Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (1/560)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways. (2/560)

Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone.  (+info)

The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: a review of progress. (3/560)

Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common causes of mental deterioration in elderly people, accounting for around 50%-60% of the overall cases of dementia among persons over 65 years of age. The past two decades have witnessed a considerable research effort directed towards discovering the cause of Alzheimer's disease with the ultimate hope of developing safe and effective pharmacological treatments. This article examines the existing scientific applicability of the original cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease by describing the biochemical and histopathological changes of neurotransmitter markers that occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease both at postmortem and neurosurgical cerebral biopsy and the behavioural consequences of cholinomimetic drugs and cholinergic lesions. Such studies have resulted in the discovery of an association between a decline in learning and memory, and a deficit in excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmission, together with important roles for the cholinergic system in attentional processing and as a modulator of EAA neurotransmission. Accordingly, although there is presently no "cure" for Alzheimer's disease, a large number of potential therapeutic interventions have emerged that are designed to correct loss of presynaptic cholinergic function. A few of these compounds have confirmed efficacy in delaying the deterioration of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, a valuable treatment target considering the progressive nature of the disease. Indeed, three compounds have received European approval for the treatment of the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, first tacrine and more recently, donepezil and rivastigmine, all of which are cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

Neurogenic vasoconstriction as affected by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves in dog ciliary and ophthalmic arteries. (4/560)

PURPOSE: To determine the involvement of noradrenergic and other vasoconstrictor nerves in the contraction of ocular arteries and the modification by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves of vasoconstrictor nerve function. METHODS: Changes in isometric tension were recorded in helical strips of the canine posterior ciliary and external ophthalmic arteries denuded of the endothelium, which were stimulated by transmurally applied electrical pulses (5 Hz). Vasoconstrictor mediators were analyzed by pharmacological antagonists, such as prazosin, alpha,beta-methylene ATP, a P2alpha-purinoceptor antagonist, and BIBP3226, a neuropeptide Y receptor antagonist. RESULTS: Transmural electrical stimulation produced contractions that were potentiated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. The contraction was partially inhibited by prazosin and abolished by combined treatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP but was not influenced by BIBP3226. Stimulation-induced contraction was attenuated by physostigmine and potentiated by atropine. Contractions induced by exogenous ATP were reversed to relaxations by alpha,beta-methylene ATP. In the strips treated with L-NA, prazosin, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP, the addition of L-arginine elicited relaxations by nerve stimulation. The ATP-induced relaxation was attenuated by aminophylline, whereas neurogenic relaxation was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary and ophthalmic arterial contractions by nerve stimulation are mediated by norepinephrine and ATP, which stimulate alpha1-adrenoceptor and P2X purinoceptor, respectively. ATP from the nerve is unlikely involved in vasodilatation. Acetylcholine derived from the nerve impairs the neurogenic contraction, possibly by interfering with the release of vasoconstrictor transmitters, and neurogenic NO also inhibits the contraction postjunctionally by physiological antagonism.  (+info)

Comparison of cholinergic and histaminergic axons in the lateral geniculate complex of the macaque monkey. (5/560)

The cholinergic and histaminergic projections have important neuromodulatory functions in the ascending visual pathways, so we compared the pattern and mode of innervation of the two projections in the lateral geniculate complex (dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and pregeniculate nucleus) of the macaque monkey. Brain tissue from macaques was immunoreacted by means of antibodies to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or to histamine and processed for light and electron microscopy. A dense plexus of thin, highly branched ChAT-immunoreactive axons laden with varicosities was found in all layers of the dLGN including the koniocellular laminae and in the pregeniculate nucleus. ChAT label was more dense in magnocellular layers 1 and 2 than in parvocellular layers 3-6 and relatively sparse in the interlaminar zones. Varicosities associated with the cholinergic axons had an average of three conventional asymmetric synapses per varicosity, and these appeared to contact dendrites of both thalamocortical cells and interneurons. Histamine-immunoreactive axons were distributed homogeneously throughout all laminar and interlaminar zones of the dLGN, but were denser in the pregeniculate nucleus than in the dLGN. Histaminergic axons branched infrequently and were typically larger in caliber than cholinergic axons. The overwhelming majority of varicosities were found en passant and rarely displayed conventional synapses, despite the abundance of synaptic vesicles, and were not associated preferentially with specific cellular structures. The innervation of the macaque dLGN complex by cholinergic and histaminergic systems is consistent with their proposed role in state dependent modulation of thalamic activity. The dense and highly synaptic innervation by cholinergic axons supports the proposal of additional involvement of these axons in functions related to eye movements.  (+info)

Glutamate is a fast excitatory transmitter at some buccal neuromuscular synapses in Aplysia. (6/560)

Studies of the modulation of synaptic transmission in buccal muscle of Aplysia were limited because the conventional fast transmitter used by a number of large buccal motor neurons was unknown. Most of the identified buccal motor neurons are cholinergic because they synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and their excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) are blocked by the cholinergic antagonist hexamethonium. However, three large identified motor neurons (B3, B6, and B38) do not synthesize ACh and their EJPs are not inhibited by hexamethonium. To identify the fast excitatory transmitter used by these noncholinergic motor neurons, we surveyed putative transmitters for their ability to evoke contractions. Of the noncholinergic transmitters tested, glutamate was the most effective at evoking contractions. The pharmacology of the putative glutamate receptor is different from previously characterized glutamate receptors in that glutamate agonists and antagonists previously used to classify glutamate receptors had little effect in this system. In addition, glutamate itself was the most effective agent tested at reducing EJPs evoked by the noncholinergic motor neurons presumably by desensitizing glutamate receptors. Finally, immunocytology using an antiserum raised to conjugated glutamate in parallel with intracellular fills indicated that the varicose axons of these motor neurons were glutamate-immunoreactive. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast transmitter used by the noncholinergic neurons is almost certainly glutamate itself. This information should help us understand the role of transmitters and cotransmitters in the generation of feeding behaviors in Aplysia.  (+info)

Intracisternal PYY increases gastric mucosal resistance: role of cholinergic, CGRP, and NO pathways. (7/560)

The influence of intracisternal injection of peptide YY (PYY) on gastric lesions induced by ethanol was studied in urethan-anesthetized rats. Gastric lesions covered 15-22% of the corpus as monitored 1 h after intragastric administration of 45% ethanol (5 ml/kg) in intracisternal vehicle control groups. PYY, at doses of 23, 47, or 117 pmol 30 min before ethanol, decreased gastric lesions by 27%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotide pretreatment (intracisternally, 48 and 24 h before intracisternal PYY) did not influence the gastroprotective effect of intracisternal PYY (47 pmol) but abolished that of intracisternal TRH analog RX-77368 (4 pmol). RX-77368 (2.6 pmol) and PYY (6 pmol) were ineffective when injected intracisternally alone but reduced ethanol lesions by 44% when injected simultaneously. Atropine (subcutaneously), the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) (intravenously), or the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, intravenously) completely abolished the gastroprotective effect of intracisternal PYY (47 pmol), whereas indomethacin (intraperitoneally) had no effect. The L-NAME action was reversed by L-arginine but not by D-arginine (intravenously). These results suggest that intracisternal PYY acts independently of medullary TRH to decrease ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The PYY action involves vagal cholinergic-mediated CGRP/NO protective mechanisms.  (+info)

Age-associated neuronal atrophy occurs in the primate brain and is reversible by growth factor gene therapy. (8/560)

The effects of normal aging on the primate brain are incompletely understood. Although both human and nonhuman primates demonstrate clear functional declines in selective attention, "executive" functions, and some components of declarative memory with aging, most studies have failed to demonstrate extensive neuronal atrophy or loss as a substrate for these degenerative changes in primates. In particular, extensive age-related neuronal loss in memory-related brain regions such as the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex has not been found. However, it is possible that neuronal loss or atrophy might occur in subcortical nuclei that modulate the activity of neocortical regions, thereby accounting for altered cognitive function with aging. In the present study, we describe, to our knowledge for the first time, a significant and extensive decline in the number and size of immunolabeled neurons in subcortical cholinergic basal forebrain regions of aged rhesus monkeys, the best animal model of human aging, by using stereological methods. Notably, the loss of subcortical cholinergic neuronal markers in aged monkeys was nearly completely reversed by human nerve growth factor gene delivery. These findings (i) identify reversible cellular atrophy as a potential mechanism contributing to age-related cognitive decline in primates, (ii) suggest, when considered with other studies, that subcortical brain regions exhibit greater vulnerability to the effects of aging than cortical regions, and (iii) indicate that neurotrophin gene transfer may be an effective means of preventing neuronal atrophy or degeneration in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Histological determination of the areas enriched in cholinergic terminals and m2 and m3 muscarinic receptors in the mouse central auditory system. AU - Hamada, Satoko. AU - Houtani, Takeshi. AU - Trifonov, Stefan. AU - Kase, Masahiko. AU - Maruyama, Masato. AU - Shimizu, Jun Ichi. AU - Yamashita, Toshio. AU - Tomoda, Koichi. AU - Sugimoto, Tetsuo. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body and the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus constituted cholinergic synaptic sites in the brainstem auditory system, containing a significant number of cholinergic axon terminals and m2 receptor-expressing cell bodies.. AB - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ ...
