Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Oxotremorine: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Bethanechol CompoundsArecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Benzylidene Compounds: Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Quinuclidinyl Benzilate: A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.Receptor, Muscarinic M1: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.Decamethonium Compounds: Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mecamylamine: A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).GABA-B Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Purinergic Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (1/652)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (2/652)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Influence of nitric oxide modulators on cholinergically stimulated hormone release from mouse islets. (3/652)

1. We have investigated, with a combined in vitro and in vivo approach, the influence on insulin and glucagon release stimulated by the cholinergic, muscarinic agonist carbachol of different NO modulators, i.e. the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and 7-nitroindazole as well as the intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine. 2. At basal glucose (7 mM) carbachol dose-dependently stimulated insulin release from isolated islets with a half-maximal response at approximately 1 microM of the agonist. In the presence of 5 mM L-NAME (a concentration that did not influence basal insulin release) the insulin response was markedly increased along the whole dose-response curve and the threshold for carbachol stimulation was significantly lowered. 3. Carbachol-stimulated islets displayed an increased insulin release and a suppressed glucagon release in the presence of L-NAME, L-NMMA or 7-nitroindazole. Significant suppression of glucagon release (except for L-NAME) was achieved at lower concentrations (approximately 0.1-0.5 mM) of the NOS inhibitors than the potentiation of insulin release (1.0-5.0 mM). The intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced insulin release but stimulated glucagon release only at a low concentration (3 microM). 4. In islets depolarized with 30 mM K+ in the presence of the KATP channel opener diazoxide, NOS inhibition by 5 mM L-NAME still markedly potentiated carbachol-induced insulin release (although less so than in normal islets) and suppressed glucagon release. 5. In vivo pretreatment of mice with L-NAME was followed by a markedly increased insulin release and a reduced glucagon release in response to an i.v. injection of carbachol. 6. The data suggest that NO is a negative modulator of insulin release but a positive modulator of glucagon release induced by cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. These effects were also evident in K+ depolarized islets and thus NO might exert a major influence on islet hormone secretion independently of membrane depolarization events.  (+info)

Miniglucagon (glucagon 19-29), a potent and efficient inhibitor of secretagogue-induced insulin release through a Ca2+ pathway. (4/652)

Using the MIN6 B-cell line, we investigated the hypothesis that miniglucagon, the C-terminal () fragment processed from glucagon and present in pancreatic A cells, modulates insulin release, and we analyzed its cellular mode of action. We show that, at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1000 pM, miniglucagon dose-dependently (ID50 = 1 pM) inhibited by 80-100% the insulin release triggered by glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (tGLP-1), or glibenclamide, but not that induced by carbachol. Miniglucagon had no significant effects on cellular cAMP levels. The increase in 45Ca2+ uptake induced by depolarizing agents (glucose or extracellular K+), by glucagon, or by the Ca2+channel agonist Bay K-8644 was blocked by miniglucagon at the doses active on insulin release. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that miniglucagon induces membrane hyperpolarization, probably by opening potassium channels, which terminated glucose-induced electrical activity. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin abolished the effects of miniglucagon on insulin release. It is concluded that miniglucagon is a highly potent and efficient inhibitor of insulin release by closing, via hyperpolarization, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels linked to a pathway involving a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.  (+info)

Cholinergic and GABAergic regulation of nitric oxide synthesis in the guinea pig ileum. (5/652)

Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was examined in intact longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of the guinea pig ileum by determining the formation of [3H]citrulline during incubation with [3H]arginine. Spontaneous [3H]citrulline production after 30 min was 80-90 dpm/mg, which constituted approximately 1% of the tissue radioactivity. Electrical stimulation (10 Hz) led to a threefold increase in [3H]citrulline formation. Removal of calcium from the medium or addition of NG-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited both spontaneous and electrically induced production of [3H]citrulline. TTX reduced the electrically induced but not spontaneous [3H]citrulline formation. The electrically induced formation of [3H]citrulline was diminished by (+)-tubocurarine and mecamylamine and enhanced by scopolamine, which suggests that endogenous ACh inhibits, via muscarinic receptors, and stimulates, via nicotinic receptors, the NO synthesis in the myenteric plexus. The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and GABA also reduced the electrically evoked formation of [3H]citrulline, whereas baclofen was without effect. Bicuculline antagonized the inhibitory effect of GABA. It is concluded that nitrergic myenteric neurons are equipped with GABAA receptors, which mediate inhibition of NO synthesis.  (+info)

Purinergic and cholinergic agonists induce exocytosis from the same granule pool in HT29-Cl.16E monolayers. (6/652)

Several secretagogues induce mucin secretion in epithelial monolayers, as determined by measuring released granule contents. To assess whether different agonists act on the same granule pool, capacitance changes in intact monolayers of the goblet cell line HT29-Cl.16E were measured by a novel impedance method. Apical ATP (purinergic agonist) and basolateral carbachol (cholinergic agonist) induce rapid exocytosis with maximal capacitance changes within 3 min. The maximal levels of exocytosis that can be induced by optimal concentrations of either agonist are the same and produce a 30-40% increase in total monolayer capacitance. When ATP and carbachol are applied simultaneously, the magnitude of exocytosis is unchanged from the single-secretagogue level. The recovery of capacitance to baseline (endocytosis) is significantly faster after ATP stimulation than after carbachol stimulation. When ATP and carbachol are applied sequentially at doses that give maximal exocytosis, the magnitude of the capacitance increase produced by the second secretagogue is less than or equal to that of the capacitance decrease during the recovery period. Together, these data suggest that purinergic and cholinergic agonists act on the same granule pool.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of muscarinic and VIP receptor subtypes and their role in stimulating goblet cell secretion. (7/652)

