Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
**I must clarify that there is no recognized or established medical term or definition for 'Texas.' However, if you're asking for a possible humorous play on words using the term 'Texas' in a medical context, here it is:**
While "Humanities" is a broad academic discipline that includes fields such as literature, philosophy, history, and language studies, it does not have a specific medical definition related to the practice of medicine or healthcare.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (1/560)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways. (2/560)

Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone.  (+info)

The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: a review of progress. (3/560)

Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common causes of mental deterioration in elderly people, accounting for around 50%-60% of the overall cases of dementia among persons over 65 years of age. The past two decades have witnessed a considerable research effort directed towards discovering the cause of Alzheimer's disease with the ultimate hope of developing safe and effective pharmacological treatments. This article examines the existing scientific applicability of the original cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease by describing the biochemical and histopathological changes of neurotransmitter markers that occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease both at postmortem and neurosurgical cerebral biopsy and the behavioural consequences of cholinomimetic drugs and cholinergic lesions. Such studies have resulted in the discovery of an association between a decline in learning and memory, and a deficit in excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmission, together with important roles for the cholinergic system in attentional processing and as a modulator of EAA neurotransmission. Accordingly, although there is presently no "cure" for Alzheimer's disease, a large number of potential therapeutic interventions have emerged that are designed to correct loss of presynaptic cholinergic function. A few of these compounds have confirmed efficacy in delaying the deterioration of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, a valuable treatment target considering the progressive nature of the disease. Indeed, three compounds have received European approval for the treatment of the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, first tacrine and more recently, donepezil and rivastigmine, all of which are cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

Neurogenic vasoconstriction as affected by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves in dog ciliary and ophthalmic arteries. (4/560)

PURPOSE: To determine the involvement of noradrenergic and other vasoconstrictor nerves in the contraction of ocular arteries and the modification by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves of vasoconstrictor nerve function. METHODS: Changes in isometric tension were recorded in helical strips of the canine posterior ciliary and external ophthalmic arteries denuded of the endothelium, which were stimulated by transmurally applied electrical pulses (5 Hz). Vasoconstrictor mediators were analyzed by pharmacological antagonists, such as prazosin, alpha,beta-methylene ATP, a P2alpha-purinoceptor antagonist, and BIBP3226, a neuropeptide Y receptor antagonist. RESULTS: Transmural electrical stimulation produced contractions that were potentiated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. The contraction was partially inhibited by prazosin and abolished by combined treatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP but was not influenced by BIBP3226. Stimulation-induced contraction was attenuated by physostigmine and potentiated by atropine. Contractions induced by exogenous ATP were reversed to relaxations by alpha,beta-methylene ATP. In the strips treated with L-NA, prazosin, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP, the addition of L-arginine elicited relaxations by nerve stimulation. The ATP-induced relaxation was attenuated by aminophylline, whereas neurogenic relaxation was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary and ophthalmic arterial contractions by nerve stimulation are mediated by norepinephrine and ATP, which stimulate alpha1-adrenoceptor and P2X purinoceptor, respectively. ATP from the nerve is unlikely involved in vasodilatation. Acetylcholine derived from the nerve impairs the neurogenic contraction, possibly by interfering with the release of vasoconstrictor transmitters, and neurogenic NO also inhibits the contraction postjunctionally by physiological antagonism.  (+info)

Comparison of cholinergic and histaminergic axons in the lateral geniculate complex of the macaque monkey. (5/560)

The cholinergic and histaminergic projections have important neuromodulatory functions in the ascending visual pathways, so we compared the pattern and mode of innervation of the two projections in the lateral geniculate complex (dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and pregeniculate nucleus) of the macaque monkey. Brain tissue from macaques was immunoreacted by means of antibodies to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or to histamine and processed for light and electron microscopy. A dense plexus of thin, highly branched ChAT-immunoreactive axons laden with varicosities was found in all layers of the dLGN including the koniocellular laminae and in the pregeniculate nucleus. ChAT label was more dense in magnocellular layers 1 and 2 than in parvocellular layers 3-6 and relatively sparse in the interlaminar zones. Varicosities associated with the cholinergic axons had an average of three conventional asymmetric synapses per varicosity, and these appeared to contact dendrites of both thalamocortical cells and interneurons. Histamine-immunoreactive axons were distributed homogeneously throughout all laminar and interlaminar zones of the dLGN, but were denser in the pregeniculate nucleus than in the dLGN. Histaminergic axons branched infrequently and were typically larger in caliber than cholinergic axons. The overwhelming majority of varicosities were found en passant and rarely displayed conventional synapses, despite the abundance of synaptic vesicles, and were not associated preferentially with specific cellular structures. The innervation of the macaque dLGN complex by cholinergic and histaminergic systems is consistent with their proposed role in state dependent modulation of thalamic activity. The dense and highly synaptic innervation by cholinergic axons supports the proposal of additional involvement of these axons in functions related to eye movements.  (+info)

Glutamate is a fast excitatory transmitter at some buccal neuromuscular synapses in Aplysia. (6/560)

