Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Sexual activities of humans.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (1/352)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Selective effects of a 4-oxystilbene derivative on wild and mutant neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic receptor. (2/352)

1. We assessed the pharmacological activity of triethyl-(beta-4-stilbenoxy-ethyl) ammonium (MG624), a drug that is active on neuronal nicotinic receptors (nicotinic AChR). Experiments on the major nicotinic AChR subtypes present in chick brain, showed that it inhibits the binding of [125I]-alphaBungarotoxin (alphaBgtx) to the alpha7 subtype, and that of [3H]-epibatidine (Epi) to the alpha4beta2 subtype, with Ki values of respectively 106 nM and 84 microM. 2. MG624 also inhibited ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha7 and alpha4beta2 chick subtypes with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of respectively 109 nM and 3.2 microM. 3. When tested on muscle-type AChR, it inhibited [125I]-alphaBgtx binding with a Ki of 32 microM and ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha1beta1gammadelta chick subtype with an IC50 of 2.9 microM. 4. The interaction of MG624 with the alpha7 subtype was investigated using an alpha7 homomeric mutant receptor with a threonine-for-leucine 247 substitution (L247T alpha7). MG624 did not induce any current in oocytes expressing the wild type alpha7 receptor, but did induce large currents in the oocyte-expressed L247T alpha7 receptor. The MG624 elicited current (I(MG62)) has an EC50 of 0.2 nM and a Hill coefficient nH of 1.9, and is blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. These binding and electrophysiological studies show that MG624 is a potent antagonist of neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic AChR, and becomes a competitive agonist following the mutation of the highly conserved leucine residue 247 located in the M2 channel domain.  (+info)

Cholinomimetic action of macrolide antibiotics on airway gland electrolyte secretion. (3/352)

We investigated the acute effects of erythromycin (EM) and its derivatives on ionic currents in airway glands from feline tracheae. Therapeutic concentrations of EM or clarithromycin (CAM) attenuated the whole cell currents evoked by ACh in a competitive manner. The maximally stimulated inward Cl- currents were reduced to 54 and 83% and the outward K+ currents to 55 and 84% of control values by EM and CAM, respectively, whereas the responses induced by phenylephrine, norepinephrine, caffeine, or ionomycin were unaffected by EM, CAM, or EM523, a synthetic derivative of EM. K+ channels in excised outside-out patches were not influenced by macrolides. Although therapeutic concentrations of macrolides showed no effect on the baseline currents, high concentrations of macrolides alone evoked currents mimicking the ACh response, which were abolished completely by atropine. We concluded that macrolides act as a partial agonist on cholinergic receptors, resulting in a reduction of Cl- secretion at pharmacological doses of the agents, which may exhibit a pronounced effectiveness on hypertrophied and/or cholinergically sensitized submucosal glands in pathological airways.  (+info)

Changes in electrocortical power and coherence in response to the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin. (4/352)

Changes in brain electrical activity in response to cholinergic agonists, antagonists, or excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain may not be reflective entirely of changes in cholinergic tone, in so far as these interventions also involve noncholinergic neurons. We examined electrocortical activity in rats following bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporin (1.8 microg/ventricle), a selective cholinergic immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75. The immunotoxin resulted in extensive loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in neocortex (80%-84%) and hippocampus (93%), with relative sparing of entorhinal-piriform cortex (42%) and amygdala (28%). Electrocortical activity demonstrated modest increases in 1- to 4-Hz power, decreases in 20- to 44-Hz power, and decreases in 4- to 8-Hz intra- and interhemispheric coherence. Rhythmic slow activity (RSA) occurred robustly in toxin-treated animals during voluntary movement and in response to physostigmine, with no significant differences seen in power and peak frequency in comparison with controls. Physostigmine significantly increased intrahemispheric coherence in lesioned and intact animals, with minor increases seen in interhemispheric coherence. Our study suggests that: (1) electrocortical changes in response to selective cholinergic deafferentation are more modest than those previously reported following excitotoxic lesions; (2) changes in cholinergic tone affect primarily brain electrical transmission within, in contrast to between hemispheres; and (3) a substantial cholinergic reserve remains following administration of 192 IgG-saporin, despite dramatic losses of ChAT in cortex and hippocampus. Persistence of a cholinergically modulated RSA suggests that such activity may be mediated through cholinergic neurons which, because they lack the p75 receptor, remain unaffected by the immunotoxin.  (+info)

Minor structural changes in nicotinoid insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (5/352)

The major nitroimine insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) and the nicotinic analgesics epibatidine and ABT-594 contain the 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl moiety important for high activity and/or selectivity. ABT-594 has considerable nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtype specificity which might carry over to the chloropyridinyl insecticides. This study considers nine IMI analogues for selectivity in binding to immuno-isolated alpha1, alpha3 and alpha7 containing nicotinic AChRs and to purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs. Alpha1- and alpha3-containing nicotinic AChRs (both immuno-isolated by mAb 35, from Torpedo and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, respectively) are between two and four times more sensitive to DN-IMI than to (-)-nicotine. With immuno-isolated alpha3 nicotinic AChRs, the tetrahydropyrimidine analogues of IMI with imine or nitromethylene substituents are 3-4 fold less active than (-)-nicotine. The structure-activity profile with alpha3 nicotinic AChRs from binding assays is faithfully reproduced in agonist potency as induction of 86rubidium ion efflux in intact cells. Alpha7-containing nicotinic AChRs of SH-SY5Y cells (immuno-isolated by mAb 306) and rat brain membranes show maximum sensitivity to the tetrahydropyrimidine analogue of IMI with the nitromethylene substituent. The purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs [mouse (Chao & Casida, 1997) and rat brain] are similar in sensitivity to DN-IMI, the tetrahydropyrimidine nitromethylene and nicotine. The commercial insecticides (IMI, acetamiprid and nitenpyram) have low to moderate potency at the alpha3 and purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs and are essentially inactive at alpha1 and alpha7 nicotinic AChRs. In conclusion, the toxicity of the analogues and metabolites of nicotinoid insecticides in mammals may involve action at multiple receptor subtypes with selectivity conferred by minor structural changes.  (+info)

Selective excitation of subtypes of neocortical interneurons by nicotinic receptors. (6/352)

The cellular mechanisms by which neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptors influence many aspects of physiology and pathology in the neocortex remain primarily unknown. Whole-cell recordings and single-cell reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were combined to analyze the effect of nicotinic receptor agonists on different types of neurons in acute slices of rat neocortex. Nicotinic receptor agonists had no effect on pyramidal neurons and on most types of interneurons, including parvalbumin-expressing fast spiking interneurons and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, but selectively excited a subpopulation of interneurons coexpressing the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and cholecystokinin. This excitation persisted in the presence of glutamate, GABA, and muscarinic receptor antagonists and in the presence of tetrodotoxin and low extracellular calcium, suggesting that the depolarization was mediated through the direct activation of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. The responses were blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine and mecamylamine and persisted in the presence of the alpha7 selective nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine, suggesting that the involved nicotinic receptors lacked the alpha7 subunit. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the interneurons that responded to nicotinic stimulation coexpressed the alpha4, alpha5, and beta2 nicotinic receptor subunits. Therefore, these results provide a role for non-alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the selective excitation of a subpopulation of neocortical interneurons. Because the neocortical interneurons expressing VIP have been proposed previously to regulate regional cortical blood flow and metabolism, these results also provide a cellular basis for the neuronal regulation of cortical blood flow mediated by acetylcholine.  (+info)

Perspectives of pharmacotherapy in Alzheimer's disease. (7/352)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of progressive decline of cognitive function in aged humans, and it is characterized by the presence of numerous senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by neuronal loss. The senile plaques are composed of amyloid beta-peptides (A beta), 40-42 amino acid peptide fragments of the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Genetic, molecular biological and neuropharmacological evidence support the 'amyloid cascade hypothesis' for the pathogenesis of the disease. We review the in vivo effects of various compounds on behavioral and neuropathological changes in the non-transgenic animal models of AD produced by continuous i.c.v. infusion of A beta. These results support therapeutic strategies such as cholinergic therapy, anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidants and estrogen replacement therapy, as well as other cognition enhancers for the treatment of AD. In addition, the amyloid cascade hypothesis offers a number of potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies in AD. We believe that our non-transgenic animal model, as well as transgenic animal models, are useful for developing novel pharmacotherapeutics in AD.  (+info)

Redundant basal forebrain modulation in taste aversion memory formation. (8/352)

Mnemonic deficits resulting from excitotoxic lesion of the basal forebrain have been classically attributed to the resulting depletion of cortical acetylcholine activity. It has been demonstrated that in spite of the strong cholinergic depletion after injections into the basal forebrain of the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin, no detectable deficit can be found in the acquisition of several learning tasks, including conditioned taste aversion. Conversely, NMDA-induced lesions of the basal forebrain strongly impair taste aversion learning. In this study we show that 192IgG-saporin produces an efficient and selective cholinergic deafferentation of the rat neocortex but not the amygdala. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between severity of memory impairment after NMDA lesions and basoamygdaloid cholinergic deafferentation was found. Therefore, in a second experiment, we show that combining NMDA-induced lesions into the basolateral amygdala with 192IgG-saporin injections into the basal forebrain results in a strong disruption of taste aversion learning, whereas none of these treatments were by themselves capable of producing any detectable impairment in this learning task. The double lesion effect was only paralleled by simple NMDA lesions into the basal forebrain, suggesting that the learning deficits associated to excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain are the result of the simultaneous destruction of the corticopetal and basoamygdaloid interaction. A model is proposed, according to which the modulation of learning processes exerted by the basal forebrain can be redundantly performed by both the basocortical and basoamygdaloid pathway.  (+info)

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces inflammatory response that may lead to remote vascular injury. Vagal nerve elicits the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by activating α7 nicotinic ac
Largest database of Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents listed for your easy reference. Find your preferred Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents right here.
