PDF]. Neuron. 1996;17 ... Martorana, Alessandro; Esposito, Zaira; Koch, Giacomo (2010-08-01). "Beyond the cholinergic hypothesis: do current drugs work ...
Acetylcholine beyond neurons: The nonneuronal cholinergic system in humans. BR J Pharmacol. 2009;154:1558-1571. ... Van Beek AH, Claassen JA (2010). "The cerebrovascular role of the cholinergic neural system in Alzheimer's disease". ... Sastry BV, Sadavongvivad C. Cholinergic systems in non-nervous tissues. Pharmacol Rev. 1978;30:650-132. ...
"Lesion of Striatal Neurons with Kainic Acid Provides a Model for Huntington's Chorea." Nature, 246: 244-46. ... "Actions of Snake Neurotoxins on an Insect Nicotinic Cholinergic Synapse." Invertebrate Neuroscience, 7 (3): 173-78. ... Walton, J. (2006) "Aluminum in Hippocampal Neurons from Humans with Alzheimer's Disease." NeuroToxicology, 27 (3): 385-94. ... McCleskey, E. W. (1987) "Omega-conotoxin: Direct and Persistent Blockade of Specific Types of Calcium Channels in Neurons but ...
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.04.009. PMID 18498743.. *^ Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (June 2005). " ... Preparing fetal neurons for delivery: crossing the placenta, maternal oxytocin reaches the fetal brain and induces a switch in ... However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone and dynorphin, for example, that act ... These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens, a ...
... effects of selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on the ascending cholinergic ... Patients with ALS show a marked decrease in ChAT activity in motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. Low levels of ChAT ... Though the specific cause of the reduced production is not clear, it is believed that the death of medium-sized motor neurons ... SIDS infants also display fewer neurons capable of producing ChAT in the vagus system. These defects in the medulla could lead ...
Desensitisation of nicotinic ACh receptors: shaping cholinergic signaling". Trends Neurosci. 28 (7): 371-378. PMID 15979501. ... "Muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptor activation differentially mobilize Ca2+ in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons". J. ... inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents and Ca2+ transients in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons". Br. J. ...
These knockout experiments resulted in the loss of several neuron populations including the retina, cholinergic brainstem and ... Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form neurons. Although the vast majority of neurons in the ... compared to neurons in the PNS, neurons of the CNS are less sensitive to the absence of a single neurotrophin or neurotrophin ... of neurons.[23] Neurotrophic survival signals in neurons are mediated by the high-affinity binding of neurotrophins to their ...
These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer ... The physical contractions of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the ... while the outer longitudinal layer is innervated by mainly excitatory neurons. These action potentials cause the smooth muscle ... is innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons, ...
Schmitz C, Rutten BP, Pielen A, et al. (Aprili 2004). "Hippocampal neuron loss exceeds amyloid plaque load in a transgenic ... Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK (Februari 1999). "The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: a review of ... "N-APP binds DR6 to cause axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases". Nature 457 (7232): 981-989. doi:10.1038/ ...
... and the cholinergic neurons in the parabrachial area and pedunculopontine nuclei of the tegmentum.[25] ... Cortical inputs to thalamic neurons enable attentional modulation of sensory neurons. Dysfunction in sensory afferents, and ... composed of projections between thalamic and cortical neurons and adjacent interneurons, underlie certain electrophysical ...
B.P. He, M.J. Strong (januar 2000). A morphological analysis of the motor neuron degeneration and microglial reaction in acute ... G.S. Zubenko, I. Hanin (oktober 1989). Cholinergic and noradrenergic toxicity of intraventricular aluminum chloride in the rat ... J.H. Peng, Z.C. Xu in drugi (avgust 1992). Aluminum-induced acute cholinergic neurotoxicity in rat. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. 17 ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Ikemoto, S.; Wise, R. A. (2002). "Rewarding effects of the cholinergic agents carbachol and neostigmine in the posterior ... The dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway project onto the GABAergic medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens and ... 1985). "Neuron production in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the adult rat brain: addition or replacement?". Ann N Y Acad ...
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.07.041. *↑ Duman RS (2007). «A silver bullet for the treatment of depression?». Neuron 55 (5): 712-25 ... Blockade of 5-HT 1B receptors facilitates contextual aversive learning in mice by disinhibition of cholinergic and ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.08.011. *↑ Manzke T, Guenther U, Ponimaskin E, Haller M, Dutschmann M, Schwarzacher S, Richter D ( ...
a b Luppi, P. H., & Fort, P. (2011). What are the mechanisms activating the sleep-active neurons located in the preoptic area? ... This leads to the inhibition of cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic activity in these areas. Noradrenergic projections ... These afferent neurons project up the spinal cord to the parabrachial area, which innervates several areas of the preoptic area ... The promotion of sleep by GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic area is most closely associated with NREM, or quiet sleep.[ ...
Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons, and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the ... In the developmental stages preceding the formation of synaptic contacts, GABA is synthesized by neurons and acts both as an ... Ben-Ari Y, Gaiarsa JL, Tyzio R, Khazipov R (October 2007). "GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and ... Neuron. 4 (5): 759-65. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(90)90202-Q. PMID 2160838. S2CID 12626366.. ; (j) Majewska MD, Harrison NL, ...
"Neuron. 80 (5): 1129-44. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.030. PMC 4560201. PMID 24314725.. ... "Assembly and disassembly of a retinal cholinergic network". Visual Neuroscience. 29 (1): 61-71. doi:10.1017/S0952523811000216 ... "Neuron. 64 (2): 200-212. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.09.021. PMC 2771121. PMID 19874788.. ... "Neuron. 80 (5): 1129-1144. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.030. PMC 4560201. PMID 24314725.. ...
When glycine receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an inhibitory postsynaptic ...
Neuron, 78(3), 545-553. *^ Klinzing, J., Kugler, S., Soekadar, S., Rasch, B., Born, J., & Diekelmann, S. (2018). Odor cueing ... during slow-wave sleep benefits memory independently of low cholinergic tone. Psychopharmacology, 235(1), 291-299. ... John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley propose that dreams are caused by the random firing of neurons in the cerebral cortex ... Jenni OG, Dahl RE (2008). "Sleep, cognition, and neuron, and emotion: A developmental review.". In Nelson CA, Luciana M (eds ...
Reduction in the activity of the cholinergic neurons is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease.[172] Acetylcholinesterase ... Cholinergic hypothesis. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis,[ ... APP is a transmembrane protein that penetrates through the neuron's membrane. APP is critical to neuron growth, survival, and ... increasing the concentration of ACh in the brain and combating the loss of ACh caused by the death of cholinergic neurons.[173] ...
Kuhar, M. J., 1976, The anatomy of cholinergic neurons, in: Biochemistry of Cholinergic Functions ( A. M. Goldberg and I. Hanin ... Davies, P., and Maloney, A.J. F., 1976, Selective loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimers disease, Lancet 2: 1403.PubMed ... Armstrong, D. M., Saper, C. B., Levay, A. I., Wainer, B. H., and Terry, R. D., 1983, Distribution of cholinergic neurons in rat ... Sethy, V. M., Kuhar, M. J., Roth, R. H., Van Woert, H. H., Aghajaniau, G. K., 1973, Cholinergic neurons: Effect of acute septal ...
The involvement of striatal cholinergic neurons in the release of dopamine (DA) elicited by the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAGO ... Involvement of cholinergic neurons in the release of dopamine elicited by stimulation of μ-opioid receptors in striatum. * ... The previous injection in striatum of AF 64-A, a toxin for cholinergic neurons, or the concomitant infusion of the M2- ... The involvement of striatal cholinergic neurons in the release of dopamine (DA) elicited by the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAGO ...
Most research involving cholinergic neurons involves the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, cholinergic neurons only ... Cholinergic neurons, along with non-cholinergic neurons, have sleep/wake regulatory functions in the basal forebrain that can ... which causes cholinergic neurons to become vulnerable. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on the constant ... The cholinergic system allows the circadian system to have the cycle of one day. The cholinergic neuron may also play a role in ...
DNA from the Drosophila cholinergic gene locus to drive Gal4 expression we can visualize essentially all cholinergic neurons ... Drosophila cholinergic neurons and processes visualized with Gal4/UAS-GFP Brain Res Gene Expr Patterns. 2001 Aug;1(1):73-82. ... DNA from the Drosophila cholinergic gene locus to drive Gal4 expression we can visualize essentially all cholinergic neurons ... Three-dimensional reconstructions made from confocal sections of whole-mount preparations reveal the extensive cholinergic ...