PURPOSE: To determine the subtypes of cholinergic muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) present in rat conjunctival goblet cells and whether cholinergic agonists and VIP stimulate goblet cell secretion. METHODS: Immunofluorescence studies were performed using antibodies against the m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes and VIP receptors 1 and 2 (VIPR1 and VIPR2). The lectin Ulex europeus agglutinin I was used to measure glycoconjugate secretion, the index of secretion, from goblet cells in an enzyme-linked lectin assay. In this assay, pieces of conjunctiva were placed on filter paper and incubated for 15 to 120 minutes, with or without increasing concentrations of the cholinergic agonist carbachol or VIP. The muscarinic antagonist atropine and the muscarinic receptor-subtype-selective antagonists pirenzepine (M1), gallamine (M2), and 4-4-diphenylacetoxy-N-(2-chloroethyl)-piperidine hydrochloride (4-DAMP mustard; M3) were incubated with carbachol to determine specificity of receptor activation. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity to M2 and M3 receptors was found on goblet cell membranes subjacent to the secretory granules. Immunoreactivity to M1 receptor was not on goblet cells but was on the stratitfied squamous cells. Immunoreactivity to VIPR2 was found on goblet cells with a localization similar to that of the M2 and M3 receptors. VIPR1 was not found on goblet cells or on the stratified squamous cells. Carbachol and VIP induced a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of glycoconjugate secretion. Carbachol, at 10(-4) M, induced a threefold increase in glycoconjugate secretion, which was completely inhibited by atropine (10(-5) M). Carbachol-induced secretion was inhibited 54% +/- 8% by pirenzepine (10(-5) M), 69% +/- 14% by gallamine (10(-5) M), and 72% +/- 11% by 4-DAMP mustard (10(-5) M). A twofold increase in glycoconjugate secretion was obtained with VIP at 10(-8) M. CONCLUSIONS: Cholinergic agonists, through M2 and/or M3 muscarinic receptors, and VIP, through VIPR2, regulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion, suggesting that goblet cell secretion in vivo is under the control of parasympathetic nerves.  (+info)

Modulation of inhibitory synaptic potentials in the piriform cortex. (8/652)

Modulation of inhibitory synaptic potentials in the piriform cortex. Intracellular recordings from pyramidal neurons in brain slice preparations of the piriform cortex were used to test results from a computational model about the effects of cholinergic agonists on inhibitory synaptic potentials induced by stimulation of afferent fibers in layer Ia and association/intrinsic fibers in layer Ib. A simple model of piriform cortex as an associative memory was used to analyze how suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission influenced performance of the network. Levels of suppression of excitatory synaptic transmission were set at levels determined in previous experimental work. Levels of suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission were then systematically varied within the model. This modeling work demonstrated that suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in layer Ib should be stronger than suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in layer Ia to keep activity levels high enough for effective storage. Experimental data showed that perfusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol caused a significant suppression of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in the pyramidal neurons that were induced by stimulation of layer Ib, with a weaker effect on IPSPs induced by stimulation of layer Ia. As previously described, carbachol also selectively suppressed excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) elicited by intrinsic but not afferent fiber stimulation. The decrease in amplitude of IPSPs induced by layer Ib stimulation did not appear to be directly related to the decrease in EPSP amplitude induced by layer Ib stimulation. The stimulation necessary to induce neuronal firing with layer Ia stimulation was reduced in the presence of carbachol, whereas that necessary to induce neuronal firing with layer Ib stimulation was increased, despite the depolarization of resting membrane potential. Thus physiological data on cholinergic modulation of inhibitory synaptic potentials in the piriform cortex is compatible with the functional requirements determined from computational models of piriform cortex associative memory function.  (+info)

*Carbachol

Thus it is classified as a cholinergic agonist. It is primarily used for various ophthalmic purposes, such as for treating ... The effects of a systemic overdose will probably be similar to the effects of a nerve agent (they both act on the cholinergic ... Use of carbachol, as well as all other muscarinic receptor agonists, is contraindicated in patients with asthma, coronary ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). A recent ...

*Vedaclidine

link) Womer, DE; Shannon, HE (2000). "Reversal of pertussis toxin-induced thermal allodynia by muscarinic cholinergic agonists ... Vedaclidine (INN, codenamed LY-297,802, NNC 11-1053) is a novel analgesic drug which acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist at ... May 1997). "Pharmacology of butylthio[2.2.2] (LY297802/NNC11-1053) a novel analgesic with mixed muscarinic receptor agonist and ... May 1997). "Butylthio[2.2.2] (NNC 11-1053/LY297802) an orally active muscarinic agonist analgesic". Journal of Pharmacology and ...