Use of the selective immunotoxin; 192 IgG-saporin, is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated with the use of non-specific lesioning agents. In separate studies, we have compared the long- and short-term effects of …
Vocabulary for Pharm -7- Cholinergic Agents. Find, create, and access Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, flashcards with Course Hero.
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Définitions de Hemicholinium-3, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Hemicholinium-3, dictionnaire analogique de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)
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Inflammation? Forget about the immune system… It is all about the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway!. It is not the immune system what tells the immune cells what to do…. It is actually impossible because immune cells are the part of the immune system so how could part of (something) immune system could tell itself what to do?. Sure, immune cells cooperate and communicate but they must have and do have some boss - it is the nervous system.. Nervous system controls the development of all organs and parts of the body. Subsequently during our lives it is the nervous system which often lacks as a result of stress, bad diet, malnutrition and infections.. These negative effects of environment are the underlying cause of various health problems and symptoms. Virtually all chronic health problems are accompanied by inflammation and actually the Inflammation Causes The Symptoms We Call Diseases.. Yes, it is mostly the inflammation what hurts us not the underlying problem itself.. Before you ...
Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat.. Cooper-Kuhn CM, Winkler J, Kuhn HG.. J Neurosci Res 77(2):155-165, 2004.. Adult mammalian brains can produce new neurons, mainly in two areas: the interconnected system of the lateral ventricle and the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The authors used a 3.5 µg-injection of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into the right ventricle of rats to determine whether cholinergic input is necessary for adult neurogenesis. The results suggest that acetylcholine, a product of cholinergic neurons, is necessary for the survival of newly-formed neurons.. Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by combined treatment of ondansetron with flumazenil after cortical cholinergic deafferentation.. Gil-Bea FJ, Dominguez J, Garcia-Alloza M, Marcos B, Lasheras B, Ramirez MJ.. Neuropharmacology 47(2):225-232, 2004.. Previous studies from this group demonstrated that 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists potentiated by GABA(A) ...
Rats were submitted to intra-structures injection of 192 IgG-saporin and then behaviorally tested 1 month and 1 year post-lesion in a nonmatching-to-position task. After achieving a complete objective response, how does cialis work the patient received consolidation with high dose BEAM ...
There is no consensus as to whether NA activates the influx of extracellular Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Perez et al., 1993; Horie et al., 1995). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that NA induces Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Figs. 1 and 4). Moreover, the magnitude of the transient increase and that of the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i were similar in all three cell types (Figs. 1 and 2). These results differ from the previous observation that the level of the NA-induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in CHO-α1D was smaller than that in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). However, this report showed that NA induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). Therefore, we have doubts about their data on monitoring of NA-induced increase in [Ca2+]i.. Because previous reports did not describe what types of Ca2+ channels are activated by NA in CHO-α1A, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Values are means ± SE. Cholinergic responses evoked by bath application of carbachol (10 μM for 5 min) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Boldface numbers indicate P , 0.05 for carbachol-induced effects within individual cell types (repeated-measures ANOVA with post-tests: baseline, carbachol, and wash). Asterisks indicate P , 0.01 when compared with values in wild-type neurons (one-way ANOVA with post-tests). ...
The pharmacological effects of A-4, a bis 4-methylpiperidine tertiary amine derivative of hemicholinium-3, were investigated. Systemic administration (i.p.) of this compound produced a dose-dependent reduction in acetylcholine content of several brain regions. A dose of 40 mg/kg of A-4 produced a 40% reduction in acetylcholine content in the corpus striatum and this reduction was maintained for over 4 hr. Increased choline content was found concurrent with the reduction in acetylcholine content. Reversal of the A-4-induced reductions in acetylcholine content was seen with eserine and oxotremorine but not with choline chloride. Acute treatment with A-4 appeared selective for cholinergic neurons as no significant changes were seen in norepinephrine or serotonin parameters of any of the brain regions assayed. Dopamine turnover was increased in the striatum. The neurochemical changes produced by A-4 were not seen with the bis 4-methylpiperidine quaternary amine, A-5, or hemicholinium-3 after ...
In the brilliant scientific paper, The pulse of inflammation: heart rate variability, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and implications for therapy, Dr. Jared M. Huston, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center discovered a neural control circuit that acts to keep the bodys cytokine production, and therefore inflammatory response, in check.[1] During the 1990s, the…
Perisomatic GABAergic inhibition is thought to play a prominent role in hippocampal oscillations associated with the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from septal cholinergic afferents. A prominent hypothesis states that parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells, activated concurrently by ACh and fast glutamatergic input, drive these rhythms. However, this model - generated solely from in vitro studies using bath application of cholinergic agonists - has never been tested under conditions of endogenous ACh release. To investigate the selective effects of endogenous ACh on inhibitory microcircuits in slices, we have taken an optogenetic approach by injecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice with a Cre-dependent AAV vector carrying the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2). In acute hippocampal slices taken from these animals, brief trains of blue light generate sustained low-frequency rhythmic IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells, and inhibitory local field potentials (LFPs), even ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cholinergic Toxicity, Cholinergic Overdose, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agent, Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic Agent.
Perretti, Mauro, Chiang, Nan, La, Mylinh, Fierro, Iolanda M., Marullo, Stefano, Getting, Stephen J., Solito, Egle and Serhan, Charles N. (2002) Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor. Nature Medicine, 8 (11). pp. 1296-1302. ISSN 1078-8956 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and biodistribution of new radiolabeled high-affinity choline transporter inhibitors [11C]hemicholinium-3 and [18F]hemicholinium-3. AU - Zheng, Qi Huang. AU - Gao, Mingzhang. AU - Mock, Bruce H.. AU - Wang, Shuyan. AU - Hara, Toshihiko. AU - Nazih, Rachid. AU - Miller, Michael A.. AU - Receveur, Tim J.. AU - Lopshire, John C.. AU - Groh, William J.. AU - Zipes, Douglas P.. AU - Hutchins, Gary D.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R.. PY - 2007/4/15. Y1 - 2007/4/15. N2 - The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) system is an attractive target for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers to probe brain, cardiac, and cancer diseases. An efficient and convenient synthesis of new radiolabeled CHT1 inhibitors [11C]hemicholinium-3 and [18F]hemicholinium-3 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique using a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge has been well developed. The preliminary evaluation of both tracers through biodistribution studies in 9L-glioma rats has ...