Alterations in the cholinergic physiology of the brain were the first to be observed when research on environmental influences on postnatal brain development began 35 years ago. Since then, the effects of isolated rearing (IR) or early pharmacological insults have been shown not only on the physiology, but also the anatomy of a variety of transmitter systems. The cholinergic fiber density, however, still remained to be assessed. We therefore used a histochemical procedure to stain cholinergic fibers in the brains of young adult gerbils reared either in groups in enriched environments or isolated in standard makrolon cages. Half of the animals from each rearing condition had received a single high dose of methamphetamine on postnatal day 14. Fiber densities were measured by computerized image analysis in the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC), dysgranular and granular insular cortex, sensorimotor cortices, and the entorhinal cortex of both hemispheres. Isolation Tearing increased the ...
Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat.. Cooper-Kuhn CM, Winkler J, Kuhn HG.. J Neurosci Res 77(2):155-165, 2004.. Adult mammalian brains can produce new neurons, mainly in two areas: the interconnected system of the lateral ventricle and the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The authors used a 3.5 µg-injection of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into the right ventricle of rats to determine whether cholinergic input is necessary for adult neurogenesis. The results suggest that acetylcholine, a product of cholinergic neurons, is necessary for the survival of newly-formed neurons.. Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by combined treatment of ondansetron with flumazenil after cortical cholinergic deafferentation.. Gil-Bea FJ, Dominguez J, Garcia-Alloza M, Marcos B, Lasheras B, Ramirez MJ.. Neuropharmacology 47(2):225-232, 2004.. Previous studies from this group demonstrated that 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists potentiated by GABA(A) ...
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
www.MOLUNA.de Molecular Neurosurgery with Targeted Toxins [4221446] - Introduction to Molecular NeurosurgerynRonald G. Wiley and Douglas A. LappinRibosome-Inactivating ProteinsnFiorenzo StirpenBiochemical, Physiological, and Behavioral Characterizations of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Produced by 192 IgG-SaporinnJerene J. WaitenBasal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion by 192 IgG-Saporin: A Tool to Assess the Consequences of Cortical Cholinergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer s DiseasenReinhard Schliebsn192 IgG-Saporin-Induced
Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with cognitive decline in dementing disorders such as Alzheimers disease (AD). Friedrich Lewy first observed his eponymous inclusion bodies in the nbM of postmortem brain tissue from patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and cell loss in this area can b...
The concentrations of acetylcholine and norepinephrine and acetylcholinesterase activity in the myocardium as well as chronotropic cardiac response to exogenous mediators administered in increasing...
Scientific evidence collected over the past four decades suggests that a loss of cholinergic innervation in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) is an early pathogenic event correlated with cognitive impairment. This evidence led to the formulation of the cholinergic hypothesis of AD and the development of Read & Research Alzheimers More. ...
Bradford HF, Foley P, Docherty M, Fillit H, Luine VN, McEwen B, Bucht G, Winbald B, Hardy J. Antibodies in serum of patients with Alzheimers disease cause immunolysis of cholinergic nerve terminals from the rat cerebral cortex ...
Acetylcholine acts on the whole nervous system, from learning and memory to digestion, movement, and even sex. Learn the science here.
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical neurones. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Takahashi, R.. AU - Deguchi, T.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Recently it has been reported that the entire coding region of VAChT mRNA is located in the first intron of the ChAT gene. In this study, ChAT and VAChT mRNAs were analysed in cultured sympathetic neurones. Cholinergic differentiation factor/leukaemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor induced strong expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNAs in parallel. RT-PCR analysis of ChAT mRNAs revealed that five types of ChAT transcripts which differed in the 5 non coding regions were increased. RT-PCR analysis of VAChT mRNA indicated that the cytokines induced only VAChT mRNA species which ...
To investigate the distribution of nitrergic and cholinergic innervation in rabbit, pig, and human upper urinary tract, (UUT) whole-mount preparations and frozen sections were stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. NADPH-diaphorase and AChE staining demonstrated two neuronal plexuses in the submucous and muscular layer of the UUT in all three species. The presence of nitrergic and cholinergic neuronal networks in the normal UUT suggests that autonomic innervation may play an important role in the transmission of ureteral peristalsis.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Basal forebrain neurons undergo somatal and dendritic remodeling during postnatal development. T2 - a single-section Golgi and choline acetyltransferase analysis. AU - Gould, Elizabeth. AU - Farris, Todd W.. AU - Butcher, Larry L.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by USPHS Grant NS-10928 to L.L.B.. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. N2 - In an attempt to determine whether or not morphologic changes occur in the cholinergic basal forebrain during postnatal development, Golgi-impregnated and choline acetyltransferase-positive cells were examined in adult and postnatal day (P) 10, 14, 18, and 27 rats. Light microscopic analyses revealed progressive increases in cross-sectional cell body area, number of primary dendrites, number of dendritic branch points, and length of the longest dendrite that peaked at P18 and thereafter decreased to smaller adult values with the exception of dendritic length which monotonically increased until adulthood. These findings suggest ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
Alzheimers disease is characterized by the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, degeneration of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus (the septohippocampal pathway), and progressive impairment of cognitive function, particularly memory. Aβ is a ligand for the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which is best known for mediating neuronal death and has been consistently linked to the pathology of Alzheimers disease. Here we examined whether p75NTR is required for Aβ-mediated effects. Treatment of wild-type but not p75NTR-deficient embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons with human Aβ1-42 peptide induced significant cell death. Furthermore, injection of Aβ1-42 into the hippocampus of adult mice resulted in significant degeneration of wild-type but not p75NTR-deficient cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, indicating that the latter are resistant to Aβ-induced toxicity. We also found that neuronal death correlated with Aβ1-42 peptide-stimulated accumulation of the ...
Skin conductance (SC), in terms of numbers of skin conduction fluctuations (NSCF), amplitude and mean skin conductance level, reflect the activity in the sympathetic postganglionic cholinergic fibers which innervate the palmar and plantar sweat glands. Skin conductance, especially numbers of skin conductance fluctuations, may be a promising tool to monitor anesthesia. Atropine, an anticholinergic agent, acts as an antagonist on the muscarinic receptors of the sweat glands and inhibits their secretion in a dose-dependent way. The aim of this study was to find out to what degree SC is influenced by i.v. administration of atropine.. Study hypothesis: SC is not influenced by i.v. administration of atropine. ...
Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
Perisomatic GABAergic inhibition is thought to play a prominent role in hippocampal oscillations associated with the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from septal cholinergic afferents. A prominent hypothesis states that parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells, activated concurrently by ACh and fast glutamatergic input, drive these rhythms. However, this model - generated solely from in vitro studies using bath application of cholinergic agonists - has never been tested under conditions of endogenous ACh release. To investigate the selective effects of endogenous ACh on inhibitory microcircuits in slices, we have taken an optogenetic approach by injecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice with a Cre-dependent AAV vector carrying the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2). In acute hippocampal slices taken from these animals, brief trains of blue light generate sustained low-frequency rhythmic IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells, and inhibitory local field potentials (LFPs), even ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Lesions of nucleus basalis alter ChAT activity and EEG in rat frontal neocortex. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
One group of six male control rats [12 months old] and one group of six male rats of the same age, singularly maintained in a cage, and treated with acetyl-L-carnitine-HCl [(gamma-trimethyl-beta-acetyl-butyrobetaine-HCl: Sigma-Tau code ST200 or ALCAR: 60 mg/kg/day[7]/po)] for six months were tested in the spatial learning/memory Morris mazewater task and for atrophy and cell loss in seven myelo- and cytostructurally defined basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic regions [Freddi et al., 2009]. Coronal sections 25 ?m thick were cut through the BF regions and processed every 200 ?m for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. The ALCAR-treated rats had significantly shorter exit times on the Morris maze-water task test than the control rats (average ± SD 28.3 ± 12.4 s vs. 61.16 ± 4.67 s; t = 6.07, DOF = 10, P = 0.0001). Degenerative morphological changes in the BF ChAT-positive cells were observed in the substantia innominata pars anterior of the control rats but _disibledevent= 0.319]. In the
article{58bdbf8b-cb0c-4890-80c3-1b810f44ac8c, abstract = {,p,The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinsons disease. Here we show that selective and reversible activation of ChIs using chemogenetic (DREADD) receptors increases locomotor function in intact rats and potentiate the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA in the rats with lesions of the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yuko Hara, Yumiko Motoi, Keigo Hikishima, Hiroshi Mizuma, Hirotaka Onoe, Shin-Ei Matsumoto, Montasir Elahi, Hideyuki Okano, Shigeki Aoki, Nobutaka Hattori].
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The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) sends cholinergic (acetylcholine) projections to many subcortical and cortical structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra (dopamine neurons), ventral tegmental area (dopamine neurons), cortex (with bidirectional connections with the prefrontal cortex). The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus may be involved in modulating sustained attention or in mediating alerting responses, and also in the generation of REM sleep (along with the pedunculopontine nucleus). ...
A unilateral ibotenic acid lesion was placed in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of 3- and 18-month-old rats. In the lesioned aging rats, the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was markedly reduced in the ipsilateral side and to a lesser extent in the contralateral side. Twenty-one days after the lesion, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the ipsilateral cortex was reduced by 40% in both groups of rats and by 24% in the contralateral frontal cortex of the aging rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (10 micrograms twice a week) to aging lesioned rats for 3 weeks after surgery resulted in a complete recovery in the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus basalis of both sides, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the contralateral cortex, with little effect on the ipsilateral cortex. No potentiation was seen after the concurrent administration of GM1 ...
The innervation of the anterior segment of the albino rabbit eye was studied with both the histofluorometric technique of Falck for adrenergic fibers and the thiocholine method for cholinergic fibers. Adrenergic fibers were found in heavy concentration in the iris dilator, ciliary processes, and around blood vessels. In lesser number adrenergic fibers were seen in the cornea and filtration area. Very few fibers toere seen in ciliary muscle and iris sphincter. Heavy staining for fibers containing acetylcholinesterase was seen in the iris sphincter, ciliary body, and surrounding blood vessels. The iris dilator, filtration area, and cornea also showed moderate staining. ...
