Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Metastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Angiostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Hypothalamus, Posterior: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine: Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine: Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Oxyphenbutazone: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Incontinence Pads: Absorbent pads used for URINARY INCONTINENCE and usually worn as underpants or pants liners by the ELDERLY.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Suburethral Slings: Support structures, made from natural or synthetic materials, that are implanted below the URETHRA to treat URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.TaiwanGlycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Sweating, Gustatory: An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.TextbooksStudents: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.ButylaminesAngina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.PropylaminesAttention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Los AngelesCholinesterasesIsoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (1/352)Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy. (+info)
Selective effects of a 4-oxystilbene derivative on wild and mutant neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic receptor. (2/352)1. We assessed the pharmacological activity of triethyl-(beta-4-stilbenoxy-ethyl) ammonium (MG624), a drug that is active on neuronal nicotinic receptors (nicotinic AChR). Experiments on the major nicotinic AChR subtypes present in chick brain, showed that it inhibits the binding of [125I]-alphaBungarotoxin (alphaBgtx) to the alpha7 subtype, and that of [3H]-epibatidine (Epi) to the alpha4beta2 subtype, with Ki values of respectively 106 nM and 84 microM. 2. MG624 also inhibited ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha7 and alpha4beta2 chick subtypes with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of respectively 109 nM and 3.2 microM. 3. When tested on muscle-type AChR, it inhibited [125I]-alphaBgtx binding with a Ki of 32 microM and ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha1beta1gammadelta chick subtype with an IC50 of 2.9 microM. 4. The interaction of MG624 with the alpha7 subtype was investigated using an alpha7 homomeric mutant receptor with a threonine-for-leucine 247 substitution (L247T alpha7). MG624 did not induce any current in oocytes expressing the wild type alpha7 receptor, but did induce large currents in the oocyte-expressed L247T alpha7 receptor. The MG624 elicited current (I(MG62)) has an EC50 of 0.2 nM and a Hill coefficient nH of 1.9, and is blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. These binding and electrophysiological studies show that MG624 is a potent antagonist of neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic AChR, and becomes a competitive agonist following the mutation of the highly conserved leucine residue 247 located in the M2 channel domain. (+info)
Cholinomimetic action of macrolide antibiotics on airway gland electrolyte secretion. (3/352)We investigated the acute effects of erythromycin (EM) and its derivatives on ionic currents in airway glands from feline tracheae. Therapeutic concentrations of EM or clarithromycin (CAM) attenuated the whole cell currents evoked by ACh in a competitive manner. The maximally stimulated inward Cl- currents were reduced to 54 and 83% and the outward K+ currents to 55 and 84% of control values by EM and CAM, respectively, whereas the responses induced by phenylephrine, norepinephrine, caffeine, or ionomycin were unaffected by EM, CAM, or EM523, a synthetic derivative of EM. K+ channels in excised outside-out patches were not influenced by macrolides. Although therapeutic concentrations of macrolides showed no effect on the baseline currents, high concentrations of macrolides alone evoked currents mimicking the ACh response, which were abolished completely by atropine. We concluded that macrolides act as a partial agonist on cholinergic receptors, resulting in a reduction of Cl- secretion at pharmacological doses of the agents, which may exhibit a pronounced effectiveness on hypertrophied and/or cholinergically sensitized submucosal glands in pathological airways. (+info)
Changes in electrocortical power and coherence in response to the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin. (4/352)Changes in brain electrical activity in response to cholinergic agonists, antagonists, or excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain may not be reflective entirely of changes in cholinergic tone, in so far as these interventions also involve noncholinergic neurons. We examined electrocortical activity in rats following bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporin (1.8 microg/ventricle), a selective cholinergic immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75. The immunotoxin resulted in extensive loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in neocortex (80%-84%) and hippocampus (93%), with relative sparing of entorhinal-piriform cortex (42%) and amygdala (28%). Electrocortical activity demonstrated modest increases in 1- to 4-Hz power, decreases in 20- to 44-Hz power, and decreases in 4- to 8-Hz intra- and interhemispheric coherence. Rhythmic slow activity (RSA) occurred robustly in toxin-treated animals during voluntary movement and in response to physostigmine, with no significant differences seen in power and peak frequency in comparison with controls. Physostigmine significantly increased intrahemispheric coherence in lesioned and intact animals, with minor increases seen in interhemispheric coherence. Our study suggests that: (1) electrocortical changes in response to selective cholinergic deafferentation are more modest than those previously reported following excitotoxic lesions; (2) changes in cholinergic tone affect primarily brain electrical transmission within, in contrast to between hemispheres; and (3) a substantial cholinergic reserve remains following administration of 192 IgG-saporin, despite dramatic losses of ChAT in cortex and hippocampus. Persistence of a cholinergically modulated RSA suggests that such activity may be mediated through cholinergic neurons which, because they lack the p75 receptor, remain unaffected by the immunotoxin. (+info)