Studies of the modulation of synaptic transmission in buccal muscle of Aplysia were limited because the conventional fast transmitter used by a number of large buccal motor neurons was unknown. Most of the identified buccal motor neurons are cholinergic because they synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and their excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) are blocked by the cholinergic antagonist hexamethonium. However, three large identified motor neurons (B3, B6, and B38) do not synthesize ACh and their EJPs are not inhibited by hexamethonium. To identify the fast excitatory transmitter used by these noncholinergic motor neurons, we surveyed putative transmitters for their ability to evoke contractions. Of the noncholinergic transmitters tested, glutamate was the most effective at evoking contractions. The pharmacology of the putative glutamate receptor is different from previously characterized glutamate receptors in that glutamate agonists and antagonists previously used to classify glutamate receptors had little effect in this system. In addition, glutamate itself was the most effective agent tested at reducing EJPs evoked by the noncholinergic motor neurons presumably by desensitizing glutamate receptors. Finally, immunocytology using an antiserum raised to conjugated glutamate in parallel with intracellular fills indicated that the varicose axons of these motor neurons were glutamate-immunoreactive. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast transmitter used by the noncholinergic neurons is almost certainly glutamate itself. This information should help us understand the role of transmitters and cotransmitters in the generation of feeding behaviors in Aplysia.  (+info)

Intracisternal PYY increases gastric mucosal resistance: role of cholinergic, CGRP, and NO pathways. (7/560)

The influence of intracisternal injection of peptide YY (PYY) on gastric lesions induced by ethanol was studied in urethan-anesthetized rats. Gastric lesions covered 15-22% of the corpus as monitored 1 h after intragastric administration of 45% ethanol (5 ml/kg) in intracisternal vehicle control groups. PYY, at doses of 23, 47, or 117 pmol 30 min before ethanol, decreased gastric lesions by 27%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotide pretreatment (intracisternally, 48 and 24 h before intracisternal PYY) did not influence the gastroprotective effect of intracisternal PYY (47 pmol) but abolished that of intracisternal TRH analog RX-77368 (4 pmol). RX-77368 (2.6 pmol) and PYY (6 pmol) were ineffective when injected intracisternally alone but reduced ethanol lesions by 44% when injected simultaneously. Atropine (subcutaneously), the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) (intravenously), or the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, intravenously) completely abolished the gastroprotective effect of intracisternal PYY (47 pmol), whereas indomethacin (intraperitoneally) had no effect. The L-NAME action was reversed by L-arginine but not by D-arginine (intravenously). These results suggest that intracisternal PYY acts independently of medullary TRH to decrease ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The PYY action involves vagal cholinergic-mediated CGRP/NO protective mechanisms.  (+info)

Age-associated neuronal atrophy occurs in the primate brain and is reversible by growth factor gene therapy. (8/560)

The effects of normal aging on the primate brain are incompletely understood. Although both human and nonhuman primates demonstrate clear functional declines in selective attention, "executive" functions, and some components of declarative memory with aging, most studies have failed to demonstrate extensive neuronal atrophy or loss as a substrate for these degenerative changes in primates. In particular, extensive age-related neuronal loss in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex has not been found. However, it is possible that neuronal loss or atrophy might occur in subcortical nuclei that modulate the activity of neocortical regions, thereby accounting for altered cognitive function with aging. In the present study, we describe, to our knowledge for the first time, a significant and extensive decline in the number and size of immunolabeled neurons in subcortical cholinergic basal forebrain regions of aged rhesus monkeys, the best animal model of human aging, by using stereological methods. Notably, the loss of subcortical cholinergic neuronal markers in aged monkeys was nearly completely reversed by human nerve growth factor gene delivery. These findings (i) identify reversible cellular atrophy as a potential mechanism contributing to age-related cognitive decline in primates, (ii) suggest, when considered with other studies, that subcortical brain regions exhibit greater vulnerability to the effects of aging than cortical regions, and (iii) indicate that neurotrophin gene transfer may be an effective means of preventing neuronal atrophy or degeneration in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

Cholinergic fibers are nerve cell extensions (neurons) that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at their synapses, which are the junctions where they transmit signals to other neurons or effector cells such as muscles and glands. These fibers are a part of the cholinergic system, which plays crucial roles in various physiological processes including learning and memory, attention, arousal, sleep, and muscle contraction.

Cholinergic fibers can be found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, cholinergic neurons are primarily located in the basal forebrain and brainstem, and their projections innervate various regions of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain areas. In the PNS, cholinergic fibers are responsible for activating skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions, as well as regulating functions in smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands via the autonomic nervous system.

Dysfunction of the cholinergic system has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Choline O-Acetyltransferase (COAT, ChAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to choline, resulting in the formation of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a vital neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes such as memory, cognition, and muscle contraction. COAT is primarily located in cholinergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use acetylcholine to transmit signals to other neurons or muscles. Inhibition of ChAT can lead to a decrease in acetylcholine levels and may contribute to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Skeletal muscle fibers, also known as striated muscle fibers, are the type of muscle cells that make up skeletal muscles, which are responsible for voluntary movements of the body. These muscle fibers are long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, meaning they contain multiple nuclei. They are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the endomysium, and many fibers are bundled together into fascicles, which are then surrounded by another layer of connective tissue called the perimysium.

Skeletal muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils, which are long, thread-like structures that run the length of the fiber. Myofibrils contain repeating units called sarcomeres, which are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal muscle fibers. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments, which slide past each other during muscle contraction to shorten the sarcomere and generate force.

Skeletal muscle fibers can be further classified into two main types based on their contractile properties: slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (type II). Slow-twitch fibers have a high endurance capacity and are used for sustained, low-intensity activities such as maintaining posture. Fast-twitch fibers, on the other hand, have a higher contractile speed and force generation capacity but fatigue more quickly and are used for powerful, explosive movements.