Gericke, CA, Lang, UE, Steckler, T, Schulze, G, Bajbouj, M and Hellweg, R (2003) Nerve growth factor response to excitotoxic lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain is slightly impaired in aged rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110 6: 627-639. doi:10.1007/s00702-002-0819-z ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances in the neurochemical pathology of Alzheimers disease. Studies of neuropeptides, cholinergic function and Alzheimers disease- associated protein. AU - Nemeroff, C. B.. AU - Bissette, G.. AU - Slotkin, T. A.. AU - Seidler, F. J.. AU - Miller, B. E.. AU - Ghanbari, H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Our findings from three postmortem tissue studies in Alzheimers disease (AD) are presented. We investigated (1) alterations in somatostatin (SRIF) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in AD; (2) regulatory changes in presynaptic cholinergic function in AD; and (3) use of Alzheimers disease- associated protein (ADAP) as a diagnostic test for AD in postmortem tissue. Taken together, these findings reveal marked reductions in SRIF and CRF concentrations in many cerebrocortical areas in AD, a marked up-regulation of cholinergic neuronal activity in surviving cholinergic neurons in AD, and excellent ...
The cholinergic system in the brain plays crucial roles in regulating sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive behaviors by modulating neuronal activity. Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon arborizations throughout the entire brain at the level of single neurons. Here, we report a comprehensive whole-brain atlas of the cholinergic system originating from various cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we obtained quantification of the number and soma volume of cholinergic neurons in 22 brain areas. Furthermore, by reconstructing the complete axonal arbors of fluorescently labeled single neurons from a subregion of the basal forebrain at 1-μm resolution, we found that their projections to the forebrain and midbrain showed neuronal subgroups with distinct projection ...
Samples of brain tissue from CADASIL and controls were obtained from various sources including the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource Centre, the Institute of Psychiatry, London (courtesy of Dr Safar Al Sarraj), Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (Prof David Graham), University of Helsinki (Drs Marc Baumann, Raimo Sulkava, and Tuomo Polvikoski) and Frenchay Hospital, Bristol (Dr Tim Moss). Available case notes indicated that the CADASIL subjects met the minimum criteria for cognitive impairment per our poststroke study.8 None of the controls had clear neurological or pathological evidence for cerebrovascular or neurodegenerative disease.. Frozen samples from frontal (Brodmann 9 and 10) and temporal (Brodmann 20 to 21) cortices were collected from a total of 9 CADASIL cases with mean (±SEM) age of 58±3 years (range 52 to 74 years; 7 males [m], 2 females [f]), 14 age-matched with mean age 57±3 years (53 to 74 years; 7 m, 7 f) and 9 older controls with mean age 87±3 years (79 to 102 years; 4 m, 5 ...
Introduction. Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It represents more than half the prevalence of dementia in the Brazilian elderly population1. The main characteristic of this type of neurodegenerative process is cognitive impairment that can lead to the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms2. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. The reduction on cholinergic activity could affects and impairs cognitive function and behavior. A reduction in signal intensity in the area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis has been significantly correlated with a reduced concentration of grey matter in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cingulate gyrus3.. Most studies ...
Blusztajn, J. K., and Berse, B. (2000) The cholinergic neuronal phenotype in Alzheimers disease. Metab Brain Dis 15, 45-64 PubMed. · Farber, S. A., Slack, B. E., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Acceleration of phosphatidylcholine synthesis and breakdown by inhibitors of mitochondrial function in neuronal cells: a model of the membrane defect of Alzheimers disease. FASEB J 14, 2198-2206 PubMed. · Lopez-Coviella, I., Berse, B., Krauss, R., Thies, R. S., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Induction and maintenance of the neuronal cholinergic phenotype in the central nervous system by BMP-9. Science 289, 313-316 PubMed. · Yang, Y., Liu, Z., Cermak, J. M., Tandon, P., Sarkisian, M. R., Stafstrom, C. E., Neill, J. C., Blusztajn, J. K., and Holmes, G. L. (2000) Protective effects of prenatal choline supplementation on seizure-induced memory impairment. J Neurosci 20, RC109 PubMed · Guo-Ross, S. X., Clark, S., Montoya, D. A., Jones, K. H., Obernier, J., Shetty, A. K., White, A. M., Blusztajn, J. K., Wilson, ...
Substantia Innominata, part of the limbic system, is the tissue in the base of the forebrain which contains the basal nucleus of meynert
Mesopontine refers to an area of tissue that lies at the junction of mesencephalon and the pons. The dorsal area of this is the mesopontine tegmentum. The region contains cholinergic neurons Tegmentum mesopontine ...
Older people are particularly vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects and risk of dementia following exposure to medicines with anticholinergic activity;1 however, the biological basis for these effects remains unclear.2 The risk of anticholinergic adverse effects increases with age, polypharmacy, comorbidities, pre-existing cognitive impairment, cholinergic neuronal degeneration and changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This study examined whether medicines with anticholinergic activity alter brain glucose metabolism, and the impact this has on brain structure, function and cognitive decline. ...
In 2002 a draft sequence of the mouse genome was published and the NIH described this as the genetic blueprint for the most important animal model in bi...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetylcholine and its enzymes in some brain areas of the rat under stress. AU - Fatranská, M.. AU - Budai, D.. AU - Opršalová, Z.. AU - Kvetňanský, R.. PY - 1987/10/20. Y1 - 1987/10/20. N2 - A period of 1 or 24 h of cold stress (5 °C) resulted in a significant decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus the activity of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was significantly increased after 24 h and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after 1 and 24 h exposure to cold, whereas in the hypothalamus, AChE activity was found to be decreased, albeit only after 24 h exposure. Separate investigation of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus under 24 h of cold revealed that the ACh decreased in the dorsal hippocampus only, where no change in ChAT activity was observed. On the other hand, ACh showed no change in the ventral hippocampus where andincrease of ChAT activity was found. Forced swimming for 20 min also induced a ...
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References for Abcams Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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I prefer to call when I have questions but to use online chat is also helpful. I have already purchased goods on-line from other companies but was scared ...
... and loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimer disease". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 57 (1): 63-75. doi:10.1097/00005072- ... Cholinergic systems are implicated in numerous neurologic functions. Alteration in some cholinergic neurons may account for the ... interferes with the metabolism of neurones and further damages the cholinergic axons in the cortex and cholinergic neurones in ... The loss of cholinergic innervation in the neocortex has been associated with memory loss, as is evidenced in advanced cases of ...
This is a cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the subcallosal ... It consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated ... Revisiting the human cholinergic nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca". Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 44 (7): 647- ... nvlDBB projects to the hippocampal formation through the fornix and it is the second largest assembly of cholinergic neurons in ...
In some ganglia, these intemeurons receive preganglionic cholinergic fibers and may modulate ganglionic transmission. In other ... Although an autonomic ganglion is the site where pregangllonlc fibers synapse on postganglionic neurons, the presence of small ...
The external capsule is a route for cholinergic fibers from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. The putamen separates ... The white matter of the external capsule contains fibers known as corticocortical association fibers. These fibers are ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. These fibers run between the most lateral (toward ...
"Nerve growth factor improves spatial learning and restores hippocampal cholinergic fibers in rats withdrawn from chronic ... Even pathological cells with protein clumps in their cell bodies and surroundings extended their fibers toward the NGF source, ... Counts SE, Mufson EJ (Apr 2005). "The role of nerve growth factor receptors in cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration in ... Print.[ISBN missing][page needed] Tuszynski MH, Blesch A (2004). "Nerve growth factor: from animal models of cholinergic ...
As all cholinergic fibers contain high concentrations of ACh and AChE at their terminals, inhibition of AChE can impair their ... Cholinergic nerves play an important role in the normal function of the central nervous, endocrine, neuromuscular, ... When patients are resistant to atropine, the patients can be treated with low doses of anisodamine, a cholinergic and alpha-1 ... Inhibition of AChE results in an immediate accumulation of free unbound ACh at the ending of all cholinergic nerves, which ...
... ascending cholinergic projections, descending non-cholinergic projections, and descending reticulospinal projections. The ... The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block the transmission of some pain signals to the brain. Sleep ... Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes REM sleep. During waking, REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ... The fibers of this tract arise from the caudal pontine reticular nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus and project to ...
... and cholinergic and noncholinergic fibers. The activity of AChE is higher in motor neurons than in sensory neurons. ... For a cholinergic neuron to receive another impulse, ACh must be released from the ACh receptor. This occurs only when the ... AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to ... AChE is found in many types of conducting tissue: nerve and muscle, central and peripheral tissues, motor and sensory fibers, ...
... phenomenon is a term given for slow contraction of denervated skeletal muscle by stimulating the autonomic cholinergic fibers ...
Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. Most postganglionic sympathetic ... then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing ... The other postganglionic fibers of the peripheral autonomic system belong to the parasympathetic division; all are cholinergic ... is supplied by cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic fibers: acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter utilized at this synapse. ...
Her work helped further our understanding of how efferent cholinergic fibers and inner ear hair cells communicate to relay ... "Direct Interaction of Serotonin Type 3 Receptor Ligands with Recombinant and Native α9α10-Containing Nicotinic Cholinergic ... interaction of serotonin type 3 receptor ligands with recombinant and native alpha 9 alpha 10-containing nicotinic cholinergic ... interaction of serotonin type 3 receptor ligands with recombinant and native alpha 9 alpha 10-containing nicotinic cholinergic ...