Minor structural changes in nicotinoid insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (5/352)The major nitroimine insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) and the nicotinic analgesics epibatidine and ABT-594 contain the 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl moiety important for high activity and/or selectivity. ABT-594 has considerable nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtype specificity which might carry over to the chloropyridinyl insecticides. This study considers nine IMI analogues for selectivity in binding to immuno-isolated alpha1, alpha3 and alpha7 containing nicotinic AChRs and to purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs. Alpha1- and alpha3-containing nicotinic AChRs (both immuno-isolated by mAb 35, from Torpedo and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, respectively) are between two and four times more sensitive to DN-IMI than to (-)-nicotine. With immuno-isolated alpha3 nicotinic AChRs, the tetrahydropyrimidine analogues of IMI with imine or nitromethylene substituents are 3-4 fold less active than (-)-nicotine. The structure-activity profile with alpha3 nicotinic AChRs from binding assays is faithfully reproduced in agonist potency as induction of 86rubidium ion efflux in intact cells. Alpha7-containing nicotinic AChRs of SH-SY5Y cells (immuno-isolated by mAb 306) and rat brain membranes show maximum sensitivity to the tetrahydropyrimidine analogue of IMI with the nitromethylene substituent. The purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs [mouse (Chao & Casida, 1997) and rat brain] are similar in sensitivity to DN-IMI, the tetrahydropyrimidine nitromethylene and nicotine. The commercial insecticides (IMI, acetamiprid and nitenpyram) have low to moderate potency at the alpha3 and purported alpha4beta2 nicotinic AChRs and are essentially inactive at alpha1 and alpha7 nicotinic AChRs. In conclusion, the toxicity of the analogues and metabolites of nicotinoid insecticides in mammals may involve action at multiple receptor subtypes with selectivity conferred by minor structural changes. (+info)
Selective excitation of subtypes of neocortical interneurons by nicotinic receptors. (6/352)The cellular mechanisms by which neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptors influence many aspects of physiology and pathology in the neocortex remain primarily unknown. Whole-cell recordings and single-cell reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were combined to analyze the effect of nicotinic receptor agonists on different types of neurons in acute slices of rat neocortex. Nicotinic receptor agonists had no effect on pyramidal neurons and on most types of interneurons, including parvalbumin-expressing fast spiking interneurons and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, but selectively excited a subpopulation of interneurons coexpressing the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and cholecystokinin. This excitation persisted in the presence of glutamate, GABA, and muscarinic receptor antagonists and in the presence of tetrodotoxin and low extracellular calcium, suggesting that the depolarization was mediated through the direct activation of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. The responses were blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine and mecamylamine and persisted in the presence of the alpha7 selective nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine, suggesting that the involved nicotinic receptors lacked the alpha7 subunit. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the interneurons that responded to nicotinic stimulation coexpressed the alpha4, alpha5, and beta2 nicotinic receptor subunits. Therefore, these results provide a role for non-alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the selective excitation of a subpopulation of neocortical interneurons. Because the neocortical interneurons expressing VIP have been proposed previously to regulate regional cortical blood flow and metabolism, these results also provide a cellular basis for the neuronal regulation of cortical blood flow mediated by acetylcholine. (+info)
Perspectives of pharmacotherapy in Alzheimer's disease. (7/352)Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of progressive decline of cognitive function in aged humans, and it is characterized by the presence of numerous senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by neuronal loss. The senile plaques are composed of amyloid beta-peptides (A beta), 40-42 amino acid peptide fragments of the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Genetic, molecular biological and neuropharmacological evidence support the 'amyloid cascade hypothesis' for the pathogenesis of the disease. We review the in vivo effects of various compounds on behavioral and neuropathological changes in the non-transgenic animal models of AD produced by continuous i.c.v. infusion of A beta. These results support therapeutic strategies such as cholinergic therapy, anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidants and estrogen replacement therapy, as well as other cognition enhancers for the treatment of AD. In addition, the amyloid cascade hypothesis offers a number of potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies in AD. We believe that our non-transgenic animal model, as well as transgenic animal models, are useful for developing novel pharmacotherapeutics in AD. (+info)