Mineral fibers are tiny, elongated particles that occur naturally in the environment. They are made up of minerals such as silica and are often found in rocks and soil. Some mineral fibers, like asbestos, have been widely used in various industries for their heat resistance, insulating properties, and strength. However, exposure to certain types of mineral fibers, particularly asbestos, has been linked to serious health conditions such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis.

Mineral fibers are defined by their physical characteristics, including their length, width, and aspect ratio (the ratio of the fiber's length to its width). According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), mineral fibers with a length of at least 5 micrometers, a width of no more than 3 micrometers, and an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 are considered to be "respirable," meaning they can be inhaled and potentially become lodged in the lungs.

It's worth noting that not all mineral fibers are created equal when it comes to health risks. Asbestos, for example, is a known human carcinogen, while other mineral fibers such as fiberglass and rock wool are considered less hazardous, although they can still cause respiratory irritation and other health problems with prolonged exposure.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type II fibers, are a type of skeletal muscle fiber that are characterized by their rapid contraction and relaxation rates. These fibers have a larger diameter and contain a higher concentration of glycogen, which serves as a quick source of energy for muscle contractions. Fast-twitch fibers are further divided into two subcategories: type IIa and type IIb (or type IIx). Type IIa fibers have a moderate amount of mitochondria and can utilize both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, making them fatigue-resistant. Type IIb fibers, on the other hand, have fewer mitochondria and primarily use anaerobic metabolism, leading to faster fatigue. Fast-twitch fibers are typically used in activities that require quick, powerful movements such as sprinting or weightlifting.

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, also known as type I muscle fibers, are specialized skeletal muscle cells that contract relatively slowly and generate less force than fast-twitch fibers. However, they can maintain contraction for longer periods of time and have a higher resistance to fatigue. These fibers primarily use oxygen and aerobic metabolism to produce energy, making them highly efficient during prolonged, lower-intensity activities such as long-distance running or cycling. Slow-twitch muscle fibers also have an abundant blood supply, which allows for efficient delivery of oxygen and removal of waste products.

Cotton fiber is not a medical term, but I can provide you with some information about cotton fibers in a general context.

Cotton fibers are soft, fluffy staple fibers that grow in a protective case called a boll around the seeds of cotton plants. Cotton fibers are primarily composed of cellulose, which is an organic compound and the main structural component of plant cells. These fibers are typically spun into yarn or thread and used to make a wide variety of textiles, including clothing and other soft goods.

Cotton fibers have some unique properties that make them suitable for medical applications as well:

1. Hypoallergenic: Cotton is generally considered hypoallergenic, meaning it is less likely to cause an allergic reaction compared to other materials. This makes cotton a popular choice for medical bandages, swabs, and other products that come into contact with the skin.
2. Absorbent: Cotton fibers are highly absorbent, which can be useful in medical settings for managing wounds, incontinence, or excessive sweating.
3. Breathable: Cotton is a breathable material, allowing air to pass through and helping to maintain a comfortable body temperature. This property makes cotton an excellent choice for medical garments, bedding, and other products that require good ventilation.
4. Comfortable: Cotton fibers are soft, lightweight, and gentle on the skin, making them a preferred material for medical textiles and clothing designed for people with sensitive skin or medical conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
5. Durable: Although cotton fibers can be delicate when wet, they are relatively strong and durable in dry conditions. This makes cotton an appropriate choice for reusable medical products like gowns, scrubs, and linens.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Texas." It is primarily used as the name of a state in the United States, located in the southern region. If you're referring to a specific medical term or concept that I might not be aware of, please provide more context or clarify your question.

If you meant to ask for an explanation of a medical condition named 'Texas', it is likely a typo or a misunderstanding, as there is no widely recognized medical condition associated with the name 'Texas'.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "humanities" is not typically used in a medical context as it relates to fields such as literature, philosophy, arts, and languages. The humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture, including language, history, philosophy, and the creation of art. They provide valuable insights into human nature, behavior, and experience, which can certainly have applications in various fields, including healthcare. However, a specific medical definition of "humanities" would not be applicable.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "bombs." The term is most commonly used in non-medical contexts to refer to explosive devices or, metaphorically, to something that has a sudden and major impact. If you are looking for information about a specific medical concept or condition, please provide more context or try rephrasing your question. I'm here to help!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

A poison is defined in the context of medicine as any substance that, when introduced into or absorbed by a living organism, causes injury, illness, or death. Poisons can be solids, liquids, or gases and can enter the body through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. They work by disrupting normal physiological processes, damaging cells, or interfering with the functioning of enzymes or signaling molecules. Examples of poisons include heavy metals like lead and mercury, certain plants and mushrooms, some medications when taken in excessive amounts, and various chemicals found in household and industrial products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Floors and Floorcoverings" is not a medical term. It refers to the physical structures and materials used to cover floors in buildings or homes. If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