Eccrine glands are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, primarily by cholinergic fibers whose discharge is altered ... primarily by changes in deep body temperature (core temperature), but by adrenergic fibers as well. The glands on palms and ...
The basal ganglia contains many afferent glutamatergic inputs, with predominantly GABAergic efferent fibers, modulatory ... cholinergic interneurons, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and calretinin-expressing neurons. The dorsal striatum receives ... The Dynamic Role of Cholinergic Interneurons". Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 5: 11. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2011.00011. ISSN ... cholinergic pathways, significant dopamine in the pathways originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, as ...
... in the basal forebrain these immunolabeling has been applied to evaluate disruptions in cholinergic neurons of the ChAT fiber ... Perez, S. E.; Dar, S.; Ikonomovic, M. D.; Dekosky, S. T.; Elliott, J. (2008). "Cholinergic forebrain degeneration in the APPswe ... It is also possible to label specifically cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons. Pan ... is expressed in cholinergic neurons of both the CNS and PNS. In the CNS, ChAT is expressed in motor neurons and pre-ganglionic ...
This fiber swelling can be induced in a laboratory setting by damaging the cell body of the cholinergic neuron, which implies ... Most research involving cholinergic neurons involves the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, cholinergic neurons only ... The cholinergic system allows the circadian system to have the cycle of one day. The cholinergic neuron may also play a role in ... In normal aging, there are beadlike swellings within the cholinergic fibers with enlarged or thickened axons, often in grape- ...
All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division, are cholinergic ( ... Sympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter than parasympathetic preganglionic fibers because sympathetic ganglia are ... This is due to the number of synapses formed by the preganglionic fibers with ganglionic neurons. Postganglionic fibers Nerve ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ...
The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic. That is to say ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. ... all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ganglionic fibers. In both divisions of the autonomic nervous ...
"Nerve growth factor improves spatial learning and restores hippocampal cholinergic fibers in rats withdrawn from chronic ... Even pathological cells with protein clumps in their cell bodies and surroundings extended their fibers toward the NGF source, ... Counts SE, Mufson EJ (Apr 2005). "The role of nerve growth factor receptors in cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration in ... Tuszynski MH, Blesch A (2004). "Nerve growth factor: from animal models of cholinergic neuronal degeneration to gene therapy in ...
... cholinergic and adrenergic transmission were known to arise from different groups of nerve fibers. Dale was interested in the ... Eccles, JC; Fatt P; Koketsu K (1954). "Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to ... whether cholinergic or adrenergic, is characteristic for each particular neurone, and unchangeable. And near the end of the ...
Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. Most postganglionic sympathetic ... then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing ... The other postganglionic fibers of the peripheral autonomic system belong to the parasympathetic division; all are cholinergic ... Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or ...
... stimulating fibers (GABAergic fibers) to all parts of the hippocampus. The inputs from the medial septal nucleus play a key ... However, the medial septum is more than just the controller of theta; it is also the main source of cholinergic projections to ... A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, which sends cholinergic, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) ...
... resulting in increased adrenergic input to the spleen via sympathetic nerve fibers descending into lymphoid tissues. The main ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway provides a braking effect on the innate immune response which protects the body ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway regulates the innate immune response to injury, pathogens, and tissue ischemia. It is ... Thus, the prefrontal input to the ANS modulate the inflammatory response to psychological stress in part via the cholinergic ...
The cholinergic axons then proceed to layers I-II (the input layer for cortico-cortical fibers) where they activate inhibitory ... Micrograph of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of a rhesus monkey; Bar = 50 microns (0.05 millimeters). This article ... Mesulam MM (2013). "Cholinergic circuitry of the human nucleus basalis and its fate in Alzheimer's disease". Journal of ... The nucleus basalis in humans is a somewhat diffuse collection of large cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The main ...
... borders show no myelinated fiber projections or inputs as well as a higher density of acetylcholinesterase and cholinergic ...
The mossy fiber and climbing fiber inputs each carry fiber-specific information; the cerebellum also receives dopaminergic, ... serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs that presumably perform global modulation. The cerebellar cortex is divided ... originating from mossy fibers and climbing fibers, both eventually terminating in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Mossy fibers ... this zone is devoid of parallel fiber inputs. Climbing fibers fire at low rates, but a single climbing fiber action potential ...
Some of the fibers from the cochlear nerve cross over in the pontine tegmentum, forming the trapezoid body, which is thought to ... Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. PET ... Woolf, NJ; Butcher, LL (2011). "Cholinergic systems mediate action from movement to higher consciousness". Behavioural Brain ... The pontine tegmentum contains two predominately cholinergic nuclei, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the laterodorsal ...
Most of the fibers of the superior ovarian nerve come from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the celiac ganglion. ... It has also been shown that modifications in the cholinergic input at the celiac ganglion also led, via the superior ovarian ... Orozco, A. V.; Sosa, Z.; Fillipa, V.; Mohamed, F.; Rastrilla, A. M. (2006). "The cholinergic influence on the mesenteric ... and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central ...
... reticulothalamic projection fibers, diffuse thalamocortical projections, ascending cholinergic projections, descending non- ... Cholinergic nuclei *Forebrain cholinergic nuclei. *Pontine tegmental nuclei: laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental ... The fibers of this tract arise from the caudal pontine reticular nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus and project to ... The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block the transmission of some pain signals to the brain. ...
The cholinergic interneurons of the primate, are very different from those of non-primates. These are said to be tonically ... Its input includes fibers from the cortex and globus pallidus. The pedunculopontine nucleus is a part of the reticular ... The striatopallidal fibers give a connection from the putamen to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Unlike the ... The fact that striatal axons are seen parallel to dendrites as "woolly fibers" has led to exaggerate the distances along which ...
... and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system). ... released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers ...
When core temperature rises are detected by thermoreceptors, the sweat glands in the skin are stimulated via cholinergic ... via afferent nerve fibers, to the solitary nucleus in the medulla oblongata.[48] From here motor nerves belonging to the ... At the same time the heart is stimulated via cholinergic parasympathetic nerves to beat more slowly (called bradycardia), ...
Stanley, EF (1992). "The calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion as a model of fast cholinergic transmission". ... fibers *Ia or Aα. *Ib or Golgi or Aα. *II or Aβ and Aγ ... cholinergic (e.g. vertebrate neuromuscular junction), and ... Neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a cholinergic synapse in vertebrates, glutamatergic in insects. *Ciliary calyx in the ciliary ...
Both are direct-acting cholinomimetics; they produce their effects by binding to and activating cholinergic receptors. Final ... fiber head mushroom): a case series with exact species identification". Clinical Toxicology. 47 (6): 562-5. doi:10.1080/ ... Muscarine mimics the function of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the muscarinic part of the cholinergic nervous ...
Cholinergic. *Cholinesterase. *Choline acetyltransferase. *Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. *Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor ... Postganglionic nerve fibers. *Psychiatry. *Template:Infobox neurotransmitter. *Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. *Psychoactive ...
Longitudinal muscle fibers depend on calcium influx into the cell for excitation-contraction coupling, while circular muscle ... These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer ... fibers rely on intracellular calcium release. Contraction of the smooth muscle can occur when the BER reaches its plateau (an ...
... receives the densest fiber input and the medial portion receives light fiber projections.[24] This branching continues until ... Ikemoto, S.; Wise, R. A. (2002). "Rewarding effects of the cholinergic agents carbachol and neostigmine in the posterior ... Fibers from the lateral olfactory tract begin branching into the olfactory tubercle around E17. The lateral portion of the ... These visual sensory fibers arrive from the retinal ganglion cells. Thus, the olfactory tubercle may play a role in the ...
In 1959, it was shown that at an inhibitory synapse on crayfish muscle fibers GABA acts like stimulation of the inhibitory ...
In the mature synapse each muscle fiber is innervated by one motor neuron. However, during development many of the fibers are ... "Assembly and disassembly of a retinal cholinergic network". Visual Neuroscience. 29 (1): 61-71. doi:10.1017/S0952523811000216 ... Miyata T, Kawaguchi A, Okano H, Ogawa M (September 2001). "Asymmetric inheritance of radial glial fibers by cortical neurons". ... whose fibers serve as a scaffolding for migrating cells and a means of radial communication mediated by calcium dynamic ...
2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for ...
Cholinergic neurons are capable of producing ACh. An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in ... These motor neurons send their axons through motor nerves, from which they emerge to connect to muscle fibers at a special type ... Damage to the cholinergic (acetylcholine-producing) system in the brain has been shown to be associated with the memory ... Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot (10 August 2011). "The cholinergic system, EEG and sleep". Behavioural Brain Research. 221 (2): ...
The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the ... Piracetam (and other racetams), α-GPC and choline are known to activate the cholinergic system and alleviate cognitive symptoms ... Wider use is discouraged due to the significant side effects related to cholinergic excess including: seizures, muscle weakness ... "Effect of medications with anti-cholinergic properties on cognitive function, delirium, physical function and mortality: a ...
These people are called the "super aged," and it was found that these individuals had fewer fiber-like tangles of tau protein ... There are four drugs currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's, and they all act on the cholinergic system ... less is known about the interconnecting fiber tracts. In aging, degradation of white matter structure has emerged as an ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking ... "Cholinergic Inputs from Basal Forebrain Add an Excitatory Bias to Odor Coding in the Olfactory Bulb". J. Neurosci. 34 (13): ... Granular cells also mediate inhibition and excitation of mitral cells through pathways from centrifugal fibers and the anterior ...