2005) Cholinergic inhibition of neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 25:10308-10320, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2697-05.2005, ... 2007) Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 97:2215-2229, doi:10.1152/jn. ... Impact of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Inputs on Basolateral Amygdala Neurons. Cagri T. Unal, Denis Pare and Laszlo Zaborszky ... Basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons contribute dense projections to the entire cortical mantle (Zaborszky et al., 2011), ...
To test the molecular nature of the NGF receptor responsible for the ability of NGF to rescue septal cholinergic neurons ... TrkA activation is sufficient to rescue axotomized cholinergic neurons Neuron. 1996 Mar;16(3):653-63. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273( ... To test the molecular nature of the NGF receptor responsible for the ability of NGF to rescue septal cholinergic neurons ... RTA also initiated cholinergic sprouting. Infusions of RTA in combination with an antibody that blocks p75NGFR (REX) did not ...
... Bombi ... Consistently, the acupuncture significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in cholinergic immunoreactivity and mRNA ...
Cholinergic Neurons of the Medial Septum Are Crucial for Sensorimotor Gating. Junghee Jin, Jia Cheng, Ko-Woon Lee, Bushra ... Cholinergic Neurons of the Medial Septum Are Crucial for Sensorimotor Gating. Junghee Jin, Jia Cheng, Ko-Woon Lee, Bushra ... Cholinergic Neurons of the Medial Septum Are Crucial for Sensorimotor Gating. Junghee Jin, Jia Cheng, Ko-Woon Lee, Bushra ... Cholinergic Neurons of the Medial Septum Are Crucial for Sensorimotor Gating Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Loss of monoaminergic neurons-serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei and noradrenergic neurons in the LC-has been well ... Neuron Loss in AD Mouse-Yes, But Not the Cholinergic Kind. Quick Links. *Article ... Why do these neurons in particular degenerate, when other cortical and hippocampal neurons are relatively preserved in these ... Studies have shown that upon injection of the neurotoxin DSP4, the LC NA neurons are damaged or die but other NA neurons are ...
... and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic ... Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or ... Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal ... The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within ...
2006), we found that CHO-1 is not expressed in all cholinergic neurons; several cholinergic neurons in the head do not appear ... The cho-1 reporter was not expressed in all cholinergic neurons; at least three cholinergic neurons in the head lacked ... synthesis in cholinergic nerve terminals. We found that CHO-1 is expressed in most, but not all cholinergic neurons in C. ... The cho-1 gene is expressed in most cholinergic neurons. Transgenic animals carrying the Pcho-1∷NLS-CFP (green, A-D) and Punc- ...
What is cholinergic neuron? Meaning of cholinergic neuron medical term. What does cholinergic neuron mean? ... Looking for online definition of cholinergic neuron in the Medical Dictionary? cholinergic neuron explanation free. ... Related to cholinergic neuron: cholinergic neurotransmitter. neuron. [noor´on] a highly specialized cell of the nervous system ... Other neurons carry nerve impulses from one neuron to another (internuncial neurons). Note: also spelt neurone. See action ...
... the cholinergic neurons were divided into three categories including cortical VIP neurons, long-range projection neurons, and ... Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon ... After reconstructing the cholinergic neurons in a subregion of basal forebrain, we found that their projections to the ... Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we ...
Selenium induces cholinergic motor neuron degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Authors: Estévez, Annette O.; Mueller, ... These studies provide evidence that the environmental toxicant selenium induces neurodegeneration of cholinergic neurons ... we show that selenium-induced oxidative stress leads to decreased cholinergic signaling and degeneration of cholinergic neurons ... levamisole and aldicarb which enhance cholinergic signaling in muscle. In addition, animals with reduction-of-function ...
To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using ... Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA ... GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. ... We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an ...
Cuello AC, Sofroniew MV (1984) The anatomy of CNS cholinergic neurons. Trends Neurosci 7:74-78CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Alzheimers disease Pro-NGF NGF Metalloprotease Cholinergic neurons Trophic factor Neurodegeneration Special issue dedicated to ... Davies P, Maloney AJF (1976) Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimers disease. Lancet 2(8000):1403PubMed ... The Failure in NGF Maturation and its Increased Degradation as the Probable Cause for the Vulnerability of Cholinergic Neurons ...
In slices from OX−/−1 mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, ... In slices from OX1-/- mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, ... these findings support a model in which orexin-mediated excitation of mesopontine cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons ... these findings support a model in which orexin-mediated excitation of mesopontine cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons ...
Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in ... including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline ...
The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology ... Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding: A ... which eventually suppresses acetylcholine release and results in an overall cholinergic hypofunctioning. Since the cholinergic ... TITLE: Accelerating Alzheimers pathogenesis by GRK5 deficiency via cholinergic dysfunction. AUTHORS: William Z. Suo KEYWORDS: ...
The Importance of Brainstem Cholinergic Neurons in the Pressor Response to Cocaine. Jerry J. Buccafusco, Jerry A. Davis, Laura ... The Importance of Brainstem Cholinergic Neurons in the Pressor Response to Cocaine. Jerry J. Buccafusco, Jerry A. Davis, Laura ... The Importance of Brainstem Cholinergic Neurons in the Pressor Response to Cocaine. Jerry J. Buccafusco, Jerry A. Davis, Laura ... The Importance of Brainstem Cholinergic Neurons in the Pressor Response to Cocaine ...
Expression of noradrenergic and cholinergic traits by sympathetic neurons cultured without serum EJ Wolinsky, SC Landis, and PH ... Expression of Noradrenergic and Cholinergic Traits by Sympathetic Neurons Cultured without Serum ... Expression of Noradrenergic and Cholinergic Traits by Sympathetic Neurons Cultured without Serum. Journal of Neuroscience, 5 (6 ... Thus, sympathetic neurons survive, express numerous differentiated properties, and display a novel transmitter status under ...
The following pages link to Category:Basalis nucleus cholinergic neuron: View (previous 50) (next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , ...
Intracellular redistribution of acetyl-CoA, the pivotal point in differential susceptibility of cholinergic neurons and glial ... These data indicate that preferential susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to neurodegenerative insults may result from ... the pivotal point in differential susceptibility of cholinergic neurons and glial cells to neurodegenerative signals. Biochem ... acetyl-CoA and ATP in differentiated cholinergic neuronal cells than in non-differentiated cholinergic, and cultured microglial ...
The role of central cholinergic neurons in the regulation of blood pressure and in experimental hypertension.. J J Buccafusco ... The role of central cholinergic neurons in the regulation of blood pressure and in experimental hypertension.. J J Buccafusco ... The role of central cholinergic neurons in the regulation of blood pressure and in experimental hypertension.. J J Buccafusco ... The role of central cholinergic neurons in the regulation of blood pressure and in experimental hypertension. ...
... ... Conversely, I have found that expressing dn-Ras or dn-Raf, but not dn-Pi3K, in cholinergic neurons increases fly size and ... raising the possibility that Ras-Raf signaling in cholinergic neurons may affect fly size by controlling the rate of growth via ... prolongs larval development, whereas, expression of activated Ras or Raf, but not Pi3K, in cholinergic nerurons decreases fly ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate if NGF affects cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM)... ... is a potent growth factor for cholinergic neurons. ... Nerve growth factor and cholinergic CNS neurons studied in ... In single nBM slices cholinergic neurons rapidly degenerated when incubated without NGF. The number of remaining neurons was ... Nerve Growth Factor Cholinergic Neuron Choline Acetyltransferase Nerve Fiber Density Ergic Neuron ...
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in VTA glutamate neurons modulate excitatory transmission. Lavis Lab ... Cells in the medial VTA, where glutamate neurons are enriched, are responsive to acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic ... These results indicate that VTA glutamate neurons are modulated by cholinergic mechanisms and participate in the cascade of ... VTA VGLUT2 neurons express mRNA and protein subunits known to comprise heteromeric nAChRs. Electrophysiology, coupled with two- ...
"CHOLINE UPTAKE BY CHOLINERGIC NEURON CELL SOMAS, Journal of Neurochemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... CHOLINE UPTAKE BY CHOLINERGIC NEURON CELL SOMAS. CHOLINE UPTAKE BY CHOLINERGIC NEURON CELL SOMAS Suszkiw, J. B.; Beach, R. L.; ... CHOLINE UPTAKE BY CHOLINERGIC NEURON CELL SOMAS. Suszkiw, J. B.; Beach, R. L.; Pilar, G. R. ... "CHOLINE UPTAKE BY CHOLINERGIC NEURON CELL SOMAS." Journal of Neurochemistry 26.6 (1976).. Reference Managers ...
Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is ... Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is ... Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is ... Target-dependent specification of the neurotransmitter phenotype: cholinergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons is ...