Redundant basal forebrain modulation in taste aversion memory formation. (8/352)Mnemonic deficits resulting from excitotoxic lesion of the basal forebrain have been classically attributed to the resulting depletion of cortical acetylcholine activity. It has been demonstrated that in spite of the strong cholinergic depletion after injections into the basal forebrain of the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin, no detectable deficit can be found in the acquisition of several learning tasks, including conditioned taste aversion. Conversely, NMDA-induced lesions of the basal forebrain strongly impair taste aversion learning. In this study we show that 192IgG-saporin produces an efficient and selective cholinergic deafferentation of the rat neocortex but not the amygdala. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between severity of memory impairment after NMDA lesions and basoamygdaloid cholinergic deafferentation was found. Therefore, in a second experiment, we show that combining NMDA-induced lesions into the basolateral amygdala with 192IgG-saporin injections into the basal forebrain results in a strong disruption of taste aversion learning, whereas none of these treatments were by themselves capable of producing any detectable impairment in this learning task. The double lesion effect was only paralleled by simple NMDA lesions into the basal forebrain, suggesting that the learning deficits associated to excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain are the result of the simultaneous destruction of the corticopetal and basoamygdaloid interaction. A model is proposed, according to which the modulation of learning processes exerted by the basal forebrain can be redundantly performed by both the basocortical and basoamygdaloid pathway. (+info)
Behaviour genetics, circadian rhythms, central effects of cholinergic agents. 1972 Visiting Scientist, The Jackson Laboratory, ... Studies on behaviour genetics and cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory processes. 1969 Visiting Scientist, Regional ...
Ikemoto, S.; Wise, R. A. (2002). "Rewarding effects of the cholinergic agents carbachol and neostigmine in the posterior ...
... a new anti-cholinergic agent, on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. High affinities for M3 and M1 receptor subtypes and ... discovery of potent and subtype-selective antimuscarinic agents". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 7 (6): 1151-61. doi:10.1016/S0968-0896(99) ...
... possible additive cholinergic effects if huperzine A is taken with other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or cholinergic agents ... Huperzine A may present with mild cholinergic side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The use of huperzine A ... Bai DL, Tang XC, He XC (2000). "Huperzine A, A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease". Current ... Tun MK, Wüstmann D, Herzon SB (2011). "A robust and scalable synthesis of the potent neuroprotective agent (−)-huperzine A". ...
Because cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis are significantly altered during Alzheimer's progression, cholinergic agents ... Cholinergic interneurons and dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain are largely unaffected. Treatment for Huntington's Disease is ...
Similarly the release of cholinergic agents at sudomotor nerve terminals evokes an axon reflex that stimulates sweat glands ... In the sudomotor reflex, cholinergic agents bind to the nicotinic receptors on the sudomotor nerve terminals, evoking an ... These impulses in the affected area release chemical agents that cause blood vessels to dilate and leak, causing the skin to ... direct evidence explaining the branching of nerves from the center of an axon rather than a cell body or which chemical agents ...
List of MeSH codes (D16)
... cholinergic agents MeSH D27.505.519.625.120.140 --- cholinergic agonists MeSH D27.505.519.6184.108.40.2060 --- muscarinic ... cholinergic agents MeSH D27.505.696.577.120.140 --- cholinergic agonists MeSH D27.505.696.5220.127.116.110 --- muscarinic ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ...
... anti-cholinergic agents, non-narcotic analgesics, sedatives or muscle relaxants such as diazepam. Alberts, Daniel (2012). ...
... quetiapine and others Cholinergic agents such as acetylcholine Ondansetron (an anti-emetic) known by its brand name Zofran Some ...
... is a powerful cholinergic agent which does not cross the blood - brain barrier and may have powerful nootropic ... Obied, Hassan (2011). Cholinergic Pharmacology. CSU. Pharmacy and pharmacology portal. ...
For a cholinergic agent, the following criteria describe the structure activity relationship: Ing's Rule of 5: there should be ... Some chemical weapons such as sarin or VX, non-lethal riot control agents such as tear gas, and insecticides such as diazinon ... These chemicals are also called cholinergic drugs because acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used by the PSNS. ... no more than five atoms between the nitrogen and the terminal hydrogen for muscarinic (or cholinergic) activity; the molecule ...
Effect of a choline acetyltransferase inhibitor and comparison with cholinergic and dopaminergic agents". Neuropharmacology. ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Gray, AP; Henderson, TR (1988). "Approaches to protection against nerve agent ...
Naaz, H; Singh, S; Pandey, VP; Singh, P; Dwivedi, UN (2013). "Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for ...
Naaz, H; Singh, S; Pandey, VP; Singh, P; Dwivedi, UN (2013). "Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for ... Oliveroline is an anti-cholinergic aporphine alkaloid. ...
"Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease: an in silico approach". Indian J Biochem ...