Depolarizing blocking agents: These agents act by depolarizing the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle fiber. This persistent ... Beers and Reich's studies on cholinergic receptors in 1970 showed a relationship affecting whether a compound was muscarinic or ... In depolarizing the musculature, suxamethonium may trigger a transient release of large amounts of potassium from muscle fibers ... Depolarizing blocking agents work by depolarizing the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber, similar to acetylcholine. However, ...
... stimulating fibers (GABAergic fibers) to all parts of the hippocampus. The inputs from the medial septal nucleus play a key ... However, the medial septum is more than just the controller of theta; it is also the main source of cholinergic projections to ... A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, which sends cholinergic, and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) ...
Ipc gives rise to tightly focused cholinergic projections both to Imc and the tectum. In the tectum, the cholinergic inputs ... Lamina VI or SGP, the stratum griseum profundum ("deep gray layer"), consists of loosely packed neurons and myelinated fibers. ... Lamina V or SAI, the stratum album intermedium ("intermediate white layer"), consists mainly of fibers from various sources. ... but it is interesting that recent evidence has implicated the cholinergic inputs as part of a recurrent circuit producing ...
Small fiber peripheral neuropathy can damage the nerves that control the sweat glands. The sweat gland nerve fiber density test ... Apoeccrine glands are sensitive to cholinergic activity, though they can also be activated via adrenergic stimulation.[37] Like ... Each sweat gland receives several nerve fibers that branch out into bands of one or more axons and encircle the individual ...
"Dysautonomia Due to Reduced Cholinergic Neurotransmission Causes Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure". Molecular and Cellular ... Nerve biopsy for small fiber neuropathy[6]. *Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART)[18] ...
Quite to the left of the figure a sensory nerve fiber is shown. Cell body layers are labeled on the left, and fiber layers are ... One theory is that because the inhibitory output is reduced by cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, this provides the ... Neurons send excitatory fibers to neurons in the thalamus and also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus that ... Poirier.) To the left, the groups of cells; to the right, the systems of fibers. ...
Cholinergic stimulation causes release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (later it was discovered that EDRF was ... is determined by the muscle tone in the smooth muscle tissue of the tunica media and the elasticity of the elastic fibers there ... If the endothelium is damaged, cholinergic stimulation causes vasoconstriction. Adenosine most likely does not play a role in ...
CF: Climbing fiber. • CFC: Climbing fiber collateral. • GC: Granule cell. • PF: Parallel fiber. • PC: Purkinje cell. • GgC: ... and cholinergic inputs that presumably perform global modulation.[16] ... The mossy fiber and climbing fiber inputs each carry fiber-specific information; the cerebellum also receives dopaminergic, ... mossy fibers and climbing fibers (which enter the cerebellum from outside), and parallel fibers (which are the axons of granule ...
Some regenerated nerve fibers do not find the correct muscle fibers, and some damaged motor neurons of the peripheral nervous ... Increasing oligodendrocyte cholinergic stimulation, AChEIs, and other cholinergic treatments, such as nicotine, possibly could ... In unmyelinated fibers, electrical impulses (action potentials) travel as continuous waves, but, in myelinated fibers, they " ... These studies may lead to further understanding of nerve fiber regeneration in the central nervous system.[citation needed] ...
In diabetic rats, taurine supplementation slightly reduced abdominal body fat while improving glucose tolerance.[48] Taurine is effective in removing fatty liver deposits in rats, preventing liver disease, and reducing cirrhosis in tested animals.[49][50] Evidence indicates taurine may be beneficial for blood pressure in male rats. A single intravenous taurine supplementation resulted in measurable decreases in blood pressure. However, when rats were supplemented with taurine in their drinking water, only female rats showed an increase in blood pressure. Both genders showed significant tachycardia.[51] Likewise, taurine administration to diabetic rabbits resulted in 30% decrease in serum glucose levels.[52] Cats lack the enzymatic machinery (sulfinoalanine decarboxylase) to produce taurine and must therefore acquire it from their diet.[53] A taurine deficiency in cats can lead to retinal degeneration and eventually blindness. Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are ...
Major fiber systems in the ratEdit. Angular bundleEdit. These fibers start from the ventral part of entorhinal cortex (EC) and ... Cholinergic and GABAergic projections from MS-DBB to CA1 also pass through Fimbria.[20] Fimbria stimulation leads to ... Fibers that cover the temporal parts of hippocampus make a fiber bundle that is called fimbria. Going from temporal to septal ( ... Mossy fibers from the dentate gyrus granule cells course through this stratum in CA3, though synapses from these fibers can be ...
If the smoker also breathes in the asbestos fibers which commonly occur in urban and industrial environments, the risk of ... a cholinergic stimulant, increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the smoker's brain; Parkinson's disease occurs when the ...
The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the ... Wider use is discouraged due to the significant side effects related to cholinergic excess including seizures, muscle weakness ... "Effect of medications with anti-cholinergic properties on cognitive function, delirium, physical function and mortality: a ... gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body;[3] cholinergic process otherwise by enhancing ...
In 1959, it was shown that at an inhibitory synapse on crayfish muscle fibers GABA acts like stimulation of the inhibitory ... Cholinergic system: Acetylcholine. Miscellaneous. *Gasotransmitters: Carbon monoxide (CO). *Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ...
... cholinergic fiber explanation free. What is cholinergic fiber? Meaning of cholinergic fiber medical term. What does cholinergic ... Looking for online definition of cholinergic fiber in the Medical Dictionary? ... Cholinergic fibers include all preganglionic fibers, all postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands, and efferent fibers ... cholinergic fiber. Any preganglionic fiber, postganglionic parasympathetic fiber, postganglionic sympathetic fiber to a sweat ...
... and α-bungaro-toxin on the Schwann cell electrical potential of resting and stimulated squid nerve fibers were studied.... ... Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber. ... Villegas J. (1975) Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber. In: Moore J ... Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber. Federation Proc. 34: 1370-1373 ...
Cholinergic nerve fibers are found in the peripheral... Explanation of Cholinergic Nerve Fibers ... Find out information about Cholinergic Nerve Fibers. nerve fibers whose endings release the mediator acetylcholine during the ... Cholinergic Nerve Fibers. Cholinergic Nerve Fibers. (the abbreviated name of acetylcholinergic fibers), nerve fibers whose ... The division of nerve fibers into cholinergic and adrenergic fibers was made obsolete by the discovery of more than ten ...
What is parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers? Meaning of parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers medical term ... Looking for online definition of parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers in the Medical Dictionary? parasympathetic ... Parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers , definition of parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers by Medical ... redirected from parasympathetic cholinergic vasodilator fibers). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. par·a·sym· ...
The mechanisms of cholinergic enhancement are closely linked to attentional processes, long-term potentiation and modulation of ... The mechanisms of cholinergic enhancement are closely linked to attentional processes, long-term potentiation and modulation of ... This cholinergic enhancement would increasesthe strength of thalamocortical afferents to facilitate the treatment of a novel ... This cholinergic enhancement would increasesthe strength of thalamocortical afferents to facilitate the treatment of a novel ...
... is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated ... Cholinergic Fibers / chemistry * Cholinergic Fibers / enzymology * Cholinergic Fibers / pathology* * Glial Fibrillary Acidic ... Use of the selective immunotoxin; 192 IgG-saporin, is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by ... This study supports existing literature that selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain does not produce ...
Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects* * Cholinergic Fibers / metabolism * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Immunohistochemistry ... TGF alpha does not affect cholinergic cell survival but the expression of their chemical phenotype and does so indirectly via ... Transforming growth factor alpha differentially affects GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in rat medial septal cell cultures ... In low density cultures, TGF alpha acts as a general neuronal survival factor, affecting both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons ...
ACh-releasing fibers. Cholinergic fibers. sympathetic postganglionic axons that release NE. Adrenergic fibers. ...
Adrenergic Fibers / analysis*. Age Factors. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Catecholamines / analysis*. Cholinergic Fibers. Cornea ... 2541845 - Development of cholinergic nerve transmission in the chick oesophagus.. 640515 - Histochemical study on the external ...
Adrenergic fiber (NE is also called noradrenaline). secretes NE (norepinephrine). Cholinergic fiber. secretes ACH (acetlchorine ... short preganglionic fibers.long postganglionic fibers (thoracolumbar division. NEUROTRANSMITTERS=. Ach secreted by sympathetic ... preganglionic fibers NE secreted by sympathetic postganglionic fibers. ...
... depletion of cholinergic fibers were included for additional analysis. The specificity of the immunotoxin for the cholinergic ... 1996) Systematic regional variations in the loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimers disease. Cereb Cortex 6:165-177. ... A, Normal acetylcholinesterase cholinergic fiber histochemistry within layer 2/3 of motor cortex. B, Following injections of ... Cholinergic-dependent and cholinergic-independent forms of cortical map plasticity can occur in the same animal and within the ...
SYMPATHETIC (SANS) Preganglionic fibers originate from: • Thoracic (T1-T12) segments of the cord. • Lumbar (L1-L5) segments of ... CHOLINERGIC 12 primary transmitter in all autonomic ganglia and at the synapses between the parasympathetic ganglia and their ...
Sound exposure dynamically induces dopamine synthesis in cholinergic LOC efferents for feedback to auditory nerve fibers ... A central role of cholinergic neurons in neurodegeneration seems conserved. In C. elegans, a decline in cholinergic signaling ... and because PNs are cholinergic, we analyzed the expression of genes involved in cholinergic neurotransmission with RNA- ... Cholinergic projection neurons functionally decay with age.. (A) Scheme of in vivo functional imaging preparation. The Ca2+ ...
These fibers react primarily to cholinergic input. In contrast, the smooth muscle configuration of the trigone and bladder neck ... The majority of the bladder wall is composed of large bundles of interconnecting smooth muscle fibers that form a powerful ...