... and loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimer disease". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 57 (1): 63-75. doi:10.1097/00005072- ... Cholinergic systems are implicated in numerous neurologic functions. Alteration in some cholinergic neurons may account for the ... interferes with the metabolism of neurones and further damages the cholinergic axons in the cortex and cholinergic neurones in ... The loss of cholinergic innervation in the neocortex has been associated with memory loss, as is evidenced in advanced cases of ...
In some ganglia, these intemeurons receive preganglionic cholinergic fibers and may modulate ganglionic transmission. In other ... Although an autonomic ganglion is the site where pregangllonlc fibers synapse on postganglionic neurons, the presence of small ...
This is a cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the subcallosal ... It consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated ... Revisiting the human cholinergic nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca". Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 44 (7): 647- ... nvlDBB projects to the hippocampal formation through the fornix and it is the second largest assembly of cholinergic neurons in ...
The external capsule is a route for cholinergic fibers from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. The putamen separates ... The white matter of the external capsule contains fibers known as corticocortical association fibers. These fibers are ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral (toward ...
... unmyelinated class C-fibers from postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic neurons. Increases in body and skin temperature are ... The gold standard for diagnosis of small fiber neuropathies is Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Density (IENFD) measured from punch ... and thus a greater likelihood of small fiber neuropathy. Sudoscan has been shown to be useful in the detection of small fiber ... intraepidermal nerve fiber density, sweat gland nerve fiber density and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART). In ...
The sympathetic cholinergic fibers connecting with the sweat glands discharge primarily by changes in deep body temperature ( ... Postganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating the cutaneous district can produce either noradrenaline or acetylcholine as ...
The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic. That is to say ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. ... all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic preganglionic fibers. In both divisions of the autonomic nervous ...
... stimulation of cholinergic fibers reduced particular potassium currents, thus providing the first description of cholinergic ... Particularly interesting were the studies about cholinergic interactions in the hippocampus, done in collaboration with David ... Gähwiler, BH; Brown, DA (1985). "Functional innervation of cultured hippocampal neurones by cholinergic afferents from co- ... demonstrated that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induced effects simulating activation of cholinergic fibers. ...
This fiber swelling can be induced in a laboratory setting by damaging the cell body of the cholinergic neuron, which implies ... Most research involving cholinergic neurons involves the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, cholinergic neurons only ... The cholinergic system allows the circadian system to have the cycle of one day. The cholinergic neuron may also play a role in ... In normal aging, there are beadlike swellings within the cholinergic fibers with enlarged or thickened axons, often in grape- ...
As all cholinergic fibers contain high concentrations of ACh and AChE at their terminals, inhibition of AChE can impair their ... Cholinergic nerves play an important role in the normal function of the central nervous, endocrine, neuromuscular, ... When patients are resistant to atropine, the patients can be treated with low doses of anisodamine, a cholinergic and alpha-1 ... Inhibition of AChE results in an immediate accumulation of free unbound ACh at the ending of all cholinergic nerves, which ...
... and cholinergic and noncholinergic fibers. The activity of AChE is higher in motor neurons than in sensory neurons. ... AChE is found in many types of conducting tissue: nerve and muscle, central and peripheral tissues, motor and sensory fibers, ... Blumenthal D, Brunton L, Goodman LS, Parker K, Gilman A, Lazo JS, Buxton I (1996). "5: Autonomic Pharmacology: Cholinergic ... Taylor P, Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG (1996). "5: Autonomic Pharmacology: Cholinergic Drugs". The ...
... phenomenon is a term given for slow contraction of denervated skeletal muscle by stimulating the autonomic cholinergic fibers ...
Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. Most postganglionic sympathetic ... then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing ... The other postganglionic fibers of the peripheral autonomic system belong to the parasympathetic division; all are cholinergic ... is supplied by cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic fibers: acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter utilized at this synapse. ...
... ascending cholinergic projections, descending non-cholinergic projections, and descending reticulospinal projections. The ... The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block the transmission of some pain signals to the brain. Sleep ... Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes REM sleep. During waking, REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ... The fibers of this tract arise from the caudal pontine reticular nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus and project to ...
Her work helped further our understanding of how efferent cholinergic fibers and inner ear hair cells communicate to relay ... "Direct Interaction of Serotonin Type 3 Receptor Ligands with Recombinant and Native α9α10-Containing Nicotinic Cholinergic ... interaction of serotonin type 3 receptor ligands with recombinant and native alpha 9 alpha 10-containing nicotinic cholinergic ... interaction of serotonin type 3 receptor ligands with recombinant and native alpha 9 alpha 10-containing nicotinic cholinergic ...
The basal ganglia contains many afferent glutamatergic inputs, with predominantly GABAergic efferent fibers, modulatory ... cholinergic interneurons, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and calretinin-expressing neurons. The dorsal striatum receives ... The Dynamic Role of Cholinergic Interneurons". Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 5: 11. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00011. ISSN ... cholinergic pathways, significant dopamine in the pathways originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, as ...
All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division, are cholinergic ( ... Postganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Diagram at v t e (Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All ... Sympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter than parasympathetic preganglionic fibers because sympathetic ganglia are ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ...