... cholinergic projection neurons provide a better target for systems level optogenetic modulation than cholinergic interneurons ... Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic projection neurons as an alternative for deep brain stimulation for Alzheimers ... Here we characterize the light activation properties and cell density of cholinergic neurons in healthy mice and mouse models ... Additionally, basal forebrain channelrhodopsin-expressing cholinergic neurons are shown to exhibit normal distribution at 60 ...
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. (jneurosci.org)
  • Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The cholinergic nerves ( parasympathetic nervous system ) liberate at their axon endings a substance called acetylcholine , which acts as a stimulant to the dendrites of adjacent neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • The impaired desensitization of M2 receptor by GRK5 deficiency leads to hyperactive M2, which eventually suppresses acetylcholine release and results in an overall cholinergic hypofunctioning. (scirp.org)
  • Acetylcholine production can be induced under serum-free conditions by a previously characterized cholinergic inducing factor from heart cell conditioned medium. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition, in cholinergic cells, such conditions caused inhibition of ACh (acetylcholine) synthesis and its quantal release. (portlandpress.com)
  • Incubation with acetylcholine precursors did not affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • To study this, we used molecular, physiological, and photostimulation techniques to examine nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in VTA glutamate neurons. (janelia.org)
  • Cells in the medial VTA, where glutamate neurons are enriched, are responsive to acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic axons. (janelia.org)
  • The role of protein kinase A in regulating transcription of the cholinergic gene locus, which contains both the vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene and the choline acetyltransferase gene, was investigated in PC12 cells and a protein kinase A-deficient PC12 mutant, A126.1B2, in which transcription of the gene is reduced. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) were used to determine whether neurons that have previously been identified as intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig small intestine have a cholinergic phenotype. (eurekamag.com)
  • We hypothesized that the lower level of cholinergic neurons and subsequently the acetylcholine release in the N.Acc may be relevant to the enhanced (ventral) striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission, well-described in schizophrenia, and may contribute to the emergence of schizophrenic symptoms. (atsbio.com)
  • Stimulation by ATP up-regulates the expression of synaptic genes in muscle - including the genes for nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α-, δ- and ϵ-subunits) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) - via the P2Y receptor (P2YR), but the trophic response of neurons to the activation of P2YRs is less well understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 18F]fluoroethoxy-benzovesamicol, a PET radiotracer for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and cholinergic synapses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The discussion then turns to the neurohistochemical and neurobiochemical aspects of cholinergic-monoaminergic interactions, the effects on neostriatal acetylcholine levels, and the synthesis of the cortico-neostriatal and thalamo-neostriatal pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • The reader is also introduced to the effects of lesion in the globus pallidus, the electrophysiology of interactions, the effects of drugs thought to preferentially affect monoaminergic or related neurotransmission mechanisms on acetylcholine in the brain, and whether dopamine is excitatory or inhibitory upon neostriatal neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Prefrontal beta2 subunit-containing and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors differentially control glutamatergic and cholinergic signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Nicotine and, more robustly, selective agonists at alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) enhance cue detection and attentional performance by augmenting prefrontal cholinergic activity. (nih.gov)
  • During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal neurons. (cambridge.org)
  • The cholinergic system, characterized by its use of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is one of the first to degenerate in Alzheimer's disease and is also affected in frontotemporal dementia. (edu.au)
  • Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti-conjugated acetylcholine antibody revealed the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the TAG. (bioone.org)
  • Little is known, however, about acetylcholine (cholinergic) signaling in the human islet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of degenerative dementia [1], characterized by widespread neuron destruction, a sharp decrease in Acetylcholine in patients' brain, and the accumulation of a protein called beta-amyloid (βA) in the extracellular environment and of anomalously phosphorylated Tau protein, within neurons. (scirp.org)
  • Neurons that contain acetylcholine degenerate in patients with Alzheimer's disease, an illness that is characterized by profound cognitive impairments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our second interest is the regulation of the expression of the cholinergic phenotype, i.e. of the genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis (choline acetyltransferase and choline transporter) and the storage (the vesicular acetylcholine transporter) of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) ( Fig. 2 ). (bu.edu)
  • There is no change in the number or size of striatal cholinergic cells or striatal acetylcholine content, uptake, synthesis, or release in ChKO mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Background: We wanted to determine (via an immunopharmacological approach) whether the c-Jun NH 2 terminal kinase (JNK) cascade is phosphorylated in the submandibular gland by carbachol and cholinergic autoantibodies (IgG) present in the sera of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) by interaction and activation of salivary gland muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). (scirp.org)
  • To test if frank neuronal loss accompanied this TH loss, the authors used stereomicroscopy to examine neurons in the LC and the dorsal raphe nuclei. (alzforum.org)
  • The inhibition of PDHC, ACO (aconitase) and KDHC (ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex) activities by neurodegenerative signals such as aluminium, zinc, amyloid β-peptide, excess nitric oxide (NO) or thiamine pyrophosphate deficits resulted in much deeper losses of viability, acetyl-CoA and ATP in differentiated cholinergic neuronal cells than in non-differentiated cholinergic, and cultured microglial or astroglial cell lines. (portlandpress.com)
  • Furthermore, cholinergic neuronal cells appeared to be resistant to high concentrations of LPS (lipopolysaccharide). (portlandpress.com)
  • Expression of neuronal-NOS in developing basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: regulation by NGF. (harvard.edu)
  • It was also found that NRSF/REST could act as a silencer of neuron-specific gene expression in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells ( 6 , 7 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Notably, agonist-dependent stimulation of P2Y 2 R elevated the neuronal expression of cholinergic genes encoding AChE, PRiMA (an anchor for the globular form AChE) and choline acetyltransferase, and this induction was mediated by a signaling cascade that involved Ca 2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Radiotracer concentrations in vivo are in the rank order of striatum greater than cortex greater than hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than cerebellum, consistent with reported distributions of other presynaptic cholinergic neuronal markers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A phenotype-specific neuronal tracing shows that DMH cholinergic neurons directly project to serotonergic neurons in the Rpa. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to the limited access to neuronal samples from postmortem organs and the restricted possibilities for directly examining live human neurons, the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism of these diseases is restricted. (hindawi.com)
  • The main aim of this study then was to test whether neuronal insulin signaling is impaired in neurons from subjects carrying FAD genes that encode hypofunctional γ-secretase and whether insulin resistance contributes to the phenotype of AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • APP) in senile plaques, intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (containing an abnormally phosphorylated form of a microtubule associated protein, tau), and the loss of neuronal synapses and pyramidal neurons. (bmj.com)
  • Quick-Neuron™ Cholinergic - Human iPSC-derived Neurons display typical neurite outgrowth and express a variety of neuronal markers, such as TUBB3 (pan-neuronal) and ChAT (cholinergic). (elixirgensci.com)
  • Due to the strong impact of cholinergic modulation of the neocortex and its role in neuropsychiatric disorders, it is imperative that we understand the neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying ACh's role in cognition and neocortical microcircuit function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the fact that we know for instance that cholinergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in attention, very little is known about the neuronal circuit mechanisms involved. (frontiersin.org)
  • Non-neuronal cells that provide structure and support to neurons. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The brain is made up entirely of neurons and glial cells, which are non-neuronal cells that provide structure and support for the neurons. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In addition to having all the normal components of a cell (nucleus, organelles, etc.) neurons also contain unique structures for receiving and sending the electrical signals that make neuronal communication possible. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Addition of NGF or an antibody against NGF had no effect on either neuronal survival or the percentage of neurons staining positively for AChE or NGF receptor after 18-20 days in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrated that some embryonic septal cells can survive at least 2 weeks and develop cholinergic neuronal properties in the absence of other cells or NGF. (elsevier.com)
  • The neuronal cultures were characterised through RNA and protein expression, and functional analysis of neurons was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp. (edu.au)
  • Our findings display a key part for TrkA signaling in creating the BF cholinergic circuitry through the ERK pathway and demonstrate that the normal developmental increase of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression becomes critically dependent on TrkA signaling before neuronal contacts are established. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • TrkA mRNA and protein manifestation in CNS is restricted to limited neuronal populations in the forebrain that include cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain (BF) and striatum (Sobreviela et al. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • We investigated neuronal transmission from cercal sensory afferent neurons to ascending giant interneurons (GIs). (bioone.org)