*Tacrine

... is a centrally acting anticholinesterase and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic). It was the first ...

*Xanomeline

Lieberman JA, Javitch JA, Moore H (August 2008). "Cholinergic agonists as novel treatments for schizophrenia: the promise of ... 1996). "PET study of the M1-agonists [11C]xanomeline and [11C]butylthio-TZTP in monkey and man". Dementia (Basel, Switzerland ... Jakubík J, Michal P, Machová E, Dolezal V (2008). "Importance and prospects for design of selective muscarinic agonists" (PDF ... Xanomeline (LY-246,708; Lumeron, Memcor) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with reasonable selectivity for the M1 ...

*Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

Chatterjee PK, Al-Abed Y, Sherry B, Metz CN (November 2009). "Cholinergic agonists regulate JAK2/STAT3 signaling to suppress ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway provides a braking effect on the innate immune response which protects the body ... The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway regulates the innate immune response to injury, pathogens, and tissue ischemia. It is ... Zabrodskiĭ PF (August 1995). "[Change in the non-specific anti-infection resistance of the body exposed to cholinergic ...

*Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive

... a cholinergic agonist, in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The American Journal of ... New nicotinic cholinergic medications in development for ADHD are pozanicline,[non-primary source needed] ABT-418,[non-primary ... The use of cholinergic adjunctive medications is uncommon and their clinical effects are poorly researched;[unreliable medical ... Potter AS, Newhouse PA, Bucci DJ (December 2006). "Central nicotinic cholinergic systems: a role in the cognitive dysfunction ...

*ABT-418

... a cholinergic agonist, in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". Am J Psychiatry. 156 (12): ... Potter A, Corwin J, Lang J, Piasecki M, Lenox R, Newhouse PA (March 1999). "Acute effects of the selective cholinergic channel ... It acts as an agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, subtype-selective binding with high affinity to the α4β2, α7 ... Wilens TE, Decker MW (October 2007). "Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity ...

*Pontine tegmentum

Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. PET ... Woolf, NJ; Butcher, LL (2011). "Cholinergic systems mediate action from movement to higher consciousness". Behavioural Brain ... The pontine tegmentum contains two predominately cholinergic nuclei, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the laterodorsal ... the mesopontine cholinergic system comprising the pedunculopontine nucleus and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and the ...

*Alex Karczmar

Karczmar demonstrated that cholinergic agonists counteract the behavior exhibited in animal models of schizophrenia (Karczmar ... Cholinergic mechanisms, schizophrenia, and neuropsychiatric adaptive dysfunctions. In: Central Cholinergic Mechanisms and ... on this basis and on the basis of other cholinergic behavioral and EEG actions Karczmar proposed that the cholinergic system ... Cholinergic control of hypokinesia. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 39: 374. Karczmar, A. G. and Long, J. P. 1958. Relationship between ...

*Cholinergic

The memory impairments were reversed when treated with physostigmine, a cholinergic agonist. However, reversing memory ... A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine ... Thus it was proposed that degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the associated loss of cholinergic ... and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic. In addition, the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands are also cholinergic, ...

*Cholinergic urticaria

The term cholinergic is derived from the finding that hives similar to those of CU can be evoked using cholinergic agonists (e. ... Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is a type of physical urticaria (or hives) that appears when a person is sweating. CU typically ... Hirschmann, J. V.; Lawlor, F.; English, J. S.; Louback, J. B.; Winkelmann, R. K.; Greaves, M. W. (1987). "Cholinergic urticaria ... Kobayashi, H.; Aiba, S.; Yamagishi, T.; Tanita, M.; Hara, M.; Saito, H.; Tagami, H. (2002). "Cholinergic urticaria, a new ...

*Hyperhidrosis

... adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists. In people with a past history of spinal cord injuries Autonomic dysreflexia ...

*Myasthenia gravis

Pyridostigmine is a relatively long-acting drug (when compared to other cholinergic agonists), with a half-life around four ...

*Con Stough

... doctoral position at the University of Auckland working on the pharmacological and cognitive effects of the cholinergic agonist ...

*Retinal waves

Intraocular injections of epibatidine, a cholinergic agonist, can be used to block spontaneous firing in half of all retinal ... During this period, cholinergic wave production exceeds wave production via gap junctions, of which the signals are quite ... Cholinergic wave activity eventually dies out and the release of glutamate in bipolar cells generates waves. Bipolar cells ... The change from cholinergic mediation to glutamatergic mediation occurs when bipolar cells make their first synaptic ...

*Neurotransmitter receptor

Glycine Autoreceptor Catecholamines Cholinergic agonists and antagonists Heteroreceptor Imidazoline receptor Neuromuscular ... H3 Cholinergic: Muscarinic: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5; Nicotinic: muscle, neuronal (α-bungarotoxin-insensitive), neuronal (α- ...

*Nicotine

Both drugs are agonists are nicotinic cholinergic receptors ... Robert L. Metcalf (2007), "Insect Control", Ullmann's ... Nicotine increases cholinergic signalling and adrenergic signalling in the case of colon cancer, thereby impeding apoptosis ( ... Nicotine acts as an agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits ( ... This nicotine-induced dopamine release occurs at least partially through activation of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link ...