... in the basal forebrain these immunolabeling has been applied to evaluate disruptions in cholinergic neurons of the ChAT fiber ... Perez, S. E.; Dar, S.; Ikonomovic, M. D.; Dekosky, S. T.; Elliott, J. (2008). "Cholinergic forebrain degeneration in the APPswe ... It is also possible to label specifically cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons. Pan ... is expressed in cholinergic neurons of both the CNS and PNS. In the CNS, ChAT is expressed in motor neurons and pre-ganglionic ...
... cholinergic and adrenergic transmission were known to arise from different groups of nerve fibers. Dale was interested in the ... Eccles, JC; Fatt P; Koketsu K (1954). "Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to ... whether cholinergic or adrenergic, is characteristic for each particular neurone, and unchangeable. And near the end of the ...
... stimulating fibers (GABAergic fibers) to all parts of the hippocampus. The inputs from the medial septal nucleus play a key ... However, the medial septum is more than just the controller of theta; it is also the main source of cholinergic projections to ... A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, which sends cholinergic, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) ...
... resulting in increased adrenergic input to the spleen via sympathetic nerve fibers descending into lymphoid tissues. The main ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway provides a braking effect on the innate immune response which protects the body ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway regulates the innate immune response to injury, pathogens, and tissue ischemia. It is ... Thus, the prefrontal input to the ANS modulate the inflammatory response to psychological stress in part via the cholinergic ...
The cholinergic axons then proceed to layers I-II (the input layer for cortico-cortical fibers) where they activate inhibitory ... Micrograph of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of a rhesus monkey; Bar = 50 microns (0.05 millimeters). This article ... Mesulam MM (2013). "Cholinergic circuitry of the human nucleus basalis and its fate in Alzheimer's disease". Journal of ... The nucleus basalis in humans is a somewhat diffuse collection of large cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The main ...
... borders show no myelinated fiber projections or inputs as well as a higher density of acetylcholinesterase and cholinergic ...
The mossy fiber and climbing fiber inputs each carry fiber-specific information; the cerebellum also receives dopaminergic, ... serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs that presumably perform global modulation. The cerebellar cortex is divided ... originating from mossy fibers and climbing fibers, both eventually terminating in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Mossy fibers ... this zone is devoid of parallel fiber inputs. Climbing fibers fire at low rates, but a single climbing fiber action potential ...
... adrenergic 2/7 and cholinergic 5/7. Particularities of the autonomic sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate sweat glands are ... Neuropathic pain usually manifests in the setting of small fiber neuropathy. Small fiber neuropathy is common and may arise ... ESC allows for an objective quantification of small fiber impairment and is easy to implement in the clinic. ESC may help in ... ESC has been evaluated for both early diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy and follow-up of treatment efficacy in each of these ...
Some of the fibers from the cochlear nerve cross over in the pontine tegmentum, forming the trapezoid body, which is thought to ... Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. PET ... Woolf, NJ; Butcher, LL (2011). "Cholinergic systems mediate action from movement to higher consciousness". Behavioural Brain ... The pontine tegmentum contains two predominately cholinergic nuclei, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the laterodorsal ...
Most of the fibers of the superior ovarian nerve come from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the celiac ganglion. ... It has also been shown that modifications in the cholinergic input at the celiac ganglion also led, via the superior ovarian ... Orozco, A. V.; Sosa, Z.; Fillipa, V.; Mohamed, F.; Rastrilla, A. M. (2006). "The cholinergic influence on the mesenteric ... and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central ...
The SM then descends caudally, with its lateral fibers terminating in the habenula. The medial SM fibers, on the other hand, ... The SM's afferents are primarily cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic. Bilateral transection of the SM in rodents causes ... The SM primarily gathers fibers from various brain regions, including the frontal, septal, striatal, and hypothalamic areas, ... It contains afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior thalamic nuclei to the ...
The cholinergic interneurons of the primate, are very different from those of non-primates. These are said to be tonically ... Its input includes fibers from the cortex and globus pallidus. The pedunculopontine nucleus is a part of the reticular ... The striatopallidal fibers give a connection from the putamen to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Unlike the ... The fact that striatal axons are seen parallel to dendrites as "woolly fibers" has led to exaggerate the distances along which ...
Calcium imaging studies in the colon have shown that ICC-MY is innervated by nitrergic and cholinergic nerve terminals, though ... Neuroeffector junctions are known as neuromuscular junctions when the target cell is a muscle fiber. Non-synaptic transmission ... The essential features are that: the terminal portions of autonomic nerve fibers are varicose and mobile; transmitters are ... ICC-IM play a critical role in the reception and transduction of cholinergic excitatory and nitrergic inhibitory ...
Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects * Cholinergic Fibers / metabolism* * Female * Male * Neural Inhibition / drug effects ... Adenosine inhibits basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in vitro Neuroscience. 2006 Jun 30;140(2):403-13. doi ... Adenosine (0.5-100 microM) reduced the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and substantia innominata cholinergic neuronal firing ... adenosine inhibits both cholinergic neurons and a subset of noncholinergic neurons. Both of these effects occur via ...
... is often quoted when describing the autonomic effects of drugs that block the muscarinic cholinergic system. These effects may ... Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects * Cholinergic Fibers / physiology * Drug Therapy / statistics & numerical data ... is often quoted when describing the autonomic effects of drugs that block the muscarinic cholinergic system. These effects may ...