  • Despite containing a relatively small number of neurons, when activated, the noradrenaline system plays major roles in the brain including involvement in suppression of the neuroinflammatory response, stimulation of neuronal plasticity through LTP, regulation of glutamate uptake by astrocytes and LTD, and consolidation of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our current research focuses on the molecular mechanisms whereby bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) induce the cholinergic phenotype in neuronal precursor cells. (bu.edu)
  • To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • This paper is one of the very first reports to suggest that, despite the anatomical depth of their cell bodies, cholinergic projection neurons provide a better target for systems level optogenetic modulation than cholinergic interneurons found in various brain regions including striatum and the cerebral cortex. (spie.org)
  • A post-mortem reduction in the density of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral striatum or nucleus accumbens (N.Acc. (atsbio.com)
  • 1,2 ] In this region the cholinergic interneurons interact anatomically and functionally with the dopaminergic nerve terminals notably to dampen the effects of excessive dopamine activity. (atsbio.com)
  • The purpose of our work is to reproduce in rats the selective reduction of cholinergic interneurons in the N.Acc. (atsbio.com)
  • We found a localized and selective 40-50% loss of cholinergic interneurons (minimum two weeks post-lesion) with sparing of adjacent areas. (atsbio.com)
  • The administration of anti-ChAT-SAP reduced significantly the amount of cholinergic interneurons at the injection site and spared the adjacent areas like the dorsal striatum. (atsbio.com)
  • 1999. Evidence for a deficit in cholinergic interneurons in the striatum in schizophrenia. (atsbio.com)
  • 2005. Reduced density of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral striatum in schizophrenia: an in situ hybridization study. (atsbio.com)
  • We report here that insulin can amplify action potential-dependent dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen through an indirect mechanism that involves striatal cholinergic interneurons that express InsRs. (nature.com)
  • Central pattern generators (CPGs) in the spinal cord mediate (1) rhythm generation, usually by networks of excitatory neurons that oscillate and cause mutual inhibition via interneurons, and (2) pattern generation that regulates motor neurons (MNs), and thus muscle action, to orchestrate coordinated movements underlying locomotion. (nature.com)
  • Dopaminergic control of corticostriatal long-term synaptic depression in medium spiny neurons is mediated by cholinergic interneurons. (duke.edu)
  • Rather, in both cell types, the D(2) receptor dependence of LTD induction reflects the need to lower M(1) muscarinic receptor activity-a goal accomplished by D(2) receptors on cholinergic interneurons. (duke.edu)
  • In addition to reconciling discordant tracts of the striatal literature, these findings point to cholinergic interneurons as key mediators of dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity and learning. (duke.edu)
  • A depletion of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and cholinergic projection neurons in the nucleus basalis is observed and is ascribed to an early and persistent defect in cholinergic neuron differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are consistent with the suggestion that cholinergic interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord are involved in the production of fictive locomotion. (elsevier.com)
  • Interneurons act as the "middle men" between sensory and motor neurons, which convert external stimuli to internal stimuli and control muscle movement, respectively. (lumenlearning.com)
  • There are three primary types of neuron: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects are specific for cholinergic interneurons, as recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed normal responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hatanaka H, Tsukui H, Nihonmatsu(1988)Developmental change in the nerve growth factor action from induction of choline acetyltransferase to promotion of cell survival in cultured basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from postnatal rats. (springer.com)
  • Hefti, F, Hartikka J, Eckenstein F, Gnahn H, Heumann R, Schwab(1985)Nerve growth factor increases choline acetyltransferase but not survival or fiber outgrowth of cultured feta septal cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • The distribution of cholinergic neurons was studied in painted and red-eared turtles using antisera against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). (scienceopen.com)
  • Absence of p75NTR causes increased basal forebrain cholinergic neuron size, choline acetyltransferase activity, and target innervation. (scienceopen.com)
  • Rats with 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin lesion, as compared with control rats with sham lesion, showed a 85% decrease in choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive, but not parvalbumin-immunoreactive, neurons in the medial septal area. (asahq.org)
  • IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin (Epo) elevated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in septal cholinergic cell line SN6 as well as in primary cultured septal neurons without increasing protein contents of the cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and in situ hybridization for ChAT mRNA demonstrated the loss of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum and diagonal band after 192 IgG-saporin treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the lesioned aging rats, the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was markedly reduced in the ipsilateral side and to a lesser extent in the contralateral side. (unifi.it)
  • Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (10 micrograms twice a week) to aging lesioned rats for 3 weeks after surgery resulted in a complete recovery in the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus basalis of both sides, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the contralateral cortex, with little effect on the ipsilateral cortex. (unifi.it)
  • We examined the effects of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and other hematopoietic cytokines on the neurotransmitters, neurite formation, and differentiation in cholinergic and other types of neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • How do cholinergic receptors expressed by specific types of neurons contribute to sensory processing, attention or working memory? (frontiersin.org)
  • Although some neurons do not have any dendrites, other types of neurons have multiple dendrites. (lumenlearning.com)
  • All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pharmacological activation of muscarinic receptors elicits similar responses in principal neurons of the neocortex and BLA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, we aimed to study the impact of cholinergic inputs on BLA neurons under conditions that more closely reproduce normal ACh release and are therefore less likely to recruit extrasynaptic cholinergic receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum by DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) resulted in reduced PPI further demonstrating the importance of these neurons in sensorimotor gating. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since orexin-A produced neither of these actions in slices lacking both receptors, our findings suggest that orexin-mediated depolarization is mediated by both receptors in DR, but is exclusively mediated by OX 1 in LDT and LC neurons, even though OX 2 is present and OX 2 mRNA appears elevated in brainstems from OX −/− 1 mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in VTA glutamate neurons modulate excitatory transmission. (janelia.org)
  • ii) mRNA and immunoreactivity for β subunits of IL-3 receptors were expressed in septal cholinergic neurons and (iii) presence of receptos for GM-CSF and Epo in neurons has been reported. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that CBC neurons are regulated in an excitatory manner by DA acting primarily at D1 receptors. (ubc.ca)
  • Activation of nicotinic receptors was sufficient to evoke action potentials in cholecystokinin (CCK)-positive inhibitory neurons , which strongly inhibit pyramidal neurons through their perisomatic synapses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Neurons and glia express unique sets of transcription factors, enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins and receptors. (abcam.com)
  • Noradrenaline is released from the neurons, and acts on adrenergic receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Cholinergic innervation and receptors in the cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • 8. Compartmentalised distribution of GABAA and glutamate receptors in relation to transmitter release sites on the surface of cerebellar neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have studied biochemical and morphological properties related to neurotransmitter metabolism of rat sympathetic neurons cultured in a modified defined medium. (caltech.edu)
  • To investigate the role of these two neurotransmitter systems in working memory, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in the NB and SNc, respectively, were selectively inhibited to observe for changes in behavioral responses during performance of a working memory task. (princeton.edu)
  • This article examines the existing scientific applicability of the original cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease by describing the biochemical and histopathological changes of neurotransmitter markers that occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease both at postmortem and neurosurgical cerebral biopsy and the behavioural consequences of cholinomimetic drugs and cholinergic lesions. (bmj.com)
  • This indicates that not only sensory afferent neurons but also other neurons that have cell bodies in the TAG could use ACh as a neurotransmitter. (bioone.org)
  • [4] A neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major neurotransmitter systems are the noradrenaline (norepinephrine) system, the dopamine system, the serotonin system, and the cholinergic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). (jneurosci.org)
  • They report that in PS/APP double transgenic mice, there is significant neuron loss-of brainstem monoaminergic neurons, that is, which project into the forebrain from the locus ceruleus (LC). (alzforum.org)
  • Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter ( Slc32a1 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. (scirp.org)
  • Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) play an important role in promoting wakefulness. (umsystem.edu)
  • Additionally, basal forebrain channelrhodopsin-expressing cholinergic neurons are shown to exhibit normal distribution at 60 days and normal light activation at 40 days, the latest timepoints observed. (spie.org)
  • 1.Previous studies have shown that neonatal electrolytic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic projections in mice lead to a transient cholinergic depletion of neocortex and to permanent alterations in cortical cytoarchitecture and cognitive performance. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The results also reveal that the cholinergic systems of the striatum, basal forebrain, isthmic region, and cerebellar peduncular region are ancestral features of the amniote brain and are common to all living amniotes that have been studied. (scienceopen.com)
  • We have analyzed the literature that describes differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into three neural cell types that are commonly used to study diseases, including forebrain cholinergic neurons for Alzheimer's disease, midbrain dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease and cortical astrocytes for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (springer.com)