Shop High-affinity choline transport protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and High-affinity choline transport protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Neuroinflammation in utero may contribute to brain injury resulting in life-long neurological disabilities. The pivotal role of the efferent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in controlling inflammation, e.g., by inhibiting the HMGB1 release, via the macrophages α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been described in adults, but its importance in the fetus is unknown. Moreover, it is unknown whether CAP may also exert anti-inflammatory effects on the brain via the anatomically predominant afferent component of the vagus nerve. We measured microglial activation in the ovine fetal brain near term 24 h after the umbilical cord occlusions mimicking human labor versus controls (no occlusions) by quantifying HMGB1 nucleus-to-cytosol translocation in the Iba1+ and α7nAChR+ microglia. Based on multiple clinical studies in adults and our own work in fetal autonomic nervous system, we gauged the degree of CAP activity in vivo using heart rate variability measure RMSSD that reflects
Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of alpha-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic modulation of MEG resting-state oscillatory activity in Parkinsons disease related dementia. AU - Bosboom, J.L.W.. AU - Stoffers, D.. AU - Stam, C.J.. AU - Berendse, H.W.. AU - Wolters, E.C.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.03.004. DO - 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.03.004. M3 - Article. C2 - 19386543. VL - 120. SP - 910. EP - 915. JO - Clinical Neurophysiology. JF - Clinical Neurophysiology. SN - 1388-2457. IS - 5. ER - ...
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Inflammation plays a major role in the multifactorial process of trauma associated coagulopathy. The vagus nerve regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. We hypothesized that efferent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can improve coagulopathy by modulating the inflammatory response to hemorrhage. Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided in 3 groups: Group (G1) Sham hemorrhagic shock (HS); (G2) HS w/o VNS; (G3) HS followed by division of the vagus nerves and VNS of the distal stumps. Hemorrhage (45% of baseline MAPx15 minutes) was followed by normotensive resuscitation with LR. Vagus nerves were stimulated (3.5 mA, 5 Hz) for 30 sec 7 times. Samples were obtained at baseline and at 60 minutes for thromboelastometry (Rotem®) and cytokine assays (IL-1 and IL-10). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis; significance was set at p | 0.05. Maximum clot firmness (MCF) significantly decreased in G2 after HS (71.5 ± 1.5 vs. 64 ± 1.6) (p | 0.05). MCF significantly increased in G3 compared to baseline (67.3 ±
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
www.MOLUNA.de Molecular Neurosurgery with Targeted Toxins [4221446] - Introduction to Molecular NeurosurgerynRonald G. Wiley and Douglas A. LappinRibosome-Inactivating ProteinsnFiorenzo StirpenBiochemical, Physiological, and Behavioral Characterizations of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Produced by 192 IgG-SaporinnJerene J. WaitenBasal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion by 192 IgG-Saporin: A Tool to Assess the Consequences of Cortical Cholinergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer s DiseasenReinhard Schliebsn192 IgG-Saporin-Induced
The pattern of results suggests cholinergically mediated psychophysiologic pathways of emotional influence in the asthmatic process for some asthmatic children. A heuristic biopsychosocial model of these pathways is presented.
A synthetic drug that acts as a parasympathomimetic and cholinergic agent but is immune to the inactivating effects of acetylcholinesterase. It is used in the treatment of urinary retention, abdominal distention, and glaucoma. See also cholinomimetic. [From its chemical name carba(moyl)-chol(ine) (chloride)] ...
The endeavor to have more efficient solar cells and as environmentally beneficial as possible are the driving forces for this work. The way to reach this is by research to better the understanding of the mechanisms and parameters that govern the performance of solar cells. New materials are essential to develop because the current ones lack stability and are water, temperature and UV-radiation sensitive. In this work the lead (Pb2+), which is poisonous and hazardous is intended to be replaced in the organic metal halide (OMH) perovskite structure. This is tested with gold or silver combined with bismuth and silver by itself. Also trimethylsulfonium gold or silver iodides are investigated. The methylammonium cation is also substituted to cesium. The perovskite material both absorbs light and transports charges in the solar cells. Materials based on AuI/AgI, BiI3 and CH3NH3I and AuI/AgI and [Me3S]I and AgI, BiI3 and CsI were synthesized and analyzed by XRD on thin film and mesoporous substrate and ...
Microsoft Corporation (, abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.Learn How to Stop Moles in Their Tracks with TOMCAT Mole Poison .These poisons function by competitively and . Curare was used as a paralyzing poison by South . tubocurarine can bind readily to the receptors for .Summative Assessment/ Module 4 . Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as . What is the most likely effect of a drug that acts as an antagonist for the .Curare had been used as a source of . Virchow and Munter confirmed the paralyzing action was . Tubocurarine chloride acts as an antagonist for the .TOMCAT Products Will Control Your Mole or Gopher Problem.Curare. Curare is a classic antagonist of nicotinic AChRs and . of the arrow poison curare, . pharmacological effects of curare in causing respiratory paralysis.B neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse transmission . B) neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse . Curare is a paralyzing ...
Pesticides that work similarly to neonicotinoids also came under additional scrutiny this year. For example, EPA was directed to remove sulfoxaflor from the U.S. market as part of a federal appeals court ruling in September because of concerns that it is harmful to bees. Environmental groups sued EPA after it approved sulfoxaflor in 2013, claiming the agency failed to address effects of the chemical on bees.. ...
Some paediatric limited role in the body, immunomo- dulators affect the cholinergic agent that it was pos- increase the stimulatory effects of the machine; a being breathing thoughtful breath, a traveller betwixt life and improved the precision sports (e.G. The action of these arteries gives rise to adult neoangio- plos biol 7:E1001457 genesis have until recently been poorly under- stood, table 4.17 contains information about amount of free drug leaves the gallbladder is stimulated. A fracture of the sacral plexus is involved in metabolism. The more recently introduced antipsychotics have antagonist. She forgot to take in time, but not enough to warrant the diagnosis; many highly intelligent and unconventional people are still occasional situations where peptide in response to eye discomfort patient teaching fore requires a charitable view of the foreskin for release inhibin produced by the femoral canal. In any case the same patient by transferring ccr7-delta32 donor remained stable during the ...
A new study has found that neonicotinoids are present in honey around the world. Neonicotinoids are a commonly used class of insecticides, including the worlds most common one, imidacloprid.
Looking for Miostat? Find out information about Miostat. C6H15ClN2O2 Hygroscopic, hard, prismatic crystals with a melting point of 200-203°C; soluble in water, methanol, and alcohol; used as a cholinergic drug in... Explanation of Miostat
HC-030031 is a potent and selective of TRPA1 inhibitor, which antagonizes AITC- and formalin-evoked calcium influx with IC50s of 6.2±0.2 and 5.3±0.2 μM, respectively. ...Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
Choline Transporter Inhibitor II, ML352 - Calbiochem A moderately brain permeant, non-choline based highly selective and potent inhibitor of high-affinity choline transporter (CHT; Ki = 92 nM in hCHT-LV-AA transfected HEK293 cells). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of ...
A new study published in the Journal of Medical Entomology is the first to report that bed bugs have developed resistance to a class of insecticides known as neonicotinoids.
The nonstriated muscle fibers of the nictitating membrane respond to a single volley of nerve impulses with a slow twitch and three potentials: two independent waves followed by slow oscillations. On repetitive stimulation, the potentials overlap and sum algebraically. Pressure electrodes record only extracellular potentials. The first wave is elicited by nerve fibers which have a higher average threshold than the fibers which elicit the second wave. Eserine potentiates and hyoscine antagonizes the first wave. Dibenzyline, piperoxan, and reserpine antagonize the second wave. The nictitating membrane has functional adrenergic and cholinergic innervations; both cause retraction. Facilitation and summation can be either spatial, through the double innervation of each cell, or temporal, by diffusion of the transmitters from one cell to another. The cholinergic response is not maximal when the adrenergic response is maximal. The second wave is not potentiated by eserine at the same time as or before ...
The U.S. government has noted that the most widely used pesticide in the world is harmful to honeybees. However, in Europe, a ban on the use of the chemical could be lifted.
Neonicotinoids, a class of pesticides in wide use, may be more destabilizing to agriculture than previously presumed, according to a ...
The cholinergic synapse. Targets in synapses can be modulated with pharmacological agents. In this case, cholinergics (such as ... This network is made up of protein-protein interactions from Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis and other ...
Naaz, H; Singh, S; Pandey, VP; Singh, P; Dwivedi, UN (2013). "Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for ...
Naaz, H; Singh, S; Pandey, VP; Singh, P; Dwivedi, UN (2013). "Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for ... Oliveroline is an anti-cholinergic aporphine alkaloid. ...
ISBN 978-9-05782-204-9. "Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease: an in silico ...
"Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease: an in silico approach". Indian J Biochem ...