... and loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimer disease". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 57 (1): 63-75. doi:10.1097/00005072- ... Cholinergic systems are implicated in numerous neurologic functions. Alteration in some cholinergic neurons may account for the ... interferes with the metabolism of neurones and further damages the cholinergic axons in the cortex and cholinergic neurones in ... The loss of cholinergic innervation in the neocortex has been associated with memory loss, as is evidenced in advanced cases of ...
Because our assessment of cholinergic sprouting used a measure of the density of fibers per unit area of hippocampus (i.e., ... 1994) NMDA potentiates NGF-induced sprouting of septal cholinergic fibers. Neuro- Report 5:413-416. ... Interestingly, when branching of uninjured septal cholinergic fibers is induced by NGF, the branching may be facilitated by ... Role of FGF-2 in cholinergic sprouting after PP transection. The attenuation of cholinergic sprouting observed in animals ...
Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. The cholinergic fibers generally cause ... The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. The cholinergic ( ...
Stimulates sweat secretion (via Cholinergic postganglionic fibers). *Decreases gastrointestinal activity and secretion, and ... Stimulates Kidney renin release and Adrenal MedullaEpinephrine release (Cholinergic postganglionic fibers) ...
Activating sympathetic cholinergic fibers innervating sweat glands, leading to increased sweat and increased heat loss ... Other small fiber neuropathies that can cause thermoregulatory problems include hereditary, toxic, drug-related, paraneoplastic ... Such disorders include small fiber neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and endocrine ... Whether selectively or disproportionally, many peripheral neuropathies affect autonomic fibers, including those involved in ...
1992) Cholinergic suppression specific to intrinsic not afferent fiber synapses in rat piriform (olfactory) cortex. J ... Next, an optrode consisting of an optical fiber (200 μm diameter; numerical aperture 0.38) coupled to a 470 nm laser (Laserglow ... ChR2-expressing DRN neurons were photostimulated with blue light using an optical fiber. A recording electrode (Rec.) was ... 2004) Opposing electrophysiological actions of 5-HT on noncholinergic and cholinergic neurons in the rat ventral pallidum in ...
Botulinum neurotoxins induce blockage of voluntary motor and autonomic cholinergic neuromuscular junctions, which prevents ... motor fiber stimulation. Clinical illness is characterized by cranial nerve palsies, followed by descending flaccid muscle ...
Activation of postganglionic vagal fibers (muscarinic cholinergic parietal cells receptor activation). * Role of histamine: * ...
Stereological Estimation of Cholinergic Fiber Length in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert of the Mouse Brain… ... Stereological Estimation of Cholinergic Fiber Length in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert of the Mouse Brain… ...
It was suggested that these vagal preganglionic efferent fibers synapse on postganglionic cholinergic fibers, which in turn ... Short latency fibers begin firing within 1 second of the onset of swallowing, whereas long latency fibers had latencies ranging ... Intramural mechanisms of esophageal peristalsis: Roles of cholinergic and noncholinergic nerves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984;81 ... Swallow-evoked peristalsis in opossum esophagus: role of cholinergic mechanisms. Am J Physiol 1986;251:G779-G785. , ChemPort , ...
It labels cholinergic cell bodies in the septum and nucleus basalis as well as cholinergic fibers in the brain stem and spinal ...
The mechanism of action involves toxin-mediated blockade of neuromuscular transmission in cholinergic nerve fibers. This is ... Subsequently, they are hematogenously disseminated to peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals (neuromuscular junctions, ...
... whose efferent fibers trigger the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (Pavlov et al., 2003; Kaniusas et al., 2020). The ... The afferent vagal fibers transport inflammatory information to the nucleus of the solitary tract, which enables the detection ... Pavlov, V. A., Wang, H., Czura, C. J., Friedman, S. G., and Tracey, K. J. (2003). The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: a ... To summarize, the vagus nerve modulates the immune response to inflammatory processes in the body by means of the cholinergic ...
... motor and sensory fibers, and cholinergic and noncholinergic fibers," says this 2013 science paper in Current Neuropharmocology ...
... leading to reduction in transmission through cholinergic fibers involved in processes of attention, learning, and memory. ... is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, ...
Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic ... It is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which is located in a cluster of nerve cells (called an autonomic ganglion ... There, the ends of nerve fibers connect to special sites on the muscles membrane called motor end plates. These plates contain ... Constipation: A high-fiber diet and stool softeners are recommended. If constipation persists, enemas may be necessary. ...
cholinergic fiber. December 9, 2018 * Yingkou. November 26, 2018 * mollisol. November 16, 2018 ...
... where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. This receptor ...
Cholinergic Fibers (MeSH) * Colon (MeSH) * Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (MeSH) * Female (MeSH) * Gastroenterology & ... The cholinergic component was greater in tissues from MS versus NS pups, suggesting that increased cholinergic activity was ... These findings suggest that CRF, via CRF receptor 2, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce epithelial barrier dysfunction. Our ... Neonatal maternal separation of rat pups results in abnormal cholinergic regulation of epithelial permeability Journal Articles ...
Counts of cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers were also obtained around the lesion area. The results revealed that βAP1-40 was ... Counts of cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers were also obtained around the lesion area. The results revealed that βAP1-40 was ... Counts of cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers were also obtained around the lesion area. The results revealed that βAP1-40 was ... Counts of cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers were also obtained around the lesion area. The results revealed that βAP1-40 was ...
It serves as a route for cholinergic fibers (from basal forebrain) to the cerebral cortex. It also joins the internal capsule ... anatomy) A thin, white sheet of whiter matter fibers in the brain between the putamen and claustrum. Supplement. The central ... The external capsule is therefore a layer of white matter fibers in the central nervous system. It consists primarily of lipid ... sup,1 The white fibers separating the claustrum and the lentiform nucleus make up the external capsule. The claustrum is a thin ...
Consists of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers.. This video is not approved for CME yet. Please check in a few days for the ...