  • We have applied a newly developed protocol for deriving human basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) from skin fibroblasts via induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to determine the contribution of cholinergic septohippocampal fibres to the dense AChE band appearing after entorhinal cortex lesion, the neurotoxin 192 IgG-saporin, known to destroy cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain selectively, was used. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Forebrain cholinergic neurons modulate complex mammalian behaviors such as reward-related learning and cognitive functions. (elsevier.com)
  • We tested the role of the LIM-homeobox gene Isl1 in the development of forebrain cholinergic neurons by conditionally deleting Isl1 using a Six3-cre transgene. (elsevier.com)
  • Elshatory, Y & Gan, L 2008, ' The LIM-homeobox gene Islet-1 is required for the development of restricted forebrain cholinergic neurons ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 3291-3297. (elsevier.com)
  • Age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. (pnas.org)
  • Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) undergo atrophy and apparent loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) ( 1 , 2 ) and in elderly Down's syndrome (DS) patients ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • BFCNs were identified by immunohistochemical staining for p75 NGFR , a neurotrophin receptor localized specifically to cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • From recent discoveries in the mouse, rat, monkey and human brain, a picture emerges in which the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system targets the neocortex with much more spatial and temporal detail than previously considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, recent exciting discoveries show that the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system may be innervating the neocortex at a spatially more refined scale than previously considered, raising the possibility that a more fine-scaled control by ACh exists that does not only confer specificity on a brain area scale, but even on that of cortical lamina. (frontiersin.org)
  • Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: regulation by. (ubc.ca)
  • The regulation of forebrain cholinergic systems, specifically those neurons in the cholinergic basal nuclear complex (CBC) which project to the hippocampus and cortex are of great interest, given the involvement of acetyicholine (ACh) in cognitive function. (ubc.ca)
  • These data suggest that forebrain cholinergic neurons are responsive to arousing stimuli and that ACh release in the crtex, hippocampus and striatum generally correlates with arousal. (ubc.ca)
  • The basolateral amygdala (BLA) receives dense projections from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our cell type-specific monosynaptic retrograde tracing also revealed that CCK neurons are innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons . (bvsalud.org)
  • In all 10 patients, gene therapy was delivered to the nucleus basalis of Meynert - part of the basal forebrain rich in cholinergic neurons that undergoes degeneration during Alzheimer's disease. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • We developed a differentiation protocol to generate basal forebrain-like cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) aided by the use of small molecule inhibitors and growth factors. (edu.au)
  • Downstream insulin signaling pathway molecules display similar phosphorylation status in iPSC-derived wildtype and PSEN2 N141I basal forebrain cholinergic neuroprecursors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • of the BF cholinergic system and its contribution to AD pathology we have generated Cinnamaldehyde a forebrain-specific conditional TrkA knockout mouse collection. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • 1997 To bypass these issues we used a conditional knockout strategy and generated mice lacking TrkA expression specifically in forebrain cholinergic neurons (mice also shown selective attention and working memory space impairments. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • Basal Forebrain is the most important component of a much broader system of cholinergic cells distributed throughout the Central Nervous System (CNS). (scirp.org)
  • Especially important in AD are the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic (BFC) neurons, whose destruction is considered the main cause of the patients' memoryloss. (scirp.org)
  • Ontogeny of cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain. (etsu.edu)
  • Our studies to date have focused on the development of the basal forebrain cholinergic system, hippocampal MAPK and CREB signaling, and on the developmental patterns of brain gene expression ( Fig. 1 ). (bu.edu)
  • We focus on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN). (bu.edu)
  • Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we characterize the light activation properties and cell density of cholinergic neurons in healthy mice and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease in order to evaluate the feasibility of using optogenetic modulation of cholinergic synaptic activity to slow or reverse neurodegeneration. (spie.org)
  • Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • P2Y 2 R was found to exist in membrane rafts and it co-localized with the post-synaptic protein PSD-95 in cortical neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together our results revealed a developmental function of P2Y 2 R in promoting synaptic gene expression and demonstrate the influence of co-stimulation of P2Y 1 R and P2Y 2 R in neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we study the function and synaptic connectivity of input from DMH cholinergic neurons to sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus (Rpa). (elsevier.com)
  • Cholinergic-Monoaminergic Interactions in the Brain investigates dynamic synaptic mechanisms in the brain and their links to various behaviors and related functional processes. (elsevier.com)
  • By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the BF affect synaptic strength in several brain areas of the rodent brain, with behavioral consequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • We demonstrated that cholinergic-induced di-synaptic inhibition of BLA pyramidal neurons exhibits a retrograde form of short-term synaptic inhibition, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, our data indicated that CCK inhibitory neurons mediate the cholinergic-induced di-synaptic inhibition of BLA pyramidal neurons . (bvsalud.org)
  • Insufficient intake of selected vitamins, or certain metabolic disorders, affect cognitive processes by disrupting the nutrient-dependent processes within the body that are associated with the management of energy in neurons, which can subsequently affect neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • 4 ] These data suggest that intra-accumbens lesions of the cholinergic neurons trigger not only a local hyper-responsiveness to dopamine but also widespread functional impairments in prefrontal cortical dopamine functions similarly as proposed in the pathology of schizophrenia. (atsbio.com)
  • We reported that cultured cortical neurons and the developing rat brain expressed different types of P2YRs, and among these the UTP-sensitive P2Y 2 R was the most abundant. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Long-term depression (LTD) of the synapse formed between cortical pyramidal neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons is central to many theories of motor plasticity and associative learning. (duke.edu)
  • Compromise of cortical proNGF maturation causes selective retrograde atrophy in cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons. (wizdom.ai)
  • Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF cholinergic neurons with the possibility to rapidly alter information flow in cortical microcircuits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, recent findings on cholinergic modulation of human neocortical microcircuits suggest that also in the human brain these mechanisms exist, which may prompt us to change our view on the cholinergic system as being merely a slow acting arousal system to one that includes a fast acting manipulation of cortical information flow important for sub-second cognitive operations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dopaminergic regulation of CBC neurons was examined by determining the extent to which dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists affect cortical and hippocampal ACh release. (ubc.ca)
  • This suggests that cholinergic activity in both the cortex and hippocampus is increased by a reward-independent aspect of the task, such as arousal or attention, while an additional reward-dependent component is seen with respect to cortical ACh release. (ubc.ca)
  • 12. Functional significance of excitatory projections from the precerebellar nuclei to interpositus and dentate nucleus neurons for mediating motor, premotor and parietal cortical inputs. (elsevier.com)
  • Those that carry impulses in the opposite direction, away from the brain and other nerve centers to muscles, are called efferent neurons, motor neurons, or motoneurons . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The axons of motor neurons form synapses with skeletal fibers to produce motion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These motor neurons are called somatic efferent neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Identification of novel spinal cholinergic genetic subtypes disclose Chodl and Pitx2 as markers for fast motor neurons and partition cells. (mpg.de)
  • Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to control everything from muscle contractions to glandular output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dendrites of the sensory neurons are designed to receive stimuli from various parts of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C ) Schematic illustration of the fly brain and antennal appendages with olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). (elifesciences.org)
  • We conclude that the intrinsic primary afferent neurons are cholinergic and that they may release transmitter from their sensory endings in the mucosa. (eurekamag.com)
  • Our data suggest that cholinergic inputs play a role in regulating plasticity as well as in the morphogenesis of mouse sensory-motor cortex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The 03-enhanced responsiveness was maintained in tracheal segments cultured for 24 h, a procedure shown to deplete most sensory nerves while maintaining viability of intrinsic airway neurons. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, segments of trachea cultured with 3x10-6 M capsaicin for 24h, which completely depletes tachykinins in sensory nerves, did not abolish the 03-enhanced reactivity to cholinergic agonists and EFS. (cdc.gov)
  • Sensory neurons are neurons responsible for converting external stimuli from the environment into corresponding internal stimuli. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Artemin (Artn), a member of the glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) family, supports the development and function of a subpopulation of peptidergic, TRPV1-positive sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sensory ganglia of ART-OE mice had increased immunoreactivity for nAChRα3 and exhibited increased overlap in labeling with GFRα3-positive neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand how Artn affects sensory neuron properties and its role in inflammatory conditions, we carried out transcriptional profiling of trigeminal ganglia of the Artn overexpressing mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introduction The part of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) like a target-derived survival element Cinnamaldehyde for sensory and sympathetic neurons is definitely well established (Goedert et Cinnamaldehyde al. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • The cercal sensory afferent neurons running through the cercal nerve root showed cholinergic immunoreactivity, and the cholinergic immunoreactive region in the neuropil overlapped with the terminal arborizations of the cercal sensory afferent neurons. (bioone.org)