*Myosin binding protein C, cardiac

Hartzell HC, Titus L (Feb 1982). "Effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on phosphorylation of a 165,000-dalton ...

*Nonsynaptic plasticity

Amongst the common drugs of abuse, nicotine is one of the strongest agonists at the nicotinic cholinergic synapse. Nicotine, ...

*Acetylcholinesterase

Stoelting R (1999). Anticholinesterase Drugs and Cholinergic Agonists", in Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice. ... For a cholinergic neuron to receive another impulse, ACh must be released from the ACh receptor. This occurs only when the ... AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to ... ISBN 0-7167-1614-3. Whittaker VP (1990). "The Contribution of Drugs and Toxins to Understanding of Cholinergic Function". ...

*Muscarinic agonist

1] Fisher A (July 2008). "Cholinergic treatments with emphasis on m1 muscarinic agonists as potential disease-modifying agents ... In the form of pilocarpine, muscarinic receptor agonists have been used medically for a short time. M3 agonists Aceclidine, for ... A muscarinic receptor agonist is an agent that activates the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. The muscarinic ... A number of muscarinic agonists have been developed and are under investigation to treat AD. These agents show promise as they ...

*Dioscorine

Since dioscorine is as a cholinergic receptor ligand, any stronger agonist of the nAChR can serve as valid antidote of ... as opposed to agonist or inverse agonist). Co-application of dioscorine and acetylcholine at the surface of the ion channel ... Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov,. Aza-bridged bicyclic amine derivatives for use as novel cholinergic receptor ligands https://pubchem ...

*Alvameline

"In vivo muscarinic cholinergic mediated effects of Lu 25-109, a M1 agonist and M2/M3 antagonist in vitro". Psychopharmacology. ... Alvameline (Lu 25-109) is a M1 receptor agonist and M2/M3 receptor antagonist that was under investigation for the treatment of ... A quite different tack involves developing compounds that have cholinergic activity in their own right. The tetrazole ... yielding the muscarinic agonist alvameline (8). Milameline Sabcomeline Tazomeline Xanomeline Sánchez C, Arnt J, Didriksen M, ...

*E-6801

... is a partial agonist of the 5-HT6 receptor. It enhanced recognition memory and reversed the memory deficits of ... The mechanism of memory enhancement is due to a combined modulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. E-6837 ... Kendall, I. (February 2011). "E-6801, a 5-HT6 receptor agonist, improves recognition memory by combined modulation of ... cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat". Psychopharmacology. 213 (2-3): 413-30. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1854 ...

*Melatonergic

Adenosinergic Adrenergic Cannabinoidergic Cholinergic Dopaminergic GABAergic Glycinergic Histaminergic Monoaminergic ... Examples include melatonin receptor agonists and melatonin receptor antagonists. ...