... is a plant alkaloid with anti-cholinergic activity. Anti-cholinergic alkaloids as potential therapeutic agents for ...
Agents in common clinical use include: Prostaglandin analogs Parasympathomimetic (miotic) agents, including cholinergic and ... Alpha 2 agonists Hyperosmotic agents Fotil is a combination drug consisting of: Pilocarpine, a parasympathomimetic Timolol, a ... anticholinesterase agents Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (oral and topical) Adrenergic antagonists (nonselective and selective ...
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... anti-arrhythmic bronchodilator anti-pyretic anti-cholinergic anti-hypoglycemic agent sedative (anti-epileptic) anti-emetic ( ... opioid antagonist bronchodilator anti-histaminic sympathomimetic agent procoagulant anti-hypoglycemic agent Schedule 2 - PCP ... anti-hypoglycemic agent; analgesic; platelet inhibitors; use and interpretation of a glucometer; chest auscultation. (f) ... anti-coagulant narcotic anti-pyretic anti-cholinergic sedative anti-emetic (anti-nauseant) histamine antagonist anti-convulsant ...
... anxiolytic agents, adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists. In people with a past history of spinal cord injuries ... Other anticholinergic agents that have tried to include propantheline bromide and benztropine. Injections of ... which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?] A microwave-based device has been tried for excessive underarm perspiration ...
Tau-phosphorylation is decreased and cholinergic function enhanced. Notably several agents of the AF series of muscarinic ... 1] Fisher A (July 2008). "Cholinergic treatments with emphasis on m1 muscarinic agonists as potential disease-modifying agents ... In animal models that are mimicking the damage of AD, these agents appear promising. The agent xanomeline has been proposed as ... These agents show promise as they are neurotrophic, decrease amyloid depositions, and improve damage due to oxidative stress. ...
Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease
More recently, cholinergic effects have been proposed as a potential causative agent for the formation of plaques and tangles ... The oldest hypothesis is the "cholinergic hypothesis". It states that Alzheimer's begins as a deficiency in the production of ... However, a majority of researchers support the alternative hypothesis that amyloid is the primary causative agent. The amyloid ... The oldest hypothesis suggests that deficiency in cholinergic signaling initiates the progression of the disease. Two ...
... and it has been tested as a possible therapeutic agent related to a variety of cholinergic functions. DMAE is ... Tammenmaa IA, Sailas E, McGrath JJ, Soares-Weiser K, Wahlbeck K (2004). "Systematic review of cholinergic drugs for neuroleptic ... used in bulk quantities for water treatment, in the coatings industry, and as a curing agent for polyurethanes and epoxy resins ...
DDuke, W. W. (1924). "URTICARIA CAUSED SPECIFICALLY BY THE ACTION OF PHYSICAL AGENTS: (LIGHT, COLD, HEAT, FREEZING, BURNS, ... The term cholinergic is derived from the finding that hives similar to those of CU can be evoked using cholinergic agonists (e. ... Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is a type of physical urticaria (or hives) that appears when a person is sweating. CU typically ... Hirschmann, J. V.; Lawlor, F.; English, J. S.; Louback, J. B.; Winkelmann, R. K.; Greaves, M. W. (1987). "Cholinergic urticaria ...
Anticholinergic agents can also impair time perception. Benzatropine is a centrally acting anticholinergic/antihistamine agent ... Benzatropine partially blocks cholinergic activity in the basal ganglia and has also been shown to increase the availability of ... Drugs that decrease cholinergic transmission may impair storage of new information into long-term memory. ... as a potent differentiating agent for oligodendrocytes, possibly working through M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. In preclinical ...
The effects of a systemic overdose will probably be similar to the effects of a nerve agent (they both act on the cholinergic ... Thus it is classified as a cholinergic agonist. It is primarily used for various ophthalmic purposes, such as for treating ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). A recent ... Carbachol produces effects comparable to those of V-series nerve agents if a massive overdose is administered (as may occur ...
... was also described as an analeptic agent used to promote mental alertness. Very Common (>10% incidence) adverse effects ... Tacrine is a centrally acting anticholinesterase and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic). It was the first ...
Vagal stimulation triggers peripheral vascular protection through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in a rat model of...
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces inflammatory response that may lead to remote vascular injury. Vagal nerve elicits the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by activating α7 nicotinic ac
Largest database of Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents listed for your easy reference. Find your preferred Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents right here.
Vocabulary for Pharm -7- Cholinergic Agents. Find, create, and access Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, flashcards with Course Hero.