  • Sensory neurons respond to stimuli such as touch, sound, or light that affect the cells of the sensory organs, and they send signals to the spinal cord or brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the majority of neurons belong to the central nervous system, but some reside in peripheral ganglia, and many sensory neurons are situated in sensory organs such as the retina and cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gahwiler BH, Rietschin L, Knopfel T, Enz A (1990) Continuous presence of nerve growth factor is required for maintenance of cholinergic septal neurons in organotypic slice cultures. (springer.com)
  • Selective lesion of cholinergic medial septal neurons enhanced sensitivity to isoflurane and prolonged isoflurane anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • We studied survival and expression of cholinergic properties in embryonic septal neurons grown in very low density microcultures (1-7 cells per Terasaki well). (elsevier.com)
  • Nonner, D, Temple, S & Barrett, JN 1992, ' Rat embryonic septal neurons survive and express cholinergic properties in isolation and without nerve growth factor ', Developmental Brain Research , vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 197-205. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of central cholinergic neurons in the regulation of blood pressure and in experimental hypertension. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Davies P, Maloney AJF (1976) Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Intraventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rats has been shown to reduce age-related atrophy of central cholinergic neurons and the accompanying memory impairment. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The nerve fibers are actually extensions of the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus of the neuron. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using brain slices from mice constitutively lacking either receptor, we used whole-cell and Ca 2+ imaging methods to delineate the cellular actions of each receptor within cholinergic [laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT)] and monoaminergic [dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC)] brainstem nuclei-where orexins promote arousal and suppress REM sleep. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate if NGF affects cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) in organotypic brain slices. (springer.com)
  • 2011. Cholinergic depletion in the nucleus accumbens: Effects on amphetamine response and sensorimotor gating. (atsbio.com)
  • 2012. Cholinergic depletion in nucleus accumbens impairs mesocortical dopamine activation and cognitive function in rats. (atsbio.com)
  • Unbiased stereological methods (Stereologer, Systems Planning & Analysis, Alexandria, VA) were used to determine the number (optical fractionator method) of p75 NGFR -positive neurons throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the medial septal nucleus (MSN) of each animal ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2-4 Subsequent discoveries of reduced choline uptake, 5 ACh release 6 and loss of cholinergic perikarya from the nucleus basalis of Meynert 7 confirmed a substantial presynaptic cholinergic deficit. (bmj.com)
  • Like other cells, each neuron has a cell body (or soma) that contains a nucleus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other cellular components. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Our results indicate that nerve growth factor and, to some extent, GM1 facilitate the recovery of the cholinergic neurons after a lesion of the nucleus basalis in aging rats, but their efficacy is reduced. (unifi.it)
  • The previous injection in striatum of AF 64-A, a toxin for cholinergic neurons, or the concomitant infusion of the M2-muscarinic antagonist methoctramine abolished the effect of DAGO on the DA release. (mendeley.com)
  • For example, the present studies revealed the presence of cholinergic neurons in the striatum, the basal telencephalon, the isthmo-tectal system, and a region of cells near the cerebellar peduncle. (scienceopen.com)
  • If this were true, LTD should be inducible in neurons from only one of the two projection systems of the striatum. (duke.edu)
  • Our observation and others strongly support that neural-immune interactions are important not only in the defense mechanism in the nervous system but also in the development, differentiation and function of neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Although their dysfunction is implicated in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, the factors governing cholinergic neuron differentiation and diversity are mostly unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Our proprietary transcription factor-based stem cell differentiation method produces neurons without a genetic footprint. (elixirgensci.com)
  • The involvement of striatal cholinergic neurons in the release of dopamine (DA) elicited by the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAGO ([D-Ala2, NMePhe4-Gly5(ol)]enkephalin) was explored. (mendeley.com)
  • Studies to describe mechanistic consequences of cholinergic lesions on dopamine neurotransmission are in progress. (atsbio.com)
  • These symptoms occur because the condition causes a reduction in a person's dopamine-producing brain cells, or the dopaminergic neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This seemed to restore the dopamine-producing function in the dopaminergic neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This seems to be a knock-on effect, so by targeting this one set of neurons, we now know that we are able to also stimulate dopaminergic neurons, effectively restarting the production of dopamine and reducing symptoms," she adds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To test the molecular nature of the NGF receptor responsible for the ability of NGF to rescue septal cholinergic neurons following axotomy, we infused polyclonal antibodies that act as specific agonists of trkA (RTA) into the lateral ventricle of fimbria-fornix lesioned animals. (nih.gov)
  • Rats receiving chronic intraventricular infusions of RTA showed significantly more low affinity NGF receptor immunoreactive (p75NGFR-IR) neurons on the lesioned side than did control animals 2 weeks following unilateral fimbria-fornix lesion. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophysiological studies showed reduced NMDA receptor-mediated currents in cholinergic neurons of the medial septum in mGluR5 KO mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The dendrites receive stimuli from other nerves or from a receptor organ, such as the skin or ear, and transmit them through the neuron to the axon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The NRSE/RE-1, which comprises ∼23 nucleotides, is found in a number of neuron-specific genes, including the type II sodium channel ( 7 ), synapsin I ( 15 ), SCG10 ( 20 ), Ng-CAM ( 13 ), and the m4 muscarinic receptor ( 17 ), to name but a few. (asm.org)
  • Single cell qRT-PCR analysis of retrogradely identified BAT-projecting neurons in the Rpa shows that all M2 receptor-expressing neurons contain tryptophan hydroxylase 2. (elsevier.com)
  • Frequency of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 (CHRNA5) rs16969968-A allele and cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 3 (CHRNA3) rs1051730-T allele were significantly higher in lung cancer than in normal controls. (nih.gov)
  • Of these surviving neurons, 30-40% stained positively for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor, even though the culture medium lacked detectable levels of NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and fibroblast growth factor. (elsevier.com)
  • There is evidence that genetic variations in the M3 receptor are associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes and the acute insulin response in Pima Indians ( 17 ), but few studies have investigated cholinergic mechanisms in human islets ( 16 , 18 - 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Neuron Specific a-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Human Cerebellum: Implications for Emerging Cerebellar Roles in Neurologic Disease. (etsu.edu)
  • There are, however, striking functional abnormalities of striatal cholinergic cells, with paradoxical excitation in response to D2 receptor activation and loss of muscarinic M2/M4 receptor inhibitory function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We are proposing that pathologies associated with disrupted sensorimotor gating, such as with schizophrenia, could benefit from further evaluating strategies to modulate specifically cholinergic neurons in the medial septum. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cholinergic drugs are known to modulate the response of general anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • 2020) 'Satellite glial cells modulate cholinergic transmission between sympathetic neurons. (google.com)
  • The axon of a motor neuron divides just before it enters the muscle fibers and forms synapses near the nuclei of muscle fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Visceral efferent neurons form synapses with smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The primary components of the neuron are the soma (cell body), the axon (a long slender projection that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body), dendrites (tree-like structures that receive messages from other neurons), and synapses (specialized junctions between neurons). (lumenlearning.com)
  • A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the majority of synapses, signals cross from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • While effective in treatment for a number of conditions from depression to epilepsy, DBS remains somewhat unpredictable due to the heterogeneity of the projection neurons that are activated, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons, leading to unacceptable side effects ranging from apathy to depression or even suicidal behavior. (spie.org)
  • Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies. (elifesciences.org)
  • Projection neurons (PNs, blue) send the information mainly to two higher brain centres, the mushroom body (MB) and the lateral horn (LH) (top). (elifesciences.org)
  • The unique pattern of cholinergic hypoinnervation encountered is supported by the presence of cholinergic projection neurons in the medial septum, the magnocellular preoptic area, and the substantia innominata. (elsevier.com)
  • When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. (jneurosci.org)
  • The results support the idea of a progressive neurodegenerative process that starts in the NA axons that innervate the cortex and hippocampus, and eventually leads to loss of NA neurons in the LC. (alzforum.org)
  • However, a recent report has questioned this concept, suggesting that AChE may not be an adequate marker to monitor cholinergic sprouting and that other, non-cholinergic axons sprouting after entorhinal cortex lesion cause the dense AChE-positive band in the denervated outer molecular layer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The axons of cholinergic neurons, labeled with p75, grew toward the source of the nerve growth factor in all 10 patients. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • A significant decrease in performance accuracy occurred when dopaminergic neurons in the SNc were inhibited, but no change in accuracy was detected when cholinergic neurons in the NB were selectively inhibited. (princeton.edu)
  • Male Long Evans rats had 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin infused into the medial septum (n = 10), in order to selectively lesion cholinergic neurons, whereas control, sham-lesioned rats were infused with saline (n = 12). (asahq.org)