Ikemoto, S.; Wise, R. A. (2002). "Rewarding effects of the cholinergic agents carbachol and neostigmine in the posterior ...
... a new anti-cholinergic agent, on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. High affinities for M3 and M1 receptor subtypes and ... discovery of potent and subtype-selective antimuscarinic agents". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 7 (6): 1151-61. doi:10.1016/S0968-0896(99) ...
The cholinergic synapse. Targets in synapses can be modulated with pharmacological agents. In this case, cholinergics (such as ...
... possible additive cholinergic effects if huperzine A is taken with other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or cholinergic agents ... Huperzine A, in spite of the possible cholinergic side effects, seems to have a wide margin of safety. Toxicology studies show ... Huperzine A may present with mild cholinergic side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Slight muscle twitching and ... Huperzine A might be useful in the treatment of organophosphate nerve agent poisoning, preventing damage to the central nervous ...
Effect of a choline acetyltransferase inhibitor and comparison with cholinergic and dopaminergic agents". Neuropharmacology. ... Gray, AP; Henderson, TR (1988). "Approaches to protection against nerve agent poisoning". J Med Chem. Dynamac Corporation. 31 ( ...
For a cholinergic agent, the following criteria describe the structure activity relationship: Ing's Rule of 5: there should be ... A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug or cholinergic receptor stimulating agent, is a substance ... Some chemical weapons such as sarin or VX, non-lethal riot control agents such as tear gas, and insecticides such as diazinon ... Cholinergic Agonists and Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. p. 82-97. ISBN 978-0-323-39307-2. OCLC ...
Prokinetic agents (e.g. domperidone) Anti-cholinergic agents (e.g. orphenadrine) Evidence suggests that opioid-inclusive ... Amongst analgesics there are a small number of agents which act on the central nervous system but not on the opioid receptor ... Vomiting can thus be prevented by prokinetic agents (e.g. domperidone or metoclopramide). If vomiting has already started, ... Gassaway MM, Rives ML, Kruegel AC, Javitch JA, Sames D (July 2014). "The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent ...
... anxiolytic agents, adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists. In people with a past history of spinal cord injuries ... Other anticholinergic agents that have tried to include propantheline bromide and benztropine.[citation needed] Injections of ... which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?] A microwave-based device has been tried for excessive underarm perspiration ...
... they cannot be treated with the same pharmacological agents because the cholinergic systems are not affected in FTD. Because ... sports agent and hockey team manager, known as "Mrs. Hockey" Ralph Klein (1942-2013), former premier of Alberta, Canada Kevin ...
Tau-phosphorylation is decreased and cholinergic function enhanced. Notably several agents of the AF series of muscarinic ... Fisher A (July 2008). "Cholinergic treatments with emphasis on m1 muscarinic agonists as potential disease-modifying agents for ... In animal models that are mimicking the damage of AD, these agents appear promising. The agent xanomeline has been proposed as ... These agents show promise as they are neurotrophic, decrease amyloid depositions, and improve damage due to oxidative stress. ...
Because cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis are significantly altered during Alzheimer's progression, cholinergic agents ... Cholinergic interneurons and dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain are largely unaffected. Treatment for Huntington's disease is ...
Similarly the release of cholinergic agents at sudomotor nerve terminals evokes an axon reflex that stimulates sweat glands ... In the sudomotor reflex, cholinergic agents bind to the nicotinic receptors on the sudomotor nerve terminals, evoking an ... These impulses in the affected area release chemical agents that cause blood vessels to dilate and leak, causing the skin to ... direct evidence explaining the branching of nerves from the center of an axon rather than a cell body or which chemical agents ...
A dilation response (mydriasis), is the widening of the pupil and may be caused by adrenaline, anti-cholinergic agents or drugs ...
Stimulatory factors: Beta-adrenergic agents, cholinergic agents, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) Inhibitory factor: ...
... cholinergic agents MeSH D27.505.519.625.120.140 - cholinergic agonists MeSH D27.505.519.625.120.140.500 - muscarinic agonists ... cholinergic agents MeSH D27.505.696.577.120.140 - cholinergic agonists MeSH D27.505.696.577.120.140.500 - muscarinic agonists ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Agents in common clinical use include: Prostaglandin analogs Parasympathomimetic (miotic) agents, including cholinergic and ... Alpha 2 agonists Hyperosmotic agents When comparing people with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, medical ... anticholinesterase agents Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (oral and topical) Adrenergic antagonists (nonselective and selective ...
... and antagonists Serotonin reuptake inhibitors Serotonin releasing agents Adenosinergic Adrenergic Cannabinoidergic Cholinergic ... A serotonergic or serotoninergic agent is any chemical that modifies the effects of serotonin in the body. Some different types ... "Incidence of serotonin syndrome in patients treated with fentanyl on serotonergic agents". Pain Physician. 18 (1): E27-30. PMID ...
... such as diphenhydramine Cholinergic agents such as acetylcholine Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Serotonin antagonists, such as ...
The effects of a systemic overdose will probably be similar to the effects of a nerve agent (they both act on the cholinergic ... Thus it is classified as a cholinergic agonist. It is primarily used for various ophthalmic purposes, such as for treating ... Carbachol produces effects comparable to those of V-series nerve agents if a massive overdose is administered (as may occur ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs).[2] ...
... agents are compounds which mimic the action of acetylcholine and/or butyrylcholine. In general, the word "choline" ... A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine ... Thus it was proposed that degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the associated loss of cholinergic ... Therefore, a disruption to the cholinergic system has been proposed as a consequence of AD rather than a direct cause. moly ( ...
DDuke, W. W. (1924). "URTICARIA CAUSED SPECIFICALLY BY THE ACTION OF PHYSICAL AGENTS: (LIGHT, COLD, HEAT, FREEZING, BURNS, ... Cholinergic urticaria was first described by Duke in 1924 as "urticaria calorica". The term cholinergic is derived from the ... Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is a type of physical urticaria (or hives) that appears when a person is sweating or their core body ... Cholinergic urticaria typically presents with a number of small, short-lasting hives but may also involve cutaneous ...
... nerve agents, (e.g. sarin, VX, Novichok agents). organophosphorus insecticides (e.g. parathion, aldicarb) nicotine poisoning ... A cholinergic crisis is an over-stimulation at a neuromuscular junction due to an excess of acetylcholine (ACh), as a result of ... As a result of cholinergic crisis, the muscles stop responding to the high synaptic levels of ACh, leading to flaccid paralysis ... Flaccid paralysis resulting from cholinergic crisis can be distinguished from myasthenia gravis by the use of the drug ...
... cholinergic crisis). This then leads to respiratory and cardiac arrest (as the victim's heart and diaphragm muscles no longer ... Some of these agents are binary weapons, in which precursors for the nerve agents are mixed in a munition to produce the agent ... A Novichok agent (Russian: Новичо́к, "newcomer", "novice", "newbie") is a group of nerve agents, some of which are binary ... As well as Russia, Novichok agents have been known to be produced in Iran. In the 21st century, Novichok agents came to public ...
Tikal K, Hrabánková M (June 1993). "[Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system ... it was then tested for anti-cholinergic properties to see if it was a possible antidepressant but these tests also proved ... moclobemide has been recommended as a first line agent for the treatment of depression in the elderly.[55] Due to the side ... Intoxications with moclobemide as single agent are usually mild; however, when combined with tricyclic or SSRI antidepressants ...
... helps remove infectious agents.[2] Also, mucus traps infectious agents.[2] The gut flora can prevent the colonization of ... The motor arc of the inflammatory reflex is termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. ... Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents; via physical measures like skin or tree bark and chemical ... The epithelial surfaces form a physical barrier that is impermeable to most infectious agents, acting as the first line of ...
Kása P, Rakonczay Z, Gulya K (August 1997). "The cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease". Progress in Neurobiology. 52 (6): ... There is no evidence that donepezil or other similar agents alters the course or progression of Alzheimer's disease. Six-to- ... Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the ... This increases acetylcholine concentrations at cholinergic synapses.[1] The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in ...
... anxiolytic agents, adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists.[5] ... Other anticholinergic agents that have tried to include propantheline bromide and benztropine.[citation needed] ... which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?][19][20] ...
... not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are ...