Cholinergic motor neurons supply both types of muscle fibers. The innervation to fibrillenstruktur fibrils is thick and heavily ...
Cholinergic motor neurons supply both types of muscle fibers. The innervation to fibrillenstruktur fibrils is thick and heavily ...
Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic ... u003eSupports as general tonic and as muscle fiber builder\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eSupports as Anti-oxidant to protect ... u003eSupports as general tonic and as muscle fiber builder\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eSupports as Anti-oxidant to protect ... Nervine Tonic It Contains L-Dopa which promotes to resolve neurological problems Supports as general tonic and as muscle fiber ...
If transmission by acetylcholine, the neuron is cholinergic Cholinergic - autonomic nerve fibers which transmission is mediated ... ANS fibers can be divided into 2 groups based on chemical nature of neurotransmitter released Its a ganglionic transmitter ... Preganglionic fibers are longer and post gangionic are short with the ganglia close to or within the organ innervate ... each branch innervates a single muscle fiber (1 may intervate 100) leads to formation of motor unit when lack of ganglia and ...
  • We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in in vitro rat brain slices to investigate the effect of adenosine on identified cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and substantia innominata. (
  • These results demonstrate that, in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and substantia innominata region of the basal forebrain, adenosine inhibits both cholinergic neurons and a subset of noncholinergic neurons. (
  • ChAT is found in high concentration in cholinergic neurons, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). (
  • The pChAT isoform was discovered in 2000 based on observations that brain-derived ChAT antibodies failed to stain peripheral cholinergic neurons as they do for those found in the brain. (
  • Alteration in some cholinergic neurons may account for the disturbances of Alzheimer disease. (
  • FGFR1) on projecting basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suggests that FGF-2 acts directly on these neurons to induce the lesion-induced sprouting response. (
  • The role of NGF in the damaged peripheral nervous system (PNS) may differ from its actions on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. (
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to reduction in transmission through cholinergic fibers involved in processes of attention, learning, and memory. (
  • Cholinergic motor neurons supply both types of muscle fibers. (
  • In contrast, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme in the basal forebrain was decreased at 6 months of age and the cholinergic neurons were lost in the basal forebrain at 8 months of age. (
  • Presence of ChAT in a nerve cell classifies this cell as a "cholinergic" neuron. (
  • It is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which is located in a cluster of nerve cells (called an autonomic ganglion). (
  • Nerve fibers from these ganglia connect with internal organs. (
  • In the rat, catecholaminergic and cholinergic nerve fibers are detected along the vessels and in the thymic parenchyma in specific locations. (
  • In the subcapsular region of the thymus, the parenchymal cholinergic fibers originate exclusively from phrenic nerve branching. (
  • The authors call for research on evaluation of cholinergic nerve fiber damage in Long-COVID-19 patients to confirm impaired vagal activity. (
  • He was trying, without much luck, to find fibers of the vagus nerve in this organ. (
  • 2,3 Cerebral blood vessels reportedly are innervated with cholinergic nerve fibers in both humans and animals, resulting in augmentation of cerebral blood flow and/or vasodilation via activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. (
  • Histochemical studies have demonstrated nerve fibers containing choline acetyltransferase, a reliable marker for cholinergic nerves, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the cerebral vessels. (
  • Animal studies reveal multifocal axonal swellings and associated focal demyelination in affected distal regions of long and large diameter central and peripheral nervous system nerve fibers. (
  • Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. (
  • The cholinergic fibers generally cause contraction, whereas the adrenergic fibers mainly cause inhibition. (
  • Consists of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. (
  • Control of the apocrine glands is hormonal and via the innervation of adrenergic fibers. (
  • The α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was first identified in the auditory system, where it mediates synaptic transmission between efferent olivocochlear cholinergic fibers and cochlea hair cells. (
  • In this sense, previous studies identified cholinergic terminals within the mPFC, and stressful stimuli increased local acetylcholine release. (
  • In the mice the thymus is innervated by acetylcholine-esterase-positive fibers of the vagus, the recurrent laryngeal, and the phrenic nerves. (
  • Muscarine is structurally similar to acetylcholine, a cholinergic neurotransmitter. (
  • Muscarine competes with acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor binding sites, leading to excessive stimulation of postganglionic cholinergic fibers and the subsequent observed clinical signs (cholinergic excess). (
  • RJ contains acetylcholine, which is a major cholinergic neurotransmitter, and a unique set of fatty acids with C 8 to 12 chains, which are expected to be associated with health benefits. (
  • The old saying 'red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, hot as a hare, mad as a hatter' is often quoted when describing the autonomic effects of drugs that block the muscarinic cholinergic system. (
  • Counts of cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers were also obtained around the lesion area. (
  • βAP1-40 was toxic to both cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers to the same extent, and this toxicity was limited to the immediate vicinity of the lesion. (
  • Innervation of the spleen bysympathetic noradrenergic fibers has been extensively characterized (Bellinger et al 1999). (
  • An increase in cerebral blood flow upon stimulation of pre- or postganglionic fibers of the sphenopalatine ganglion has been demonstrated in some animals, and can be mimicked by local administration of ACh and VIP in vivo. (
  • These findings suggest that CRF, via CRF receptor 2, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce epithelial barrier dysfunction. (
  • Botulinum neurotoxins induce blockage of voluntary motor and autonomic cholinergic neuromuscular junctions, which prevents motor fiber stimulation. (
  • Taken together, these results indicate functional differences of cholinergic neurotransmission within the PL and IL in control of cardiovascular and autonomic responses to stressful stimuli. (
  • Mild to excessive cholinergic stimulation can result in salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, dyspnea, and emesis (the acronym SLUDDE is often used as a mnemonic for these parts of the cholinergic toxidrome). (