  • This cholinergic sprouting has been demonstrated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry, a method said selectively to label cholinergic septohippocampal fibres in the hippocampus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate what pathological role torsinA plays in cholinergic neurons, we created a mouse model in which the Dyt1 gene, the mouse homolog of TOR1A, is selectively deleted in cholinergic neurons (ChKO animals). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 192 IgG-saporin-induced loss of cholinergic neurons in the septum abolishes cholinergic sprouting after unilateral entorhinal lesion in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Naumann1997192IL, title={192 IgG-saporin-induced loss of cholinergic neurons in the septum abolishes cholinergic sprouting after unilateral entorhinal lesion in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • amyloid hypothesis and the cholinergic hypothesis, respectively, the GRK5 deficiency appears to bring the two major hypotheses in Alzheimer's disease together, whereas the GRK5 deficiency is the pivotal link. (scirp.org)
  • Knusel B, Gao H (1996) Neurotrophins and Alzheimer's disease: beyond the cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • One link between T2D and CI might involve decreased insulin signaling in brain and/or neurons in either animal or postmortem human brains as has been reported as a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, although there is presently no "cure" for Alzheimer's disease, a large number of potential therapeutic interventions have emerged that are designed to correct loss of presynaptic cholinergic function. (bmj.com)
  • Cholinergic neurons degenerate at devastating rates in Alzheimer's disease, but Dr. Mark Tuszynski and his team at the University of California, San Diego may have found a way to slow the decline. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Their study, published in JAMA Neurology, reports that nerve growth factor gene therapy increased the size, axonal sprouting, and signaling of cholinergic neurons in 10 Alzheimer's disease patients. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • 1994 Most studies on NGF signaling have focused on BF cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) because of their important part in cognition and attention behaviors which have important implications in ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD Holtzman et al. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • Increased nicotine response in iPSC-derived human neurons carrying the CHRNA5 N398 allele. (nih.gov)
  • When thawed and maintained according to the instructions in the user guide, the iPSC-derived neurons are viable long-term and are suitable for a variety of characterization and neurotoxicity assays. (elixirgensci.com)
  • a - e Western blot analysis of insulin signaling in iPSC-derived basal cholinergic neuroprecursor cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we highlight accomplishments made in the generation of dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, the two subtypes most affected in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and indirectly affected in Huntington's disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, sympathetic neurons survive, express numerous differentiated properties, and display a novel transmitter status under serum-free conditions. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion: DMH cholinergic neurons directly send efferent signals to sympathetic premotor neurons in the Rpa. (elsevier.com)
  • We induced a degeneration of the nasal sympathetic neurons in order to observe the effects of electrical stimulation of the cholinergic neurons on nasal blood vessels. (elsevier.com)
  • One interpretation of this result is that cholinergic fibers control vasomotor tone by inhibiting the output of the sympathetic neurons, i.e., they have a presynaptic influence. (elsevier.com)
  • ChAT and VAChT are both required for cholinergic neurotransmission. (asm.org)
  • Such studies have resulted in the discovery of an association between a decline in learning and memory, and a deficit in excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmission, together with important roles for the cholinergic system in attentional processing and as a modulator of EAA neurotransmission. (bmj.com)
  • Choline is a dietary component that is important for the structural integrity of cell membranes, methyl metabolism, cholinergic neurotransmission, transmembrane signaling, and lipid and cholesterol transport and metabolism. (nap.edu)
  • The synapse may involve one neuron in chemical contact with many adjacent neurons, or it may involve the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites of a succeeding neuron in a nerve pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent growth factor for cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Kew JNC, Smith DW, Sofroniew MY(1996)Nerve growth factor withdrawal induces the apoptotic death of developing septal cholinergic neurons in vitro: protection by cyclic AMP analogue and high potassium. (springer.com)
  • The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve impulses pass. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Ex vivo and in vivo methods of gene therapy were used to deliver nerve growth factor - a protein that protects neurons and stimulates growth - to the patients. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Eight received an implant of their own skin cells that were genetically modified to express nerve growth factor (ex vivo ) and two patients received injections that induced neurons already in the brain to express nerve growth factor (in vivo). (mbfbioscience.com)
  • After they had died, researchers analyzed the effects of nerve growth factor on cholinergic neurons. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Neurons exhibiting tau pathology also expressed nerve growth factor, indicating that degenerating cells could respond to nerve growth factor gene therapy. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Cholinergic neurons are a type of nerve cell that Parkinson's affects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With aging, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse model of Down's syndrome exhibited reductions in BFCN size and number and regressive changes in the hippocampal terminal fields of these neurons with respect to diploid controls. (pnas.org)
  • Intracerebroventricular NGF infusion reversed well established abnormalities in BFCN size and number and restored the deficit in cholinergic innervation. (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a reliable protocol using only small molecule inhibitors and growth factors, while avoiding transfection or cell sorting methods, to achieve a BFCN culture that expresses the characteristic markers of cholinergic neurons. (edu.au)
  • 1979 Notably BFCN survival is supported in part by NGF (Honegger and Lenoir 1982 Hefti 1986 which is definitely synthesized in the prospective cells of cholinergic neurons such as the cortex and hippocampus. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • The key question that we wish to answer is what are the signaling pathways and transcription factors that allow BFCN to express their cholinergic phenotype. (bu.edu)
  • Additionally, as ChAT spends time on the membrane, it can be used to target cholinergic neurons. (atsbio.com)
  • The initial technique is a type of gene therapy that researchers first used to target cholinergic neurons in the brains of rats in 2015 . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To characterize the cell populations involved, we demonstrated here that knock-out (KO) of mGluR5 in cholinergic, but not glutamatergic or parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic, neurons reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI) and enhanced sensitivity to MK801-induced locomotor activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present experiments determined the role of beta2-containing and alpha7 nAChRs in the generation of prefrontal cholinergic and glutamatergic transients in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, in mice lacking the alpha7 nAChR, the decay rate, but not the amplitude, of nicotine-evoked cholinergic and glutamatergic transients was attenuated. (nih.gov)
  • Prefrontal alpha4beta2* nAChRs play a key role in evoking and facilitating the transient glutamatergic-cholinergic interactions that are necessary for cue detection and attentional performance. (nih.gov)
  • Because LC neurons that do not project to the cortex are unaffected, one explanation is that pathology in the cortex-be it Aβ deposition, inflammation, or some other unknown entity unleashed in this model-leads to degeneration of the brainstem monoaminergic neurons that project into the cortex. (alzforum.org)
  • The results of the present study demonstrate that the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD recapitulates the progressive degeneration of MAergic neurons occurring in AD," write the authors. (alzforum.org)
  • Together, our data suggest that oxidative stress induced axonal degeneration in a single class of neurons drives the functional decline of an entire neural network and the behavior it controls. (elifesciences.org)
  • The use of optogenetics in conjunction with genetically-restricted recombinase-driver rats circumvents many of these limitations to allow for greater understanding of these neurotransmitters in terms of temporal dynamics and processing of working memory, in addition to detangling the complex network of cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways in cognitive function. (princeton.edu)
  • To assess the activity of CBC neurons, in vivo microdialysis has been used in the present experiments to measure ACh release in the hippocampus and cortex of freely moving rats. (ubc.ca)
  • Neuroanatomical analyses showed that OX-26-NGF conjugate treatment resulted in a significant increase in cholinergic cell size in the medial septal region of rats initially impaired in spatial learning. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The original method, which the researchers showcased in 2015, worked by using a virus to deliver a genetic modification to the cholinergic neurons of rats genetically modified to develop Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Through cell-to-cell interaction, stimulating the rats' cholinergic neurons also stimulated their dopaminergic neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Inhibition of insulin signaling in flies, via chromosomal loss-of-function mutations, also decreases fly size and delays development, raising the possibility that Ras-Raf signaling in cholinergic neurons may affect fly size by controlling the rate of growth via systemic insulin signaling. (rice.edu)
  • Although insulin can induce long-term depression of excitatory input to VTA DA neurons 24 , again consistent with a role in satiety, insulin exposure can also increase DA neuron firing rate, possibly by decreasing DA release and autoreceptor-mediated inhibition 25 . (nature.com)
  • These V2a "stop" neurons project to excitatory and inhibitory spinal cord neurons, inducing locomotion halt likely via inhibition of rhythm-generating neurons. (nature.com)
  • The findings suggest that at least some mouse neurons are susceptible to robust and progressive neurodegeneration in the absence of tau pathology. (alzforum.org)
  • Given the important role of the cholinergic system in neurodegeneration, the fly olfactory system could be a useful model for the identification of drug targets. (elifesciences.org)
  • We suggest that age-related cholinergic neurodegeneration may be a treatable disorder of failed retrograde NGF signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Physiological studies in response to optogenetic stimulation of DMH cholinergic neurons were combined with gene expression and immunocytochemical analyses. (elsevier.com)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , the GABAergic and peptidergic neuron RIS mediates developmentally timed quiescence. (nature.com)
  • The protein SLC10A4, also known as P4, occurs in numerous cholinergic neurons. (innovations-report.com)