Cutting agent[edit]. Quinine is sometimes detected as a cutting agent in street drugs such as cocaine and heroin.[63] ... September 2005). "Effects of quinine, quinidine, and chloroquine on alpha9alpha10 nicotinic cholinergic receptors". Molecular ... As a flavoring agent in beverages, quinine is limited to less than 83 parts per million in the United States, and 100​mg⁄l in ... Magill A, Panosian C (July 2005). "Making antimalarial agents available in the United States". The New England Journal of ...
synaptic transmission, cholinergic. · nervous system development. · synapse assembly. · synapse assembly. · muscle organ ... Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... negative regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic. · neurotransmitter biosynthetic process. · amyloid precursor protein ...
Baig AM (December 2017). "Is There a Cholinergic Survival Incentive for Neurotropic Parasites in the Brain?". ACS Chemical ... Although the addition of antihelminthic agents for management of A. cantonensis infection has a theoretic risk of precipitating ... Although early research did not show treatment with antihelminthic agents (parasite-killing drugs) such as thiobendazole or ...
Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... Antidepressants affect variable neuronal receptors like muscarinic-cholinergic, α1- and α2-adrenergic, and H1-histaminergic ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... Combination of mechanisms of action in a single active agent is an important development in psychopharmacology.[28] ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, partial agonist at mu-1 receptor; cholinergic actions exist.. IM, IV, PO.. Bioavailability = ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ...
It may play a role as potential therapeutic agent.[36][40]. Microbiology[edit]. Carbon monoxide is a nutrient for methanogenic ... Carbon monoxide is a strong reductive agent, and whilst not known, it has been used in pyrometallurgy to reduce metals from ... carboniferous agent such as coke and high temperature. The blast furnace process is a typical example of a process of reduction ... Cholinergic system: Acetylcholine. Miscellaneous. *Gasotransmitters: Carbon monoxide (CO). *Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ...
Both are direct-acting cholinomimetics; they produce their effects by binding to and activating cholinergic receptors. Final ... Muscarinic antagonists are often called parasympatholytics because they have the same effect as agents that block ... Muscarine mimics the function of the natural neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the muscarinic part of the cholinergic nervous ...
Cholinergic or stressEdit. Main article: Cholinergic urticaria. Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is one of the physical urticaria ... Infection or environmental agentEdit. Hives including chronic spontaneous hives can be a complication and symptom of a ... This differentiates EU from cholinergic urticaria.[citation needed]. EU sometimes occurs only when someone exercises within 30 ... Many people with the condition also suffer from dermographism and cholinergic hives.[citation needed] ...
"Actions of Snake Neurotoxins on an Insect Nicotinic Cholinergic Synapse." Invertebrate Neuroscience, 7 (3): 173-78. ... "Early Exposure to Common Anesthetic Agents Causes Widespread Neurodegeneration in the Developing Rat Brain and Persistent ...
I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer ... Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E (1993). "Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ... Eison, Michael S.; Taylor, Duncan B.; Riblet, Leslie A. (1987). "Atypical Psychotropic Agents". In Williams, Michael; Malick, ...
Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database. Iliwekwa mnamo 2010-06-24. *↑ Kolata G. "Promise Seen for Detection of ... Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK (Februari 1999). "The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: a review of ... Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB (Januari 2009). "Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against ...
Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, partial agonist at mu-1 receptor; cholinergic actions exist.. IM, IV, PO.. Bioavailability = ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... but also by acting as a weak but fast-acting serotonin releasing agent and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.[12][13][14][15] ...
... and the cholinergic neurons in the parabrachial area and pedunculopontine nuclei of the tegmentum.[25] ... and can be exacerbated by dopamine release agents.[42] ...
Current Medicinal Chemistry Central Nervous System Agents. 1 (2): 155-170. doi:10.2174/1568015013358536.. Šablon:Closed access ... Stoelting R (1999). Anticholinesterase Drugs and Cholinergic Agonists", in Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice. ... Shaked I, Meerson A, Wolf Y, Avni R, Greenberg D, Gilboa-Geffen A, Soreq H (2009). "MicroRNA-132 potentiates cholinergic anti- ... Blumenthal D, Brunton L, Goodman LS, Parker K, Gilman A, Lazo JS, Buxton I (1996). "5: Autonomic Pharmacology: Cholinergic ...
Hart, J. Roger (2005). "Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Related Chelating Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... It serves as a buffering agent, maintaining pH and preventing sample damage during electrophoresis. Glycine is also used to ... as an agent in metal complexing and finishing.[32] ...
2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for ...
The primary antifungal agent used against Nosema is fumagillin, which has been used in a German research project to reduce the ... "Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees". Nature Communications. 4 (3): 1634. Bibcode ... In their study, they found neither agent alone seemed deadly, but a combination of the virus and N. ceranae was always 100% ... in the standard sense-that there may not be one specific causative agent or pathogenesis-was the syndrome renamed.[3] ...
... is a tropane alkaloid and anticholinergic medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide ... a shorter-acting cholinergic antagonist) or phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) is preferred as an aid to ophthalmic ... Mark I Nerve Agent Antidote Kit. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
Cholinergic hypothesis. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis,[ ... Other approaches are neuroprotective agents, such as AL-108,[262] and metal-protein interaction attenuation agents, such as ... "Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.. ... "FDA Panel Recommends Conditional Approval for PET Agent". Imaging Technology News. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2019.. ...
Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK (1999). «The Cholinergic Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: a Review of Progress». ... 1996). «Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer's disease: a review of 17 ...
Cholinergic neurons are capable of producing ACh. An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in ... Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause ... Damage to the cholinergic (acetylcholine-producing) system in the brain has been shown to be associated with the memory ... Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot (10 August 2011). "The cholinergic system, EEG and sleep". Behavioural Brain Research. 221 (2): ...
... (JB-318) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl ... propyl-3-piperidyl benzilate for muscarinic cholinergic receptors: a PET study with microdialysis in comparison with (+)N-[11C] ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
Several are depolarizing agents. Examples of common anticholinergics: Antimuscarinic agents Atropine Benztropine (Cogentin) ... Piracetam (and other racetams), α-GPC and choline are known to activate the cholinergic system and alleviate cognitive symptoms ... An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral ... Reversible Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor agents such as physostigmine can be used as an antidote in life-threatening cases. ...
Releasing agent. References[edit]. *^ a b c Iversen L. (2006). "Neurotransmitter transporters and their impact on the ... Cholinergic. *Acetylcholine receptor agonist (Muscarinic. *Nicotinic). *Acetylcholine receptor antagonist (Muscarinic. * ... also known as a releasing agent. Pure vesicular reuptake inhibitors tend to actually lower synaptic neurotransmitter ... "Glycine reuptake inhibitor RG1678: a pharmacologic characterization of an investigational agent for the treatment of ...
Definition of cholinergic agent. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... cholinergic agent. Definition: an agent that mimics the action of acetylcholine or of the parasympathetic nervous system ( ...
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
Prokinetic Agents. Class Summary. Prokinetics are promotility agents, proposed for use with severe constipation-predominant ... Cholinergic agents may allow early resolution of pseudo-obstruction and obviate surgery. ... Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid ... Cholinergic Agonists. Class Summary. Excessive parasympathetic suppression appears to be involved in the genesis of intestinal ...
... www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/antiglaucoma-agent-cholinergic-long-acting-ophthalmic-route/description/drg-20070564 ...
Cholinergic Agents. Find, create, and access Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, flashcards with Course Hero. ... generalized cholinergic stimulation and drop in b/p overdosage can cause cholinergic crisis and muscle paralysis ... DIRECT ACTING CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS (-ine not -amine) Few primary uses for these, used mostly to treat open angle glaucoma- ... Chapter 32: Cholinergic Agonists - Act at the same site as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and increase the activity ...
Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the ability of cholinergic agents to reverse the inhibitory effects of ... Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents. Horm Behav. 23:503-13 (1989). ... The cholinergic agonists that activate lordosis in the animals are mediated by the muscarinic type cholinergic receptors and ... Reversal of Androgen Inhibition of Estrogen-Activated Sexual Behavior by Cholinergic Agents ...
Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat. ...
Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the Answer?. ... Title:Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the ... Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. * Stem Cell Factor: A Hemopoietic Cytokine with Important ... Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. * Myeloperoxidase: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Current ...
The development of the presynaptic cholinergic nerve molecules imaging agent for early diagnosis of Alzheimers disease. ... The purpose of our study is to develop a novel PET imaging agent for early diagnosis of Alzheimers disease, a severity ... We targeted the acetylcholine transporter(VAChT) which exist in pre-synapse in cholinergic nerve system, which is related to ... 11C]OMDV and [77Br]OBDV was suggested to be useful as a VAChT imaging agent for PET. ...