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Définitions de Hemicholinium-3, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Hemicholinium-3, dictionnaire analogique de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)
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Inflammation? Forget about the immune system… It is all about the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway!. It is not the immune system what tells the immune cells what to do…. It is actually impossible because immune cells are the part of the immune system so how could part of (something) immune system could tell itself what to do?. Sure, immune cells cooperate and communicate but they must have and do have some "boss" - it is the nervous system.. Nervous system controls the development of all organs and parts of the body. Subsequently during our lives it is the nervous system which often lacks as a result of stress, bad diet, malnutrition and infections.. These negative effects of environment are the underlying cause of various health problems and symptoms. Virtually all chronic health problems are accompanied by inflammation and actually the "Inflammation Causes The Symptoms We Call Diseases".. Yes, it is mostly the inflammation what hurts us not the underlying problem itself.. Before you ...
Rats were submitted to intra-structures injection of 192 IgG-saporin and then behaviorally tested 1 month and 1 year post-lesion in a nonmatching-to-position task. After achieving a complete objective response, how does cialis work the patient received consolidation with high dose BEAM ...
There is no consensus as to whether NA activates the influx of extracellular Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Perez et al., 1993; Horie et al., 1995). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that NA induces Ca2+ influx in CHO-α1A, CHO-α1B, and CHO-α1D (Figs. 1 and 4). Moreover, the magnitude of the transient increase and that of the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i were similar in all three cell types (Figs. 1 and 2). These results differ from the previous observation that the level of the NA-induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in CHO-α1D was smaller than that in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). However, this report showed that NA induced sustained increase in [Ca2+]i even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ in CHO-α1A or CHO-α1B(Horie et al., 1995). Therefore, we have doubts about their data on monitoring of NA-induced increase in [Ca2+]i.. Because previous reports did not describe what types of Ca2+ channels are activated by NA in CHO-α1A, ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Values are means ± SE. Cholinergic responses evoked by bath application of carbachol (10 μM for 5 min) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Boldface numbers indicate P , 0.05 for carbachol-induced effects within individual cell types (repeated-measures ANOVA with post-tests: baseline, carbachol, and wash). Asterisks indicate P , 0.01 when compared with values in wild-type neurons (one-way ANOVA with post-tests). ...
In the brilliant scientific paper, The pulse of inflammation: heart rate variability, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and implications for therapy, Dr. Jared M. Huston, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center discovered a neural control circuit that acts to keep the bodys cytokine production, and therefore inflammatory response, in check. During the 1990s, the…
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cholinergic Toxicity, Cholinergic Overdose, Cholinergic, Cholinergic Agent, Cholinomimetic, Parasympathomimetic Agent.
Perretti, Mauro, Chiang, Nan, La, Mylinh, Fierro, Iolanda M., Marullo, Stefano, Getting, Stephen J., Solito, Egle and Serhan, Charles N. (2002) Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor. Nature Medicine, 8 (11). pp. 1296-1302. ISSN 1078-8956 ...
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Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization
Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of alpha-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 similar ...
2020 all rights reserved by Organic Authority, Inc, and can not be reproduced without permission in writing. We are a digital magazine for entertainment, we are not here to diagnose or treat any health or medical conditions. When making any health or lifestyle changes consult your primary care ...
Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
www.MOLUNA.de Molecular Neurosurgery with Targeted Toxins  - Introduction to Molecular NeurosurgerynRonald G. Wiley and Douglas A. LappinRibosome-Inactivating ProteinsnFiorenzo StirpenBiochemical, Physiological, and Behavioral Characterizations of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Produced by 192 IgG-SaporinnJerene J. WaitenBasal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion by 192 IgG-Saporin: A Tool to Assess the Consequences of Cortical Cholinergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer s DiseasenReinhard Schliebsn192 IgG-Saporin-Induced
A synthetic drug that acts as a parasympathomimetic and cholinergic agent but is immune to the inactivating effects of acetylcholinesterase. It is used in the treatment of urinary retention, abdominal distention, and glaucoma. See also cholinomimetic. [From its chemical name carba(moyl)-chol(ine) (chloride)] ...
The endeavor to have more efficient solar cells and as environmentally beneficial as possible are the driving forces for this work. The way to reach this is by research to better the understanding of the mechanisms and parameters that govern the performance of solar cells. New materials are essential to develop because the current ones lack stability and are water, temperature and UV-radiation sensitive. In this work the lead (Pb2+), which is poisonous and hazardous is intended to be replaced in the organic metal halide (OMH) perovskite structure. This is tested with gold or silver combined with bismuth and silver by itself. Also trimethylsulfonium gold or silver iodides are investigated. The methylammonium cation is also substituted to cesium. The perovskite material both absorbs light and transports charges in the solar cells. Materials based on AuI/AgI, BiI3 and CH3NH3I and AuI/AgI and [Me3S]I and AgI, BiI3 and CsI were synthesized and analyzed by XRD on thin film and mesoporous substrate and ...