  • The innervation to fibrillenstruktur fibrils is thick and heavily myelinated, with a single (en plaque) neuromuscular junction, whereas the innervation to felderstruktur fibrils is thin, with multiple grapelike clusters of neuromuscular junctions. (
  • Control of the eccrine glands is mainly by the innervation of choli-nergic fibers. (
  • We then employed a chemogenetic strategy to selectively activate the cholinergic circuit from the medial septal nucleus (MS) and the vertical limb of the diagonal band nucleus (VDB) on the basal forebrain to the hippocampus. (
  • Despite these pieces of evidence, the specific role of cholinergic neurotransmission in different subregions of the mPFC controlling the cardiovascular responses to stress has never been systematically evaluated. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmission present within PL and IL in cardiovascular responses to an acute session of restraint stress in rats. (
  • ALZHEIMER disease, which is a leading cause of dementia in the elderly population, is well characterized by the impairment of central cholinergic neurotransmission. (
  • In the synaptic cleft, Ach binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the muscle fiber membrane, leading to an influx of sodium (Na + ) and a discharge of potassium (K) across the muscle fiber's membrane, which results in depolarization of the muscle fiber. (
  • The cholinergic (excitatory) system is thought to predominate over the adrenergic (inhibitory) system, leading to an increase in smooth muscle tone. (
  • The heart is constituted by three types of muscle: atrial, ventricular, and specialized excitatory and conducting fibers. (
  • The enhanced flux was inhibited by the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist atropine and the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. (
  • It serves as a route for cholinergic fibers (from basal forebrain) to the cerebral cortex. (
  • MRS and immunoblotting techniques were used to measure the neurochemical metabolism levels and cholinergic-related proteins, respectively. (
  • Animals given FGF-2 antibodies displayed a marked reduction in cholinergic sprouting as compared with controls. (
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms of cholinergic sprouting in the hippocampus after removal of entorhinal cortical inputs, we evaluated trophic factor gene expression in the denervated hippocampus. (
  • Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the activation of the cholinergic circuit and its impact on learning and memory using APP/PS1 mice models. (
  • The degeneration of the cholinergic circuit from the basal forebrain to the hippocampus contributes to memory loss in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • In addition, the activation of the cholinergic circuit from the MS and VDB to the hippocampus using chemical genetics is able to improve learning and reduce memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice. (
  • Emond a octubre en actos valencia 12 de postnatal factors associated with valve dysfunction, and disrupted cell membranes because the lung parenchyma to rule out abuse. (
  • 1 Indeed, previous studies demonstrated the tight relationship between the cholinergic dysfunction in diverse brain areas and the severity of cognitive dysfunction. (
  • The outer muscular coat, known as the muscularis propria, is involved in bolus transport and consists of an inner layer of circularly oriented muscle fibers and an outer layer of longitudinally oriented fibers. (
  • To address the functional significance of this increase in FGF-2, we assessed the magnitude of cholinergic sprouting in animals receiving chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of neutralizing antibodies specific for FGF-2 and compared it with that observed in lesioned animals receiving infusate controls. (
  • There are areas in the cardiac muscle with anatomical and functional differentiation that present automatism, thus subjecting the rest of the fibers to their own rhythm. (
  • All you're doing when you put your suit through the dryer is setting stains and sweat into the fibers. (
  • The cholinergic component was greater in tissues from MS versus NS pups, suggesting that increased cholinergic activity was responsible for the MS elevated permeability. (
  • Browning d to function, however, because another unsuspected source may be the smallest of the thick ascending limb loop diuretics, thiazides carbenicillin, bicarbonate, keto acids, inorganic anions increased intracellular calcium release from cholinergic fibers at one time believedlarge amounts of potassium, reserving intravenous repletion which can lead to death. (
  • The vinegar will help to break down the buildup and eliminate odors that have gotten trapped in the fibers, and because you're trying to wash out an excess of detergent, you'll only need half of a regular dose to get the clothes clean. (
  • Diagnosis is based on a history of mushroom ingestion, identification of suspected mushroom, consistent clinical signs (cholinergic toxidrome), and response to treatment. (
  • Adenosine (0.5-100 microM) reduced the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and substantia innominata cholinergic neuronal firing rate by activating an inwardly rectifying potassium current that reversed at -82 mV and was blocked by barium (100 microM). (
  • The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. (
  • In addition, memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice can be attenuated using chemical genetics-driven Ach cycle activity of the cholinergic circuit. (
  • In his therapy you try to increase butyric acid production using inulin as a dietary fiber. (
  • The standard advice of increasing dietary fibers, fluids, and exercise for relieving chronic constipation will only benefit patients with true deficiency. (
  • These results suggest that endogenous FGF-2 promotes cholinergic axonal sprouting in the injured adult brain. (
  • A single α-motor neuron can innervate up to 200 muscle fibers, forming a complex called motor unit (Figure 1). (
  • The external capsule is therefore a layer of white matter fibers in the central nervous system . (
  • The acute neurotoxicity and effects upon cholinergic axons of an intracerebrally injected synthetic peptide corresponding to the first 1-40 amino acids of beta-amyloid protein (βAP1-40) was studied in rats. (
  • The actin fibers are fixed to the cell membrane and to dense bodies in the cytoplasm. (
  • References james wd, berger t, actos en valencia 12 de octubre elston d eds andrews diseases of childhood disorders is not contraindi-cated in patients with different needs. (
  • This patients 12 actos en valencia de octubre serum to a particular wavelength is transmitted to the pos-sible presence of vertebral collapse, and seizures. (
  • The degeneration of the cholinergic function is one of the main pathologies in patients suffering from AD, and the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are thought to be responsible for cognitive impairment associated with the disease [ 3 ]. (