Beata P Sander, Michael J Collins, Scott A Read; The effect of adrenergic and cholinergic agents on anterior scleral thickness ... The effect of adrenergic and cholinergic agents on anterior scleral thickness and Schlemms canal in young healthy adults ... The effect of adrenergic and cholinergic agents on anterior scleral thickness and Schlemms canal in young healthy adults ... The changes in the ST and EpiST are likely related to differences in the cholinergic-nitrergic and adrenergic input to the ...
Cholinergic Agents. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is known to play an important role in learning and memory. Neurons that ... Cholinergic function can be enhanced either by preventing the breakdown of the acetylcholine to prolong its action or by ... There are a number of agents that appear to at least improve memory to some degree, but none of these compounds is so effective ... Picrotoxin was one of the first agents recognized to be a memory enhancer. All three drugs have been shown in animal studies to ...
... system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated with the use of non-specific lesioning agents. In ... is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic ... is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in ... This study supports existing literature that selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain does not produce ... although terminal cholinergic deafferentation was substantial and extensive tissue loss was seen at the injection sites in both ...
Cholinergic Agents. Chlordiazepoxide. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Anti-Anxiety Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Cholinergic ... A Study of the Use of Combination of Anti-cholinergic and Minor Tranquilliser in the Treatment of Non-cardiac Chest Pain - a ... A Study of the Use of Combination of Anti-cholinergic and Minor Tranquilliser in the Treatment of Non-cardiac Chest Pain - a ... The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of anti-cholinergic and anxiolytic drugs in the ...
Find your preferred Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents right here. ... Largest database of Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents listed for your easy reference. ... Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents - Alpha- and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists. Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents Category ... Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents (16913)*Alpha- and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists (5167)*Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists (250) ...
Before Using Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ... Description and Brand Names of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). US Brand Name. * ... Proper Use of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). To use the ophthalmic solution (eye ... Side Effects of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Along with its needed effects, a ...
... , Cholinergic Overdose, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agent, Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic Agent. ... Agents, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agents, cholinergic agent, Acetylcholine Agents, Agents, Acetylcholine, Cholinergic Drugs, ... cholinergic agents, cholinergic drugs, cholinergics, cholinergic drug, Cholinergics, Cholinergic agent, Cholinergic agent, NOS ... Aka: Cholinergic Toxicity, Cholinergic Overdose, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agent, Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic Agent *See ...
... targeting molecule/chelating agent, and the imaging agent thus formed is injected into the patient. [0084]Imaging agents of the ... Patent application title: Imaging agents and methods of imaging alpha7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Inventors: Martin G. ... Patent application title: Imaging agents and methods of imaging alpha7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Inventors: Martin G. ... The imaging agent and carrier may be provided in solution or in lyophilized form. When the imaging agent and carrier of the kit ...
Pilocarpine is a choline ester miotic and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. Pilocarpine, in appropriate dosage, can increase secretion by the exocrine glands. The sweat, salivary, lacrimal, gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal glands and the mucous cells of the respiratory tract may be stimulated. When applied topically to the eye as a single dose it causes miosis, spasm of accommodation, and may cause a transitory rise in intraocular pressure followed by a more persistent fall. Dose-related smooth muscle stimulation of the intestinal tract may cause increased tone, increased motility, spasm, and tenesmus. Bronchial smooth muscle tone may increase. The tone and motility of urinary tract, gallbladder, and biliary duct smooth muscle may be enhanced. Pilocarpine may have paradoxical effects on the cardiovascular system. The expected effect of a muscarinic agonist is vasodepression, but administration of pilocarpine may produce hypertension after a brief episode of hypotension. ...
Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). ...
The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH changes and cholinergic agents on t ... Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology. Decerebrate State. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Medulla Oblongata / drug effects, physiology ... The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH changes and cholinergic agents on the central control of ... These agents had no effect on blood pressure. It is therefore, concluded that the VSM is pH sensitive and a cholinergic ...
cholinergic agents. *beta blockers. Side effects of eyedrops can include stinging, redness, eyelash growth, change in eye color ...
beta-blocking agent synonyms, beta-blocking agent pronunciation, beta-blocking agent translation, English dictionary definition ... Noun 1. beta-blocking agent - any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of ... beta-blocking agent. Also found in: Thesaurus.. Related to beta-blocking agent: cholinergic blocking agent ... beta-blocking agent - any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of heart ...
Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of the administration of nicotinic cholinergic agents to rodents and non-human ... influence of these agents on neurochemistry of the rat brain cholinergic system in an attempt-to correlate drug~induced ... exploring in depth the influence.of classical nicotinic cholinergic agents on performance by rats of the same and other models ... While most research has been directed at the central muscarinic cholinergic subsystem, of recent interest in normal and ...
Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Nootropic Agents. Antitussive Agents. Respiratory ...
Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ...
Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Nicotinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents ...
Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Neuromuscular Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... mainstays of therapy for high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction pelvic pain include pharmacotherapeutic agents and pelvic floor ...
Autonomic Agents. *Cholinergic Agents. *Cholinergic Agonists. *Cholinergic Receptor Agonist. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6 ...
Cholinergic agents. Potentiation of GI motility effects of metoclopramide5. CNS depressants (alcohol, opiates or other ... Class: Prokinetic Agents. - Antiemetic Agents. - Benzamides. VA Class: AU300. Molecular Formula: C14H22ClN3O22O. CAS Number: ... Anesthetic agents. Acute hypotension reported with concomitant IV metoclopramide and hypotensive anesthetic agents (with or ... Antiemetic; stimulant of upper GI motility (prokinetic agent);1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 263 267 potent dopamine-receptor antagonist.2 4 ...
Cholinergic Agents / therapeutic use Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Revisiting the Cholinergic Hypothesis of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia of the Alzheimers Type Tanya Pinto ... Revisiting the Cholinergic Hypothesis of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia of the Alzheimers Type Tanya Pinto ... Changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms as outcome measures in clinical trials with cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer disease. ...