*Metabotropic glutamate receptor

... has been found to cause more damage to neurons in the presence of group I mGluR agonists. On the other hand, agonists of group ... 5 on mGluR1 function in striatal cholinergic interneurons". Neuropharmacology. 49. 49 Suppl 1: 104-13. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm ... There is also growing evidence that group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists may play a role in the treatment of ... A dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for signaling induced by agonists. Eight different types of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 ...
The concentrations of acetylcholine and norepinephrine and acetylcholinesterase activity in the myocardium as well as chronotropic cardiac response to exogenous mediators administered in increasing...
Bicuculline, Carbachol, Cholinergic Agonist, Gaba, Hippocampal Formation, Hippocampus, Neuron, Neurons, Population, Rats, Separated, Urethane
Carbachol- యొక్క ఉపయోగాలు, మోతాదు, దుష్ప్రభావాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, పరస్పర చర్యలు మరియు హెచ్చరికను కనుగొనండి
Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) is a prevailing form of endocannabinoid signalling. However, several discrepancies have arisen regarding the roles played by the two major brain endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in mediating DSI. Here we studied endocannabinoid signalling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), where several components of the endocannabinoid system have been identified, but endocannabinoid signalling remains largely unexplored. In voltage clamp recordings from mouse PFC pyramidal neurons, depolarizing steps significantly suppressed IPSCs induced by application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol. DSI in PFC neurons was abolished by extra- or intracellular application of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), an inhibitor of the 2-AG synthesis enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). Moreover, DSI was enhanced by inhibiting 2-AG degradation, but was unaffected by inhibiting anandamide degradation. THL, however, may affect other enzymes of lipid ...
How is carbachol-induced active sleep abbreviated? c-AS stands for carbachol-induced active sleep. c-AS is defined as carbachol-induced active sleep rarely.
Spatio-temporal patterns of CCh-induced [Ca2+]i transients. The x-y confocal Ca2+ imaging was performed at 32 Hz (A and B), 40 Hz (C), 44 Hz (D) and 30 Hz
Stoelting, R.K., Anticholinesterase Drugs and Cholinergic Agonists, in Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999, 224-237; Taylor, P. Anticholinesterase Agents, In, Goodman and Gillmans The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics,(Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.161-174.. ...
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In Chapter 11, we discussed the development of alpha-7-nicotinic cholinergic agonists as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. 10.
Isopto Carbachol - Get up-to-date information on Isopto Carbachol side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Isopto Carbachol
Therefore, it is also possible to modify our algorithm to study the coupling mechanisms between exocytosis and endocytosis in the future. Combinatorial microscopy. Google Scholar Employing FM fluorescence imaging, basolateral exocytosis was observed in dispersed rat pancreatic acini after supramaximal CCK or carbachol stimulation; and more remarkably, also after treatment with clinically-relevant concentrations of alcohol and putative alcohol metabolites followed by physiologic CCK or carbachol stimulation 8, 9, 28thus simulating alcoholic pancreatitis. AIP Conf. In summary, we have developed a software platform for the identification and spatiotemporal analysis of vesicle fusion events obtained by TIRF microscopy.. ...
... is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, this is a common symptom particularly in older adults and has a variety of causes. Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist that non-selectively binds to muscarinic receptors in smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal, urinary and pulmonary systems and stimulates the production of secretions from the salivary and sweat [read the full story…]. ...
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The molecular identities of the pathways that mediate K+ and Cl− effluxes in serous acinar cells are unknown. CFTR mRNA is expressed in these cells, and immunocytochemistry revealed it to be present near the apical membrane. To examine the role of CFTR in Ca2+-evoked fluid secretion, we employed cells from the cftrtm1Unc−/− mouse and we pharmacologically inhibited CFTR in WT mouse cells. The results demonstrated that mouse nasal acinar cells from both WT and cftrtm1Unc−/− mice, as well as WT cells treated with CFTRinh172, all exhibited similar rates of Cl− efflux in response to muscarinic stimulation. Isolated intact submucosal glands from CF individuals that lack functional CFTR can secrete fluid in response to cholinergic agonists (Joo et al. 2002a), and it was recently shown that intact glands in WT and cftrtm1Unc−/− mice trachea secrete fluid in response to CCh at similar rates (Ianowski et al. 2007). It has remained unclear if cholinergic-induced fluid secretion in CF glands ...
For immunofluorescence microscopy, the eyes were enucleated with the lids intact and fixed in 4% formaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 145 mM NaCl, 7.3 mM Na2HPO4, and 2.7 mM NaH2PO4 [pH 7.2]), for 4 hours at 4°C. The eyes were then rinsed in 5% sucrose dissolved in PBS, placed overnight in 30% sucrose dissolved in PBS at 4°C, embedded in OCT, and frozen. Cryostat sections (6 μm) were placed on slides (Colorfrost/Plus; Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA) and kept at −20°C until use. Cultured goblet cells (CGCs) grown on glass coverslips were fixed in absolute methanol. Tissue sections and CGCs were then washed in PBS and blocked in PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin, 4% goat serum, and 0.2% to 0.3% Triton X-100. The NT antibodies (NGF, BDNF, NT3, and NT4) were used at a dilution of 1:800. The NTr antibodies (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC, and p75) were used at a dilution of 1:200. All antibodies were diluted in PBS containing 0.3% Triton X-100 and incubated for 48 hours at 4°C. The ...
Carbachol lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the amount of fluid that drains from the eye. Carbachol ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to reduce pressure inside the eye after cataract surgery. Carbachol ophthalmic may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
The pancreas is a mixed gland secretion (external or internal or digestive and insulin) that is in the highest part of the deep abdominal cavity behind the stomach. The pancreas is located in a transverse position with a head, body and tail. Its internal structure is clustered and each of the grains corresponds to a secretory gland acinus.
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Values are means ± SE. Cholinergic responses evoked by bath application of carbachol (10 μM for 5 min) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Boldface numbers indicate P , 0.05 for carbachol-induced effects within individual cell types (repeated-measures ANOVA with post-tests: baseline, carbachol, and wash). Asterisks indicate P , 0.01 when compared with values in wild-type neurons (one-way ANOVA with post-tests). ...
Cholinergic receptor information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
We studied the effects of cholinergic agonists on slow delayed-rectifier K+ current (IKs) in isolated cells from the sino-atrial node (SAN) region of guinea pig heart, using patch-clamp procedures. Carbachol (5 nM to 10 microM) inhibited IKs in guinea pig SAN cells in the absence of previous beta-adrenergic stimulation and in cells pretreated with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP. Neither the muscarinic antagonist atropine nor the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium antagonized carbachol inhibition of the current. Similar results were obtained with other cholinergic agonists. Cholinergic stimulation of the muscarinic K+ current was successfully antagonized by atropine in SAN cells where inhibition of IKs persisted. Therefore, the lack of antagonist effects on inhibition of IKs cannot be attributed to either an absence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on SAN cells or a loss of antagonist activity under our experimental conditions. These data demonstrate that cholinergic agonists, including the endogenous ...
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IO-CHOL(Carbachol Intraocular Solution USP 0.01% w/v) Description: IO-Chol is a sterile balanced salt solution of carbachol for intracular injection. Warnings & Precautions: Do not…. ...

Role of Neurotrophins and Neurotrophin Receptors in Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion and Proliferation | IOVS | ARVO...Role of Neurotrophins and Neurotrophin Receptors in Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion and Proliferation | IOVS | ARVO...