Tumors were also infiltrated by parasympathetic cholinergic fibers that promoted cancer dissemination. Cholinergic-induced ... We found that the formation of autonomic nerve fibers in the prostate gland regulates prostate cancer development and ... prostate adenocarcinoma specimens from 43 patients revealed that the densities of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers ...
Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF ... Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF ... Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain affect synaptic ... Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain affect synaptic ...
The sweat glands are controlled by cholinergic impulses through the sympathetic nerve fibers. During intensive sweating, up to ... Cholinergic- Substance that has an effect similar to that of acetylcholine.. Conduction- Heat transfer by means of molecular ...
B and F) Quantification of cholinergic fiber density in layer V of the somatosensory cortex. Fiber density was measured in ... D) Quantification of cholinergic fiber density in layer V of the somatosensory cortex. Fiber density was measured in eight ... NMDA injected into the NBM induced an extensive cholinergic fiber loss in the layer V of somatosensory cortex and a massive ... NMDA injected into the NBM induced an extensive cholinergic fiber loss in the layer V of somatosensory cortex compared with the ...
Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. The cholinergic fibers generally cause ... The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. The cholinergic ( ...
Day MD, Rand MJ: Effect of guanethidine in revealing cholinergic sympathetic fibers. Br J Pharmacol 17:245, 1961 ... Foley JO, Dubois FS: Quantitative studies on the vagus nerve in the cat: I. The ratio of sensory to motor fibers. J Comp Neurol ... Cragg BG, Evans DHL: Some reflexes mediated by the afferent fibers of the abdominal vagus in the rabbit and in the cat. Exp ... Boyd G, Gillespie JS, Mackenna BR: Origin of the cholinergic response of the rabbit intestine to stimulation of its extrinsic ...
... as well as in cholinergic fibers (Bredt et al., 1990; Dun et al., 1992; Holgert et al., 1995), suggesting that NO may be ... One involves the interaction of ACh with the cholinergic receptors. For example, Moro et al. (1993) showed that cholinergic ... The current model for catecholamine release incorporates a number of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitters and/or ... The PO2 of the hypoxic saline solution was measured using a Foxy-AL300 fiber-optic probe and associated hardware and software ( ...
... acetylcholinesterase The acetylcholine released by cholinergic fibers is rapidly decomposed by the action of cholinesterase.- ...
Transmission is nicotonic cholinergic. The PSCs produced by Mauthner fiber impulses rise rapidly to a peak and decay in two ... synapses formed by these fibers appear to be nicotinic cholinergic. Miniature postsynaptic potentials (mPSPs) were recorded ... POSTSYNAPTIC CURRENTS AT THE MAUTHNER FIBER GIANT SYNAPSE OF THE HATCHETFISH BRAIN RESEARCH Huse, W. D., Day, J. W., Bennett, M ... TIME COURSE OF MINIATURE POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS AT THE MAUTHNER FIBER GIANT SYNAPSE OF THE HATCHETFISH BRAIN RESEARCH Day, J. ...
Transmission is nicotonic cholinergic. The PSCs produced by Mauthner fiber impulses rise rapidly to a peak and decay in two ... synapses formed by these fibers appear to be nicotinic cholinergic. Miniature postsynaptic potentials (mPSPs) were recorded ... POSTSYNAPTIC CURRENTS AT THE MAUTHNER FIBER GIANT SYNAPSE OF THE HATCHETFISH BRAIN RESEARCH Huse, W. D., Day, J. W., Bennett, M ... TIME COURSE OF MINIATURE POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS AT THE MAUTHNER FIBER GIANT SYNAPSE OF THE HATCHETFISH BRAIN RESEARCH Day, J. ...
Cholinergic Fibers and Muscarinic Receptors in the Central Auditory System (2012) *. *. *1 ...
... and loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimer disease". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 57 (1): 63-75. doi:10.1097/00005072- ... Cholinergic systems are implicated in numerous neurologic functions. Alteration in some cholinergic neurons may account for the ... interferes with the metabolism of neurones and further damages the cholinergic axons in the cortex and cholinergic neurones in ... The loss of cholinergic innervation in the neocortex has been associated with memory loss, as is evidenced in advanced cases of ...
2. General Effects of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers.. a. Cholinergic fibers have a generally rapid effect on the body ... adrenergic fiber. adrenergic receptor. antagonistic effects. cholinergic fiber. cholinergic receptor. collateral ganglia. COMT ... They are called cholinergic fibers because of their release of Ach. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release mostly ... 9. Explain the terms: adrenergic fibers, and cholinergic fibers.. 10. Explain why norepinephrines effects on the body are ...
Most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are adrenergic, but some are cholinergic ... Cholinergic Drugs(Parasympathomimetic)*Act directly (choline esters) by combining with cholinergic receptors in postsynaptic ... Cholinergic Blocking Drugs (Anticholinergic)*Also known as parasympatholytics. *Block the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine ... Cholinergic Blocking Drugs (Anticholinergic)*Scopolamine (belladonna anticholinergic). *Similar to atropine but also causes ...
Sound exposure dynamically induces dopamine synthesis in cholinergic LOC efferents for feedback to auditory nerve fibers ... Based on the animals recent history of sound exposure, cholinergic auditory brainstem neurons dynamically regulate dopamine ...
This is a cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the subcallosal ... It consists of fibers that are said to arise in the parolfactory area, the gyrus subcallosus and the anterior perforated ... Revisiting the human cholinergic nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca". Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 44 (7): 647- ... nvlDBB projects to the hippocampal formation through the fornix and it is the second largest assembly of cholinergic neurons in ...
  • The division of nerve fibers into cholinergic and adrenergic fibers was made obsolete by the discovery of more than ten mediators. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. (medscape.com)
  • The cholinergic fibers generally cause contraction, whereas the adrenergic fibers mainly cause inhibition. (medscape.com)
  • The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. (medscape.com)
  • The cholinergic (excitatory) system is thought to predominate over the adrenergic (inhibitory) system, leading to an increase in smooth muscle tone. (medscape.com)
  • 9. Explain the terms: adrenergic fibers, and cholinergic fibers. (cuny.edu)
  • Cholinergic fibers secrete acetylcholine, while adrenergic fibers secrete norepinephrine. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic fibers. (dinet.org)
  • The role of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers continues to be studied in dysautonomia research and particularly the role they play in the ANS function of POTS patients. (dinet.org)
  • Autonomic receptors are broadly divided into those for ACh (cholinergic receptors) and those for catecholamines such as NE or EPI (adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors). (washington.edu)
  • Immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors were noticed in nerve fascicles containing both sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or postganglionic fibers, then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing acetylcholine and expressing acetylcholine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myocardium and coronary vessels are abundantly supplied with adrenergic and cholinergic fibers purchase crestor with paypal cholesterol levels chart in south africa. (bdforum.org)
  • a nerve fiber of the autonomic nervous system that releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effects of acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, D-tubocurarine, eserine, and α -bungaro-toxin on the Schwann cell electrical potential of resting and stimulated squid nerve fibers were studied. (springer.com)
  • Acetylcholine (10 -7 M) and carbamylcholine (10 -6 M) induce a prolonged hyper polarization in the Schwann cells of the unstimulated nerve fiber. (springer.com)
  • Villegas J. (1975) Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber. (springer.com)
  • the abbreviated name of acetylcholinergic fibers), nerve fibers whose endings release the mediator acetylcholine during the transmission of an impulse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholinergic nerve fibers are found in the peripheral and central nervous systems of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They also mediate the transmission of inhibition by the endings of the vagus nerve fibers in the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disease is defined by the absence of submucosal GCs and the presence of excessive cholinergic nerve fibers in an adequate biopsy specimen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Botulinum toxin, which causes temporary chemical denervation of the cholinergic nerve fibers , has also been used successfully to manage sialoceles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Almost three-quarters of all parasympathetic nerve fibers are in the vagus nerves, which serve both the thoracic and abdominal regions of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In animals that underwent skilled forelimb training in conjunction with a facial nerve lesion, cholinergic mechanisms were required for mediating the behaviorally dependent plasticity associated with the skilled motor training but were not necessary for mediating plasticity associated with the facial nerve transection. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we first investigate the effects of cholinergic-specific lesions of the basal forebrain on the induction and maintenance of behaviorally independent cortical motor map plasticity after transection of the facial motor nerve. (jneurosci.org)
  • Next, we examine the effects of cholinergic depletion in animals with a facial nerve transection that also underwent skilled motor training. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the formation of autonomic nerve fibers in the prostate gland regulates prostate cancer development and dissemination in mouse models. (nih.gov)
  • A retrospective blinded analysis of prostate adenocarcinoma specimens from 43 patients revealed that the densities of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in tumor and surrounding normal tissue, respectively, were associated with poor clinical outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • The sweat glands are controlled by cholinergic impulses through the sympathetic nerve fibers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Foley JO, Dubois FS: Quantitative studies on the vagus nerve in the cat: I. The ratio of sensory to motor fibers. (springer.com)
  • Presence of ChAT in a nerve cell classifies this cell as a "cholinergic" neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • One cell is housed in the spinal cord or brain stem and is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which can be found housed in a cluster of nerve cells referred to as an autonomic ganglion. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Nerve fibers from the ganglia connect them to the organs they regulate. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • A sweat gland is innervated by cholinergic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system and can also be stimulated by the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine that circulate in the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The redness is due to dilated blood vessels in the superficial layers of the skin which have responded to histamine and is then augmented by a local neural reflex (axon reflex) initiated by the same nerve fibers that mediate itch. (worldallergy.org)
  • Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. (dinet.org)
  • Although these muscarinic receptors are not innervated by cholinergic nerve fibers, they are sensitive to circulating molecules. (washington.edu)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potent growth factor for cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Gahwiler BH, Rietschin L, Knopfel T, Enz A (1990) Continuous presence of nerve growth factor is required for maintenance of cholinergic septal neurons in organotypic slice cultures. (springer.com)
  • Hatanaka H, Tsukui H, Nihonmatsu(1988)Developmental change in the nerve growth factor action from induction of choline acetyltransferase to promotion of cell survival in cultured basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from postnatal rats. (springer.com)