  • VTA VGLUT2 neurons express mRNA and protein subunits known to comprise heteromeric nAChRs. (janelia.org)
  • The site of action of protein kinase A was localized to a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1 (NRSE/RE-1) sequence within the cholinergic gene. (asm.org)
  • Thus, in PC12 cells, protein kinase A promotes the production of REST4, which inhibits repression of the cholinergic gene locus by NRSF/REST. (asm.org)
  • Cholinergic dysregulation produced by selective inactivation of the dystonia-associated protein torsinA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cholinergic nerves in brain are particularly susceptible to damage by these pathological conditions, and dysfunction of these nerves can lead to memory loss, dementia, changes in control of blood vessels and blood flow. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of hiPSC-derived neurons in the modeling and treatment of neurological diseases related to dopaminergic and cholinergic system dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • These data demonstrate that TrkA loss results in cholinergic BF dysfunction and cognitive decrease that is reminiscent of MCI and early AD. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • Purpose: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate neurons are important components of reward circuitry, but whether they are subject to cholinergic modulation is unknown. (janelia.org)
  • The motoneurons of the III, IV, V, VI, VII, X and XII cranial nerves and the spinal ventral horn were also shown to be cholinergic. (scienceopen.com)
  • The number of ChAT and c-fos-labeled neurons was increased following fictive locomotion and was greatest in the intermediate gray, compared with dorsal and ventral regions. (elsevier.com)
  • Optogenetics, now firmly established as an effective approach to render genetically-defined populations of cells sensitive to light activation including mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 specifically in cholinergic neurons, provides just this opportunity. (spie.org)
  • Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), the transcription factor which binds to NRSE/RE-1, was expressed at similar levels in both PC12 and A126.1B2 cells. (asm.org)
  • Although the mechanism of transcriptional regulation controlling the cholinergic gene locus is poorly understood, a neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1, (NRSE/RE-1) sequence is implicated in silencing the cholinergic gene locus in nonneuronal cells ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Quick-Neuron™ Cholinergic - SeV Kit This kit differentiates human pluripotent stem cells into cholinergic neurons in 6 days using Sendai virus. (elixirgensci.com)
  • Thus a new population of spinal cord cells can be defined: cholinergic partition cells with commissural projections that are active during the extension phase of locomotion. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurons are specialized cells that transmit chemical and electrical signals to facilitate communication between the brain and the body. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Contribution of cholinergic amacrine cells to directional selectivity in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (cambridge.org)
  • In most cases, neurons are generated by neural stem cells during brain development and childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are the primary components of the nervous system, along with the glial cells that give them structural and metabolic support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon may-and usually will-undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous cholinergic signaling therefore provides direct stimulatory and indirect inhibitory input to β-cells to regulate insulin secretion from the human islet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • we think that the hypothalamus produces more Orexin to stimulate cholinergic cells, indispensable for a correct CNS functioning. (scirp.org)
  • Parkinson's disease is at least in part related to dropping out of dopaminergic cells in deep-brain nuclei , primarily the melanin-pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra but secondarily the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, by using brain imaging techniques, the scientists have discovered that their method also positively affected a group of cells near the cholinergic neurons, called dopaminergic neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Activity of vertebrate stop neurons contrasts descending pathways that are active during sleep, which halt locomotion and affect muscle relaxation through inhibitory reticulospinal neurons 19 . (nature.com)
  • However, the sensitivity of isoflurane or other volatile anesthetics after selective lesion of septal cholinergic neurons that project to the hippocampus is not known. (asahq.org)
  • These results obtained from male and female mice indicate that cholinergic neurons in the medial septum represent a key cell type involved in sensorimotor gating and are relevant to pathologies associated with disrupted sensorimotor gating such as schizophrenia. (jneurosci.org)
  • This has led to the idea that in mice at least, Aβ alone is not sufficiently toxic to cause neuron loss-additional factors, such as tau pathology or even beyond tau, may be a co-requisite. (alzforum.org)
  • He said that since NA neuron loss has been documented in very mild AD, it suggests that what goes on in these older double transgenic mice, which already have rampant Aβ deposits, could be different. (alzforum.org)
  • In slices from OX −/− 2 mice, orexin-A (300 nM) elicited wild-type responses in LDT, DR, and LC neurons consisting of a depolarizing current and augmented voltage-dependent Ca 2+ transients. (frontiersin.org)
  • In slices from OX −/− 1 mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, although Ca 2+ -transients were still augmented. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using transgenic mice in which neurons that contribute to these two systems are labeled, we show that this is not the case. (duke.edu)
  • Previous studies have revealed that in mice, transgenic expression of human mutant torsinA under a non-selective promoter leads to abnormal function of striatal cholinergic neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • abstract = "The objective of the present study was to determine the location of the cholinergic neurons activated in the spinal cord of decerebrate cats during fictive locomotion. (elsevier.com)
  • Notably, cholinergic innervation to the neocortex is abolished, whereas that to the hippocampus is unaltered. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest that antibody-induced trkA activation is sufficient to mediate NGF-promoted survival of axotomized cholinergic neurons in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with other disorders, diseases of the nervous system have been very difficult to study mainly due to the inaccessibility of the human brain and live neurons in vivo or in vitro and difficulties in examination of human postmortem brain tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • To determine if there was a change in cell size, researchers used the nucleator probe in Stereo Investigator to analyze cholinergic neurons of 3 patients who received gene therapy via the ex vivo method in one hemisphere - the other hemisphere was used as a control. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • Humpel C, Marksteiner J, Saria A(1996)Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor enhances biosynthesis of substance P in striatal neurons in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Until recently, the impact of cholinergic inputs on neocortical and BLA neurons was mainly studied using application of drugs in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • and in vitro patch-clamp recordings from BLA neurons in acute slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • Tabira, T, Konishi, Y & Gallyas, F 1995, ' Neurotrophic effect of hematopoietic cytokines on cholinergic and other neurons in vitro ', International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , vol. 13, no. 3-4, pp. 241-252. (elsevier.com)
  • We have previously shown that partial depletion of cholinergic neurons resulted in heightened behavioral sensitivity to amphetamine and impaired sensorimotor function[ 3 ] analogous to those seen in schizophrenia. (atsbio.com)
  • The main aim of this work was to provide additional evidence that cholinergic neurons can induce nasal vasodilation by inhibiting norepinephrine release, not by a direct action on nasal blood vessels. (elsevier.com)
  • There is strong evidence that cholinergic mechanisms are important for function and survival of the endocrine pancreas, the islet of Langerhans ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Does chronic ethanol exposure lead to the persistent activation of the BF cholinergic neurons which may lead to insomnia? (umsystem.edu)
  • Elevated cholinergic input to this area reduces BAT activity through activation of M2 mAChRs on serotonergic neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • The findings support the hypotheses that 03-induced airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness results partly from the activation intrinsic airway neurons. (cdc.gov)
  • These data indicate that preferential susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to neurodegenerative insults may result from competition for acetyl-CoA between mitochondrial energy-producing and cytoplasmic ACh-synthesizing pathways. (portlandpress.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the cholinergic nuclei has emerged as a powerful potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease and is currently in a clinical trial for Alzheimer's therapy. (spie.org)
  • Consistently, the acupuncture significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in cholinergic immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of BDNF and CREB in the hippocampus. (hindawi.com)
  • This responsiveness to serum-free heart cell conditioned medium indicates that serum-free cultures retain plasticity with respect to transmitter status, despite expression of noradrenergic characteristics, unlike cultured neurons of which the noradrenergic transmitter status is maintained by chronic depolarization. (caltech.edu)
  • In particular, for example, GRK5 deficiency specifically disrupts M2/M4-mediated muscarinic cholinergic function. (scirp.org)
  • Ginkgo biloba L. extract protects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by modulating neuroinflammation and the cholinergic system. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of Dyt1 deletion on striatal cholinergic function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cell bodies of primary afferent neurons in the myenteric plexus were identified by their calbindin immunoreactivity and those in the submucous plexus by immunoreactivity for substance P. High proportions of both were immunoreactive for ChAT, viz. (eurekamag.com)
  • VAChT immunoreactivity was in the majority of calbindin-immunoreactive varicosities in the myenteric ganglia, submucous ganglia and mucosa and also in the majority of the varicosities of neurons that were immunoreactive for calretinin and somatostatin and that had been previously established as being cholinergic. (eurekamag.com)
  • Cell bodies in the median region of the TAG also showed cholinergic immunoreactivity. (bioone.org)
  • that is, there is no direct contact between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pharmacological mechanism of GBE partly involves the modulation of inflammatory mediators and the cholinergic system. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • E. Borda, D. Passafaro, S. Reina and L. Sterin-Borda, "Modulation of c-Jun NH 2 -Terminal (JNK) by Cholinergic Autoantibodies from Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome," Pharmacology & Pharmacy , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 256-265. (scirp.org)