The cholinergic agonist carbachol at 10−4 M was used as the positive control. Goblet cell secretion was measured using an ... Cholinergic agonists transactivate EGFR and stimulate MAPK to induce goblet cell secretion. Am J Physiol. 2003;284:C988-C998. [ ... The cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch) was the positive control. The amount of glycoconjugate secreted into the media was ... The cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch) was the positive control. The amount of glycoconjugate secreted into the media was ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2126849

Cholinergic Agonists - Semantic ScholarCholinergic Agonists - Semantic Scholar

Any agent that is capable of activating cholinergic receptors (nicotinic and muscarinic) or of enhancing or prolonging the ... Cholinergic Agonists. Known as: Cholinergic Agonist, Agonists, Cholinergic, Acetylcholine Agonists (More). Any agent that is ... Cholinergic agonists inhibit HMGB1 release and improve survival in experimental sepsis. *Hong Wang, Hong Liao, +9 authors L. ... Cholinergic agonists attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.. *Michael M Yeboah, Xiangying Xue, +4 authors ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Cholinergic-Agonists/38303

Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals,...Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals,...

Cholinergic Agonists. Class Summary. Excessive parasympathetic suppression appears to be involved in the genesis of intestinal ... Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid ... Tegaserod is a serotonin type 4 receptor partial agonist with no affinity for 5-HT3 receptors. It may trigger peristaltic ... Cholinergic agents may allow early resolution of pseudo-obstruction and obviate surgery. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/179937-medication

Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) Medication: Potassium Channel Blockers, Cholinergic Agonists, Immunosuppressants,...Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) Medication: Potassium Channel Blockers, Cholinergic Agonists, Immunosuppressants,...

Cholinergic Agonists. Class Summary. Cholinergic agonists produce symptomatic improvement in strength, autonomic symptoms, or ... resulting in ACh accumulation at synapses and increasing stimulation of cholinergic receptors at myoneural junction. ... of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome synaptic impairment by the combined use of a K+ channel blocker and a Ca2+ channel agonist ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1170810-medication

Cholinergic agonists and antagonists Flashcards by Leslie Rea | BrainscapeCholinergic agonists and antagonists Flashcards by Leslie Rea | Brainscape

Study Cholinergic agonists and antagonists flashcards from Leslie Rea ... Cholinergic agonists and antagonists Flashcards Preview Pharm , Cholinergic agonists and antagonists , Flashcards ... 1. muscarine → muscarinic agonist. 2. Arecoline → muscarinic and nicotinic agonist. 3. Pilocarpine → mainly muscarinic agonist ... 1. What is the difference b/t a direct-acting and indirect-acting cholinergic agonist? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/cholinergic-agonists-and-antagonists-5333912/packs/7968324

Characterization of buccal motor programs elicited by a cholinergic agonist applied to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia...Characterization of buccal motor programs elicited by a cholinergic agonist applied to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia...

Characterization of buccal motor programs elicited by a cholinergic agonist applied to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia ... Applying the non-hydrolyzable cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) to the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia elicits sustained, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8828179?dopt=Abstract

Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus...Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus...

Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ... Evidence for presynaptic inhibition of the olfactory commissural pathway by cholinergic agonists and stimulation of the nucleus ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/13/2/650/tab-article-info

Frontiers | Canonical and Novel Non-Canonical Cholinergic Agonists Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of Monocytic Interleukin-1β via...Frontiers | Canonical and Novel Non-Canonical Cholinergic Agonists Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of Monocytic Interleukin-1β via...

In conclusion, we demonstrate that canonical nicotinic agonists and phosphocholine elicit metabotropic nAChR activity in ... Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine (PC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as novel nicotinic agonists that ... Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine as novel nicotinic agonists that elicit ... function as nAChR agonists. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nAChR gene-deficient mice, we demonstrated that ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2017.00189/full

REACTIVITY OF CHICK EMBRYO HEART TO CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS DURING ONTOGENESIS: DECLINE IN DESENSITIZATION AT THE ONSET OF...REACTIVITY OF CHICK EMBRYO HEART TO CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS DURING ONTOGENESIS: DECLINE IN DESENSITIZATION AT THE ONSET OF...

... chick embryo atria underwent a change in reactivity to tetrodotoxin and to cholinergic agonists at the time of cholinergic ... REACTIVITY OF CHICK EMBRYO HEART TO CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS DURING ONTOGENESIS: DECLINE IN DESENSITIZATION AT THE ONSET OF ... REACTIVITY OF CHICK EMBRYO HEART TO CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS DURING ONTOGENESIS: DECLINE IN DESENSITIZATION AT THE ONSET OF ... REACTIVITY OF CHICK EMBRYO HEART TO CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS DURING ONTOGENESIS: DECLINE IN DESENSITIZATION AT THE ONSET OF ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/191/1/109

EP2062595A1 - Inhibition of inflammation using alpha 7 receptor-binding cholinergic agonists 
        - Google PatentsEP2062595A1 - Inhibition of inflammation using alpha 7 receptor-binding cholinergic agonists - Google Patents

The methods comprise treating the macrophage with a cholinergic agonist in an amount sufficient to decrease the amount of the ... Methods for determining whether a compound is a cholinergic agonist reactive with an α7 nicotinic receptor are also provided. ... These methods comprise determining whether the compound reduces the ability of a cholinergic agonist to inhibit the release of ... The methods comprise treating the patient with a cholinergic agonist in an amount sufficient to inhibit the inflammatory ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2062595A1/en

The Safety and Tolerance of Xanomeline Tartrate, an M1-Specific Cholinergic Agonist, in Patients with Alzheimers Disease |...The Safety and Tolerance of Xanomeline Tartrate, an M1-Specific Cholinergic Agonist, in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease |...