  • an agent that mimics the action of acetylcholine or of the parasympathetic nervous system (methacholine). (drugs.com)
  • We targeted the acetylcholine transporter(VAChT) which exist in pre-synapse in cholinergic nerve system, which is related to the cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). (fpnotebook.com)
  • Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. (fpnotebook.com)
  • In addition, cholinergeric agents (acetylcholine-ACh, physostigmine-Phy, nicotine-Nic, and atropine-Atr) dissolved in mCSF were applied bilaterally onto the VSM using filter paper pledgets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stimulation of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System by Highly Diluted Acetylcholine in Keratinocytes. (bireme.br)
  • 2 an anti-cholinergic agent that functions by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine for its receptor sites at synaptic junctions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adjective Referring to an agent or effect that suppresses or inhibits acetylcholine activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acetylcholine is synthesized and liberated by the action of the enzyme choline acetyltranferase from the compounds choline and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) which occurs in all cholinergic neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bethanechol, a cholinergic agent, is a synthetic ester which is structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. (drugbank.ca)
  • cholinergic, central actingPregnancy Category: C In early stages of Alzheimer's disease, pathologic changes in neurons result in deficiency of acetylcholine or aricept coupon . (soxanddawgs.com)
  • Cholinergic agents are compounds which mimic the action of acetylcholine and/or butyrylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasympathetic nervous system, which uses acetylcholine almost exclusively to send its messages, is said to be almost entirely cholinergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus it was proposed that degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the associated loss of cholinergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex and other areas contributed significantly to the deterioration in cognitive function seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease Further studies on the cholinergic system and AD demonstrated acetylcholine plays a role in learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholinomimetics or cholinergic drugs are those drugs that cause effects similar to those resulting from introduction of acetylcholine, or simulation of ganglions of the parasympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase in tissue, and their effects are caused by the resulting excess acetylcholine. (fas.org)
  • After a nerve agent inhibits the tissue enzyme, the enzyme cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter at cholinergic receptor sites. (fas.org)
  • The clinical effects from nerve agent exposure are caused by excess acetylcholine. (fas.org)
  • cholinergic blocking agent one that blocks or inactivates acetylcholine . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A cholinergic is a substance related to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wisegeek.com)
  • In one sense, a cholinergic is something that interacts with acetylcholine or its lifecycle in some way. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cholinergic neurons are found in the parasympathetic nervous system and in some other other areas of the body, interacting with acetylcholine to send and receive messages. (wisegeek.com)
  • Researchers are thus very interested in learning how to increase or decrease the production of acetylcholine in the body, how to interrupt the neurotransmitter's lifecyle, and how to target specific types of cholinergic neurons to treat particular medical conditions. (wisegeek.com)
  • Okay, I am just learning about cholinergic mechanisms and its relationship to acetylcholine, so I really should not tell you if your summary of cholinergic's relationship to the parasympathetic system is correct, but I can tell you this much from what I have just learned about our body's response to drugs that can affect cholinergic activity. (wisegeek.com)
  • cholinergic is part of the parasympathetic system in that it takes part in regulating the parasympathetic system secondary to its interactions with neurotransmitters and acetylcholine? (wisegeek.com)
  • The drugs Acetylcholine and Cholinergic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. (malacards.org)
  • GPR30 is positioned to mediate estrogen effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Serotonergic neurons arising in the median raphe nucleus probably are not involved in this pathway through the hypothalamus, although a cholinergic pathway may be involved elsewhere in their pressor actions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study supports existing literature that selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain does not produce behavioural impairments in standard tasks of learning and memory, but deficits are apparent when damage is non-selective as occurs late after lesioning, confounding interpretation of behavioural data. (nih.gov)
  • VTA dopamine neurons are activated via cholinergic afferents and microinjection of carbachol (cholinergic agonist) into VTA is rewarding. (nih.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. (bireme.br)
  • In the network level, cholinergic projection neurons as well as their interaction with other neurons may regulate the development of epilepsy, especially the cholinergic circuit from basal forebrain to hippocampus, while cholinergic local interneurons have not been reported to be associated with epilepsy. (bireme.br)
  • ACh exists only momentarily after its formation, being hydrolysed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which is present in the neurons of cholinergic nerves throughout their entire lengths and at neuromuscular junctions: this process is essential for proper muscle function as otherwise the accumulation of ACh would result in continuous stimulation of the muscles, glands and central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, the basal forebrain, and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic, as are the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central cholinergic agents. (mysciencework.com)
  • While the etiology of BPSD has not been clearly delineated, studies assessing the benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on BPSD suggest that some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia such as agitation, apathy and psychosis may represent a specific central cholinergic deficiency syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • A number of lines of evidence indicate that increasing central cholinergic activity may be useful in various psychiatric syndromes and movement disorders. (springer.com)
  • The role of central cholinergic system in epilepsy]. (bireme.br)
  • All these studies suggest that central DA systems, central cholinergic and GABA systems and central 5-HT systems are integrated in the regulation of oral activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid antagonists, antidiarrheals, and antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • Now, we have come across a relatively early paper from 1989 (Dohanich, 1989) that reports that the inhibition by androgens of estrogen-induced sexual activity in ovariectomized female rats can be reversed by cholinergic agonists, which included in this study carbachol and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The cholinergic agonists that activate lordosis in the animals are mediated by the muscarinic type cholinergic receptors and lordosis is prevented by blockers of these receptors (Dohanich, 1989). (life-enhancement.com)
  • The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Cholinergic antagonists have been found to inhibit sexual behavior in ovariectomized females treated with estrogen and progesterone. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Note that muscarinic cholinergic antagonists are very widely used for treating urinary urgency and incontinence in older women and these drugs may be impairing the libido of these older women. (life-enhancement.com)
  • 1. Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (e.g., atropine). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Atropine should be used for at least 24 hours to reverse the cholinergic signs while the organophosphate is metabolized. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment may include the use of a cholinergic blocking agent such as atropine. (livestrong.com)
  • Experiments were performed to determine whether the pathway by which median raphe stimulation increases blood pressore involves serotonergic terminals in the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area and cholinergic terminals in the posterior hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pyridostigmine bromide is a reversible anticholinesterase agent that exerts an indirect cholinergic stimulation. (bmj.com)
  • Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the Answer? (eurekaselect.com)
  • The present invention relates to radiolabelled compounds particularly 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane compounds (i.e., quinuclidine compounds) which are labeled with one or more radioisotopes and which are suitable for imaging or therapeutic treatment of tissues, organs, or tumors which express the α7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In another embodiment, the invention relates to methods of imaging tissues, organs, or tumors using radiolabeled compounds of the invention, particularly tissues, organs, or tumors which express α7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor to which the compounds of the invention have an affinity. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • the role of the nicotinic cholinergic subsystem. (openrepository.com)
  • These results provide ruther support for a role of the central nicotinic system in mnemonic processing and insight into biochemical mechanisms potentially ~derlying the observed behavioral consequences of pharmacological manipulation of the central nicotinic cholinergic system. (openrepository.com)
  • Nicotinic cholinergic agents, .alpha. (eurekamag.com)
  • Nicotine will stimulate other cholinergic sites, known as nicotinic sites, which are those in skeletal muscle and ganglia. (fas.org)
  • Bethanechol is a powerful cholinergic agent. (medindia.net)
  • Bethanechol is a cholinergic agent used to treat urinary retention related to bladder atony. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consider a trial of a cholinergic agonist, such as bethanechol , in patients with urinary retention. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prokinetic agents include metoclopramide (also known as Reglan), bethanechol (Duvoid) and tegaserod (Zelnorm). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The second approach is to attempt to correct the lysosomal defect by a cholinergic agonist, bethanechol chloride. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bethanechol is a parasympathomimetic (cholinergic) used for the treatment of acute postoperative and postpartum nonobstructive (functional) urinary retention and for neurogenic atony of the urinary bladder with retention. (drugbank.ca)
  • Interestingly, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine was more effective in increasing the incidence of lordosis in the rats than the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The memory impairments were reversed when treated with physostigmine, a cholinergic agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duvoisin, R. C.: The mutual antagonism of cholinergic and anticholinergic agents in Parkinsonism. (springer.com)
  • Anticholinergic agents in asthma and COPD. (nih.gov)
  • Anticholinergic agents should be used in doses large enough to reverse the cholinergic signs. (medscape.com)
  • The nutrient choline also increases cholinergic activity (Mike, 2000) and, of course, galantamine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) would be expected to act in a similar manner as the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. (life-enhancement.com)
  • They inhibit the butyrylcholinesterase in the plasma, the acetylcholinesterase on the red cell, and the acetylcholinesterase at cholinergic receptor sites in tissue. (fas.org)
  • Some commonly used pesticides (for example, the organophosphate (OP) Malathion and the carbamate Sevin) and some common therapeutic drugs (the carbamates pyridostigmine [Mestinon] and physostigmine [Antilirium]) also inhibit acetylcholinesterase and can be considered 'nerve agents. (fas.org)
  • Both physostigmine and carbachol were administered via intracerebral intraventricular infusion but these agents pass through the blood-brain barrier so this may have been done to ensure that a specific dose was received in the target tissue, whereas with oral treatment, there is not as much certainty on how much of the ingested treatment reaches the target tissue, especially when it is in the brain. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug, was used to block cholinergic activity in young adults and induce memory impairments similar to those present in the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChE-Is) produces a modest improvement in cognitive function for some patients [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in dog portal veins were analyzed directly using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as a ligand. (eurekamag.com)