  • Hefti, F, Hartikka J, Eckenstein F, Gnahn H, Heumann R, Schwab(1985)Nerve growth factor increases choline acetyltransferase but not survival or fiber outgrowth of cultured feta septal cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Kew JNC, Smith DW, Sofroniew MY(1996)Nerve growth factor withdrawal induces the apoptotic death of developing septal cholinergic neurons in vitro: protection by cyclic AMP analogue and high potassium. (springer.com)
  • Striated muscle of the proximal esophagus is innervated by the somatic efferent fibers of the vagus nerve. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. (fpnotebook.com)
  • At all time intervals, we found that lesioned animals showed loss of CBF neurons (Fig 1a-d), cortical ChAT decrements of 50-70%, and profound loss of cholinergic nerve fibers (Fig 1e,f). (atsbio.com)
  • A slowdown of axonal traffic, so the hypothesis goes, may cause aberrant generation of the Aβ peptide en route to nerve terminals, leading to synaptic damage and, ultimately, plaques. (alzforum.org)
  • They're caused by nerve fibers in your sweat glands. (webmd.com)
  • Blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors did not abolish antiinflammatory signaling through the vagus nerve, indicating that peripheral muscarinic receptors on immune cells are not required for the cytokine-regulating activities of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Although the vagus nerve is a "classical" cholinergic regulator of visceral functions in which peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have a major mediating role, the vagus-nerve cytokine-inhibiting activity (which is termed "the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway") requires signaling through nicotinic α 7 subunit-containing receptors ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our results indicate that central cholinergic activation by selective muscarinic receptor ligands significantly inhibits systemic TNF in endotoxemic rats and activates the efferent vagus-nerve activity. (pnas.org)
  • These findings identify a pivotal role for central muscarinic cholinergic activation in the inhibition of the systemic inflammatory response during endotoxemia and indicate that the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway represents a peripheral muscarinic-receptor-independent cholinergic function of the vagus nerve. (pnas.org)
  • Both dendrites and axons are sometimes referred to as nerve fibers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nerve fibers secreting norepinephrine are called? (cueflash.com)
  • 1. A threadlike or filmlike structure, e.g., a nerve fiber. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A heavily myelinated, fast-conducting nerve fiber. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A sympathetic nerve fiber that carries impulses to increase heart rate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber that carries sensory impulses to the central nervous system from receptors in the periphery. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 1. An afferent nerve fiber entering the cortex and synapsing with dendrites of Purkinje cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 2. A pressure-sensitive nerve fiber. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber that carries motor impulses away from the central nervous system to peripheral effectors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber whose axon is wrapped in a myelin sheath. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Most of the postganglionic nerve fibers of these choroidal ganglion cells (CGCs) join the perivascular nerve fiber plexus that supports the vasodilative innervation of the choroidal vasculature. (arvojournals.org)
  • The postganglionic nerve fibers of this group of neurons do not enter the choroid but join the nerve fiber plexus that innervates the outflow system. (arvojournals.org)
  • 8 Duck CGCs are surrounded by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)/dopamine-β-hydrolase (DBH)-immunoreactive nerve fibers forming synaptic contacts with the CGCs. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the cochlea the sound waves are transduced into coded patterns of impulses transmitted along the afferent cochlear fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve for analysis in the central auditory pathways of the brain. (google.es)
  • A motor branch derived from the nerve to the medial pterygoid (mandibular division of the V, parasympathetic, trigeminal nerve) passes through the otic (a peripheral, parasympathetic cholinergic) ganglion to the tensor tympani. (google.es)
  • This reduction in sweat was less in the ankle and leg and was not present in the arm, "indicating nerve length-related damage to the peripheral autonomic nervous system affecting the distal small cholinergic sudomotor fibers," the authors observed. (medpagetoday.com)
  • the sensory (afferent) input goes to the central nervous system, which then relays the stimulus to the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenals and directly to the nasal gland via the seventh cranial nerve (efferent), to the ganglion ethmoidale, and thence to postganglionic (cholinergic) fibers that run to the gland to produce the final stimulus (secretion). (icr.org)
  • It was found that part of the nerve structures corresponded to sensory afferents, and that some conformed to cholinergic and, especially, sympathetic nerve fibers. (diva-portal.org)
  • How do cholinergic receptors expressed by specific types of neurons contribute to sensory processing, attention or working memory? (frontiersin.org)
  • Cholinergic receptors were originally divided and named on the basis of sensitivity to alkaloids that mimicked some, but not all, of the actions of ACh. (washington.edu)
  • Thus, cholinergic receptors are broadly classified as muscarinic (mAChR) or nicotinic (nAChR). (washington.edu)
  • Muscarinic receptors are also located postsynaptically at the neuroeffector junction of sympathetic fibers in sweat glands. (washington.edu)
  • Cholinergic, receptors mediate the actions of acetylcholine (ACh). (washington.edu)
  • However, muscarinic receptors also exist on effectors cells, even in the absence of cholinergic innervation. (washington.edu)
  • Cell bodies for these fibers originate in the nucleus ambiguus and terminate on the motor end plate directly through via cholinergic receptors. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Any agent that is capable of activating cholinergic receptors (nicotinic and muscarinic) or of enhancing or prolonging the actions of acetylcholine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we describe a role for central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the activation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. (pnas.org)
  • The role of central muscarinic receptors in activating the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway is of interest for the use of centrally acting muscarinic cholinergic enhancers as antiinflammatory agents. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, peripheral muscarinic receptors do not have a major role in mediating the inflammatory response to endotoxin and its inhibition by the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Muscarine dose-dependently inhibited serum TNF ( Fig. 1 A ). Postsynaptically located M1 subtype muscarinic receptors have an important role in the processing of cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The structural component of the muscle spindle, made up of small skeletal muscle fibers at either end and a central noncontracile region where the sensory receptors are located. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The pattern of autonomic symptoms and objective test findings points predominantly to dysfunction of both central and peripheral cholinergic functions, possibly from neurotoxic damage to cholinergic neurons or cholinergic receptors," explained Haley and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Very few parts of the sympathetic system use cholinergic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic fibers innervating the heart and secreted by cardiomyocytes during ischemia is cardioprotective, and the Ojamaa Lab is studying the potential therapeutic utility of drugs that target specific ACh receptors to decrease tissue injury after myocardial infarction. (nyit.edu)
  • demonstrating the reorganization of tonotopic representations within auditory cortex after cochlear injury, even after the elimination of cholinergic innervation to that area. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intracerebroventricular NGF infusion reversed well established abnormalities in BFCN size and number and restored the deficit in cholinergic innervation. (pnas.org)
  • Our hypothesis, developed through our own human and animal studies1-6 and the cell culture work of others (beginning with Nitsch7), is that the normal, age-related loss of cortical cholinergic innervation leads to Aβ deposition and Alzheimer's disease. (atsbio.com)
  • This study supports existing literature that selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain does not produce behavioural impairments in standard tasks of learning and memory, but deficits are apparent when damage is non-selective as occurs late after lesioning, confounding interpretation of behavioural data. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Previous studies in Binswanger disease (hypertensive encephalopathy) and spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated decreased WM volume and loss of cholinergic neuronal markers 6 with significantly decreased acetylcholine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid, hippocampus and cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • This phase is mediated by preganglionic vagal fibers that synapse with postganglionic cholinergic neurons. (stackexchange.com)
  • 1 ] While tonic pupil and reduced sweating can be attributed to the affection of postganglionic cholinergic fibres projecting to the iris and sweat glands, the pathogenesis of diminished or lost tendon jerks remains obscure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Skin conductance (SC), in terms of numbers of skin conduction fluctuations (NSCF), amplitude and mean skin conductance level, reflect the activity in the sympathetic postganglionic cholinergic fibers which innervate the palmar and plantar sweat glands. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • BFCNs were identified by immunohistochemical staining for p75 NGFR , a neurotrophin receptor localized specifically to cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • 192 IgG-saporin, is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated with the use of non-specific lesioning agents. (nih.gov)
  • Given the important role of the cholinergic system in neurodegeneration, the fly olfactory system could be a useful model for the identification of drug targets. (elifesciences.org)
  • 19 The hypothesis that cortical cholinergic denervation arises from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and contributes further to cognitive decline provides a novel approach to the study of the role of WMH in cognitive impairment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our hypothesis was that disruption of cortical cholinergic pathways by WMH would have a more specific impact on cognitive functions than the global cerebral WMH burden, as measured with a general WMH rating scale. (ahajournals.org)
  • Age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. (pnas.org)
  • Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) undergo atrophy and apparent loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) ( 1 , 2 ) and in elderly Down's syndrome (DS) patients ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Various non-invasive approaches to the activation of the cholinergic neurons have strong potential to improve visual perception. (frontiersin.org)