... is a potent and selective M1 agonist that crosses the blood... ... an M1-Specific Cholinergic Agonist, in Patients with ... Cholinergic Agonist Healthy Elderly Subject Orthostatic Blood Pressure Moderate Nausea Moderate Diarrhea These keywords were ... an M1-Specific Cholinergic Agonist, in Patients with Alzheimers Disease. In: Hanin I., Yoshida M., Fisher A. (eds) Alzheimers ... Clinical trials of other cholinergic compounds have shown that the AD patient population frequently tolerates drugs quite ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9145-7_70

Cholinergic agonist (2) | Article about cholinergic agonist (2) by The Free DictionaryCholinergic agonist (2) | Article about cholinergic agonist (2) by The Free Dictionary

A contracting muscle that is resisted or... Explanation of cholinergic agonist (2) ... Find out information about cholinergic agonist (2). A chemical substance that can combine with a cell receptor and cause a ... Related to cholinergic agonist (2): Adrenergic agonist. agonist. [′ag·ə‚nist] (biochemistry) A chemical substance that can ... agonist. (redirected from cholinergic agonist (2)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cholinergic+agonist+

TREATMENT WITH CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS - Patent applicationTREATMENT WITH CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS - Patent application

The cholinergic agonist compositions can be prepared with carriers that can protect the cholinergic agonist against rapid ... In certain embodiments, the cholinergic agonist is a muscarinic receptor agonist. [0037] The term "muscarinic receptor agonist ... where the cholinergic agonist is administered as a suppository. [0011] In various embodiments, the cholinergic agonist can be ... wherein the cholinergic agonist is administered intravaginally. 48. The method of claim 47, wherein the cholinergic agonist is ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110195987

Karbachol
        -
        Analgesics, Non-Narcotic,  Cardiotonic Agents,  Cholinergic Agonists,  Miotics,  ATC:N07AB01,  ATC...Karbachol - Analgesics, Non-Narcotic, Cardiotonic Agents, Cholinergic Agonists, Miotics, ATC:N07AB01, ATC...

Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Karbachol.html

Rilentol
        -
        Analgesics, Non-Narcotic,  Cardiotonic Agents,  Cholinergic Agonists,  Miotics,  ATC:N07AB01,  ATC...Rilentol - Analgesics, Non-Narcotic, Cardiotonic Agents, Cholinergic Agonists, Miotics, ATC:N07AB01, ATC...

Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Rilentol.html

INHIBITION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS AND     VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION - Patent applicationINHIBITION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS AND VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION - Patent application

... or no cholinergic agonist, which demonstrate that cholinergic agonists do not reduce LPS-stimulated TNF mRNA levels in ... 0040] As used herein, a cholinergic agonist is a compound that binds to cells expressing cholinergic receptor activity. The ... cholinergic agonist. [0099] The neural-immune interaction described here, which we term the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory ... Cholinergic Agonists Inhibit Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines from Macrophages [0064] 1. Materials and Methods [0065] Human ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20150100100

Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist | Journal of Pharmacology and...Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist | Journal of Pharmacology and...

Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist. Aida I. Sacaan, Richard T. Reid, Emily ... Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist. Aida I. Sacaan, Richard T. Reid, Emily ... Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist. Aida I. Sacaan, Richard T. Reid, Emily ... Pharmacological Characterization of SIB-1765F: A Novel Cholinergic Ion Channel Agonist Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/280/1/373

The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally...The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally...

These data suggest that the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the HPA axis in the rat and that this effect is ... The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally- ... Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that acetylcholine and other cholinergic agonists are excitatory to the ... we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline in intact and pituitary stalk- ...
more infohttps://repo.euc.ac.cy/handle/123456789/710

Effects of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Agonists on Adenylate Cyclase Activity of Retinal Microvascular Pericytes in Culture - PDFEffects of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Agonists on Adenylate Cyclase Activity of Retinal Microvascular Pericytes in Culture - PDF

1, January 1992 Copyright Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Effects of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Agonists ... The a 2 agonist clonidine decreased basal camp synthesis and reduced the effect of isoproterenol. The cholinergic agonist ... Effects of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Agonists on Adenylate Cyclase Activity of Retinal Microvascular Pericytes in Culture. ... forskolin with or without agonists, agonists in different concentration, or agonists with or without antagonists). On each day ...
more infohttp://healthdocbox.com/Diabetes/66548029-Effects-of-cholinergic-and-adrenergic-agonists-on-adenylate-cyclase-activity-of-retinal-microvascular-pericytes-in-culture.html

Patent US6147109 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG-CoA ... - Google PatentsPatent US6147109 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG-CoA ... - Google Patents