  • Organs with cholinergic receptor sites include the smooth muscles, the skeletal muscles, the central nervous system, and most exocrine glands. (fas.org)
  • adrenergic blocking agent one that inhibits response to sympathetic impulses by blocking the alpha (alpha-adrenergic blocking a.) or beta (beta-adrenergic blocking a.) receptor sites of effector organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These results suggest that serotonergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area exert their pressor effect through a pathway with a cholinergic link in the posterior hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is a tremendous need to develop novel agents with unique mechanisms of action for the treatment of psychotic disorders. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • The results indicate that analgesia and reward are mediated by separate cholinergic mechanisms within pVTA. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of anti-cholinergic and anxiolytic drugs in the treatment of non-cardiac chest pain. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • New cholinergic drugs in asthma and COPD]. (nih.gov)
  • Neuromuscular blocking agents perhaps have the most fascinating history among the drugs used in anesthesiology and intensive care. (springer.com)
  • As you prepare for possible intubation, you consider medications that could be fatal in a small dose, such as opioids, sedatives, cardiac drugs, and hypoglycemic agents. (ebmedicine.net)
  • Many current drug therapies for AD are centered on the cholinergic hypothesis, although not all have been effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, not all treatments based upon the cholinergic hypothesis have been successful in treating the symptoms or slowing the progression of AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this research project was to test the hypothesis that combined exposure to nicotine and chlorpyrifos (CPF) during the critical periods of development of cholinergic pathways in the central nervous system disrupts the structural organization of the cholinergic system and interferes with the cholinergic transmission, resulting in neurologic deficits such as impairments in learning and memory performance. (epa.gov)
  • The common feature of these agents is that they stimulate the central nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A cholinergic drug, C 7 H 16 N 2 O 2 , that is used in the form of its chloride to treat urinary retention by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prokinetics are promotility agents, proposed for use with severe constipation-predominant symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • The current agents, though helpful, only diminish the frequency and severity of positive psychotic symptoms by 20% to 30% and have less of an effect on the negative symptoms and the cognitive deterioration. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms as outcome measures in clinical trials with cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer disease. (nih.gov)
  • Some anticholinergics reduce parkinsonian symptoms but are never considered primary agents for therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cholinergic blockade selective inhibition of cholinergic nerve impulses at autonomic ganglionic synapses, postganglionic parasympathetic effectors, or neuromuscular junctions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the ability of cholinergic agents to reverse the inhibitory effects of dihydrotestosterone on estrogen-induced lordosis in female Long-Evans rats. (life-enhancement.com)
  • At 11 months, only rats with combined lesions showed deficits in both radial and water maze tasks, although terminal cholinergic deafferentation was substantial and extensive tissue loss was seen at the injection sites in both single and combined lesions. (nih.gov)
  • It can also be dangerous if mixed with other anti-cholinergic medications and some herbal supplements, Vasilev warned. (healthline.com)
  • Certain medications designed to address various conditions are cholinergic, as are compounds like nicotine . (wisegeek.com)
  • Any agent that inhibits transmission of sympathetic nerve stimuli regardless of whether alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors are involved. (tabers.com)
  • Antagonistic to the action of acetyl choline or to the parasympathetic or other CHOLINERGIC nerve supply. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nerve agents are the most toxic of the known chemical agents. (fas.org)
  • Nerve agents were developed in pre-World War II Germany. (fas.org)
  • Germany had stockpiles of nerve agent munitions during World War II (WWII), but did not use them for reasons that are still unclear. (fas.org)
  • In the closing days of the war, the U.S. and its allies discovered these stockpiles, developed the agents, and manufactured nerve agent munitions. (fas.org)
  • The U.S. chemical agent stockpile contains the nerve agents GB and VX. (fas.org)
  • Nerve agents are considered major military threat agents. (fas.org)
  • The only known battlefield use of nerve agents was in the Iraq-Iran conflict. (fas.org)
  • Intelligence analysts indicate that many countries have the technology to manufacture nerve agent munitions. (fas.org)
  • Nerve agents are liquids under temperate conditions. (fas.org)
  • Nerve agents are organophosphorous cholinesterase inhibitors. (fas.org)
  • After acute exposure to a nerve agent, the erythrocyte enzyme activity most closely reflects the activity of the tissue enzyme, but during recovery the plasma enzyme activity more closely parallels tissue enzyme activity. (fas.org)
  • For most nerve agents the aging time is longer than the time within which acute casualties will be seen. (fas.org)
  • However, while the OP pesticides cause the same biological effects as nerve agents, there are some important differences in the duration of biological activity and response to therapy. (fas.org)
  • adrenergic neuron blocking agent one that inhibits the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic adrenergic nerve endings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ganglionic blocking agent one that blocks nerve impulses at autonomic ganglionic synapses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Very high doses of nerve agents can act within minutes, even with dermal exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Also very toxic are those containing an attached fluorine atom (This includes the chemical warfare nerve agents). (cdc.gov)
  • With dermal exposure to nerve agents onset of clinical findings of the cholinergic toxidrome may be delayed up to 18 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of our study is to develop a novel PET imaging agent for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a severity diagnosis and an effect of treatment judgment. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease: An in silico approach. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive inability manifested due to the accumulation of β-amyloid, formation of hyper phosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles, and a malfunctioned cholinergic system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies performed in the 1980s demonstrated significant impairment of cholinergic markers in Alzheimer's patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the agent can be removed from the enzyme and the enzyme 'reactivated' by several types of compounds, the most useful of which are the oximes. (fas.org)
  • Toxicologists study these agents to identify cholinergic compounds that are dangerous to humans and find ways to neutralize them to treat people who have been exposed. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition, cranial efferents and ganglionic afferents are cholinergic nerves. (fas.org)
  • bungarotoxin, nicotine and hexamethonium, were ineffective in displacing [3H]QNB binding at 10 .mu.M. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in dog portal veins. (eurekamag.com)
  • Inside the body, cholinergic substances regulate parasympathetic activity and serve a number of other functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • oxidizing agent a substance capable of accepting electrons from another substance, thereby oxidizing the second substance and itself becoming reduced. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • psychoactive agent , psychotropic agent psychoactive substance . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • reducing agent a substance that acts as an electron donor in a chemical redox reaction . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • surface-active agent a substance that exerts a change on the surface properties of a liquid, especially one that reduces its surface tension, as a detergent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • wetting agent a substance that lowers the surface tension of water to promote wetting. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oxybutynin is an anti-cholinergic agent, which helps inhibit neurotransmitters in the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Following appropriate patient education about pelvic floor function, mainstays of therapy for high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction pelvic pain include pharmacotherapeutic agents and pelvic floor physical therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. (bireme.br)
  • Adults with AD presenting with dysfunction of the cholinergic system are not able to compensate for long-term and working memory deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most research has been directed at the central muscarinic cholinergic subsystem, of recent interest in normal and pathologic cognitive processing is. (openrepository.com)
  • Normal cognitive aging may affect long term and working memory, though the cholinergic system and cortical areas maintain performance through functional compensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, 1,310 patients (39%) had COPD, including 462 (35%) who were treated with a cardioselective beta-blocking agent , the authors note. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ASCO does not consider metoclopramide an appropriate first-line antiemetic for any group of patients receiving chemotherapy of high emetic risk and states that this drug should be reserved for patients unable to tolerate or refractory to first-line agents (i.e., a type 3 serotonin [5-HT 3 ] receptor antagonist [e.g., dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron] with dexamethasone and aprepitant). (drugs.com)
  • These agents are also used to treat patients with wasting illnesses. (tabers.com)
  • Double-blind, randomized, multicenter study of doxacurium vs. pancuronium in intensive care unit patients who require neuromuscular-blocking agents. (springer.com)
  • The 'anti-cholinergic' effect means it can cause dry mouth, interfere with intestinal function, and, most importantly, can be a problem in patients with narrow angle glaucoma (an eye disorder)," Vasilev explained. (healthline.com)
  • Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These agents stimulate the growth or manufacture of body tissues. (tabers.com)
  • Muscarine will stimulate some of the cholinergic sites, and these are known as muscarinic sites. (fas.org)
  • This is a very interesting study that shows that the decline of the cholinergic system is likely to play a major role in the decline in sexual activity with age in post-menopausal women. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The changes in the ST and EpiST are likely related to differences in the cholinergic-nitrergic and adrenergic input to the vasculature of the anterior segment, while the enlargement of SC with homatropine implies the involvement of a cholinergic-nitrergic pathway in modulation of the aqueous drainage system. (arvojournals.org)
  • 192 IgG-saporin, is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated with the use of non-specific lesioning agents. (nih.gov)
  • examining the ;influence of these agents on neurochemistry of the rat brain cholinergic system in an attempt-to correlate drug~induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. (openrepository.com)
  • Therefore, a disruption to the cholinergic system has been proposed as a consequence of AD rather than a direct cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic agents are used to treat cancers and severe immunological disorders, e.g., vasculitis and some forms of glomerulonephritis. (tabers.com)
  • For example, bacteria that cause disease are agents of the specific diseases they cause, and medicine is a therapeutic agent. (tabers.com)
  • As a Respiratory Pharmacologist, my proudest achievements are therefore working on two therapeutic agents which are now used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. (astrazeneca.com)
  • However, the extensive tissue loss with long-term lesions suggested that behavioural deficits were not solely attributable to cholinergic deafferentation. (nih.gov)