Microsoft Corporation (, abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.Learn How to Stop Moles in Their Tracks with TOMCAT Mole Poison .These poisons function by competitively and . Curare was used as a paralyzing poison by South . tubocurarine can bind readily to the receptors for .Summative Assessment/ Module 4 . Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as . What is the most likely effect of a drug that acts as an antagonist for the .Curare had been used as a source of . Virchow and Munter confirmed the paralyzing action was . Tubocurarine chloride acts as an antagonist for the .TOMCAT Products Will Control Your Mole or Gopher Problem.Curare. Curare is a classic antagonist of nicotinic AChRs and . of the arrow poison curare, . pharmacological effects of curare in causing respiratory paralysis.B neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse transmission . B) neurotransmitters can inhibit neural impulse . Curare is a paralyzing ...
A new study has found that neonicotinoids are present in honey around the world. Neonicotinoids are a commonly used class of insecticides, including the worlds most common one, imidacloprid.
Looking for Miostat? Find out information about Miostat. C6H15ClN2O2 Hygroscopic, hard, prismatic crystals with a melting point of 200-203°C; soluble in water, methanol, and alcohol; used as a cholinergic drug in... Explanation of Miostat
HC-030031 is a potent and selective of TRPA1 inhibitor, which antagonizes AITC- and formalin-evoked calcium influx with IC50s of 6.2±0.2 and 5.3±0.2 μM, respectively. ...Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
STORRE: Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites
Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of ...
The nonstriated muscle fibers of the nictitating membrane respond to a single volley of nerve impulses with a slow twitch and three potentials: two independent waves followed by slow oscillations. On repetitive stimulation, the potentials overlap and sum algebraically. Pressure electrodes record only extracellular potentials. The first wave is elicited by nerve fibers which have a higher average threshold than the fibers which elicit the second wave. Eserine potentiates and hyoscine antagonizes the first wave. Dibenzyline, piperoxan, and reserpine antagonize the second wave. The nictitating membrane has functional adrenergic and cholinergic innervations; both cause retraction. Facilitation and summation can be either spatial, through the double innervation of each cell, or temporal, by diffusion of the transmitters from one cell to another. The cholinergic response is not maximal when the adrenergic response is maximal. The second wave is not potentiated by eserine at the same time as or before ...
The U.S. government has noted that the most widely used pesticide in the world is harmful to honeybees. However, in Europe, a ban on the use of the chemical could be lifted.
Neonicotinoids, a class of pesticides in wide use, may be more destabilizing to agriculture than previously presumed, according to a ...
Cholinergic agent definition | Drugs.com
Definition of cholinergic agent. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... cholinergic agent. Definition: an agent that mimics the action of acetylcholine or of the parasympathetic nervous system ( ...https://www.drugs.com/dict/cholinergic-agent.html
Pharm -7- Cholinergic Agents Flashcards - Course Hero
Cholinergic Agents. Find, create, and access Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, flashcards with Course Hero. ... generalized cholinergic stimulation and drop in b/p overdosage can cause cholinergic crisis and muscle paralysis ... DIRECT ACTING CHOLINERGIC AGONISTS (-ine not -amine) Few primary uses for these, used mostly to treat open angle glaucoma- ... Chapter 32: Cholinergic Agonists - Act at the same site as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and increase the activity ...https://www.coursehero.com/flashcards/431411/Pharm-7-Cholinergic-Agents/
Reversal of Androgen Inhibition of Estrogen-Activated Sexual Behavior by Cholinergic Agents
Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the ability of cholinergic agents to reverse the inhibitory effects of ... Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents. Horm Behav. 23:503-13 (1989). ... The cholinergic agonists that activate lordosis in the animals are mediated by the muscarinic type cholinergic receptors and ... Reversal of Androgen Inhibition of Estrogen-Activated Sexual Behavior by Cholinergic Agents ...http://www.life-enhancement.com/magazine/article/3407-reversal-of-androgen-inhibition-of-estrogen-activated-sexual-behavior-by-cholinergic-agents
Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the Answer? |...
Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the Answer?. ... Title:Treatment of Disorders Characterized by Reversible Airway Obstruction in Childhood: are Anti-cholinergic Agents the ... Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. * Stem Cell Factor: A Hemopoietic Cytokine with Important ... Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. * Myeloperoxidase: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Current ...http://www.eurekaselect.com/98790
Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat. |...
Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat.. S ... Interaction of the median raphe nucleus and hypothalamic serotonin with cholinergic agents and pressor responses in the rat. ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/223/3/662
Central cholinergic agents. IV. Synthesis and acetylcholineste...
Central cholinergic agents. IV. Synthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of omega-[N-ethyl-N-(phenylmethyl) ... Central cholinergic agents. IV. Synthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of omega-[N-ethyl-N-(phenylmethyl) ...https://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/central-cholinergic-agents-iv-synthesis-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-omega-n-ethyl-n-phenylmethyl-amino-1-e47bfaf6
Glycopyrrolate - Adjuvants, Anesthesia, Muscarinic Antagonists, Anti-cholinergic Agents
Glycopyrrolate decreases acid secretion in the stomach. Hence it can be used for treating ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, in combination with other medications. In anesthesia, glycopyrrolate injection serves as a preoperative antimuscarinic operation that reduces salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreases the acidity of gastric secretions blocks cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during intubation ...http://pharmacycode.com/Glycopyrrolate.html
Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents Category Listing & Drugs List on Catalog.md
Find your preferred Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents right here. ... Largest database of Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents listed for your easy reference. ... Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents - Alpha- and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists. Parasympathomemetic Cholinergic Agents Category ... Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents (16913)*Alpha- and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists (5167)*Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists (250) ...https://www.catalog.md/drugs-categories/parasympathomemetic-cholinergic-agents.html
Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals,...
Prokinetic Agents. Class Summary. Prokinetics are promotility agents, proposed for use with severe constipation-predominant ... Cholinergic agents may allow early resolution of pseudo-obstruction and obviate surgery. ... Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid ... Cholinergic Agonists. Class Summary. Excessive parasympathetic suppression appears to be involved in the genesis of intestinal ...https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/179937-medication
FOAMABLE COMPOSITIONS AND KITS COMPRISING ONE OR MORE OF A CHANNEL AGENT, A CHOLINERGIC AGENT, A NITRIC OXIDE DONOR, AND...
Back to FOAMABLE COMPOSITIONS AND KITS COMPRISING ONE OR MORE OF A CHANNEL AGENT, A CHOLINERGIC AGENT, A NITRIC OXIDE DONOR, ... FOAMABLE COMPOSITIONS AND KITS COMPRISING ONE OR MORE OF A CHANNEL AGENT, A CHOLINERGIC AGENT, A NITRIC OXIDE DONOR, AND ...http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/imgfull/20080317679_38
Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route) - Drugs & Supplements
Before Using Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ... Description and Brand Names of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). US Brand Name. * ... Proper Use of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). To use the ophthalmic solution (eye ... Side Effects of Betagan - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Along with its needed effects, a ...https://pharmacypedia.org/drugs-and-supplements/betagan-antiglaucoma-agent-cholinergic-long-acting-ophthalmic-route/
Cosopt - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route) - Drugs & Supplements
Before Using Cosopt - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ... Description and Brand Names of Cosopt - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). US Brand Name. * ... Proper Use of Cosopt - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). To use the ophthalmic solution (eye ... Side Effects of Cosopt - Antiglaucoma Agent, Cholinergic, Long-Acting (Ophthalmic Route). Along with its needed effects, a ...https://pharmacypedia.org/drugs-and-supplements/cosopt-antiglaucoma-agent-cholinergic-long-acting-ophthalmic-route/
Karbachol - Analgesics, Non-Narcotic, Cardiotonic Agents, Cholinergic Agonists, Miotics, ATC:N07AB01, ATC...
Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body ... Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). ...http://pharmacycode.com/Karbachol.html
New Antipsychotic Agents « Hacked by 4Ri3 60ndr0n9
Cholinergic Agents. Acetylcholine is important in various domains of cognition, including attention, learning, and memory. ... with a lower risk of EPS and tardive dyskinesia versus the older agents.3 Recent work4 has suggested that the newer agents ... Newer agents usually represent drugs that hit known and validated targets ("me too type drugs"). It is important to note that ... A few agents are being evaluated. A-437203 is undergoing Phase II trials as is SB-773812. BP 4.879a (Bioproject), SB-277011 ( ...http://primarypsychiatry.com/new-antipsychotic-agents/
Ch 4 (Exam 1) Flashcards by Vanessa Skeens | Brainscape
T/F Cholinergic Agents: indirect-acting, are cholinesterase inhibitors. They inactivate the enzyme thus permitting AcH to react ... T/F Cholinergic Agents: are choline esters and act directly to receptor. ... All are adverse reactions of cholinergic agents except which of the following? ... Completely blocks receptors (Cholinergic). Prevents the action of ACh at postganglionic endings ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/ch-4-exam-1-6581140/packs/10295270
Renal Flashcards by Imaan Ansari | Brainscape
Study Renal flashcards from Imaan Ansarihttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/renal-3799947/packs/5661658
Glaucoma: Types, causes, and symptoms
cholinergic agents. *beta blockers. Side effects of eyedrops can include stinging, redness, eyelash growth, change in eye color ...https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9710.php?sr
Glaucoma: Types, causes, and symptoms
cholinergic agents. *beta blockers. Side effects of eyedrops can include stinging, redness, eyelash growth, change in eye color ...https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9710.php?iacp
Independent Studies of Dextromethorphan and of Donepezil Hydrochloride for Rett Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Nootropic Agents. Antitussive Agents. Respiratory ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00069550?recr=Open&cond=%22Rett+Syndrome%22&rank=5
Effect of Varenicline on Cognitive Function in Cigarette Smokers With Schizophrenia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01093365
A Healthy Volunteer Study to Evaluate Reversibility of Induced Impairment of Cognition - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Nootropic Agents. To Top ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01044342
Neurobiology of Nicotine and Non-nicotine Components of Tobacco Addiction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Nicotinic Agonists. Cholinergic Agonists. Cholinergic Agents ...https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01056926
A Trial of Pelvic Floor Chemodenervation in Patients Undergoing Physical Therapy for High Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction - Full...
Cholinergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Neuromuscular Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... mainstays of therapy for high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction pelvic pain include pharmacotherapeutic agents and pelvic floor ...https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03199534
Urinary Incontinence - Male | Department of Urology |SUNY Upstate Medical University
Cholinergic agents. *Cyclophosphamide. Symptoms. Incontinence is any loss of bladder control. Examples include:. *Leakage ...http://www.upstate.edu/urology/healthcare/male-urology/male-incontinence.php
Glaucoma - Mayo Clinic
Miotic or cholinergic agents. These increase the outflow of fluid from your eye. An example is pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine). ...https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/glaucoma/basics/definition/con-20024042?tab=multimedia&p=1
- Now, we have come across a relatively early paper from 1989 (Dohanich, 1989) that reports that the inhibition by androgens of estrogen-induced sexual activity in ovariectomized female rats can be reversed by cholinergic agonists, which included in this study carbachol and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. (life-enhancement.com)
- The cholinergic agonists that activate lordosis in the animals are mediated by the muscarinic type cholinergic receptors and lordosis is prevented by blockers of these receptors (Dohanich, 1989). (life-enhancement.com)
- Drugs used in the management of intestinal motility disorders include cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid antagonists, antidiarrheals, and antibiotics. (medscape.com)
- Note that muscarinic cholinergic antagonists are very widely used for treating urinary urgency and incontinence in older women and these drugs may be impairing the libido of these older women. (life-enhancement.com)
- Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). (pharmacycode.com)
- These results suggest that serotonergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area exert their pressor effect through a pathway with a cholinergic link in the posterior hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
- There is a tremendous need to develop novel agents with unique mechanisms of action for the treatment of psychotic disorders. (primarypsychiatry.com)
- Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
- The results indicate that analgesia and reward are mediated by separate cholinergic mechanisms within pVTA. (nih.gov)
- Studies on behaviour genetics and cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory processes. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine was more effective in increasing the incidence of lordosis in the rats than the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol. (life-enhancement.com)
- Both physostigmine and carbachol were administered via intracerebral intraventricular infusion but these agents pass through the blood-brain barrier so this may have been done to ensure that a specific dose was received in the target tissue, whereas with oral treatment, there is not as much certainty on how much of the ingested treatment reaches the target tissue, especially when it is in the brain. (life-enhancement.com)
- Carbachol is a potent cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) agent which produces constriction of the iris and ciliary body resulting in reduction in intraocular pressure. (pharmacycode.com)
- VTA dopamine neurons are activated via cholinergic afferents and microinjection of carbachol (cholinergic agonist) into VTA is rewarding. (nih.gov)
- GPR30 is positioned to mediate estrogen effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance. (life-enhancement.com)
- Serotonergic neurons arising in the median raphe nucleus probably are not involved in this pathway through the hypothalamus, although a cholinergic pathway may be involved elsewhere in their pressor actions. (aspetjournals.org)
- Central cholinergic agents. (mysciencework.com)
- The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH changes and cholinergic agents on the central control of respiration in the cane toad, Bufo marinus. (biomedsearch.com)
- It is therefore, concluded that the VSM is pH sensitive and a cholinergic mechanism is involved in the central modulation of respiration in Bufo. (biomedsearch.com)
- Behaviour genetics, circadian rhythms, central effects of cholinergic agents. (wikipedia.org)