... cholinergic; cholinergic agonist; cholinesterase deactivator; coccidiostat; cognition adjuvant; cognition enhancer; depressant ... LNRII agonist; liver disorder treatment; luteolysin; memory adjuvant; mental performance enhancer; mood regulator; mucolytic; ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6147109?dq=%22robert+sheehan%22

Patent US6180597 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase by rho ... - Google PatentsPatent US6180597 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase by rho ... - Google Patents

... cholinergic; cholinergic agonist; cholinesterase deactivator; coccidiostat; cognition adjuvant; cognition enhancer; depressant ... LNRH agonist; liver disorder treatment; luteolysin; memory adjuvant; mental performance enhancer; mood regulator; mucolytic; ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US6180597

Online Graduate Pharmacology Course | College of NursingOnline Graduate Pharmacology Course | College of Nursing

Cholinergic Agonists * Cholinergic Antagonists * Adrenergic Agonists * Adrenergic Antagonists See Moodle for Web-based ...
more infohttps://www.uky.edu/nursing/online-graduate-pharmacology-course-0

Complete Guide to Prescription & Nonprescription Drugs 2011 - H. Winter Griffith - Google BooksComplete Guide to Prescription & Nonprescription Drugs 2011 - H. Winter Griffith - Google Books

The revised and updated 2011 edition of the most accessible, comprehensive and affordable guide to prescription and nonprescription drugs. The classic guide to all major prescription and nonprescription drugs, featuring revised, up-to date FDA information and an A-Z list of medical conditions and their commonly used drugs for easy reference. It includes coverage of dosage and length of time before the drug takes effect, side effects, special precautions, interactions with other food and drugs, standards for use by different age groups, and much more. It also features a generic and brand name directory, a comprehensive glossary, and complete index by generic, brand, and class name.
more infohttps://books.google.com/books/about/Complete_Guide_to_Prescription_and_Nonpr.html?id=6LdbptaO8zQC&hl=en

Effect of Varenicline on Cognitive Function in Cigarette Smokers With Schizophrenia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govEffect of Varenicline on Cognitive Function in Cigarette Smokers With Schizophrenia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Nicotinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Varenicline (VAR), an α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, approved for smoking cessation, mimics the effect of nicotine by stimulating ... It has been shown that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia improve by administration of nicotine, nicotinic agonists or ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01093365
  • Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine (PC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as novel nicotinic agonists that elicit metabotropic activity at monocytic nAChR. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the composition of nAChRs necessary for nicotinic signaling in monocytic cells and to test the hypothesis that common metabolites of phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and glycerophosphocholine (G-PC), function as nAChR agonists. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that canonical nicotinic agonists and PC elicit metabotropic nAChR activity in monocytes via interaction of nAChR subunits α7, α9 and α10. (frontiersin.org)
  • Varenicline (VAR), an α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, approved for smoking cessation, mimics the effect of nicotine by stimulating nAChRs, and releasing sufficient dopamine in order to reduce craving and withdrawal effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In particular, methods of treating and/or preventing interstitial cystitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, atrophic vaginitis, vaginal dryness, and sexual dysfunction associated with vaginal dryness by administering a cholinergic agonist to the subject suffering from the disorders are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 31. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a cholinergic agonist in an amount effective to treat or prevent vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, atrophic vaginitis, yeast infection, urinary tract infections or interstitial cystitis, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Cholinergic agonists produce symptomatic improvement in strength, autonomic symptoms, or both in some patients with LEMS. (medscape.com)
  • 2 No. 1 AUTONOMIC AGONISTS IN PERICYTE5 / Ferrari-Dileo er ol 43 Grand Island, NY), supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Gibco), 50 Mg/ml amphotericin B (Sigma), and 1.25 Mg/ml gentamicin (Sigma). (healthdocbox.com)
  • Cardioinhibition persisted throughout the 5-minute exposure to cholinergic agonists in sinoatrial preparations from the 12th and l8th incubation days whereas automaticity recovered completely within 1 to 2 minutes in preparations from the 6th incubation day. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cutler N.R., Sramek J.J., Seifert R.D., Conrad J.J., Wardle T.S. (1995) The Safety and Tolerance of Xanomeline Tartrate, an M1-Specific Cholinergic Agonist, in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. (springer.com)
  • A pilot controlled clinical trial of ABT-418, a cholinergic agonist, in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clinical trials of other cholinergic compounds have shown that the AD patient population frequently tolerates drugs quite differently from healthy volunteers (Cutler et al. (springer.com)
  • Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid antagonists, antidiarrheals, and antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • Cholinergic agents may allow early resolution of pseudo-obstruction and obviate surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, we studied the effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agents on the adenylate cyclase activity of the pericytes isolated from retinal microvessels. (healthdocbox.com)
  • The effects of a systemic overdose will probably be similar to the effects of a nerve agent (they both act on the cholinergic system, increasing cholinergic transmission), but its toxicity is much weaker and it is easier to antagonize in overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ontogenetic decline in desensitization occurred around the time that cholinergic transmission to the sinoatrial pacemaker appeared (12th incubation day) and reactivity of the pacemaker to cholinergic agonists increased. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Like skeletal muscle, chick embryo atria underwent a change in reactivity to tetrodotoxin and to cholinergic agonists at the time of cholinergic innervation. (aspetjournals.org)