  • This cholinergic enhancement would increase the strength of thalamocortical afferents to facilitate the treatment of a novel stimulus while decreasing the cortico-cortical signaling to reduce recurrent or top-down modulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanisms of cholinergic enhancement are closely linked to attentional processes, long-term potentiation (LTP) and modulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent knowledge about the cellular and functional organization of the primary visual cortex (V1) is particularly interesting for the deciphering of the neurobiological mechanisms of perceptual learning and its modulation by the cholinergic system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, cholinergic modulation of visual processing in V1 would have strong effects on the fine-tuning of perception and the acquisition of memory traces. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to the strong impact of cholinergic modulation of the neocortex and its role in neuropsychiatric disorders, it is imperative that we understand the neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying ACh's role in cognition and neocortical microcircuit function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, recent findings on cholinergic modulation of human neocortical microcircuits suggest that also in the human brain these mechanisms exist, which may prompt us to change our view on the cholinergic system as being merely a slow acting arousal system to one that includes a fast acting manipulation of cortical information flow important for sub-second cognitive operations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cholinergic fibers include all preganglionic fibers, all postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands, and efferent fibers innervating skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any preganglionic fiber, postganglionic parasympathetic fiber, postganglionic sympathetic fiber to a sweat gland, or efferent fiber to skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the sweat glands, piloerectile muscles of the body hairs, and the skeletal muscle arterioles do not use adrenaline/noradrenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Primary axillary hyperhidrosis is thought to result from localized hyperstimultion of sweat glands by the cholinergic sympathetic fibers. (jddonline.com)
  • 2 Injection of BTX leads to flaccid paralysis which results from the temporary chemodenervation of the muscle fibers at the neuromuscular junctions of the eccrine sweat glands, which utilize acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter. (jddonline.com)
  • Coadministration of either ATROSAB or EHD2-scTNF R2 into the magnocellular nucleus basalis significantly protected cholinergic neurons and their cortical projections against cell death, and reverted the neurodegeneration-associated memory impairment in a passive avoidance paradigm. (nih.gov)
  • Our hypothesis is that repetitive pairing of cholinergic and sensory stimulation over a long period of time induces long-term changes in the processing of trained stimuli that might improve perceptual ability. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the basal forebrain cholinergic system is required for eliciting plasticity associated with complex cognitive processing (e.g., behavioral experiences that drive cortical reorganization) but is not required for plasticity mediated under behaviorally independent conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results dissociate the contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to distinct forms of cortical plasticity and support the hypothesis that the forebrain cholinergic system is selectively required for modulating complex forms of cortical plasticity driven by behavioral experience. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the requirement of cholinergic inputs was concurrently assessed for both behaviorally and nonbehaviorally mediated cortical reorganization, within the same cortical domain and in the same animal, allowing us to test the hypothesis that cholinergic inputs are specifically required for cortical map plasticity associated with behavioral experience. (jneurosci.org)
  • 17 The precise role of acetylcholine (ACh) in cognition is still a matter of discussion, although the cholinergic hypothesis of AD has led to the first successful therapeutic strategy for this disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that CADASIL cases exhibit profound cholinergic dysfunction, we measured cortical choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme activity and assessed the immunocytochemical distribution of ChAT and of p75 neurotrophin receptor (P75 NTR ) in postmortem brain tissue from genetically confirmed CADASIL cases and age-matched and elderly controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we have been using a saporin- conjugated antibody to lesion the cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) of rabbits. (atsbio.com)
  • This fact supports the cholinergic hypothesis that acetylcholine diminution results in the cognitive decline observed in AD patients finally go to the first symptomatic treatment of AD [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is considered a sympathetic ganglion and, like other sympathetic ganglia, is supplied by cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic fibers: acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter utilized at this synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Holdstock DJ, Misiewicz JJ, Smith T, Rowlands EN: Propulsion (mass movements) in the human colon and its relationship to meals and somatic activity. (springer.com)
  • Release of a sufficient quantity of ACh from the adjoining presynaptic cell causes an excitatory response in autonomic ganglion cells and in somatic muscle fibers. (washington.edu)
  • Small myelinated fibers transmit preganglionic autonomic efferents (B fibers) and somatic afferents (A delta fibers). (medscape.com)
  • Unmyelinated (C) fibers transmit postganglionic autonomic efferents as well as somatic and autonomic afferents. (medscape.com)
  • Three sets of peripheral nerves are involved in penile erection and subsequent detumescence: parasympathetic nerves from the second to fourth sacral (S2-S4) segments, sympathetic nerves from the tenth thoracic to the second lumbar (T10-L2) thoracolumbar outflow, and somatic fibers via the pudendal nerves (Figure 14). (amazonaws.com)
  • 15-16 Another possible mechanism of cognitive decline with WMH is interference with projecting pathways of modulating neurotransmitter systems in the white matter, such as the cholinergic system. (ahajournals.org)
  • all are cholinergic fibers, and use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, we identified the giant fiber neuron as critical in the seizure circuit and sufficient to suppress seizures. (genetics.org)
  • In low density cultures, TGF alpha acts as a general neuronal survival factor, affecting both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the fact that we know for instance that cholinergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in attention, very little is known about the neuronal circuit mechanisms involved. (frontiersin.org)
  • One mechanism by which WMH may exert their negative impact on cognition is by disruption of corticocortical association fibers or fronto-subcortical neuronal networks. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Our findings suggest cholinergic neuronal impairment in CADASIL and implicate cholinomimetic therapy for subcortical vascular dementias. (ahajournals.org)
  • Davies P, Maloney AJF (1976) Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Haley and colleagues previously found evidence implicating central cholinergic parasympathetic dysfunction in a small group of veterans afflicted with the syndrome. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The pChAT isoform was discovered in 2000 based on observations that brain-derived ChAT antibodies failed to stain peripheral cholinergic neurons as they do for those found in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that scores on several measures of autonomic function were significantly higher among cases, including secretomotor symptoms, sleep abnormalities, urinary symptoms, and upper gastrointestinal motility problems, consistent with dysfunction of both central and peripheral cholinergic function. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Cragg BG, Evans DHL: Some reflexes mediated by the afferent fibers of the abdominal vagus in the rabbit and in the cat. (springer.com)
  • 17. Compare the contractions of smooth and skeletal muscle fibers with regard to speed of contraction and relaxation, ability to contract when greatly stretched, energy required for a sustained contraction, and resistance to fatigue. (cuny.edu)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins induce blockage of voluntary motor and autonomic cholinergic neuromuscular junctions, which prevents motor fiber stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • At 11 months, only rats with combined lesions showed deficits in both radial and water maze tasks, although terminal cholinergic deafferentation was substantial and extensive tissue loss was seen at the injection sites in both single and combined lesions. (nih.gov)
  • However, the extensive tissue loss with long-term lesions suggested that behavioural deficits were not solely attributable to cholinergic deafferentation. (nih.gov)
  • Background and Purpose- One possible mechanism of cognitive decline in individuals with subcortical vascular disease is disruption of cholinergic fibers by ischemic lesions, such as strategically located white matter hyperintensities (WMH). (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 The corticopetal cholinergic pathways project to most cortical areas from the nucleus basalis, are mostly unmyelinated, and are vulnerable to strategically located vascular lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 Electrophysiological studies and animal models with specific corticopetal cholinergic lesions suggest that ACh may be primarily involved in attentional processes with secondary impact on learning and memory functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 It was suggested that the subcortical lesions alone are sufficient to cause cholinergic loss without necessarily affecting the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). (ahajournals.org)
  • Intrastriatally injected botulinum neurotoxin-A differently effects cholinergic and dopaminergic fibers in C57BL/6 mice. (mbfbioscience.com)
  • These findings support the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the axon-Schwann cell relationship previously described. (springer.com)
  • Thus, pure small fiber neuropathies may be associated with normal findings on routine electrophysiologic studies. (medscape.com)
  • These findings stand in sharp contrast to previous reports of cholinergic activity driving arousal. (escholarship.org)
  • TGF alpha does not affect cholinergic cell survival but the expression of their chemical phenotype and does so indirectly via the glial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholinergic agonists attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cholinergic agonists prime the beta-cell to glucose stimulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the BF affect synaptic strength in several brain areas of the rodent brain, with behavioral consequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • The postganglionic fibers of these cells innervate not only the choroidal vasculature, but also the numerous non-vascular smooth muscle cells (NVSMCs) present in the avian choroidal stroma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Methods- As a measure of cholinergic function, we assessed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities in the frontal and temporal neocortices and the immunocytochemical distribution of ChAT and p75 neurotrophin receptor (P75 NTR ) by in vitro imaging in the nucleus basalis of Meynert of CADASIL subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate if NGF affects cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) in organotypic brain slices. (springer.com)
  • Both sexes have disordered cholinergic and glutamatergic fiber tracts from the medial habenula neurons in the interpeduncular nucleus. (jax.org)
  • These nuclei are termed ventral, intermedial, and dorsal nucleus, according to their position within the lemniscal fiber bundle. (oxfordhandbooks.com)
  • These occurred in axons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), an area that provides cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex and atrophies in AD, as well as in cortex and hippocampus of transgenic, but not wild-type mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Selectively driving cholinergic fibers optically in the thalamic reticular nucleus promotes sleep. (escholarship.org)
  • Using transgenic mice in which channelrhdopsin-2 is selectively expressed in cholinergic neurons, we show that optical stimulation of cholinergic inputs to the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) activates local GABAergic neurons to promote sleep and protect non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. (escholarship.org)
  • Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF cholinergic neurons with the possibility to rapidly alter information flow in cortical microcircuits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Laminar selectivity of the cholinergic suppression of synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal region CA1: computational modeling and brain slice physiology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mossy fiber terminals are the central elements in complex synaptic formations that include dendrites of granular neurons and neurites of Golgi cells. (unboundmedicine.com)